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Sample records for regulator cut12 promotes

  1. Reflexive regulation of CSR to promote sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of governmental regulation as a measure to promote public policy interests through public-private regulation intended to influence firms’ self-regulation. Presenting a ‘government case’ for CSR, the connection between...... in understanding the mechanisms by which public authorities seek to influence firm’s behaviour through CSR in order to promote public policy objectives. The analysis indicates that to be effective, reflexive regulatory approaches to public-private regulation should pay careful attention to procedural design...

  2. Reflexive regulation of CSR to promote sustainablility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of governmental regulation as a measure to promote public policy interests through public-private regulation intended to influence firms’ self-regulation. Presenting a ‘government case’ for CSR, the connection between...... in understanding the mechanisms by which public authorities seek to influence firm’s behaviour through CSR in order to promote public policy objectives. The analysis indicates that to be effective, reflexive regulatory approaches to public-private regulation should pay careful attention to procedural design...

  3. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  4. Regulate Globally, Act Locally: Adrenergic Nerves Promote Leukocyte Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, William A.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Immunity, Scheiermann et al. (2012) demonstrate that circadian regulation of the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules via adrenergic innervation of local vasculature promotes clinically significant changes in leukocyte homing and bone marrow engraftment.

  5. Drosophila TRF2 is a preferential core promoter regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Adi; Zehavi, Yonathan; Glick, Yair; Orenstein, Yaron; Ideses, Diana; Wachtel, Chaim; Doniger, Tirza; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Muster, Nemone; Thompson, James; Anderson, Scott; Avrahami, Dorit; Yates, John R; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-10-01

    Transcription of protein-coding genes is highly dependent on the RNA polymerase II core promoter. Core promoters, generally defined as the regions that direct transcription initiation, consist of functional core promoter motifs (such as the TATA-box, initiator [Inr], and downstream core promoter element [DPE]) that confer specific properties to the core promoter. The known basal transcription factors that support TATA-dependent transcription are insufficient for in vitro transcription of DPE-dependent promoters. In search of a transcription factor that supports DPE-dependent transcription, we used a biochemical complementation approach and identified the Drosophila TBP (TATA-box-binding protein)-related factor 2 (TRF2) as an enriched factor in the fractions that support DPE-dependent transcription. We demonstrate that the short TRF2 isoform preferentially activates DPE-dependent promoters. DNA microarray analysis reveals the enrichment of DPE promoters among short TRF2 up-regulated genes. Using primer extension analysis and reporter assays, we show the importance of the DPE in transcriptional regulation of TRF2 target genes. It was previously shown that, unlike TBP, TRF2 fails to bind DNA containing TATA-boxes. Using microfluidic affinity analysis, we discovered that short TRF2-bound DNA oligos are enriched for Inr and DPE motifs. Taken together, our findings highlight the role of short TRF2 as a preferential core promoter regulator. © 2014 Kedmi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Regulations to promote healthy sleep practices in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Duffey, Kiyah; Slining, Meghan M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess state licensing and administrative regulations promoting healthy sleep practices in child care and to compare these regulations to national recommendations. We reviewed regulations related to healthy sleep practices for all states and territories for both child care centers (centers) and family child care homes (homes). We compared regulations with Institute of Medicine recommendations to promote sleep in child care, including (1) create environments that ensure restful sleep; (2) encourage sleep-promoting behaviors and practices; (3) encourage practices that promote child self-regulation of sleep; and (4) seek consultation yearly from a sleep expert. We used Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel trend tests to assess associations between geographic region and number of regulations consistent with the recommendations. The mean number of regulations for states was 0.9 for centers and 0.8 for homes out of a possible 4.0. For centers, no state had regulations for all 4 recommendations; 11 states had regulations for 2 of the 4 recommendations. For homes, 9 states had regulations for 2 of the recommendations. States in the Northeast had the greatest mean number of regulations for centers (1.2) and homes (1.1), and states in the South had the fewest (0.7 and 0.7, respectively); these geographic differences were significant for centers (P = .03) but not homes (P = .14). More states in the Northeast had regulations consistent with the Institute of Medicine sleep recommendations, but overall few states had regulations consistent with the recommendations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Seminar for Master's Thesis Projects: Promoting Students' Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedijensky, Shirley; Lichtinger, Einat

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a thesis seminar model aimed at promoting students' self-regulation. Students' perceptions regarding the contribution of the seminar to their learning process were characterized and the seminar's effect upon their self-regulation expressions was examined. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed thematically. The…

  8. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  9. Transcriptional Auto-Regulation of RUNX1 P1 Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Martinez

    Full Text Available RUNX1 a member of the family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX, is essential for hematopoiesis. The expression of RUNX1 gene is controlled by two promoters; the distal P1 promoter and the proximal P2 promoter. Several isoforms of RUNX1 mRNA are generated through the use of both promoters and alternative splicing. These isoforms not only differs in their temporal expression pattern but also exhibit differences in tissue specificity. The RUNX1 isoforms derived from P2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, but expression of P1-derived isoform is restricted to cells of hematopoietic lineage. However, the control of hematopoietic-cell specific expression is poorly understood. Here we report regulation of P1-derived RUNX1 mRNA by RUNX1 protein. In silico analysis of P1 promoter revealed presence of two evolutionary conserved RUNX motifs, 0.6kb upstream of the transcription start site, and three RUNX motifs within 170bp of the 5'UTR. Transcriptional contribution of these RUNX motifs was studied in myeloid and T-cells. RUNX1 genomic fragment containing all sites show very low basal activity in both cell types. Mutation or deletion of RUNX motifs in the UTR enhances basal activity of the RUNX1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RUNX1 protein is recruited to these sites. Overexpression of RUNX1 in non-hematopoietic cells results in a dose dependent activation of the RUNX1 P1 promoter. We also demonstrate that RUNX1 protein regulates transcription of endogenous RUNX1 mRNA in T-cell. Finally we show that SCL transcription factor is recruited to regions containing RUNX motifs in the promoter and the UTR and regulates activity of the RUNX1 P1 promoter in vitro. Thus, multiple lines of evidence show that RUNX1 protein regulates its own gene transcription.

  10. Assessing preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahretdin Hasan Adagideli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature review. Items, then, were formulated as statements, to which the teachers could respond on a Likert-scale. In line with the expert and teacher opinions, twenty statements were removed from the original pool and some statements were reformulated. The latest version of the scale consisted of 21 statements. The participants were preschool teacher (N=169 from Istanbul. Empirical testing at item and scale level showed that T-SRL is a reliable and a valid instrument to assess preschool teachers’ classroom practices promoting self-regulated learning of their children at the age of 3-6.

  11. MDM2 negatively regulates the human telomerase RNA gene promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Nicol

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that NF-Y and Sp1 interact with the human telomerase RNA (hTR promoter and play a central role in its regulation. We have also shown that pRB activates the hTR promoter, but the mechanism of pRb directed activation is unknown. It has recently been reported that pRB induces Sp1 activity by relieving inhibition mediated by mdm2. The aim was to investigate possible roles for mdm2 in hTR promoter regulation. Methods Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine binding of mdm2 to the hTR promoter. Transfection and luciferase assays were used to investigate mdm2 repression of the promoter activity and interaction with known transcriptional modulators. Results Here we show using chromatin immunoprecipitation that mdm2 specifically binds the hTR promoter in vivo. Transient co-transfection experiments using an hTR promoter luciferase reporter construct show that hTR promoter activity is inhibited by over-expression of mdm2 in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells (p53 and pRB negative, low mdm2. Titration of mdm2 was able to antagonise activation of hTR promoter activity mediated by pRB or Sp1 over-expression, although in the presence of pRB, mdm2 could not repress promoter activity below basal levels. Using an Sp1 binding site mutation construct we showed that mdm2 repression did not absolutely require Sp1 binding sites in the hTR promoter, suggesting the possibility of pRB/Sp1 independent mechanisms of repression. Finally, we show that NF-Y mediated transactivation of the hTR promoter was also suppressed by mdm2 in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions These studies suggest that mdm2 may inhibit the hTR promoter by multiple mechanisms. Mdm2 may directly repress activation by both pRB and Sp1, or activation by NF-Y. Furthermore, the ability of mdm2 to interact and interfere with components of the general transcription machinery might partly explain the general repressive effect seen here. Elucidation of

  12. Promoter polymorphisms regulating corticotrophin-releasing hormone transcription in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Wahle, M; Moritz, F; Wagner, U; Häntzschel, H; Baerwald, C G O

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether polymorphisms in the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter are associated with altered CRH gene regulation, we studied the reactivity of three recently described promoter variants in vitro. The 3625 bp variants A1B1, A2B1 and A2B2 of the human CRH promoter were cloned in the 5' region to a luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into both mouse anterior pituitary cells AtT-20D16vF2 and pheochromocytoma cells PC12. Incubation with 8-Br-cAMP alone or in combination with cytokines significantly enhanced the promoter activity in both cell lines studied by up to 22-fold. However, dexamethasone antagonised cAMP effects on CRH expression in AtT-20 cells while showing no effect on PC12 cells, indicating that tissue-specific factors play a crucial role. Among the haplotypes studied, A1B1 exhibited the greatest reactivity on various stimuli. Electric mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to study whether the described polymorphic nucleotide sequences in the 5' region of the hCRH gene interfere with binding of nuclear proteins. A specific DNA protein complex was detected at position -2353 bp for the wild type sequence only, possibly interfering with a binding site for the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate that CRH promoter reactivity varies between the compound promoter alleles.

  13. CHIP Regulates Osteoclast Formation through Promoting TRAF6 Protein Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Shu, Bing; Zhang, Yanquan; Li, Jia; Guo, Junwei; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Xiao, Guozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Chen, Di

    2014-01-01

    Objective Carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP or STUB1) is an E3 ligase and regulates the stability of several proteins which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of CHIP in bone growth and bone remodeling in vivo has not been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CHIP in regulation of bone mass and bone remodeling. Methods The bone phenotype of Chip−/− mice was examined by histology, histomorphometry and micro-CT analyses. The regulatory mechanism of CHIP on the degradation of TRAF6 and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling was examined by immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Results In this study, we found that deletion of the Chip gene leads to osteopenic phenotype and increased osteoclast formation. We further found that TRAF6, as a novel substrate of CHIP, is up-regulated in Chip−/− osteoclasts. TRAF6 is critical for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. TRAF6 is an adaptor protein which functions as an E3 ligase to regulate the activation of TAK1 and the I-κB kinase (IKK) and is a key regulator of NF-κB signaling. CHIP interacts with TRAF6 to promote TRAF6 ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. CHIP inhibits p65 nuclear translocation, leading to the repression of the TRAF6-mediated NF-κB transcription. Conclusion CHIP inhibits NF-κB signaling via promoting TRAF6 degradation and plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling, suggesting that it may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of bone loss associated diseases. PMID:24578159

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of ZBTB18 Promotes Glioblastoma Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Vita; Dai, Fangping; Masilamani, Anie P; Heiland, Dieter H; Kling, Eva; Gätjens-Sanchez, Ana M; Ferrarese, Roberto; Platania, Leonardo; Soroush, Doostkam; Kim, Hyunsoo; Nelander, Sven; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Prinz, Marco; Califano, Andrea; Iavarone, Antonio; Bredel, Markus; Carro, Maria S

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) comprises distinct subtypes characterized by their molecular profile. Mesenchymal identity in GBM has been associated with a comparatively unfavorable prognosis, primarily due to inherent resistance of these tumors to current therapies. The identification of molecular determinants of mesenchymal transformation could potentially allow for the discovery of new therapeutic targets. Zinc Finger and BTB Domain Containing 18 (ZBTB18/ZNF238/RP58) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor with a crucial role in brain development and neuronal differentiation. Here, ZBTB18 is primarily silenced in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM through aberrant promoter methylation. Loss of ZBTB18 contributes to the aggressive phenotype of glioblastoma through regulation of poor prognosis-associated signatures. Restitution of ZBTB18 expression reverses the phenotype and impairs tumor-forming ability. These results indicate that ZBTB18 functions as a tumor suppressor in GBM through the regulation of genes associated with phenotypically aggressive properties.Implications: This study characterizes the role of the putative tumor suppressor ZBTB18 and its regulation by promoter hypermethylation, which appears to be a common mechanism to silence ZBTB18 in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and provides a new mechanistic opportunity to specifically target this tumor subclass. Mol Cancer Res; 15(8); 998-1011. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  16. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Park, Thomas I.H. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dieriks, Birger V.; Faull, Richard L.M. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dragunow, Mike [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Curtis, Maurice A., E-mail: m.curtis@auckland.ac.nz [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.

  17. Promotion of self-regulated learning in classrooms : investigating frequency, quality, and consequences for student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistner, Saskia; Rakoczy, Katrin; Otto, Barbara; Dignath -van Ewijk, Charlotte; Buettner, Gerhard; Klieme, Eckhard

    An implication of the current research on self-regulation is to implement the promotion of self-regulated learning in schools. Teachers can promote self-regulated learning either directly by teaching learning strategies or indirectly by arranging a learning environment that enables students to

  18. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    promoter database we found that ~14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find...

  19. Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorz, Violetta; Tam, Shu K E; Hughes, Steven; Pothecary, Carina A; Jagannath, Aarti; Hankins, Mark W; Bannerman, David M; Lightman, Stafford L; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Nolan, Patrick M; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2016-06-01

    Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-), resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting.

  20. Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Pilorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-, resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO, whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting.

  1. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  2. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, Hector J; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I H; Dieriks, Birger V; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting self-regulation to promote health behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Fredericks, Emily M; Katz, Benjamin; Shapiro, Lilly Fink; Holden, Kelsie; Kaciroti, Niko; Gonzalez, Richard; Hunter, Christine; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-09-28

    Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e.g., eating, exercise habits), many of which involve self-regulation. This paper presents the scientific rationale for examining self-regulation mechanisms that are hypothesized to relate to health behaviors, specifically obesogenic eating, that have not been examined in children. We describe novel intervention protocols designed to enhance self-regulation skills, specifically executive functioning, emotion regulation, future-oriented thinking, and approach bias. Interventions are delivered via home visits. Assays of self-regulation and obesogenic eating behaviors using behavioral tasks and self-reports are implemented and evaluated to determine feasibility and psychometrics and to test intervention effects. Participants are low-income 9-12 year-old children who have been phenotyped for self-regulation, stress, eating behavior and adiposity through early childhood. Study goals are to examine intervention effects on self-regulation and whether change in self-regulation improves obesogenic eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methanol regulated yeast promoters: production vehicles and toolbox for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Brigitte; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2015-12-02

    Promoters are indispensable elements of a standardized parts collection for synthetic biology. Regulated promoters of a wide variety of well-defined induction ratios and expression strengths are highly interesting for many applications. Exemplarily, we discuss the application of published genome scale transcriptomics data for the primary selection of methanol inducible promoters of the yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella sp.). Such a promoter collection can serve as an excellent toolbox for cell and metabolic engineering, and for gene expression to produce heterologous proteins.

  5. The PARP promoter of Trypanosoma brucei is developmentally regulated in a chromosomal context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biebinger, S; Rettenmaier, S; Flaspohler, J

    1996-01-01

    RNA is abundant in procyclic forms and almost undetectable in blood-stream forms. Post-transcriptional mechanisms are mainly responsible for PARP mRNA regulation but results of nuclear run-on experiments suggested that transcription might also be regulated. We measured the activity of genomically-integrated PARP...... not developmentally regulated, but integration at the PARP locus reduced rRNA promoter activity in bloodstream forms. PARP promoter activity was 5-fold down-regulated in bloodstream forms when integrated at either site. Regulation was probably at the level of transcriptional initiation, but elongation through plasmid...

  6. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Massey, E.K.; Empelen, P. van

    2017-01-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary

  7. Regulation of transcription from two ssrS promoters in 6S RNA biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hongmarn; Bak, Geunu; Kim, Kwang-sun; Lee, Younghoon

    2013-09-01

    ssrS-encoded 6S RNA is an abundant noncoding RNA that binds σ(70)-RNA polymerase and regulates expression at a subset of promoters in Escherichia coli. It is transcribed from two tandem promoters, ssrS P1 and ssrS P2. Regulation of transcription from two ssrS promoters in 6S RNA biogenesis was examined. Both P1 and P2 were growth phase-dependently regulated. Depletion of 6S RNA had no effect on growth-phase-dependent transcription from either promoter, whereas overexpression of 6S RNA increased P1 transcription and decreased P2 transcription, suggesting that transcription from P1 and P2 is subject to feedback activation and feedback inhibition, respectively. This feedback regulation disappeared in Δfis strains, supporting involvement of Fis in this process. The differential feedback regulation may provide a means for maintaining appropriate cellular concentrations of 6S RNA.

  8. Regulation of Drosophila Lifespan by bellwether Promoter Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Júlia Frankenberg; Carbone, Mary Anna; Mackay, Trudy F C; Anholt, Robert R H

    2017-06-23

    Longevity varies among individuals, but how natural genetic variation contributes to variation in lifespan is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster presents an advantageous model system to explore the genetic underpinnings of longevity, since its generation time is brief and both the genetic background and rearing environment can be precisely controlled. The bellwether (blw) gene encodes the α subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Since metabolic rate may influence lifespan, we investigated whether alternative haplotypes in the blw promoter affect lifespan when expressed in a co-isogenic background. We amplified 521 bp upstream promoter sequences containing alternative haplotypes and assessed promoter activity both in vitro and in vivo using a luciferase reporter system. The AG haplotype showed significantly greater expression of luciferase than the GT haplotype. We then overexpressed a blw cDNA construct driven by either the AG or GT haplotype promoter in transgenic flies and showed that the AG haplotype also results in greater blw cDNA expression and a significant decrease in lifespan relative to the GT promoter haplotype, in male flies only. Thus, our results show that naturally occurring regulatory variants of blw affect lifespan in a sex-specific manner.

  9. Industry Self-Regulation as a Means to Promote Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2005-10-01

    Companies within numerous industries that have been “early adopters” of self-regulation concept, considering the environment and society alongside business issues, have realized several benefits and some competitive advantage while substantially improving their environmental performance. Given that proliferation prevention is also a public good, our premise is that the experience gained and lessons learned from the self-regulation initiative in other industries and more broadly in the arena of sustainable development provide a basis for examining the feasibility of developing self-regulation mechanisms applicable to industries involved with sensitive technologies (nuclear, radiological source, and other dual-use industries)

  10. Characterisation of the Mucor circinelloides regulated promoter gpd1P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, G.G.; Appel, K.F.; Wolff, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The promoter of the Mucor circinelloides gpd1 gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1P) was recently cloned and used for the production of recombinant proteins, such as the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase 1 (GOX). This represents the first example of the application of a st...

  11. Developmental regulation and complex organization of the promoter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hsrω gene is expressed widely at all developmental stages; in later embryonic stages, its expression in the developing central nervous system was prominent. In spite of insertion of a big transposon in the promoter, expression of the hsrω05241 allele in the enhancer-trap line, as revealed by in situ hybridization to hsrω ...

  12. Promoting Undergraduate Student Self-Regulation in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, J. Brad; Imbriale, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate student enrollment in online courses has steadily increased over the years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. The need for instructors to utilize best practices in online instruction and course design is crucial. This article presents strategies for online instructors to promote student use of self-regulated…

  13. Promoter-Based Integration in Plant Defense Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Gaudinier, Allison; Tang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A key unanswered question in plant biology is how a plant regulates metabolism to maximize performance across an array of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. In this study, we addressed the potential breadth of transcriptional regulation that can alter accumulation of the defensive...... validation, we showed that >75% of tested transcription factor (TF) mutants significantly altered the accumulation of the defensive glucosinolates. These glucosinolate phenotypes were conditional upon the environment and tissue type, suggesting that these TFs may allow the plant to tune its defenses...

  14. Developmental regulation and complex organization of the promoter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Locations of the HSE and GAGA-factor binding sites (GAGA), mapped by. Mutsuddi and Lakhotia (1995), relative to the hsrω gene or the LacZ reporter gene are indicated. The. P-LacZ-rosy+ transposon is inserted at – 130 bp region of the hsrω promoter. The 951LacZ transgenic line carries the – 844 to + 107 bp region of ...

  15. An evaluation of the self-regulation of promotional competitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promotional competitions are competitions in which prizes are awarded by lot or chance in order to promote goods or services. In order to protect participants and consumers against abuse, these competitions are usually regulated by gambling or consumer protection legislation. However, the relevant legislation is often ...

  16. An Evaluation of the Self-Regulation of Promotional Competitions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Strachan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotional competitions are competitions in which prizes are awarded by lot or chance in order to promote goods or services. In order to protect participants and consumers against abuse, these competitions are usually regulated by gambling or consumer protection legislation. However, the relevant legislation is often complemented by self-regulation, which is the focus of this contribution. Self-regulation entails the regulation or governing of an industry by the role players in that industry. This article commences by explaining the relevant terminology and exploring self-regulation in general, including the various forms of self-regulation and the binding force thereof. The nature of self-regulation is discussed together with the advantages and challenges associated with this form of regulation. This is followed by some examples of self-regulation on a global level in order to provide a comparative perspective on the topic. The provisions of the International Chamber of Commerce's Consolidated Code of Advertising and Marketing Communications Practice are summarised and the European Advertising Standards Alliance's role in self-regulation is considered. Attention is also given to the relevant industry codes in the United Kingdom in view of the comprehensive way in which promotional competitions are covered by self-regulation in that country. The main part of the article centres on the self-regulatory position in South Africa. A brief overview of the role and function of the Advertising Standards Authority of South Africa (ASASA is provided. The provisions of the ASASA's Code of Advertising Practice are then examined and some ASASA rulings are discussed in order to illustrate the relevant principles. Thereafter, the focus shifts to the Code of Conduct of the Wireless Application Service Providers' Association, which contains detailed provisions relating to promotional competitions. Some relevant rulings are also considered. In conclusion

  17. Melanopsin regulates both sleep-promoting and arousal-promoting responses to light

    OpenAIRE

    Violetta Pilorz; Tam, Shu K.E.; Steven Hughes; Pothecary, Carina A.; Aarti Jagannath; Hankins, Mark W.; Bannerman, David M.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Nolan, Patrick M.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N

    2016-01-01

    Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elev...

  18. Emotion Regulation Strategies That Promote Learning: Reappraisal Enhances Children's Memory for Educational Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Levine, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds ("N" = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group…

  19. Core promoter functions in the regulation of gene expression of Drosophila dorsal target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, Yonathan; Kuznetsov, Olga; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-04-25

    Developmental processes are highly dependent on transcriptional regulation by RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters consist of core promoter motifs, e.g. the initiator, TATA box, and the downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Here, we explored the importance of core promoter functions in the dorsal-ventral developmental gene regulatory network. This network includes multiple genes that are activated by different nuclear concentrations of Dorsal, an NFκB homolog transcription factor, along the dorsal-ventral axis. We show that over two-thirds of Dorsal target genes contain DPE sequence motifs, which is significantly higher than the proportion of DPE-containing promoters in Drosophila genes. We demonstrate that multiple Dorsal target genes are evolutionarily conserved and functionally dependent on the DPE. Furthermore, we have analyzed the activation of key Dorsal target genes by Dorsal, as well as by another Rel family transcription factor, Relish, and the dependence of their activation on the DPE motif. Using hybrid enhancer-promoter constructs in Drosophila cells and embryo extracts, we have demonstrated that the core promoter composition is an important determinant of transcriptional activity of Dorsal target genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of core promoter composition in the regulation of Dorsal target genes.

  20. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice. Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  1. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francer, Jeffrey; Izquierdo, Jose Zamarriego; Music, Tamara; Narsai, Kirti; Nikidis, Chrisoula; Simmonds, Heather; Woods, Paul

    2014-03-29

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines.

  2. Glucocorticoid regulation of transcription at an amplified, episomal promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, M.C.; Richard-Foy, H.; Wolford, R.G.; Berard, D.S.; Hager, G.L.

    1983-11-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) has been introduced into cultured murine cells, using the 69% transforming fragment of bovine papiloma virus type 1 (BVP). Transformed cells contain up to 200 copies of the chimeric molecules per diploid genome. The restriction endonuclease map of the acquired recombinants, as well as the physical structure of the DNA, indicates that the LTR-BVP molecules present in these cells occur exclusively as unintegrated, extrachromosomal episome. When a 72-base pair direct repeat ''enhancer'' element (derived from the Harvey sarcoma retrovirus) was included in the MMTV LTR-BPV chimeric plasmids, DNA acquired through transfection, with a single exception, was integrated or rearranged or both. Two approaches showed that the MMTV LTR present in the episomal state was capable of supporting glucocorticoid hormone-regulated transcription. The authors have therefore demonstrated the hormone response for the first time in a totally defined primary sequence environment. Significant differences both in the basal level of MMTV-initiated transcription and in the extend of glucocorticoid induction were observed in individual cell lines with similar episomal copy numbers. These phenotypic variations suggest that epigenetic structure is an important component of the mechanism of regulation.

  3. Multi-input regulation and logic with T7 promoters in cells and cell free systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Sukanya [ORNL; Karig, David K [ORNL; Norred, Sarah E [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Engineered gene circuits offer an opportunity to harness biological systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, reliance on host E. coli promoters for the construction of circuit elements, such as logic gates, makes implementation of predictable, independently functioning circuits difficult. In contrast, T7 promoters offer a simple orthogonal expression system for use in a variety of cellular backgrounds and even in cell free systems. Here we develop a T7 promoter system that can be regulated by two different transcriptional repressors for the construction of a logic gate that functions in cells and in cell free systems. We first present LacI repressible T7lacO promoters that are regulated from a distal lac operator site for repression. We next explore the positioning of a tet operator site within the T7lacO framework to create T7 promoters that respond to tet and lac repressors and realize an IMPLIES gate. Finally, we demonstrate that these dual input sensitive promoters function in a commercially available E. coli cell-free protein expression system. Together, our results contribute to the first demonstration of multi-input regulation of T7 promoters and expand the utility of T7 promoters in cell based as well as cell-free gene circuits.

  4. [Drug advertising and promotion: regulations and extent of compliance in five Latin American countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Claudia; Vargas, Claudia; Cañás, Martín; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2011-02-01

    To analyze differing regulations regarding drug promotion, and the extent of compliance as seen in samples of advertising directed to the public in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Peru. A total of 683 pieces of promotional material on display in health facilities, pharmacies, and on the street were collected, 132 of which were randomly selected for analysis. The regulations governing pharmaceutical advertising, taken from official websites and interviews with regulatory officials and Ministry of Health staff in the five countries covered, were reviewed, along with their adherence to the ethical criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The contents of the materials in the sample were evaluated to determine their degree of compliance with national regulations and WHO recommendations on drug promotion. The countries have regulations incorporating WHO ethical criteria. Over 80% of the material analyzed included the indications for the drug, while over 70% omitted information on adverse effects. Fifty percent of the advertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs on display in pharmacies listed indications not approved by the relevant health authority. In advertising in pharmacies, the risks from inadequate information were not found to differ significantly for OTC or prescription medications. Compared with materials provided in health facilities, the relative risk of the absence of information on dosage in the material distributed in pharmacies was 2.08 (confidence interval 95% 1.32-3.39). Although regulations on drug promotion and advertising in the five countries studied generally incorporate the WHO recommendations, promotional materials often fail to reflect the fact.

  5. L1CAM expression in endometrial carcinomas is regulated by usage of two different promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Marco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM was originally identified as a neural adhesion molecule involved in axon guidance. In many human epithelial carcinomas L1CAM is overexpressed and thereby augments cell motility, invasion and metastasis formation. L1CAM positive carcinomas are associated with bad prognosis. Recent data point out that L1CAM is regulated in a fashion similar to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Previous studies have implied the transcription factors Slug and/or β-catenin in L1CAM transcriptional regulation. However, the regulation of human L1CAM expression at the transcriptional level is not well understood. Results To better understand the molecular basis of L1CAM transcriptional regulation, we carried out a detailed characterization of the human L1CAM promoter. We identified two transcription start sites, the first in front of a non-translated exon 0 (promoter 1 and the other next to the first protein-coding exon 1 (promoter 2. Both sites could be verified in endometrial carcinoma (EC cell lines and appear to be used in a cell-type specific manner. The two identified promoter regions showed activity in luciferase reporter assays. Chromatin-IP analyses confirmed the in silico predicted E-boxes, binding sites for transcription factors Snail and Slug, as well as Lef-1 sites, which are related to β-catenin-mediated transcriptional regulation, in both promoters. Overexpression of β-catenin exclusively augmented activity of promoter 1 whereas Slug enhanced promoter 1 and 2 activity suggesting that both promoters can be active. Overexpression of β-catenin or Slug could upregulate L1CAM expression in a cell-type specific manner. Conclusions Our results, for the first time, provide evidence that the L1CAM gene has two functionally active promoter sites that are used in a cell-type specific manner. Slug and β-catenin are involved L1CAM transcriptional regulation. Nevertheless, Slug rather than

  6. Regulation of Chlamydia Gene Expression by Tandem Promoters with Different Temporal Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Christopher J; Tan, Ming

    2015-11-02

    Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria with an unusual intracellular developmental cycle marked by temporal waves of gene expression. The three main temporal groups of chlamydial genes are proposed to be controlled by separate mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. However, we have noted genes with discrepancies, such as the early gene dnaK and the midcycle genes bioY and pgk, which have promoters controlled by the late transcriptional regulators EUO and σ(28). To resolve this issue, we analyzed the promoters of these three genes in vitro and in Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria grown in cell culture. Transcripts from the σ(28)-dependent promoter of each gene were detected only at late times in the intracellular infection, bolstering the role of σ(28) RNA polymerase in late gene expression. In each case, however, expression prior to late times was due to a second promoter that was transcribed by σ(66) RNA polymerase, which is the major form of chlamydial polymerase. These results demonstrate that chlamydial genes can be transcribed from tandem promoters with different temporal profiles, leading to a composite expression pattern that differs from the expression profile of a single promoter. In addition, tandem promoters allow a gene to be regulated by multiple mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, such as DNA supercoiling or late regulation by EUO and σ(28). We discuss how tandem promoters broaden the repertoire of temporal gene expression patterns in the chlamydial developmental cycle and can be used to fine-tune the expression of specific genes. Chlamydia is a pathogenic bacterium that is responsible for the majority of infectious disease cases reported to the CDC each year. It causes an intracellular infection that is characterized by coordinated expression of chlamydial genes in temporal waves. Chlamydial transcription has been shown to be regulated by DNA supercoiling, alternative forms of RNA polymerase, and transcription factors, but the number

  7. MYC2 differentially regulates GATA-box containing promoters during seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2013-10-01

    MY C2 is an important transcription factor, which modulates transcription by directly binding to Z-, G- and E-box elements present in the promoters of light and different stress responsive genes. Very recently, we have shown that MY C2 plays a role in the regulation of Z- and/or G-box containing promoters during both seedling and adult plant growth. Although, MY C2 does not bind to the GATA box light responsive element (LRE ) in vitro as shown in DNA binding assays, its involvement in the regulation of GATA -box containing promoter in planta, if any, is not known. Here, we report that the promoter activity of GATA-NOS101 in atmyc2 mutant was found to be similar to wild-type in BL and dark grown seedlings, whereas it was found to be lower compared with wild-type as revealed from GUS staining results. Further, we will discuss the consequences of MY C2 regulating GATA -box containing promoter in combination with G-box containing promoters.

  8. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Casanovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  9. Regulation of mtl operon promoter of Bacillus subtilis: requirements of its use in expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenbuchner Josef

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several vector systems have been developed to express any gene desired to be studied in Bacillus subtilis. Among them, the transcriptionally regulated promoters involved in carbohydrate utilization are a research priority. Expression systems based on Bacillus promoters for xylose, maltose, and mannose utilization, as well as on the heterologous E. coli lactose promoter, have been successfully constructed. The promoter of the mtlAFD operon for utilization of mannitol is another promising candidate for its use in expression vectors. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis. Results Regulation of the promoters of mtlAFD operon (PmtlA and mtlR (PmtlR encoding the activator were investigated by fusion to lacZ. Identification of the PmtlA and PmtlR transcription start sites revealed the σA like promoter structures. Also, the operator of PmtlA was determined by shortening, nucleotide exchange, and alignment of PmtlA and PmtlR operator regions. Deletion of the mannitol-specific PTS genes (mtlAF resulted in PmtlA constitutive expression demonstrating the inhibitory effect of EIICBMtl and EIIAMtl on MtlR in the absence of mannitol. Disruption of mtlD made the cells sensitive to mannitol and glucitol. Both PmtlA and PmtlR were influenced by carbon catabolite repression (CCR. However, a CcpA deficient mutant showed only a slight reduction in PmtlR catabolite repression. Similarly, using PgroE as a constitutive promoter, putative cre sites of PmtlA and PmtlR slightly reduced the promoter activity in the presence of glucose. In contrast, glucose repression of PmtlA and PmtlR was completely abolished in a ΔptsG mutant and significantly reduced in a MtlR (H342D mutant. Conclusions The mtl operon promoter (PmtlA is a strong promoter that reached a maximum of 13,000 Miller units with lacZ as a reporter on

  10. Regulation of Human Cytomegalovirus Transcription in Latency: Beyond the Major Immediate-Early Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew; Sinclair, John

    2013-01-01

    Lytic infection of differentiated cell types with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in the temporal expression of between 170–200 open reading frames (ORFs). A number of studies have demonstrated the temporal regulation of these ORFs and that this is orchestrated by both viral and cellular mechanisms associated with the co-ordinated recruitment of transcription complexes and, more recently, higher order chromatin structure. Importantly, HCMV, like all herpes viruses, establishes a lifelong latent infection of the host—one major site of latency being the undifferentiated haematopoietic progenitor cells resident in the bone marrow. Crucially, the establishment of latency is concomitant with the recruitment of cellular enzymes that promote extensive methylation of histones bound to the major immediate early promoter. As such, the repressive chromatin structure formed at the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) elicits inhibition of IE gene expression and is a major factor involved in maintenance of HCMV latency. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that a distinct subset of viral genes is also expressed during latency. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms that control the expression of these latency-associated transcripts and illustrate that regulation of these latency-associated promoters is also subject to chromatin mediated regulation and that the instructive observations previously reported regarding the negative regulation of the MIEP during latency are paralleled in the regulation of latent gene expression. PMID:23736881

  11. Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelkrout, Erin M; Mariconti, Luisa; Settlage, Sharon B; Cella, Rino; Robertson, Dominique; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2002-12-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate genes expressed at the G1/S boundary of the cell division cycle in higher eukaryotes. Although animal E2F proteins and their target promoters have been studied extensively, little is known about how these factors regulate plant promoters. An earlier study identified two E2F consensus binding sites in the promoter of a Nicotiana benthamiana gene encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and showed that the proximal element (E2F2) is required for the full repression of PCNA expression in mature leaves. In this study, we examined the distal element (E2F1) and how it interacts with the E2F2 site to regulate the PCNA promoter. Gel shift assays using plant nuclear extracts or purified Arabidopsis E2F and DP proteins showed that different complexes bind to the two E2F sites. Mutation of the E2F1 site or both sites differentially altered PCNA promoter function in transgenic plants. As reported previously for the E2F2 mutation, the E2F1 and E2F1+2 mutations partially relieved the repression of the PCNA promoter in mature leaves. In young tissues, the E2F1 mutation resulted in a threefold reduction in PCNA promoter activity, whereas the E2F1+2 mutation had no detectable effect. The activity of E2F1+2 mutants was indistinguishable from that of E2F2 mutants. These results demonstrate that both E2F elements contribute to the repression of the PCNA promoter in mature leaves, whereas the E2F1 site counters the repression activity of the E2F2 element in young leaves.

  12. [Cloning of ID4 gene expression regulation promoter and subcloning of recombinant ID4 promoter luciferase reporter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Yu; Yang, Bo; Chi, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Li-Hong; Zhang, Feng; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Lu, Xue-Chun

    2010-04-01

    The present study was aimed to clone ID4 gene promoter and upstream regulatory region, and to construct a series of recombinant promoter-luciferase reporter for exploring the mechanism of ID4 gene expression regulation. the upstream 5' flanking sequence of 2242 bp from transcriptional start site (TSS) and downstream 5' non-coding region of 212 bp on ID4 gene were searched out and downloaded from human genome databank of NCBI using whole length of ID4 gene cDNA as a probe; On-line promoter analysis softwares, including TESS and Genomax, were employed to analyze the characteristics of ID4 gene promoter and upstream regulatory elements. Then, based on the analytic results, PCR primers were designed and synthesized. Segmental amplification method was adopted to obtain two fragments of 1829 bp and 784 bp. The two fragments were inserted into the plasmid pGEM-T, transformed into TOP10 competent E. coli., and positive recombinants were screened respectively. Subsequently, restriction enzymes KpnI/NheI and KpnI/EcoRI were used to digest the above-mentioned two plasmids pGEM-T and pGL3, and ligation was completed by T4 DNA ligase. After transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening of positive colonies, the basic recombinant ID4 gene promoter-pGL3 was successfully constructed. KpnI/NheI double digestion and sequencing showed that the target fragment was 2 459 bp and consistent with the corresponding sequence of GenBank; Using the 2459 bp fragment as a template, 5 pairs of primers with identical 3' terminus and different 5' terminus were designed and synthesized for half-nest PCR amplification. 5 fragments with an interval of approximate 400 bp each other, i.e. 2112 bp, 1703 bp, 1290 bp, 784 bp and 496 bp, were produced and inserted into pGEM-T after recovery and purification for transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening of positive colonies. After that, KpnI/NheI was used to digest the above-mentioned five pGEM-T recombinant plasmids and pGL3 basic

  13. Functional analysis of a Lemna gibba rbcS promoter regulated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... cose. The results suggested that the SSU5C promoter was negatively regulated by sugar. Previous reports proposed a central role for ABA in response of plant genes to glucose. (Huijser et al. 2000; Laby et al. 2000). Therefore we decided to test the effect of ABA on the expression directed by. 0. 0.2. 0.4.

  14. Regulation of the bovine SCD5 promoter by EGR2 and SREBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengi, Andrea J; Corl, Benjamin A

    2012-05-04

    In rodents, the transcription factors early growth response 2 (EGR2) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1a (SREBP1a) regulate transcription of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2) gene during peripheral nerve myelination, which may be important for synthesis of the lipid component of myelin. Most non-rodent genomes do not contain the SCD2 gene, but rather express SCD5 in brain and nervous tissues. In this paper, we asked whether bovine SCD5 is regulated in a similar manner to rodent SCD2. Expression of EGR2 did not result in an increase in endogenous SCD5 mRNA expression in JEG3 cells, but did result in activation of truncated bovine SCD5 promoter luciferase reporter constructs. Similar results were obtained with expression of the active form of SREBP1a; however, unlike rodent SCD2, there was no synergistic activation of the bovine SCD5 promoter reporters when EGR2 and SREBP1a were co-expressed. Mutation of the putative EGR2 binding site in the SCD5 promoter abolished activation by SREBP1a, suggesting that EGR2 and SREBP1a bind to the same site in the SCD5 promoter. Finally, we have identified a region of the bovine SCD5 promoter between 505 and 305 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site that appears to be important for maintaining basal levels of transcription of this gene. While it appears that there are some differences between the regulation of rodent SCD2 and bovine SCD5, the promoters of both genes can be activated by EGR2 and SREBP1a. This is the first report of potential regulators of SCD5 transcription. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancer-core-promoter specificity separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidi, Muhammad A; Arnold, Cosmas D; Schernhuber, Katharina; Pagani, Michaela; Rath, Martina; Frank, Olga; Stark, Alexander

    2015-02-26

    Gene transcription in animals involves the assembly of RNA polymerase II at core promoters and its cell-type-specific activation by enhancers that can be located more distally. However, how ubiquitous expression of housekeeping genes is achieved has been less clear. In particular, it is unknown whether ubiquitously active enhancers exist and how developmental and housekeeping gene regulation is separated. An attractive hypothesis is that different core promoters might exhibit an intrinsic specificity to certain enhancers. This is conceivable, as various core promoter sequence elements are differentially distributed between genes of different functions, including elements that are predominantly found at either developmentally regulated or at housekeeping genes. Here we show that thousands of enhancers in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and ovarian somatic cells (OSCs) exhibit a marked specificity to one of two core promoters--one derived from a ubiquitously expressed ribosomal protein gene and another from a developmentally regulated transcription factor--and confirm the existence of these two classes for five additional core promoters from genes with diverse functions. Housekeeping enhancers are active across the two cell types, while developmental enhancers exhibit strong cell-type specificity. Both enhancer classes differ in their genomic distribution, the functions of neighbouring genes, and the core promoter elements of these neighbouring genes. In addition, we identify two transcription factors--Dref and Trl--that bind and activate housekeeping versus developmental enhancers, respectively. Our results provide evidence for a sequence-encoded enhancer-core-promoter specificity that separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulatory programs for thousands of enhancers and their target genes across the entire genome.

  16. The Effects of Design Strategies for Promoting Students' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Students' Self-Regulation and Achievements in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of design strategies for promoting students' self-regulated learning skills on students' self-regulation and achievements. Seven strategies for promoting students' SRL are identified through the literature review and applied into the experimental group: goal setting, self-evaluation,…

  17. Distinct and histone-specific modifications mediate positive versus negative transcriptional regulation of TSHalpha promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hormonally-regulated histone modifications that govern positive versus negative transcription of target genes are poorly characterized despite their importance for normal and pathological endocrine function. There have been only a few studies examining chromatin modifications on target gene promoters by nuclear hormone receptors. Moreover, these studies have focused on positively-regulated target genes. TSHalpha, a heterodimer partner for thyrotropin (TSH, is secreted by the pituitary gland. T(3 negatively regulates TSHalpha gene expression via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs which belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, whereas thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH positively regulates via the TRH receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor.We studied regulation of the TSHalpha gene by cAMP and T(3 using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays in stably-transfected rat pituitary cells containing the human TSHalpha promoter. Interestingly, cAMP selectively increased histone H4 acetylation whereas, as previously reported, T(3 induced histone H3 acetylation. In particular, cAMP increased H4K5 and H4K8 acetylation and decreased H4K20 trimethylation, modifications associated with transcriptional activation. T(3 increased H3K9 and H3K18 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation; however, it also decreased H3K27 acetylation and increased H3K27 trimethylation which are associated with transcriptional repression. Of note, cAMP recruited pCREB, CBP/p300, and PCAF to the promoter whereas T(3 caused dissociation of NCoR/SMRT and HDAC3. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant thyroid hormone receptor (TR from a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH led to less T(3-dependent negative regulation and partially blocked histone H3 modifications of the TSHalpha promoter.Our findings show that non-overlapping and specific histone modifications determine positive versus negative transcriptional regulation, and integrate opposing hormonal and

  18. Substrate Phosphorylation and Feedback Regulation in JFK-promoted p53 Destabilization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Feng; Huangyang, Peiwei; Si, Wenzhe; Yang, Jie; Yao, Zhi; Shang, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in integrating cellular responses to various stresses. Tight regulation of p53 is thus essential for the maintenance of genome integrity and normal cell proliferation. Previously, we reported that JFK, the only Kelch domain-containing F-box protein in human, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of p53 and that unlike the other E3 ligases for p53, all of which possess an intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity, JFK destabilizes p53 through the assembly of a Skp1-Cul1-F-box complex. Here, we report that the substrate recognition by JFK requires phosphorylation of p53 in its central core region by CSN (COP9 signalosome)-associated kinase. Significantly, inhibition of CSN-associated kinase activity or knockdown of CSN5 impairs JFK-promoted p53 degradation, enhances p53-dependent transcription, and promotes cell growth suppression, G1 arrest, and apoptosis. Moreover, we showed that JFK is transcriptionally regulated by p53 and forms an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop with p53. These data may shed new light on the functional connection between CSN, Skp1-Cul1-F-box ubiquitin ligase, and p53 and provide a molecular mechanism for the regulation of JFK-promoted p53 degradation. PMID:21127074

  19. Substrate phosphorylation and feedback regulation in JFK-promoted p53 destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Feng; Huangyang, Peiwei; Si, Wenzhe; Yang, Jie; Yao, Zhi; Shang, Yongfeng

    2011-02-11

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in integrating cellular responses to various stresses. Tight regulation of p53 is thus essential for the maintenance of genome integrity and normal cell proliferation. Previously, we reported that JFK, the only Kelch domain-containing F-box protein in human, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of p53 and that unlike the other E3 ligases for p53, all of which possess an intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity, JFK destabilizes p53 through the assembly of a Skp1-Cul1-F-box complex. Here, we report that the substrate recognition by JFK requires phosphorylation of p53 in its central core region by CSN (COP9 signalosome)-associated kinase. Significantly, inhibition of CSN-associated kinase activity or knockdown of CSN5 impairs JFK-promoted p53 degradation, enhances p53-dependent transcription, and promotes cell growth suppression, G(1) arrest, and apoptosis. Moreover, we showed that JFK is transcriptionally regulated by p53 and forms an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop with p53. These data may shed new light on the functional connection between CSN, Skp1-Cul1-F-box ubiquitin ligase, and p53 and provide a molecular mechanism for the regulation of JFK-promoted p53 degradation.

  20. Strength and Regulation of Seven rRNA Promoters in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Michihisa; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The model prokaryote Escherichia coli contains seven copies of the rRNA operon in the genome. The presence of multiple rRNA operons is an advantage for increasing the level of ribosome, the key apparatus of translation, in response to environmental conditions. The complete sequence of E. coli genome, however, indicated the micro heterogeneity between seven rRNA operons, raising the possibility in functional heterogeneity and/or differential mode of expression. The aim of this research is to determine the strength and regulation of the promoter of each rRNA operon in E. coli. For this purpose, we used the double-fluorescent protein reporter pBRP system that was developed for accurate and precise determination of the promoter strength of protein-coding genes. For application of this promoter assay vector for measurement of the rRNA operon promoters devoid of the signal for translation, a synthetic SD sequence was added at the initiation codon of the reporter GFP gene, and then approximately 500 bp-sequence upstream each 16S rRNA was inserted in front of this SD sequence. Using this modified pGRS system, the promoter activity of each rrn operon was determined by measuring the rrn promoter-directed GFP and the reference promoter-directed RFP fluorescence, both encoded by a single and the same vector. Results indicated that: the promoter activity was the highest for the rrnE promoter under all growth conditions analyzed, including different growth phases of wild-type E. coli grown in various media; but the promoter strength of other six rrn promoters was various depending on the culture conditions. These findings altogether indicate that seven rRNA operons are different with respect to the regulation mode of expression, conferring an advantage to E. coli through a more fine-tuned control of ribosome formation in a wide range of environmental situations. Possible difference in the functional role of each rRNA operon is also discussed. PMID:26717514

  1. Use of the Lactococcal nisA Promoter To Regulate Gene Expression in Gram-Positive Bacteria : Comparison of Induction Level and Promoter Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichenbaum, Zehava; Federle, Michael J.; Marra, Diana; Vos, Willem M. de; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Scott, June R.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the regulated activity of the lactococcal nisA promoter in strains of the gram-positive species Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. nisA promoter activity was dependent on the proteins NisR and

  2. Regulation of the gastrin promoter by epidermal growth factor and neuropeptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Godley, J M; Brand, S J

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of gastrin gene transcription was studied in GH4 pituitary cells transfected with constructs comprised of the first exon of the human gastrin gene and various lengths of 5' regulatory sequences ligated upstream of the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Gastrin reporter gene activity in GH4 cells was equal to the activity of a reporter gene transcribed from the endogenously expressed growth hormone promoter. The effect of a variety of peptides on gastrin gene trans...

  3. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Aebli; Elizabeth Hutchison

    2016-01-01

    We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about g...

  4. Regulation of a Mammalian Gene Bearing a CpG Island Promoter and a Distal Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Berrozpe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative nucleosome occupancy assay revealed rules for nucleosome disposition in yeast and showed how disposition affects regulation of the GAL genes. Here, we show how those findings apply to the control of Kit, a mammalian gene. The Kit promoter lies in a CpG island, and its enhancer (active in mast cells lies some 150 kb upstream. Nucleosomes form with especially high avidities at the Kit promoter, a reaction that, we surmise, ensures extremely low basal expression. In mast cells, transcriptional activators displace nucleosomes that are less tightly formed at the Kit enhancer. In turn, the active enhancer replaces a single Kit promoter nucleosome with the transcriptional machinery, thereby inducing transcription over 1,000-fold. As at the yeast GAL genes, the inhibitory effects of nucleosomes facilitate high factors of induction by mammalian activators working in the absence of specific repressors.

  5. A response regulator promotes Francisella tularensis intramacrophage growth by repressing an anti-virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Kathryn M; Dove, Simon L

    2016-08-01

    The orphan response regulator PmrA is essential for the intramacrophage growth and survival of Francisella tularensis. PmrA was thought to promote intramacrophage growth by binding directly to promoters on the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI) and positively regulating the expression of FPI genes, which encode a Type VI secretion system required for intramacrophage growth. Using both ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq we identify those regions of the F. tularensis chromosome occupied by PmrA and those genes that are regulated by PmrA. We find that PmrA associates with 252 distinct regions of the F. tularensis chromosome, but exerts regulatory effects at only a few of these locations. Rather than by functioning directly as an activator of FPI gene expression we present evidence that PmrA promotes intramacrophage growth by repressing the expression of a single target gene we refer to as priM (PmrA-repressed inhibitor of intramacrophage growth). Our findings thus indicate that the role of PmrA in facilitating intracellular growth is to repress a previously unknown anti-virulence factor. PriM is the first bacterially encoded factor to be described that can interfere with the intramacrophage growth and survival of F. tularensis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Piriformospora indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis through regulation of the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Xu, Le; Wei, Qiao; Wu, Chu; Tang, Wenlin; Oelmüller, Ralf; Zhang, Wenying

    2017-01-01

    Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant) and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P. indica promotes early flower development and the number of siliques. In addition, expression of the core flowering regulatory gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), of genes controlling the photoperiod [CRYPTOCHROMES (CRY1, CRY2) and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB)] and those related to gibberellin (GA) functions (RGA1, AGL24, GA3, and MYB5) were induced by the fungus, while key genes controlling the age and autonomous pathways remained unchanged. Moreover, early flowering promotion conferred by P. indica was promoted by exogenous GA and inhabited by GA inhibitor, and this effect could be observed under long day and neutral day photoperiod. Therefore, our data suggested that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely through photoperiod and GA rather than age or the autonomous pathway.

  7. Piriformospora indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis through regulation of the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pan

    Full Text Available Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P. indica promotes early flower development and the number of siliques. In addition, expression of the core flowering regulatory gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT, of genes controlling the photoperiod [CRYPTOCHROMES (CRY1, CRY2 and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB] and those related to gibberellin (GA functions (RGA1, AGL24, GA3, and MYB5 were induced by the fungus, while key genes controlling the age and autonomous pathways remained unchanged. Moreover, early flowering promotion conferred by P. indica was promoted by exogenous GA and inhabited by GA inhibitor, and this effect could be observed under long day and neutral day photoperiod. Therefore, our data suggested that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely through photoperiod and GA rather than age or the autonomous pathway.

  8. Promoting Self-regulated Learning of Brazilian Preservice Student Teachers: Results of an Intervention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ribeiro Ganda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is the process by which individuals monitor, control, and reflect on their learning. Self-regulated students have motivational, metacognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that enhance their learning. As the importance of self-regulated learning is well acknowledged by research nowadays, the aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an innovative course designed to promote self-regulated learning among Brazilian preservice student teachers. The innovative approach was developed in the format of a program of intervention based heavily on self-reflection. The content involved student exposure to self-reflexive activities, lectures on the self-regulated learning framework, and theoretical tasks aimed at fostering self-regulation of students in a double perspective: as a student and as a future teacher. The efficacy of the approach was tested by comparison with both the results of students who had taken a course with theoretical content only and those who had not taken any course at all. The sample consisted of 109 students in 4 different freshman classes in a Teacher Education Program in a Brazilian public university in an inner city in the state of São Paulo. The research was conducted using a quasi-experimental design with three stages: pretest, intervention, and posttest. The classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions as follows: an experimental group involving intervention, an experimental group exposed to theory, and two control groups not taking the course. Before and after the intervention program, all the participants responded to the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and the Self-efficacy for Self-regulated Learning scales. Overall, the results showed that the intervention program format had a positive impact in enhancing student self-regulation. Moreover, students in both the experimental groups reported both higher gains in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning

  9. Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effect of global regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Syed, Mustafa H [ORNL; Beliaev, Alexander S [ORNL; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TFs) that influence the expression of many genes. Global regulators, including CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein), ArcA, and FNR, can modulate the transcriptional activity of multiple operons. The similarity of a regulatory element s sequence to a TF s consensus binding site (BS) and the position of the regulatory element in an operon promoter are considered the most important determinants of this TF s regulatory influence. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the number of TFBS half-sites (where a half-site is one half of the palindromic BS consensus sequence, which we shall refer to as a binding motif or a BM) of a global regulator in an operon s promoter plays an important role in the operon s transcriptional regulation. We examine empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP regulon in Shewanella oneidenses MR 1 and Escherichia coli, and of the ArcA regulon in S. oneidenses MR 1. We compare the power of CRP BM counts and of full, symmetrical CRP TFBS characteristics, namely similarity to consensus and location, to predict CRP-induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full-length TFBS quality or location. Regression analysis indicates that IHF (Integration Host Factor) and ArcA have synergistic effects on CRP-induced gene transcription, positive and negative, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that the fine-tuning of bacterial transcriptional activity by CRP may involves not only the bending of the operon promoter, facilitated by CRP in cooperation with the histone-like protein IHF, but also the cumulative binding affinity of multiple weak BMs.

  10. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genugten, Lenneke; Dusseldorp, Elise; Massey, Emma K; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2017-03-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary prevention interventions on mental wellbeing in adolescents. Forty interventions were included in the analyses. Techniques were coded into nine categories of SRTs. Meta-analyses were conducted to identify the effectiveness of SRTs, examining three different outcomes: internalising behaviour, externalising behaviour, and self-esteem. Primary interventions had a small-to-medium ([Formula: see text] = 0.16-0.29) on self-esteem and internalising behaviour. Secondary interventions had a medium-to-large short-term effect (average [Formula: see text] = 0.56) on internalising behaviour and self-esteem. In secondary interventions, interventions including asking for social support [Formula: see text] 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.11-1.98) had a great effect on internalising behaviour. Interventions including monitoring and evaluation had a greater effect on self-esteem [Formula: see text] 95% CI = 0.21-0.57). For primary interventions, there was not a single SRT that was associated with a greater intervention effect on internalising behaviour or self-esteem. No effects were found for externalising behaviours. Self-regulation interventions are moderately effective at improving mental wellbeing among adolescents. Secondary interventions promoting 'asking for social support' and promoting 'monitoring and evaluation' were associated with improved outcomes. More research is needed to identify other SRTs or combinations of SRTs that could improve understanding or optimise mental wellbeing interventions.

  11. Dynamic regulation of gene expression using sucrose responsive promoters and RNA interference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas C; Espinosa, Monica I; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

    2015-04-01

    Engineering dynamic, environmentally- and temporally-responsive control of gene expression is one of the principle objectives in the field of synthetic biology. Dynamic regulation is desirable because many engineered functions conflict with endogenous processes which have evolved to facilitate growth and survival, and minimising conflict between growth and production phases can improve product titres in microbial cell factories. There are a limited number of mechanisms that enable dynamic regulation in yeast, and fewer still that are appropriate for application in an industrial setting. To address this problem we have identified promoters that are repressed during growth on glucose, and activated during growth on sucrose. Catabolite repression and preferential glucose utilisation allows active growth on glucose before switching to production on sucrose. Using sucrose as an activator of gene expression circumvents the need for expensive inducer compounds and enables gene expression to be triggered during growth on a fermentable, high energy-yield carbon source. The ability to fine-tune the timing and population density at which gene expression is activated from the SUC2 promoter was demonstrated by varying the ratio of glucose to sucrose in the growth medium. Finally, we demonstrated that the system could also be used to repress gene expression (a process also required for many engineering projects). We used the glucose/sucrose system to control a heterologous RNA interference module and dynamically repress the expression of a constitutively regulated GFP gene. The low noise levels and high dynamic range of the SUC2 promoter make it a promising option for implementing dynamic regulation in yeast. The capacity to repress gene expression using RNA interference makes the system highly versatile, with great potential for metabolic engineering applications.

  12. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic promoter databases as valuable tools in exploring the regulation of gene transcription: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Małgorzata; Wysokińska, Halina; Kuźma, Łukasz; Szymczyk, Piotr

    2017-11-02

    The complete exploration of the regulation of gene expression remains one of the top-priority goals for researchers. As the regulation is mainly controlled at the level of transcription by promoters, study on promoters and findings are of great importance. This review summarizes forty selected databases that centralize experimental and theoretical knowledge regarding the organization of promoters, interacting transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. The presented databases offer researchers valuable support in elucidating the regulation of gene transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. M2 macrophages promote beta-cell proliferation by up-regulation of SMAD7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Gaffar, Iljana; Guo, Ping; Wiersch, John; Fischbach, Shane; Peirish, Lauren; Song, Zewen; El-Gohary, Yousef; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K

    2014-04-01

    Determination of signaling pathways that regulate beta-cell replication is critical for beta-cell therapy. Here, we show that blocking pancreatic macrophage infiltration after pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) completely inhibits beta-cell proliferation. The TGFβ superfamily signaling inhibitor SMAD7 was significantly up-regulated in beta cells after PDL. Beta cells failed to proliferate in response to PDL in beta-cell-specific SMAD7 mutant mice. Forced expression of SMAD7 in beta cells by itself was sufficient to promote beta-cell proliferation in vivo. M2, rather than M1 macrophages, seem to be the inducers of SMAD7-mediated beta-cell proliferation. M2 macrophages not only release TGFβ1 to directly induce up-regulation of SMAD7 in beta cells but also release EGF to activate EGF receptor signaling that inhibits TGFβ1-activated SMAD2 nuclear translocation, resulting in TGFβ signaling inhibition. SMAD7 promotes beta-cell proliferation by increasing CyclinD1 and CyclinD2, and by inducing nuclear exclusion of p27. Our study thus reveals a molecular pathway to potentially increase beta-cell mass through enhanced SMAD7 activity induced by extracellular stimuli.

  14. Regulation and expression of human Fabs under the control of the Escherichia coli arabinose promoter, PBAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Hammond, F R; Papaioannou, A; Hawkins, N J; Ward, R L

    1997-10-01

    The L-arabinose operon from E. coli contains an inducible promoter PBAD which has been extensively studied for the control of gene expression. PBAD has a number of potential advantages over Plac, and has been used successfully to promote high level expression of recombinant proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate PBAD as an alternative system to Plac for the bacterial expression of recombinant Fabs. The promoter PBAD from the E. coli arabinose operon araBAD and the gene encoding the regulator of this promoter, were cloned into the phagemid expression vector MCO1. Expression of human recombinant tetanus toxoid (TT) and c-erbB2 Fabs under the control of PBAD was compared at two induction temperatures with the same Fabs produced under the control of Plac. Expression of TT and c-erbB2 Fabs under the control of PBAD was comparable to Fab expression from Plac. However, highly expressed TT Fab under the control of PBAD was localised to the soluble periplasmic fraction whereas under the control of Plac, there was greater leakage of Fab into the culture supernatant. In addition, Fab expression from PBAD could be more tightly repressed than from Plac. PBAD is a useful and cheaply inducible alternative to the more commonly used Plac for the rapid expression of soluble recombinant human antibody fragments.

  15. IL1B promoter polymorphism regulates the expression of gastric acid stimulating hormone gastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Meenakshi; Datta De, Dipanjana; Choudhury, Abhijit; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2009-07-01

    It is important to dissect the effect of the alternative alleles of a functional SNP on the entire biochemical pathway for the complete understanding of the mechanism of the manifestation of complex diseases. IL1B-511C>T and -31C>T promoter polymorphisms have been suggested as potential susceptibility loci for Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal diseases. We report that altered expression of IL1B due to a specific polymorphism in its promoter modulates the expression of gastrin, an acid regulating hormone. Treatment of gastric carcinoma cells, AGS, with IL1B resulted in a 20-fold reduction in gastrin expression. Gastrin promoter assay showed that IL1B inhibits gastrin expression at the transcriptional level and part of this inhibitory process is mediated via activation of NFkappaB and involvement of HDACs. An almost 3-fold increase in IL1B expression was observed when AGS cells were transfected with -31TIL1B expression plasmid in comparison to -31CIL1B. The -31TIL1B induced a 2-fold greater repression of the gastrin luciferase activity compared to -31CIL1B. This signaling of the -31TIL1B variant allele driven IL1B revealed an almost 1.5-fold greater expression of NFkappaB. Thus, this study showed that a single base substitution at the -31 position of the IL1B promoter brought about differential expression of IL1B which differentially altered both NFkappaB activation and gastrin expression.

  16. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Aebli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about genetic complementation experiments, and students must evaluate how genetic mutations in the lux operon affect gene expression and overall phenotype. The worksheet promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and emphasizes the roles of diffusible signaling molecules, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins in quorum sensing.

  17. Interferon regulatory factor 1-Rab27a regulated extracellular vesicles promote liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu-Qing; Du, Qiang; Goswami, Julie; Varley, Patrick R; Chen, Bin; Wang, Rong-Hua; Morelli, Adrian E; Stolz, Donna B; Billiar, Timothy R; Li, Jiyu; Geller, David A

    2017-10-23

    The role and regulators of extracellular vesicles (EV) secretion in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury have not been defined. Rab27a is a GTPase known to control EVs release. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in liver IR and regulates certain GTPases. However, the relationships among IRF-1, Rab27a, and EVs secretion are largely unknown. Here, we show induction of IRF-1 and Rab27a both in vitro in hypoxic hepatocytes and in vivo in warm IR and orthotopic liver transplantation livers. Interferon γ stimulation, IRF-1 transduction, or IR promoted Rab27a expression and EVs secretion. Meanwhile, silencing of IRF-1 decreased Rab27a expression and EVs secretion. Rab27a silencing decreased EVs secretion and liver IR injury. Ten putative IRF-1 binding motifs in the 1,692 base pairs Rab27a promoter region were identified. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay verified five functional IRF-1 binding motifs, which were confirmed by Rab27a promoter luciferase assay. IR-induced EVs contained higher oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). OxPLs on EVs surface activated neutrophil through toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4) pathway. OxPL-neutralizing E06 antibody blocked the effect of EVs and decreased liver IR injury. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which IRF-1 regulates Rab27a transcription and EVs secretion, leading to OxPL activation of neutrophils and subsequent hepatic IR injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Substrate Phosphorylation and Feedback Regulation in JFK-promoted p53 Destabilization*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Luyang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Feng; Huangyang, Peiwei; Si, Wenzhe; Yang, Jie; Yao, Zhi; Shang, Yongfeng

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in integrating cellular responses to various stresses. Tight regulation of p53 is thus essential for the maintenance of genome integrity and normal cell proliferation. Previously, we reported that JFK, the only Kelch domain-containing F-box protein in human, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of p53 and that unlike the other E3 ligases for p53, all of which possess an intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity, JFK destabilizes p53 through the assem...

  19. Merlin negative regulation by miR-146a promotes cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Erick I; Meza-Sosa, Karla F; López-Sevilla, Yaxem; Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Sánchez, Nilda C; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

    2015-12-25

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor Merlin, by deleterious mutations or by protein degradation via sustained growth factor receptor signaling-mediated mechanisms, results in cell transformation and tumor development. In addition to these mechanisms, here we show that, miRNA-dependent negative regulation of Merlin protein levels also promotes cell transformation. We provide experimental evidences showing that miR-146a negatively regulates Merlin protein levels through its interaction with an evolutionary conserved sequence in the 3´ untranslated region of the NF2 mRNA. Merlin downregulation by miR-146a in A549 lung epithelial cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, migration and tissue invasion. Accordingly, stable miR-146a-transfectant cells formed tumors with metastatic capacity in vivo. Together our results uncover miRNAs as yet another negative mechanism controlling Merlin tumor suppressor functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Merlin negative regulation by miR-146a promotes cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-García, Erick I.; Meza-Sosa, Karla F.; López-Sevilla, Yaxem; Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Sánchez, Nilda C.; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo@ibt.unam.mx

    2015-12-25

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor Merlin, by deleterious mutations or by protein degradation via sustained growth factor receptor signaling-mediated mechanisms, results in cell transformation and tumor development. In addition to these mechanisms, here we show that, miRNA-dependent negative regulation of Merlin protein levels also promotes cell transformation. We provide experimental evidences showing that miR-146a negatively regulates Merlin protein levels through its interaction with an evolutionary conserved sequence in the 3´ untranslated region of the NF2 mRNA. Merlin downregulation by miR-146a in A549 lung epithelial cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, migration and tissue invasion. Accordingly, stable miR-146a-transfectant cells formed tumors with metastatic capacity in vivo. Together our results uncover miRNAs as yet another negative mechanism controlling Merlin tumor suppressor functions.

  1. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimers Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Alricsson M (2012) Physical exercise ameliorates deficits induced by traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurol Scand 125, 293-302. [19] Qu C, Mahmood A...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0582 TITLE: Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s...COVERED 09/25/2012-09/24/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for

  2. Biological processes in prevention and intervention: the promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Diamond, Adele

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interrelations between biological and social influences on the development of self-regulation in young children and considers implications of these interrelations for the promotion of self-regulation and positive adaptation to school. Emotional development and processes of emotion regulation are seen as influencing and being influenced by the development of executive cognitive functions, including working memory, inhibitory control, and mental flexibility important for the effortful regulation of attention and behavior. Developing self-regulation is further understood to reflect an emerging balance between processes of emotional arousal and cognitive regulation. Early childhood educational programs that effectively link emotional and motivational arousal with activities designed to exercise and promote executive functions can be effective in enhancing self-regulation, school readiness, and school success.

  3. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-12-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss.

  4. POTATO GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE PROMOTER-CONTROLLED GUS EXPRESSION - REGULATION OF EXPRESSION AFTER TRANSIENT AND STABLE TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; NIEBOER, M; SWAVING, J; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1992-01-01

    Chimaeric genes of promoter sequences from the potato gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were used to study GBSS expression and regulation. Analysis of stable transformants revealed that a GBSS promoter sequence of 0.4 kb was sufficient

  5. JMJD6 promotes colon carcinogenesis through negative regulation of p53 by hydroxylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jumonji domain-containing 6 (JMJD6 is a member of the Jumonji C domain-containing family of proteins. Compared to other members of the family, the cellular activity of JMJD6 is still not clearly defined and its biological function is still largely unexplored. Here we report that JMJD6 is physically associated with the tumor suppressor p53. We demonstrated that JMJD6 acts as an α-ketoglutarate- and Fe(II-dependent lysyl hydroxylase to catalyze p53 hydroxylation. We found that p53 indeed exists as a hydroxylated protein in vivo and that the hydroxylation occurs mainly on lysine 382 of p53. We showed that JMJD6 antagonizes p53 acetylation, promotes the association of p53 with its negative regulator MDMX, and represses transcriptional activity of p53. Depletion of JMJD6 enhances p53 transcriptional activity, arrests cells in the G1 phase, promotes cell apoptosis, and sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agent-induced cell death. Importantly, knockdown of JMJD6 represses p53-dependent colon cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vivo, and significantly, the expression of JMJD6 is markedly up-regulated in various types of human cancer especially in colon cancer, and high nuclear JMJD6 protein is strongly correlated with aggressive clinical behaviors of colon adenocarcinomas. Our results reveal a novel posttranslational modification for p53 and support the pursuit of JMJD6 as a potential biomarker for colon cancer aggressiveness and a potential target for colon cancer intervention.

  6. PCAF-primed EZH2 acetylation regulates its stability and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Junhu; Zhan, Jun; Li, Shuai; Ma, Ji; Xu, Weizhi; Liu, Chang; Xue, Xiaowei; Xie, Yuping; Fang, Weigang; Chin, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a key epigenetic regulator that catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K27 and is modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, the precise regulation of EZH2 PTMs remains elusive. We, herein, report that EZH2 is acetylated by acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and is deacetylated by deacetylase SIRT1. We identified that PCAF interacts with and acetylates EZH2 mainly at lysine 348 (K348). Mechanistically, K348 acetylation decreases EZH2 phosphorylation at T345 and T487 and increases EZH2 stability without disrupting the formation of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Functionally, EZH2 K348 acetylation enhances its capacity in suppression of the target genes and promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Further, elevated EZH2 K348 acetylation in lung adenocarcinoma patients predicts a poor prognosis. Our findings define a new mechanism underlying EZH2 modulation by linking EZH2 acetylation to its phosphorylation that stabilizes EZH2 and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression. PMID:25800736

  7. ZMYM3 regulates BRCA1 localization at damaged chromatin to promote DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Justin W C; Makharashvili, Nodar; Agarwal, Poonam; Chiu, Li-Ya; Pourpre, Renaud; Cammarata, Michael B; Cannon, Joe R; Sherker, Alana; Durocher, Daniel; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Paull, Tanya T; Miller, Kyle M

    2017-02-01

    Chromatin connects DNA damage response factors to sites of damaged DNA to promote the signaling and repair of DNA lesions. The histone H2A variants H2AX, H2AZ, and macroH2A represent key chromatin constituents that facilitate DNA repair. Through proteomic screening of these variants, we identified ZMYM3 (zinc finger, myeloproliferative, and mental retardation-type 3) as a chromatin-interacting protein that promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). ZMYM3 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks through bivalent interactions with both histone and DNA components of the nucleosome. We show that ZMYM3 links the HR factor BRCA1 to damaged chromatin through specific interactions with components of the BRCA1-A subcomplex, including ABRA1 and RAP80. By regulating ABRA1 recruitment to damaged chromatin, ZMYM3 facilitates the fine-tuning of BRCA1 interactions with DNA damage sites and chromatin. Consistent with a role in regulating BRCA1 function, ZMYM3 deficiency results in impaired HR repair and genome instability. Thus, our work identifies a critical chromatin-binding DNA damage response factor, ZMYM3, which modulates BRCA1 functions within chromatin to ensure the maintenance of genome integrity. © 2017 Leung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Rickettsial ompB promoter regulated expression of GFPuv in transformed Rickettsia montanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald D Baldridge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular, alpha-proteobacteria that have historically been associated with blood-feeding arthropods. Certain species cause typhus and spotted fevers in humans, but others are of uncertain pathogenicity or may be strict arthropod endosymbionts. Genetic manipulation of rickettsiae should facilitate a better understanding of their interactions with hosts.We transformed a species never associated with human disease, Rickettsia montanensis, by electroporation with a TN5 transposon (pMOD700 containing green fluorescent protein (GFPuv and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT genes under regulation of promoters cloned from the Rickettsia rickettsii ompB gene, and isolated a Chloramphenicol-resistant GFP-fluorescent rickettsiae population (Rmontanensis700. The Rmontanensis700 rickettsiae contained a single transposon integrated near an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase gene in the rickettsial chromosome. Northern blots showed that GFPuv and CAT mRNAs were both expressed as two transcripts of larger and smaller than predicted length. Western immunoblots showed that Rmontanensis700 and E. coli transformed with a plasmid containing the pMOD700 transposon both expressed GFPuv proteins of the predicted molecular weight.Long-standing barriers to transformation of rickettsiae have been overcome by development of transposon-based rickettsial transformation vectors. The ompB promoter may be the most problematic of the four promoters so far employed in those vectors.

  9. Promoting cognitive and metacognitive reflective reasoning skills in nursing practice: self-regulated learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Ruth Anne; Pesut, Daniel J

    2004-02-01

    Effective clinical reasoning in nursing practice depends on the development of both cognitive and metacognitive skills. While a number of strategies have been implemented and tested to promote these skills, educators have not been able consistently to predict their development. Self-regulated learning theory suggests that this development requires concurrent attention to both the cognitive and metacognitive dimensions of reasoning in nursing care contexts. This paper reports on a study to explore the impact of self-regulated learning theory on reflective practice in nursing, and to advance the idea that both cognitive and metacognitive skills support the development of clinical reasoning skills. Integrative review of published literature in social science, educational psychology, nursing education, and professional education using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC), and American Psychological Association (PsychInfo) Databases. The search included all English language articles with the key words clinical reasoning, cognition, critical thinking, metacognition, reflection, reflective practice, self-regulation and thinking. Reflective clinical reasoning in nursing practice depends on the development of both cognitive and metacognitive skill acquisition. This skill acquisition is best accomplished through teaching-learning attention to self-regulation learning theory. A critical analysis of the literature in the areas of critical thinking and reflective practice are described as a background for contemporary work with self-regulated learning theory. It is apparent that single-minded attention to critical thinking, without attention to the influence of metacognition or reflection, is but one perspective on clinical reasoning development. Likewise, single-minded attention to metacognition or reflection, without attention to the influence of critical thinking, is another perspective on clinical

  10. TdaA Regulates Tropodithietic Acid Synthesis by Binding to the tdaC Promoter Region ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the marine Roseobacter clade, produces the antibiotic and quorum signaling molecule tropodithietic acid (TDA), encoded by tdaABCDEF. Here, we showed that an LysR-type transcriptional regulator, TdaA, is a positive regulator of tdaCDE gene expression and binds to the tdaC promoter region.

  11. Local regulation of gene expression by lncRNA promoters, transcription and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engreitz, Jesse M; Haines, Jenna E; Perez, Elizabeth M; Munson, Glen; Chen, Jenny; Kane, Michael; McDonel, Patrick E; Guttman, Mitchell; Lander, Eric S

    2016-11-17

    Mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed to produce thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). A few of these lncRNAs have been shown to recruit regulatory complexes through RNA-protein interactions to influence the expression of nearby genes, and it has been suggested that many other lncRNAs can also act as local regulators. Such local functions could explain the observation that lncRNA expression is often correlated with the expression of nearby genes. However, these correlations have been challenging to dissect and could alternatively result from processes that are not mediated by the lncRNA transcripts themselves. For example, some gene promoters have been proposed to have dual functions as enhancers, and the process of transcription itself may contribute to gene regulation by recruiting activating factors or remodelling nucleosomes. Here we use genetic manipulation in mouse cell lines to dissect 12 genomic loci that produce lncRNAs and find that 5 of these loci influence the expression of a neighbouring gene in cis. Notably, none of these effects requires the specific lncRNA transcripts themselves and instead involves general processes associated with their production, including enhancer-like activity of gene promoters, the process of transcription, and the splicing of the transcript. Furthermore, such effects are not limited to lncRNA loci: we find that four out of six protein-coding loci also influence the expression of a neighbour. These results demonstrate that cross-talk among neighbouring genes is a prevalent phenomenon that can involve multiple mechanisms and cis-regulatory signals, including a role for RNA splice sites. These mechanisms may explain the function and evolution of some genomic loci that produce lncRNAs and broadly contribute to the regulation of both coding and non-coding genes.

  12. A Bifunctional Perovskite Promoter for Polysulfide Regulation toward Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Long; Chen, Xiang; Li, Bo-Quan; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-11-27

    Lithium-sulfur (LiS) batteries are strongly considered as the next-generation rechargeable cells. However, both the shuttle of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) and sluggish kinetics in random deposition of lithium sulfides (Li2 S) significantly degrade the capacity, rate performance, and cycling life of LiS cells. Herein, bifunctional Ba0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3-δ perovskite nanoparticles (PrNPs) are proposed as a promoter to immobilize LiPSs and guide the deposition of Li2 S in a LiS cell. The oxygen vacancy in PrNPs increases the metal reactivity to anchor LiPSs, and co-existence of lithiophilic (O) and sulfiphilic (Sr) sites in PrNP favor the dual-bonding (LiO and SrS bonds) to anchor LiPSs. The high catalytic nature of PrNP facilitates the kinetics of LiPS redox reaction. The PrNP with intrinsic LiPS affinity serves as nucleation sites for Li2 S deposition and guides its uniform propagation. Therefore, the bifunctional LiPS promoter in LiS cell yields high rate performance and ultralow capacity decay rate of 0.062% (a quarter of pristine LiS cells). The proposed strategy to immobilize LiPSs, promotes the conversion of LiPS, and regulates deposition of Li2 S by an emerging perovskite promoter and is also expected to be applied in other energy conversion and storage devices based on multi-electron redox reactions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor II Regulates Renin Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sandra; Roeser, Marc; Lachmann, Peter; Ishii, Sumiyashi; Suh, Jae Mi; Harlander, Sabine; Desch, Michael; Brunssen, Coy; Morawietz, Henning; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Todorov, Vladimir T.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) in the regulation of renin gene expression. COUP-TFII colocalized with renin in the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, which are the main source of renin in vivo. Protein-DNA binding studies demonstrated that COUP-TFII binds to an imperfect direct repeat COUP-TFII recognition sequence (termed hereafter proxDR) in the proximal renin promoter. Because cAMP signaling plays a central role in the control of the renin gene expression, we suggested that COUP-TFII may modulate this cAMP effect. Accordingly, knockdown of COUP-TFII in the clonal renin-producing cell lines As4.1 and Calu-6 diminished the stimulation of the renin mRNA expression by cAMP agonists. In addition, the mutation of the proxDR element in renin promoter reporter gene constructs abrogated the inducibility by cAMP. The proxDR sequence was found to be necessary for the function of a proximal renin promoter cAMP-response element (CRE). Knockdown of COUP-TFII or cAMP-binding protein (CREB), which is the archetypal transcription factor binding to CRE, decreased the basal renin gene expression. However, the deficiency of COUP-TFII did not further diminish the renin expression when CREB was knocked down. In agreement with the cell culture studies, mutant mice deficient in COUP-TFII have lower renin expression than their control strain. Altogether our data show that COUP-TFII is involved in the control of renin gene expression. PMID:22645148

  14. Lysophosphatidic Acid Up-Regulates Hexokinase II and Glycolysis to Promote Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abir; Ma, Yibao; Yuan, Fang; Gong, Yongling; Fang, Zhenyu; Mohamed, Esraa M; Berrios, Erika; Shao, Huanjie; Fang, Xianjun

    2015-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a blood-borne lipid mediator, is present in elevated concentrations in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and other malignant effusions. LPA is a potent mitogen in cancer cells. The mechanism linking LPA signal to cancer cell proliferation is not well understood. Little is known about whether LPA affects glucose metabolism to accommodate rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Here we describe that in ovarian cancer cells, LPA enhances glycolytic rate and lactate efflux. A real time PCR-based miniarray showed that hexokinase II (HK2) was the most dramatically induced glycolytic gene to promote glycolysis in LPA-treated cells. Analysis of the human HK2 gene promoter identified the sterol regulatory element-binding protein as the primary mediator of LPA-induced HK2 transcription. The effects of LPA on HK2 and glycolysis rely on LPA2, an LPA receptor subtype overexpressed in ovarian cancer and many other malignancies. We further examined the general role of growth factor-induced glycolysis in cell proliferation. Like LPA, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited robust glycolytic and proliferative responses in ovarian cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, however, potently stimulated cell proliferation but only modestly induced glycolysis. Consistent with their differential effects on glycolysis, LPA and EGF-dependent cell proliferation was highly sensitive to glycolytic inhibition while the growth-promoting effect of IGF-1 or insulin was more resistant. These results indicate that LPA- and EGF-induced cell proliferation selectively involves up-regulation of HK2 and glycolytic metabolism. The work is the first to implicate LPA signaling in promotion of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerstedt Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4 showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3 were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue.

  16. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-07-01

    Distinguishing transcription regulatory patterns of different gene groups is a common problem in various bioinformatics studies. In this work we developed a methodology to deal with such a problem based on machine learning techniques. We applied our method to two biologically important problems related to detecting a difference in transcription regulation of: a/ protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human, as well as b/ a difference between primate-specific and non-primate-specific long non-coding RNAs. Our method is capable to classify RNAs using various regulatory features of genes that transcribe into these RNAs, such as nucleotide frequencies, transcription factor binding sites, de novo sequence motifs, CpG islands, repetitive elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish primate-specific from non-primate-specific promoters of lncRNAs with accuracy above 80%. Consequently, we can hypothesize that transcription of the groups of genes mentioned above are regulated by different mechanisms. Feature selection techniques allowed us to reduce the number of features significantly while keeping the accuracy around 80%. Consequently, we can conclude that selected features play significant role in transcription regulation of coding and non-coding genes, as well as primate-specific and non-primate-specific lncRNA genes.

  17. Arabidopsis EDM2 promotes IBM1 distal polyadenylation and regulates genome DNA methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingguang; La, Honggui; Lu, Kun; Wang, Pengcheng; Miki, Daisuke; Ren, Zhizhong; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Tang, Kai; Zeng, Liang; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Heng; Nie, Wenfeng; Liu, Pan; Zhou, Jianping; Liu, Renyi; Zhong, Yingli; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-07

    DNA methylation is important for the silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements in many higher eukaryotes. However, plant and mammalian genomes have evolved to contain repetitive elements near or inside their genes. How these genes are kept from being silenced by DNA methylation is not well understood. A forward genetics screen led to the identification of the putative chromatin regulator Enhanced Downy Mildew 2 (EDM2) as a cellular antisilencing factor and regulator of genome DNA methylation patterns. EDM2 contains a composite Plant Homeo Domain that recognizes both active and repressive histone methylation marks at the intronic repeat elements in genes such as the Histone 3 lysine 9 demethylase gene Increase in BONSAI Methylation 1 (IBM1) and is necessary for maintaining the expression of these genes by promoting mRNA distal polyadenylation. Because of its role in maintaining IBM1 expression, EDM2 is required for preventing CHG methylation in the bodies of thousands of genes. Our results thus increase the understanding of antisilencing, genome methylation patterns, and regulation of alternative RNA processing by intronic heterochromatin.

  18. UTX promotes hormonally responsive breast carcinogenesis through feed-forward transcription regulation with estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G; Liu, X; Zhang, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Chen, Z; Xu, B; Yang, J; He, L; Zhang, Z; Jin, T; Yi, X; Sun, L; Shang, Y; Liang, J

    2017-09-28

    UTX is implicated in embryonic development and lineage specification. However, how this X-linked histone demethylase contributes to the occurrence and progression of breast cancer remains to be clarified. Here we report that UTX is physically associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and functions in ER-regulated transcription. We showed that UTX coordinates with JHDM1D and CBP to direct H3K27 methylation-acetylation transition and to create a permissive chromatin state on ER targets. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional targets of UTX by ChIP-seq identified a set of genes such as chemokine receptor CXCR4 that are intimately involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. We demonstrated that UTX promotes the proliferation and migration of ER(+) breast cancer cells. Interestingly, UTX itself is transactivated by ER, forming a feed-forward loop in the regulation of hormone response. Indeed, UTX is upregulated during ER(+) breast cancer progression, and the expression level of UTX is positively correlated with that of CXCR4 and negatively correlated with the overall survival of ER(+) breast cancer patients. Our study identified a feed-forward loop between UTX and ER in the regulation of hormonally responsive breast carcinogenesis, supporting the pursuit of UTX as an emerging therapeutic target for the intervention of certain ER(+) breast cancer with specific epigenetic vulnerability.

  19. Activation of Smurf E3 ligase promoted by smoothened regulates hedgehog signaling through targeting patched turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoujun Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog signaling plays conserved roles in controlling embryonic development; its dysregulation has been implicated in many human diseases including cancers. Hedgehog signaling has an unusual reception system consisting of two transmembrane proteins, Patched receptor and Smoothened signal transducer. Although activation of Smoothened and its downstream signal transduction have been intensively studied, less is known about how Patched receptor is regulated, and particularly how this regulation contributes to appropriate Hedgehog signal transduction. Here we identified a novel role of Smurf E3 ligase in regulating Hedgehog signaling by controlling Patched ubiquitination and turnover. Moreover, we showed that Smurf-mediated Patched ubiquitination depends on Smo activity in wing discs. Mechanistically, we found that Smo interacts with Smurf and promotes it to mediate Patched ubiquitination by targeting the K1261 site in Ptc. The further mathematic modeling analysis reveals that a bidirectional control of activation of Smo involving Smurf and Patched is important for signal-receiving cells to precisely interpret external signals, thereby maintaining Hedgehog signaling reliability. Finally, our data revealed an evolutionarily conserved role of Smurf proteins in controlling Hh signaling by targeting Ptc during development.

  20. Promoting Children’s Interests on the Internet: Regulation and the Emerging Evidence Base of Risk and Harm

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian; Livingstone, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Advocacy for child protection online has tended to flow against the tide of a dominant liberal discourse concerning the internet which posits that either the internet should not be regulated or that it can’t actually be regulated at all. Regulatory trends in Great Britain, in Europe and in the wider international arena have promoted models of co- or self-regulation whereby industries themselves with varying degrees of partnership or oversight by relevant state agencies practice ‘light-touch’ ...

  1. Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Clancy; Diamond, Adele

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interrelations between biological and social influences on the development of self-regulation in young children and considers implications of these interrelations for the promotion of self-regulation and positive adaptation to school. Emotional development and processes of emotion regulation are seen as influencing and being influenced by the development of executive cognitive functions, including working memory, inhibitory control, and mental flexibility important for the...

  2. Promoter Analysis of the Human Ascorbic Acid Transporters SVCT1 & 2: Mechanisms of Adaptive Regulation in Liver Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidling, Jack C.; Rubin, Stanley A.

    2010-01-01

    Ascorbic acid, the active form of vitamin C, is a vital antioxidant in the human liver, yet the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ascorbic acid transporters (hSVCT1 and hSVCT2) in liver cells are poorly understood. Therefore, we characterized the minimal promoter regions of hSVCT1 & 2 in cultured human liver epithelial cells (HepG2) and examined the effects of ascorbic acid deprivation and supplementation on activity and regulation of the transport systems. Identified minimal promoters required for basal activity were found to include multiple cis-regulatory elements, whereas mutational analysis demonstrated that HNF-1 sites in the hSVCT1 promoter and KLF/Sp1 sites in the hSVCT2 promoter were essential for activities. When cultured in ascorbic acid deficient or supplemented media, HepG2 cells demonstrated significant (P Ascorbic acid uptake, and in hSVCT1 mRNA and protein levels as well as hSVCT1 promoter activity. However, no significant changes in hSVCT2 expression or promoter activity were observed during ascorbic acid deficient or supplemented conditions. We mapped the ascorbic acid responsive region in the hSVCT1 promoter and determined that HNF-1 sites are important for the adaptive regulation response. The results of these studies further characterize the hSVCT1 and 2 promoters, establish that ascorbic acid uptake by human liver epithelial cells is adaptively regulated, and show that transcriptional mechanisms via HNF-1 in the hSVCT1 promoter may, in part, be involved in this regulation. PMID:20471816

  3. Regulating Rumination by Anger: Evidence for the Mutual Promotion and Counteraction (MPMC Theory of Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the strategy of cognitive regulation that relies heavily on the top-down control function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which was recently found may be critically impaired in stressful situations, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views different types of emotionality as having mutual promotion and counteraction (MPMC relationships, implying a novel approach that requires less cognition to emotional regulation. Actually, our previous studies have indicated that anger responses could be successfully regulated via the induction of sadness, and this efficiency could not be influenced by stress, thus providing evidences for the hypothesis of “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA proposed by the MPMC theory of emotionality (Zhan et al., 2015, 2017. In this study, we experimentally examined the MPMC hypothesis that “anger counteracts rumination” (ACR which postulates that rumination may be alleviated by the anger emotion. In Study 1, all participants were initially caused state rumination and then induced anger, joy or neutral mood, the results showed that the rumination-related affect was alleviated after anger induction relative to that after joy or neutral mood induction. In Study 2, female participants with high trait rumination were recruited and divided into two groups for exposure to an anger or neutral emotion intervention, the result indicated that the anger intervention group exhibited a greater decline in trait rumination than the neutral emotion intervention group. These findings provided preliminary evidence supporting the hypothesis of ACR, which suggested a new strategy that employs less cognitive resources to regulating state and trait rumination by inducing anger.

  4. Zebrafish Noxa promotes mitosis in early embryonic development and regulates apoptosis in subsequent embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J-X; Zhou, L; Li, Z; Wang, Y; Gui, J-F

    2014-06-01

    Noxa functions in apoptosis and immune system of vertebrates, but its activities in embryo development remain unclear. In this study, we have studied the role of zebrafish Noxa (zNoxa) by using zNoxa-specifc morpholino knockdown and overexpression approaches in developing zebrafish embryos. Expression pattern analysis indicates that zNoxa transcript is of maternal origin, which displays a uniform distribution in early embryonic development until shield stage, and the zygote zNoxa transcription is initiated from this stage and mainly localized in YSL of the embryos. The zNoxa expression alterations result in strong embryonic development defects, demonstrating that zNoxa regulates apoptosis from 75% epiboly stage of development onward, in which zNoxa firstly induces the expression of zBik, and then cooperates with zBik to regulate apoptosis. Moreover, zNoxa knockdown also causes a reduction in number of mitotic cells before 8 h.p.f., suggesting that zNoxa also promotes mitosis before 75% epiboly stage. The effect of zNoxa on mitosis is mediated by zWnt4b in early embryos, whereas zMcl1a and zMcl1b suppress the ability of zNoxa to regulate mitosis and apoptosis at different developmental stages. In addition, mammalian mouse Noxa (mNoxa) mRNA was demonstrated to rescue the arrest of mitosis when zNoxa was knocked down, suggesting that mouse and zebrafish Noxa might have similar dual functions. Therefore, the current findings indicate that Noxa is a novel regulator of early mitosis before 75% epiboly stage when it translates into a key mediator of apoptosis in subsequent embryogenesis.

  5. HLA-DRB1 may be antagonistically regulated by the coordinately evolved promoter and 3'-UTR under stabilizing selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benrong Liu

    Full Text Available HLA-DRB1 is the most polymorphic MHC (major histocompatibility complex class II gene in human, and plays a crucial role in the development and function of the immune system. Extensive polymorphisms exist in the promoter and 3'-UTR of HLA-DRB1, especially a LTR (Long terminal repeat element in the promoter, which may be involved in the expression regulation. However, it remains unknown how the polymorphisms in the whole promoter region and 3'-UTR to regulate the gene expression. In this study, we investigated the extensive polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 promoter and 3'-UTR, and how these polymorphisms affect the gene expression in both independent and jointly manners. It was observed that most of the haplotypes in the DRB1 promoter and 3'-UTR were clustered into 4 conserved lineages (H1, H2, H3 and H4, and showed high linkage disequilibrium. Compared with H1 and H2 lineage, a LTR element in the promoter of H3 and H4 lineage significantly suppressed the promoter activity, whereas the activity of the linked 3'-UTR increased, leading to no apparent difference in the final expression product between H1/H2 and H3/H4 lineage. Nevertheless, compared with the plasmid with a promoter and 3'-UTR from the same lineage, the recombinant plasmid with a promoter from H2 and a 3'-UTR from H3 showed about double fold increased luciferase activity, Conversely, the recombinant plasmid with a promoter from H3 and a 3'-UTR from H2 resulted in about 2-fold decreased luciferase activity. These results indicate that the promoter and 3'-UTR of HLA-DRB1 may antagonistically regulate the gene expression, which may be subjected to stabilizing selection. These findings may provide a novel insight into the mechanisms of the diseases associated with HLA-DRB1 genes.

  6. The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, NE; Loux, T; Livesey, KM; Billiar, TR; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, MT; Zeh, HJ

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1–RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

  7. Miss, I got mad today! The Anger Diary, a tool to promote emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Renati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of emotions has strong implications in the development of adaptive behaviours during childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a new method of emotion regulation named the 'aRRabbiadiaro' (Anger Diary, with primary school children. The participants included 119 children attending 7 classes from three primary schools located in middle-class urban communities in the province of Pavia, Italy. In the first phase, the participants were asked to complete a narrative tool which investigated how they coped with anger in their everyday life and whether the use of narrative applied to episodes of anger and facilitated adaptive ways of coping with negative feelings. Subsequently the study assessed the relationship between effective anger management and social functioning in the peer group. Our findings suggest that the use of diary writing seems to represent a promising instrument to promote the development of emotional and socio-cognitive skills in school children.

  8. Computational Approaches to Understand Transcriptional Regulation and Alternative Promoter Usage in Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette

    The body consists of hundreds of di erent cell types as diverse as heart, blood, muscle and brain cells. All cells contain the same DNA which is the hereditary material that de nes who we are and how we look. In each cell parts of the DNA called genes are transcribed into RNA that is translated i...... study of the impact of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to mice lungs. Besides gaining new insight into the e ects of nanotubes the data is also used to explore the role of alternative promoter usage and enhancers in response to external stimuli....... erent aspects of transcriptional regulation. In the rst study we develop a machine learning framework to predict mRNA production, stalling and elongation of RNA polymerase II using publicly available histone modi cation data. The study reveals new pieces of information about the histone code. Besides...

  9. The Telomeric Protein TRF2 Regulates Angiogenesis by Binding and Activating the PDGFRβ Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maï, Mounir; Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Michiels, Jean-François; Ambrosetti, Damien; Borderie, Arnaud; Destree, Sandrine; Renault, Valerie; Djerbi, Nadir; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Gilson, Eric; Wagner, Nicole

    2014-11-06

    Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2), which plays a central role in telomere capping, is frequently increased in human tumors. We reveal here that TRF2 is expressed in the vasculature of most human cancer types, where it colocalizes with the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1. We further show that TRF2 is a transcriptional target of WT1 and is required for proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells. These angiogenic effects of TRF2 are uncoupled from its function in telomere capping. Instead, TRF2 binds and transactivates the promoter of the angiogenic tyrosine kinase platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). These findings reveal an unexpected role of TRF2 in neoangiogenesis and delineate a distinct function of TRF2 as a transcriptional regulator. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Telomeric Protein TRF2 Regulates Angiogenesis by Binding and Activating the PDGFRβ Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir El Maï

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2, which plays a central role in telomere capping, is frequently increased in human tumors. We reveal here that TRF2 is expressed in the vasculature of most human cancer types, where it colocalizes with the Wilms’ tumor suppressor WT1. We further show that TRF2 is a transcriptional target of WT1 and is required for proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells. These angiogenic effects of TRF2 are uncoupled from its function in telomere capping. Instead, TRF2 binds and transactivates the promoter of the angiogenic tyrosine kinase platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ. These findings reveal an unexpected role of TRF2 in neoangiogenesis and delineate a distinct function of TRF2 as a transcriptional regulator.

  11. Natural changes in light interact with circadian regulation at promoters to control gene expression in cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock interacts with other regulatory pathways to tune physiology to predictable daily changes and unexpected environmental fluctuations. However, the complexity of circadian clocks in higher organisms has prevented a clear understanding of how natural environmental conditions affect circadian clocks and their physiological outputs. Here, we dissect the interaction between circadian regulation and responses to fluctuating light in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. We demonstrate that natural changes in light intensity substantially affect the expression of hundreds of circadian-clock-controlled genes, many of which are involved in key steps of metabolism. These changes in expression arise from circadian and light-responsive control of RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters by a network of transcription factors including RpaA and RpaB. Using phenomenological modeling constrained by our data, we reveal simple principles that underlie the small number of stereotyped responses of dusk circadian genes to changes in light. PMID:29239721

  12. Histone demethylase JARID1C promotes breast cancer metastasis cells via down regulating BRMS1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Wei, Junmin; Su, Peng; Gao, Peng

    2015-08-21

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, until now, the mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis remain elusive. Epigenetic switch, including histone methylation or demethylation, which can either activates or represses transcription. The JARID1C is a histone demethylase that promotes cancer cell growth and is involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling, cause X-linked mental retardation. But the pathogenic breadth and mechanistic aspects of this effect relative to breast cancer have not been defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of JARID1C in breast cancer. In clinical breast cancer samples, we found that JARID1C expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal breast tissues and its expression level is positively correlated with metastasis. Silencing JARID1C in breast cancer cells could inhibit cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we also found that the expression of BRMS1 was modulated by JARID1C. Silencing of JARID1C dramatically increased BRMS1 expression both at mRNA and protein level. Mechanistically, we found JARID1C exerts its function through modulation of H3K4me3 at the BRMS1 gene promoter, which was associated with inactive BRMS1 transcription. BRMS1 knockdown reversed shJARID1C-induced migration inhibition. Further, BRMS1 expression in human breast cancer is negatively correlated with JARID1C expression. Our results, for the first time, portray a pivotal role of JARID1C in regulating metastatic behaviors of breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. BID regulates AIF-mediated caspase-independent necroptosis by promoting BAX activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabon, L; Galán-Malo, P; Bouharrour, A; Delavallée, L; Brunelle-Navas, M-N; Lorenzo, H K; Gross, A; Susin, S A

    2012-02-01

    Alkylating DNA-damage agents such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) trigger necroptosis, a newly defined form of programmed cell death (PCD) managed by receptor interacting protein kinases. This caspase-independent mode of cell death involves the sequential activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), calpains, BAX and AIF, which redistributes from mitochondria to the nucleus to promote chromatinolysis. We have previously demonstrated that the BAX-mediated mitochondrial release of AIF is a critical step in MNNG-mediated necroptosis. However, the mechanism regulating BAX activation in this PCD is poorly understood. Employing mouse embryonic knockout cells, we reveal that BID controls BAX activation in AIF-mediated necroptosis. Indeed, BID is a link between calpains and BAX in this mode of cell death. Therefore, even if PARP-1 and calpains are activated after MNNG treatment, BID genetic ablation abolishes both BAX activation and necroptosis. These PCD defects are reversed by reintroducing the BID-wt cDNA into the BID(-/-) cells. We also demonstrate that, after MNNG treatment, BID is directly processed into tBID by calpains. In this way, calpain non-cleavable BID proteins (BID-G70A or BID-Δ68-71) are unable to promote BAX activation and necroptosis. Once processed, tBID localizes in the mitochondria of MNNG-treated cells, where it can facilitate BAX activation and PCD. Altogether, our data reveal that, as in caspase-dependent apoptosis, BH3-only proteins are key regulators of caspase-independent necroptosis.

  14. Regulation of the Epstein-Barr virus Zp promoter in B lymphocytes during reactivation from latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carol; Karstegl, Claudio Elgueta; Kellam, Paul; Farrell, Paul J

    2010-03-01

    Ten novel mutations were introduced into the Zp promoter to test the role of sequences outside the established transcription factor-binding sites in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation. Most of these had only small effects, but mutations in the ZID site were shown to reduce Zp activity strongly at early times after induction by anti-immunoglobulin (anti-Ig). The binding of MEF2 transcription factor to ZID was characterized in detail and linked functionally to Zp promoter activity. The presence of XBP-1s, the active form of XBP-1, after administration of anti-Ig to Akata Burkitt's lymphoma cells is consistent with a role for this factor in reactivation of the EBV lytic cycle, although signalling through MEF2D was quantitatively much more significant in activation of Zp. Silencing of Zp during latency is thought to be primarily a consequence of a repressive chromatin structure on Zp, and this aspect of Zp regulation can be observed in the Akata genome through protection of Zp from activation by BZLF1 in the absence of signalling from the B-cell receptor.

  15. Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10 had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2 had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development.

  16. Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sim, Hosung; Agudelo-Garcia, Paula A; Saldivar, Joshua C; Dolan, Claire E; Mora, Maria E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Cole, Susan E; Viapiano, Mariano S

    2012-08-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance, therefore, could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma-initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a noncanonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and shows how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment. ©2012 AACR.

  17. Fnr, a global transcriptional regulator of Escherichia coli, activates the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) promoter and intracellular VHb expression increases cytochrome d promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P S; Kallio, P T; Bailey, J E

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen-regulated promoter (Pvhb) of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene has been applied to direct high-level expression of several cloned proteins, including Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb), which improves productivity of many aerobic processes. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the regulation of Pvhb, and to guide further optimization of this technology, we investigated whether the Escherichia coli global regulatory molecules Fnr and the Arc system (ArcA and ArcB), which control the expression of various genes under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, also regulate Pvhb activity in E. coli. The activity of Pvhb and the expression of VHb in E. coli were activated by Fnr, but were relatively unaffected by the Arc system under microaerobic conditions (DO less than 2% air saturation). We also examined the possibility of VHb affecting cytochrome d promoter activity during microaerobiosis. The presence of VHb increased the activity of beta-galactosidase from a cytochrome d promoter-lacZ fusion by 1.5-fold. This indicates that VHb affects oxygen-regulated transcription of E. coli genes and may contribute to the modified physiology observed in VHb-expressing E. coli.

  18. NFAT1 Directly Regulates IL8 and MMP3 to Promote Melanoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Einav; Braeuer, Russell R; Kamiya, Takafumi; Mobley, Aaron K; Huang, Li; Vasquez, Mayra E; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Chakravarti, Nitin; Ivan, Cristina; Prieto, Victor; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT1, NFATC2) is a transcription factor that binds and positively regulates IL2 expression during T-cell activation. NFAT1 has important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses, but its involvement in cancer is not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that NFAT1 contributes to melanoma growth and metastasis by regulating the autotaxin gene (Enpp2). Here, we report a strong correlation between NFAT1 expression and metastatic potential in melanoma cell lines and tumor specimens. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying NFAT1 overexpression during melanoma progression, we conducted a microarray on a highly metastatic melanoma cell line in which NFAT1 expression was stably silenced. We identified and validated two downstream targets of NFAT1, IL8, and MMP3. Accordingly, NFAT1 depletion in metastatic melanoma cell lines was associated with reduced IL8 and MMP3 expression, whereas NFAT1 overexpression in a weakly metastatic cell line induced expression of these targets. Restoration of NFAT1 expression recovered IL8 and MMP3 expression levels back to baseline, indicating that both are direct targets of NFAT1. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that NFAT1 and MMP3 promoted melanoma tumor growth and lung metastasis. Collectively, our findings assign a new role for NFAT1 in melanoma progression, underscoring the multifaceted functions that immunomodulatory factors may acquire in an unpredictable tumor microenvironment. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3145-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Houcai; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Lixia; Xiong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Wei, Hui; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang, E-mail: wangjx@ihcams.ac.cn

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • RPS27a expression was up-regulated in advanced-phase CML and AL patients. • RPS27a knockdown changed biological property of K562 and K562/G01 cells. • RPS27a knockdown affected Raf/MEK/ERK, P21 and BCL-2 signaling pathways. • RPS27a knockdown may be applicable for new combination therapy in CML patients. - Abstract: Ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27a) could perform extra-ribosomal functions besides imparting a role in ribosome biogenesis and post-translational modifications of proteins. The high expression level of RPS27a was reported in solid tumors, and we found that the expression level of RPS27a was up-regulated in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia (AL) patients. In this study, we explored the function of RPS27a in leukemia cells by using CML cell line K562 cells and its imatinib resistant cell line K562/G01 cells. It was observed that the expression level of RPS27a was high in K562 cells and even higher in K562/G01 cells. Further analysis revealed that RPS27a knockdown by shRNA in both K562 and K562G01 cells inhibited the cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and increased cell apoptosis induced by imatinib. Combination of shRNA with imatinib treatment could lead to more cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression in RPS27a knockdown cells. Further, it was found that phospho-ERK(p-ERK) and BCL-2 were down-regulated and P21 up-regulated in RPS27a knockdown cells. In conclusion, RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells. It appears that drugs targeting RPS27a combining with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) might represent a novel therapy strategy in TKI resistant CML patients.

  20. Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce CCL20 up-regulation promoting tumorigenic phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sligh, James [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Janda, Jaroslav [University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Jandova, Jana, E-mail: jjandova@email.arizona.edu [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    -κB activation inhibited CCL20 expression in mtBALB cybrids and decreased their migratory capabilities. Thus, acquired mtDNA mutations may promote tumorigenic phenotypes through up-regulation of chemokine CCL20.

  1. ManA is regulated by RssAB signaling and promotes motility in Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Po-Chi; Horng, Yu-Tze; Chang, Yung-Lin; Tsai, Wei-Wen; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Serratia marcescens swarms on 0.8% LB agar at 30 °C but not at 37 °C. To understand the molecular mechanism regulating Serratia swarming, transposon mutagenesis was performed to screen for mutants that swarmed at 37 °C. In one mutant, S. marcescens WW100, the transposon was inserted in the upstream region of manA, which encodes mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, a type I phosphomannose isomerase. The transcriptional and translational levels of manA were higher in S. marcescens WW100 than in the wild-type strain. S. marcescens WW100 produced more serrawettin W1 (biosurfactant) than the wild-type, as detected by thin-layer chromatography, to promote surface motility by reducing surface tension. Serratia swarming was previously shown to be negatively regulated by the RssA-RssB two-component system. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that phosphorylated RssB (the response regulator) binds upstream of the transposon insertion site and manA in S. marcescens WW100. Analysis by real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that, compared to the wild-type level, manA mRNA was increased in the rssA deletion mutant. The results indicated that RssA-RssB signaling directly represses the expression of manA and that overexpression of manA increases the production of serrawettin for Serratia swarming at 37 °C. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancer–promoter communication mediated by Chip during Pannier-driven proneural patterning is regulated by Osa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Pascal; Vanolst, Luc; Biryukova, Inna; Ramain, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The GATA factor Pannier activates proneural achaete/scute (ac/sc) expression during development of the sensory organs of Drosophila through enhancer binding. Chip bridges Pannier with the (Ac/Sc)–Daughterless heterodimers bound to the promoter and facilitates the enhancer–promoter communication required for proneural development. We show here that this communication is regulated by Osa, which is recruited by Pannier and Chip. Osa belongs to Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes and we show that Osa negatively regulates ac/sc. Consequently, Pannier and Chip also play an essential role during repression of proneural gene expression. Our study suggests that altering chromatin structure is essential for regulation of enhancer–promoter communication. PMID:12629041

  3. A Leader Intron of a Soybean Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A Gene Interacts with Proximal Promoter Elements to Regulate Gene Expression in Synthetic Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available Introns, especially the first intron in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR, can significantly impact gene expression via intron-mediated enhancement (IME. In this study, we demonstrate the leader intron of a soybean elongation factor 1A (eEF1A gene (GmScreamM8 was essential for the high activity of the native promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of the GmScreamM8 leader intron with regulatory element sequences from several soybean eEF1A promoters was studied using synthetic promoters, which consisted of element tetramers upstream of a core promoter used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp reporter gene. Element tetramers, placed upstream of a GmScreamM8 core promoter, showed very high activity using both transient expression in lima bean cotyledons and stable expression in soybean hairy roots, only if the native leader intron was included, suggesting an interaction between intronic sequences and promoter elements. Partial deletions of the leader intron showed that a 222 bp intronic sequence significantly contributed to very high levels of GFP expression. Generation of synthetic intron variants with a monomeric or trimeric repeat of the 222 bp intronic sequence, yielded almost two-fold higher expression compared to the original intron, while partial deletion of the 222 bp intronic repeated sequence significantly decreased gene expression, indicating that this intronic sequence was essential for the intron-element interaction enhancement.

  4. Characterization of the human DYRK1A promoter and its regulation by the transcription factor E2F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galceran Juan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of the human DYRK1A gene due to the presence of a third gene copy in trisomy 21 is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. The observation of gene dosage effects in transgenic mouse models implies that subtle changes in expression levels can affect the correct function of the DYRK1A gene product. We have therefore characterized the promoter of the human DYRK1A gene in order to study its transcriptional regulation. Results Transcription start sites of the human DYRK1A gene are distributed over 800 bp within a region previously identified as an unmethylated CpG island. We have identified a new alternative noncoding 5'-exon of the DYRK1A gene which is located 772 bp upstream of the previously described transcription start site. Transcription of the two splicing variants is controlled by non-overlapping promoter regions that can independently drive reporter gene expression. We found no evidence of cell- or tissue-specific promoter usage, but the two promoter regions differed in their activity and their regulation. The sequence upstream of exon 1A (promoter region A induced about 10-fold higher reporter gene activity than the sequence upstream of exon 1B (promoter region B. Overexpression of the transcription factor E2F1 increased DYRK1A mRNA levels in Saos2 and Phoenix cells and enhanced the activity of promoter region B three- to fourfold. Conclusion The identification of two alternatively spliced transcripts whose transcription is initiated from differentially regulated promoters regions indicates that the expression of the DYRK1A gene is subject to complex control mechanisms. The regulatory effect of E2F1 suggests that DYRK1A may play a role in cell cycle regulation or apoptosis.

  5. Nrf2 Promotes Keratinocyte Proliferation in Psoriasis through Up-Regulation of Keratin 6, Keratin 16, and Keratin 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luting; Fan, Xueli; Cui, Tingting; Dang, Erle; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation of epidermis. Although hyperproliferation-associated keratins K6, K16, and K17 are considered to be the hallmarks of psoriasis, the molecular basis underlying the overexpression of these keratins remains unclear. Nrf2 regulates cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nrf2 regulates keratinocyte proliferation via promoting expression of K6, K16, and K17 in psoriasis. We initially found that psoriatic epidermis exhibited elevated expression of Nrf2. Furthermore, Nrf2 promoted expression of K6, K16, and K17 in both HaCaT cells and primary human keratinocytes by binding to the ARE domains located in the promoter of these genes. Additionally, upon stimulation with IL-17 or IL-22, Nrf2 translocated to the nucleus and initiated expression of targeted keratins. In mice of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis, topical application of Nrf2 small interfering RNA alleviated the epidermal hyperplasia with reduced expression of these keratins. More importantly, Nrf2 promoted the proliferation of human keratinocytes through up-regulation of K6, K16, or K17. These data suggested that inflammatory cytokines promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation in psoriatic epidermis, which led to elevated expression of K6, K16, and K17, thus promoting keratinocyte proliferation and contributing to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of intestinal promoter activity of the cellular migratory regulator gene ELMO3 by CDX2 and SP1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Boyd, Mette; Olsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    in the differentiated human intestinal cancer cell line Caco-2 in order to identify CDX2-regulated genes involved in cellular migration. The engulfment and cell motility 3 (ELMO3) gene was identified as a potential CDX2 target gene. ELMO3 is an essential upstream regulator of the GTP-binding protein RAC during cell...... migration. However, no information is available about the transcriptional regulation of the ELMO3 gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of CDX2 in the regulation of the ELMO3 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that CDX2 bound to conserved CDX2...... sequences and mutations of the CDX2-binding sites, significantly reduced the promoter activity. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that the region mediating ELMO3 basal transcriptional activity to be located between -270 and -31 bp. Sequence analysis revealed no typical TATA-box, but four GC-rich sequences...

  7. Epigenetic regulation of CpG promoter methylation in invasive prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar William L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, much attention has been focused on gaining a better understanding of the different populations of cells within a tumor and their contribution to cancer progression. One of the most commonly used methods to isolate a more aggressive sub-population of cells utilizes cell sorting based on expression of certain cell adhesion molecules. A recently established method we developed is to isolate these more aggressive cells based on their properties of increased invasive ability. These more invasive cells have been previously characterized as tumor initiating cells (TICs that have a stem-like genomic signature and express a number of stem cell genes including Oct3/4 and Nanog and are more tumorigenic compared to their 'non-invasive' counterpart. They also have a profile reminiscent of cells undergoing a classic pattern of epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT. Using this model of invasion, we sought to investigate which genes are under epigenetic control in this rare population of cells. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methylation, are key events regulating the process of normal human development. To determine the specific methylation pattern in these invasive prostate cells, and if any developmental genes were being differentially regulated, we analyzed differences in global CpG promoter methylation. Results Differentially methylated genes were determined and select genes were chosen for additional analyses. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase BMX and transcription factor SOX1 were found to play a significant role in invasion. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the methylated gene list frequently displayed genes from the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Cells which have decreased levels of the targets BMX and SOX1 also display loss of STAT3 activity. Finally, using Oncomine, it was determined that more aggressive metastatic prostate cancers in humans also have higher levels of both Stat3 and Sox1. Conclusions Using this

  8. Promoter selectivity of the Bacillus subtilis response regulator DegU, a positive regulator of the fla/che operon and sacB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Kensuke; Ogura, Mitsuo

    2008-01-15

    The response regulator DegU and its cognate histidine kinase DegS constitute a two-component system in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of DegU are known to activate target gene transcription in B. subtilis. Although phosphorylated DegU (DegU-P) regulates more than one hundred and twenty genes, the targets of unphosphorylated DegU are unknown, except for comK. We found that the fla/che (flagella and chemotaxis) operon is positively regulated by unphosphorylated DegU. The effect was most prominent in a strain bearing the functional swrAA gene, a positive regulator of fla/che. Unphosphorylated DegU bound to two regions in the fla/che regulatory region containing an inverted repeat-like sequence that resembles the inverted repeat (IR) in the comK promoter. Mutational analysis revealed that positive regulation of fla/che by SwrAA requires DegU-binding. An analysis of the DegU-P-regulated gene sacB (levansucrase gene) by footprint and mutational analyses revealed that DegU-P bound to a direct repeat (DR) of the DegU-recognition motifs, which has been shown to be functional in vivo, while unphosphorylated DegU did not. These results strongly suggest that the arrangement of the DegU-binding motifs determines whether unphosphorylated DegU or DegU-P binds to the sacB promoter. The hypothesis was confirmed by observing degS-independent expression when the DR in the sacB-lacZ fusion was changed to an IR, suggesting that unphosphorylated DegU regulates the sacB promoter through the newly created IR. This was confirmed by binding of unphosphorylated DegU to the IR in the sacB promoter. This study demonstrated that DegU positively regulates flgB and sacB through its binding to the promoter regions. We demonstrated that DegU-P prefers binding to DR but not to IR in the sacB promoter.

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Galectin-3 Expression by β1 Integrins Promotes Cell Adhesion and Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margadant, Coert; van den Bout, Iman; van Boxtel, Antonius L.; Thijssen, Victor L.; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of the integrin β1- but not the β3-subunit in GE11 cells induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like phenomenon that is characterized by the loss of cell-cell contacts, cell scattering, increased cell migration and RhoA activity, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Because galactose-binding lectins (galectins) have been implicated in these phenomena, we investigated whether galectins are involved in the β1-induced phenotype. We examined 9 galectins and, intriguingly, found that the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) is specifically induced by β1 but not by β3. Using β1-β3 chimeric integrins, we show that the induction of Gal-3 expression requires the hypervariable region in the extracellular domain of β1, but not its cytoplasmic tail. Furthermore, Gal-3 expression does not depend on RhoA signaling, serum factors, or any of the major signal transduction pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/-2 (ERK-1/2), phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3-K), or Src kinases. Instead, Gal-3 expression is controlled in an epigenetic manner. Whereas DNA methylation of the Lgals3 promoter maintains Gal-3 silencing in GE11 cells, expression of β1 causes its demethylation, leading to transcriptional activation of the Lgals3 gene. In turn, Gal-3 expression enhances β1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), as well as cell migration. Gal-3 also promotes β1-mediated cell adhesion to LN and Collagen-1 (Col)-1 in cells that endogenously express Gal-3 and β1 integrins. In conclusion, we identify a functional feedback-loop between β1 integrins and Gal-3 that involves the epigenetic induction of Gal-3 expression during integrin-induced EMT and cell scattering. PMID:23118221

  10. Epigenetic regulation of galectin-3 expression by β1 integrins promotes cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margadant, Coert; van den Bout, Iman; van Boxtel, Antonius L; Thijssen, Victor L; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-12-28

    Introduction of the integrin β1- but not the β3-subunit in GE11 cells induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like phenomenon that is characterized by the loss of cell-cell contacts, cell scattering, increased cell migration and RhoA activity, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Because galactose-binding lectins (galectins) have been implicated in these phenomena, we investigated whether galectins are involved in the β1-induced phenotype. We examined 9 galectins and, intriguingly, found that the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) is specifically induced by β1 but not by β3. Using β1-β3 chimeric integrins, we show that the induction of Gal-3 expression requires the hypervariable region in the extracellular domain of β1, but not its cytoplasmic tail. Furthermore, Gal-3 expression does not depend on RhoA signaling, serum factors, or any of the major signal transduction pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/-2 (ERK-1/2), phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3-K), or Src kinases. Instead, Gal-3 expression is controlled in an epigenetic manner. Whereas DNA methylation of the Lgals3 promoter maintains Gal-3 silencing in GE11 cells, expression of β1 causes its demethylation, leading to transcriptional activation of the Lgals3 gene. In turn, Gal-3 expression enhances β1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), as well as cell migration. Gal-3 also promotes β1-mediated cell adhesion to LN and Collagen-1 (Col)-1 in cells that endogenously express Gal-3 and β1 integrins. In conclusion, we identify a functional feedback-loop between β1 integrins and Gal-3 that involves the epigenetic induction of Gal-3 expression during integrin-induced EMT and cell scattering.

  11. Isolation and characterization of the human A-myb promoter: regulation by NF-Y and Sp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, V; Lopa, R; Spreafico, F; Bolognese, F; Mantovani, R; Tavner, F; Watson, R; Introna, M; Golay, J

    2000-08-10

    The A-myb transcription factor shows a restricted tissue distribution and is cell cycle regulated. Furthermore its deregulation has profound effects on the growth and/or differentiation of the cells in which it is normally expressed. We have therefore characterized its promoter. A 12 kb genomic clone was isolated that comprises the first exon, part of the first intron as well as upstream regulatory sequences. Multiple transcription start sites have been identified which operate in both B lymphocytes and epithelial cells and the upsteam region was shown to have promoter, activity. The boundaries of the minimal promoter region (-183-14), of a positive upstream (-538-183) and a negative downstream regulatory region (NRE) (+83+374) have been defined. The NRE is promoter- and orientation-independent but position specific. The A-myb minimal promoter is GC-rich, does not contain any TATA box but has a functional CCAAT box. The CCAAT box and minimal promoter is highly conserved in the corresponding murine sequence. The CCAAT box efficiently binds the NF-Y complex and its mutation decreases basal promoter activity by 50%. Two Sp1 binding sites are present upstream from the CCAAT box which can bind Spl and contribute to A-myb promoter activity by 70 and 30%, respectively. The two Sp1 sites and CCAAT box together contribute to over 80% of A-myb basal promoter activity and are therefore the major regulatory elements. Finally, we show that the promoter is cell cycle regulated and that the SP1 and CCAAT elements are required for S phase induction.

  12. STRAP Promotes Stemness of Human Colorectal Cancer via Epigenetic Regulation of the NOTCH Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Vu, Trung; Yuan, Guandou; Datta, Pran K

    2017-10-15

    NOTCH signaling exerts essential roles in normal and malignant intestinal physiology and the homeostasis of cancer stem-like cells (CSC), but the basis for this latter role remains obscure. The signaling scaffold protein STRAP is upregulated in several cancers, where it promotes tumorigenicity and metastasis. Here we report a novel oncogenic function for STRAP in maintaining CSC subpopulations in a heterogeneous mixture by antagonizing formation of the chromatin modifier PRC2 and by epigenetically activating NOTCH signals in human colorectal cancer. Silencing STRAP sensitized colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro and in vivo STRAP depletion also contributed to a reduced stem-like phenotype of colorectal cancer cells, as indicated by reduced expression of the CSC signature and NOTCH signaling regulators in vitro and by diminished tumorigenesis in vivo Genes encoding some upstream activators of NOTCH were highly enriched for H3K27me3, which forms repressive chromatin domains upon STRAP silencing. Mechanistically, STRAP competitively disrupted association of the PRC2 subunits EZH2 and SUZ12, thereby inhibiting PRC2 assembly. Restoring the NOTCH pathway by lentiviral expression of NICD1 or HES1 in STRAP-depleted tumor cells reversed the CSC phenotype. In 90 colorectal cancer clinical specimens, a significant positive correlation was documented between the expression of STRAP and HES1. Overall, our findings illuminated a novel STRAP-NOTCH1-HES1 molecular axis as a CSC regulator in colorectal cancer, with potential implications to improve treatment of this disease. Cancer Res; 77(20); 5464-78. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Podoplanin Is Regulated by AP-1 and Promotes Platelet Aggregation and Cell Migration in Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunita, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi G.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Grigoriadis, Agamemnon E.; Fukayama, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Podoplanin is a type-I transmembrane sialomucin-like protein, which is expressed in a wide range of cell types and is involved in platelet aggregation and tumor metastasis. Here, we investigated the function, regulation, and expression of podoplanin in osteosarcoma. Podoplanin expression was observed in three osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, HOS, and U-2 OS) with platelet aggregation–inducing ability, which was blocked by podoplanin small-interfering RNA or a neutralizing antibody. Overexpression of podoplanin in nonmetastatic Dunn osteosarcoma cells promoted cell migration without attenuating cell proliferation. Both podoplanin and TGF-β1 were up-regulated by c-Fos induction in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, and were highly expressed in c-Fos transgenic mouse osteosarcomas and c-Fos–transformed osteosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemistry of human osteosarcoma tissue microarrays (n = 133) showed staining of tumor cells embedded in an excess of irregular neoplastic bone matrix in 100% of tumors undergoing so-called “normalization/maturation.” Podoplanin was also expressed in osteosarcoma subtypes, with 65% of osteoblastic, 100% of chondroblastic, and 79% of fibroblastic tumors. CD44 and pERM immunohistochemistry showed coexpression with podoplanin in both mouse and human osteosarcoma. Podoplanin expression was significantly higher in metastatic osteosarcomas (n = 6) than in primary osteosarcomas (n = 10). Our data suggest that podoplanin, which is not expressed in normal osteoblasts but in osteocytes, is aberrantly expressed in transformed osteoblasts and in osteosarcoma, and is under AP-1 transcriptional control. Thus podoplanin is a candidate molecule for therapeutic targeting. PMID:21801875

  14. Nickel and low CO2-controlled motility in Chlamydomonas through complementation of a paralyzed flagella mutant with chemically regulated promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Joel L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system for the biology of unicellular green algae. Chemically regulated promoters, such as the nickel-inducible CYC6 or the low CO2-inducible CAH1 promoter, may prove useful for expressing, at precise times during its cell cycle, proteins with relevant biological functions, or complementing mutants in genes encoding such proteins. To this date, this has not been reported for the above promoters. Results We fused the CYC6 and CAH1 promoters to an HA-tagged RSP3 gene, encoding a protein of the flagellar radial spoke complex. The constructs were used for chemically regulated complementation of the pf14 mutant, carrying an ochre mutation in the RSP3 gene. 7 to 8% of the transformants showed cells with restored motility after induction with nickel or transfer to low CO2 conditions, but not in non-inducing conditions. Maximum complementation (5% motile cells was reached with very different kinetics (5-6 hours for CAH1, 48 hours for CYC6. The two inducible promoters drive much lower levels of RSP3 protein expression than the constitutive PSAD promoter, which shows almost complete rescue of motility. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of the CYC6 or CAH1 promoters to perform a chemically regulated complementation of a Chlamydomonas mutant. Based on our data, the CYC6 and CAH1 promoters should be capable of fully complementing mutants in genes whose products exert their biological activity at low concentrations.

  15. The handedness-associated PCSK6 locus spans an intronic promoter regulating novel transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Robert; Covill, Laura; Pettigrew, Kerry A; Brandler, William M; Diaz, Rebeca; Xu, Yiwang; Tello, Javier A; Talcott, Joel B; Newbury, Dianne F; Stein, John; Monaco, Anthony P; Paracchini, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    We recently reported the association of the PCSK6 gene with handedness through a quantitative genome-wide association study (GWAS; P left-right body axis determination. Therefore, the GWAS data suggest that the biology underlying the patterning of structural asymmetries may also contribute to behavioural laterality, e.g. handedness. The association is further supported by an independent study reporting a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) within the same PCSK6 locus to be associated with degree of handedness in a general population cohort. Here, we have conducted a functional analysis of the PCSK6 locus combining further genetic analysis, in silico predictions and molecular assays. We have shown that the previous GWAS signal was not tagging a VNTR effect, suggesting that the two markers have independent effects. We demonstrated experimentally that one of the top GWAS-associated markers, rs11855145, directly alters the binding site for a nuclear factor. Furthermore, we have shown that the predicted regulatory region adjacent to rs11855415 acts as a bidirectional promoter controlling the expression of novel RNA transcripts. These include both an antisense long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and a short PCSK6 isoform predicted to be coding. This is the first molecular characterization of a handedness-associated locus that supports the role of common variants in non-coding sequences in influencing complex phenotypes through gene expression regulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. MicroRNA 21 promotes glioma invasion by targeting matrix metalloproteinase regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriely, Galina; Wurdinger, Thomas; Kesari, Santosh; Esau, Christine C; Burchard, Julja; Linsley, Peter S; Krichevsky, Anna M

    2008-09-01

    Substantial data indicate that microRNA 21 (miR-21) is significantly elevated in glioblastoma (GBM) and in many other tumors of various origins. This microRNA has been implicated in various aspects of carcinogenesis, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. We demonstrate that miR-21 regulates multiple genes associated with glioma cell apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness, including the RECK and TIMP3 genes, which are suppressors of malignancy and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Specific inhibition of miR-21 with antisense oligonucleotides leads to elevated levels of RECK and TIMP3 and therefore reduces MMP activities in vitro and in a human model of gliomas in nude mice. Moreover, downregulation of miR-21 in glioma cells leads to decreases of their migratory and invasion abilities. Our data suggest that miR-21 contributes to glioma malignancy by downregulation of MMP inhibitors, which leads to activation of MMPs, thus promoting invasiveness of cancer cells. Our results also indicate that inhibition of a single oncomir, like miR-21, with specific antisense molecules can provide a novel therapeutic approach for "physiological" modulation of multiple proteins whose expression is deregulated in cancer.

  17. Inflammatory peroxidases promote breast cancer progression in mice via regulation of the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Leach, Damien A; Zinonos, Irene; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Licari, Giovanni; Liapis, Vasilios; Ingman, Wendy V; Anderson, Peter; DeNichilo, Mark O; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, well known for their antimicrobial activity, are released in high quantities by infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer. However, the functional importance of their presence within the tumour microenvironment is unclear. We have recently described a new role for peroxidases as key regulators of fibroblast and endothelial cell functionality. In the present study, we investigate for the first time, the ability of peroxidases to promote breast cancer development and progression. Using the 4T1 syngeneic murine orthotopic breast cancer model, we examined whether increased levels of peroxidases in developing mammary tumours influences primary tumour growth and metastasis. We showed that MPO and EPO stimulation increased mammary tumour growth and enhanced lung metastases, effects that were associated with reduced tumour necrosis, increased collagen deposition and neo-vascularisation within the primary tumour. In vitro, peroxidase treatment, robustly stimulated human mammary fibroblast migration and collagen type I and type VI secretion. Mechanistically, peroxidases induced the transcription of pro-tumorigenic and metastatic MMP1, MMP3 and COX-2 genes. Taken together, these findings identify peroxidases as key contributors to cancer progression by augmenting pro-tumorigenic collagen production and angiogenesis. Importantly, this identifies inflammatory peroxidases as therapeutic targets in breast cancer therapy.

  18. Histamine-HisCl1 Receptor Axis Regulates Wake-Promoting Signals in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons. PMID:23844178

  19. VPS35 regulates developing mouse hippocampal neuronal morphogenesis by promoting retrograde trafficking of BACE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lei Wang

    2012-10-01

    VPS35, a major component of the retromer, plays an important role in the selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but its function in developing mouse brain remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for VPS35 promoting dendritic growth and maturation, and axonal protein transport in developing mouse hippocampal neurons. Embryonic hippocampal CA1 neurons suppressing Vps35 expression by in utero electroporation of its micro RNAs displayed shortened apical dendrites, reduced dendritic spines, and swollen commissural axons in the neonatal stage, those deficits reflecting a defective protein transport/trafficking in developing mouse neurons. Further mechanistic studies showed that Vps35 depletion in neurons resulted in an impaired retrograde trafficking of BACE1 (β1-secretase and altered BACE1 distribution. Suppression of BACE1 expression in CA1 neurons partially rescued both dendritic and axonal deficits induced by Vps35-deficiency. These results thus demonstrate that BACE1 acts as a critical cargo of retromer in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VPS35 plays an essential role in regulating apical dendritic maturation and in preventing axonal spheroid formation in developing hippocampal neurons.

  20. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine regulates Hedgehog signaling and promotes growth of cortical axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Kharebava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonogenesis, a process for the establishment of neuron connectivity, is central to brain function. The role of metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 that is specifically enriched in the brain, has not been addressed in axon development. In this study, we tested if synaptamide (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine, an endogenous metabolite of DHA, affects axon growth in cultured cortical neurons. We found that synaptamide increased the average axon length, inhibited GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1 transcription and sonic hedgehog (Shh target gene expression while inducing cAMP elevation. Similar effects were produced by cyclopamine, a regulator of the Shh pathway. Conversely, Shh antagonized elevation of cAMP and blocked synaptamide-mediated increase in axon length. Activation of Shh pathway by a smoothened (SMO agonist (SAG or overexpression of SMO did not inhibit axon growth mediated by synaptamide or cyclopamine. Instead, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished synaptamide-mediated axon growth indicating requirement of cAMP elevation for this process. Our findings establish that synaptamide promotes axon growth while Shh antagonizes synaptamide-mediated cAMP elevation and axon growth by a SMO-independent, non-canonical pathway.

  1. P-body proteins regulate transcriptional rewiring to promote DNA replication stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loll-Krippleber, Raphael; Brown, Grant W

    2017-09-15

    mRNA-processing (P-) bodies are cytoplasmic granules that form in eukaryotic cells in response to numerous stresses to serve as sites of degradation and storage of mRNAs. Functional P-bodies are critical for the DNA replication stress response in yeast, yet the repertoire of P-body targets and the mechanisms by which P-bodies promote replication stress resistance are unknown. In this study we identify the complete complement of mRNA targets of P-bodies during replication stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment. The key P-body protein Lsm1 controls the abundance of HHT1, ACF4, ARL3, TMA16, RRS1 and YOX1 mRNAs to prevent their toxic accumulation during replication stress. Accumulation of YOX1 mRNA causes aberrant downregulation of a network of genes critical for DNA replication stress resistance and leads to toxic acetaldehyde accumulation. Our data reveal the scope and the targets of regulation by P-body proteins during the DNA replication stress response.P-bodies form in response to stress and act as sites of mRNA storage and degradation. Here the authors identify the mRNA targets of P-bodies during DNA replication stress, and show that P-body proteins act to prevent toxic accumulation of these target transcripts.

  2. GTPBP4 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression via Regulating P53 Activity

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    Li Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: gastric cancer is a serious health concern with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is urgent to find novel targets for gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect GTPBP4 expression in gastric cancer tissues, and gastric cancer and gastric epithelial cells. Lentivirus infection was used to construct GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. Annexin V/PI apoptosis, CCK8, EdU incorporation and cell clone formation analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of GTPBP4 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further RNA-based high-throughput sequencing and co-IP assays were constructed to explore the related mechanisms contributing to GTPBP4-mediated effects. Results: GTPBP4 expression was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and positively correlated with gastric cancer stages. Meanwhile, GTPBP4 level was markedly upregulated in gastric cancer cells than in gastric epithelial cells. Additionaly, stable knockdown of GTPBP4 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, p53 and its related signaling were significantly activated in GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. And GTPBP4 interacted with p53 in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: our results provide insights into mechanistic regulation and linkage of the GTPBP4-p53 in gastric cancer, and also a valuable potential target for gastric cancer.

  3. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

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    Meraj A. Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45 into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox, neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi. Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation (NETosis is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements. Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs. In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  4. Cell cycle regulation of the cyclin A gene promoter is mediated by a variant E2F site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A; Zerfass, K; Spitkovsky, D

    1995-01-01

    Cyclin A is involved in the control of S phase and mitosis in mammalian cells. Expression of the cyclin A gene in nontransformed cells is characterized by repression of its promoter during the G1 phase of the cell cycle and its induction at S-phase entry. We show that this mode of regulation...

  5. Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavaheri, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on iron-regulated metabolites. Under iron-limiting conditions, P. fluorescens WCS374r produces

  6. CaMKII-mediated Beclin 1 phosphorylation regulates autophagy that promotes degradation of Id and neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Qi; Deng, Rong; Li, Dan-Dan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Wen-Dan; Chen, Jing-Hong; Ji, Jiao; Jiao, Lin; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Fen; Feng, Gong-Kan; Senthilkumar, Ravichandran; Yue, Fei; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Wu, Rui-Yan; Yu, Yan; Xu, Xue-Lian; Mai, Jia; Li, Zhi-Ling; Peng, Xiao-Dan; Huang, Yun; Huang, Xiang; Ma, Ning-Fang; Tao, Qian; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2017-10-27

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that delivers cellular components to the lysosome for degradation. The role of autophagy in cell differentiation is poorly understood. Here we show that CaMKII can directly phosphorylate Beclin 1 at Ser90 to promote K63-linked ubiquitination of Beclin 1 and activation of autophagy. Meanwhile, CaMKII can also promote K63-linked ubiquitination of inhibitor of differentiation 1/2 (Id-1/2) by catalyzing phosphorylation of Id proteins and recruiting TRAF-6. Ubiquitinated Id-1/Id-2 can then bind to p62 and be transported to autolysosomes for degradation. Id degradation promotes the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and reduces the proportion of stem-like cells. Our study proposes a mechanism by which autophagic degradation of Id proteins can regulate cell differentiation. This suggests that targeting of CaMKII and the regulation of autophagic degradation of Id may be an effective therapeutic strategy to induce cell differentiation in neuroblastoma.

  7. Broad-host-range shuttle vectors for screening of regulated promoter activity in viridans group streptococci : Isolation of a pH-regulated promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesema, AJM; Brinkman, René; Kok, J; Zaat, SAJ; Vriesema, Aldwin J.M.; Zaat, Sebastian A.J.

    Viridans group streptococci are major constituents of the normal human oral flora and are also identified as the predominant pathogenic bacteria in native valve infective endocarditis. Little information is available regarding the regulation of gene expression in viridans group streptococci, either

  8. Structural and functional analysis of myostatin-2 promoter alleles from the marine fish Sparus aurata: evidence for strong muscle-specific promoter activity and post-transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjar-Boger, Elisabeth; Hinits, Yaniv; Funkenstein, Bruria

    2012-09-25

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. In contrast to mammals, fish possess at least two paralogs of MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. In this study, we analyzed the structural-functional features of the four variants of Sparus aurata MSTN-2 5'-flanking region: saMSTN-2a, saMSTN-2as, saMSTN-2b and saMSTN-2c. In silico analysis revealed numerous putative cis regulatory elements including several E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic transcription factors. Transient transfection experiments using non-muscle and muscle cell lines showed surprisingly high transcriptional activity in muscle cells, suggesting the presence of regulatory elements unique to differentiated myotubes. These observations were confirmed by in situ intramuscular injections of promoter DNA followed by reporter gene assays. Moreover, high promoter activity was found in differentiated neural cell, in agreement with MSTN-2 expression in brain. Progressive 5'-deletion analysis, using reporter gene assays, showed that the core promoter is located within the first -127 bp upstream of the ATG, and suggested the presence of regulatory elements that either repress or induce transcriptional activity. Transient transgenic zebrafish provided evidence for saMSTN-2 promoter ability to direct GFP expression to myofibers. Finally, our data shows that although no mature saMSTN-2 mRNA is observed in muscle; unspliced forms accumulate, confirming high level of transcription. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that MSTN-2 promoter is a very robust promoter, especially in muscle cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viral DNA Replication Orientation and hnRNPs Regulate Transcription of the Human Papillomavirus 18 Late Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Haibin; Ge, Hui; Ajiro, Masahiko; Sharma, Nishi R; Meyers, Craig; Morozov, Pavel; Tuschl, Thomas; Klar, Amar; Court, Donald; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2017-05-30

    The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation. Although expression of viral early genes is initiated immediately upon virus infection of undifferentiated basal cells, viral DNA amplification and late gene expression occur only in the mid to upper strata of the keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In this report, we show that the relative activity of HPV18 TATA-less late promoter P811 depends on its orientation relative to that of the origin (Ori) of viral DNA replication and is sensitive to the eukaryotic DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin. Additionally, transfected 70-nucleotide (nt)-long single-strand DNA oligonucleotides that are homologous to the region near Ori induce late promoter activity. We also found that promoter activation in raft cultures leads to production of the late promoter-associated, sense-strand transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs) and splice-site small RNAs (spliRNAs). Finally, a cis-acting AAGTATGCA core element that functions as a repressor to the promoter was identified. This element interacts with hnRNP D0B and hnRNP A/B factors. Point mutations in the core prevented binding of hnRNPs and increased the promoter activity. Confirming this result, knocking down the expression of both hnRNPs in keratinocytes led to increased promoter activity. Taking the data together, our study revealed the mechanism of how the HPV18 late promoter is regulated by DNA replication and host factors.IMPORTANCE It has been known for decades that the activity of viral late promoters is associated with viral DNA replication among almost all DNA viruses. However, the mechanism of how DNA replication activates the viral late promoter and what components of the replication machinery are involved remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the P811 promoter region of HPV18 and demonstrated that its activation depends on the orientation of DNA replication. Using single

  10. Promoting University Students' Metacognitive Regulation through Peer Learning: The Potential of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although successful learning in university education can be advanced by students' competence to self-regulate their learning, students often possess insufficient metacognitive regulation skills to regulate their learning adequately. The present study investigates changes in university students' adoption of metacognitive regulation after…

  11. Regulation of the ovine MT1 melatonin receptor promoter: interaction between multiple pituitary transcription factors at different phases of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jonathan D; Schuster, Carole; Barrett, Perry; Hazlerigg, David G

    2007-03-30

    Pineal secretion of melatonin provides a neuroendocrine representation of the light-dark cycle, which is used to synchronise daily and annual rhythms of physiology and behaviour. In mammals, melatonin primarily acts through MT(1) melatonin receptors that exhibit a highly restricted tissue distribution. Expression of MT(1) receptors is subject to developmental and circadian control, which likely modulates the physiological actions of melatonin. To investigate the mechanisms controlling MT(1) expression we cloned the proximal 1.5kb region of the ovine MT(1) promoter. Sequence analysis revealed putative cis-elements for transcription factors involved in pituitary development, namely Pitx-1 and Egr-1, and multiple putative E-boxes, which are involved in both circadian and developmental gene regulation. Nuclear protein from ovine pars tuberalis (PT) cells, a site of high endogenous MT(1) expression, stimulated gene expression from a MT(1) expression construct, indicating the presence of a functional promoter. Pitx-1 was strongly expressed in the ovine PT and stimulated MT(1) promoter activity in transfection assays. Co-transfection with Egr-1 induced promoter-specific effects: Pitx-1-stimulated MT(1) activity was inhibited, whereas betaLH promoter activity was enhanced. In addition to Pitx-1 the circadian clock genes Clock and Bmal1 were also expressed in the PT. However, despite multiple putative E-boxes in the MT(1) promoter, transfected Clock and Bmal1 were unable to regulate either basal or Pitx-1-stimulated MT(1) promoter activity. The current data, in conjunction with our previous study of the rat MT(1) promoter, suggests a general model in which melatonin receptor expression in the mammalian pituitary is determined by the developmentally changing balance between stimulatory and inhibitory transcription factors. Furthermore, our data suggest that circadian variation in MT(1) gene expression does not depend upon the direct action of circadian clock genes on E

  12. Targeted expression of suicide gene by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danda, Ravikanth; Krishnan, Gopinath; Ganapathy, Kalaivani; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Vikas, Khetan; Elchuri, Sailaja; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    In order to realise the full potential of cancer suicide gene therapy that allows the precise expression of suicide gene in cancer cells, we used a tissue specific Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) promoter (EGP-2) that directs transgene Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) expression preferentially in EpCAM over expressing cancer cells. EpCAM levels are considerably higher in retinoblastoma (RB), a childhood eye cancer with limited expression in normal cells. Use of miRNA regulation, adjacent to the use of the tissue-specific promoter, would provide the second layer of control to the transgene expression only in the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. To test this hypothesis we cloned let-7b miRNA targets in the 3'UTR region of HSV-TK suicide gene driven by EpCAM promoter because let-7 family miRNAs, including let-7b, were found to be down regulated in the RB tumors and cell lines. We used EpCAM over expressing and let-7 down regulated RB cell lines Y79, WERI-Rb1 (EpCAM (+ve)/let-7b(down-regulated)), EpCAM down regulated, let-7 over expressing normal retinal Müller glial cell line MIO-M1(EpCAM (-ve)/let-7b(up-regulated)), and EpCAM up regulated, let-7b up-regulated normal thyroid cell line N-Thy-Ori-3.1(EpCAM (+ve)/let-7b(up-regulated)) in the study. The cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, apoptosis was measured by probing cleaved Caspase3, EpCAM and TK expression were quantified by Western blot. Our results showed that the EGP2-promoter HSV-TK (EGP2-TK) construct with 2 or 4 copies of let-7b miRNA targets expressed TK gene only in Y79, WERI-Rb-1, while the TK gene did not express in MIO-M1. In summary, we have developed a tissue-specific, miRNA-regulated dual control vector, which selectively expresses the suicide gene in EpCAM over expressing cells.

  13. Targeted expression of suicide gene by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Danda

    Full Text Available In order to realise the full potential of cancer suicide gene therapy that allows the precise expression of suicide gene in cancer cells, we used a tissue specific Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM promoter (EGP-2 that directs transgene Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK expression preferentially in EpCAM over expressing cancer cells. EpCAM levels are considerably higher in retinoblastoma (RB, a childhood eye cancer with limited expression in normal cells. Use of miRNA regulation, adjacent to the use of the tissue-specific promoter, would provide the second layer of control to the transgene expression only in the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. To test this hypothesis we cloned let-7b miRNA targets in the 3'UTR region of HSV-TK suicide gene driven by EpCAM promoter because let-7 family miRNAs, including let-7b, were found to be down regulated in the RB tumors and cell lines. We used EpCAM over expressing and let-7 down regulated RB cell lines Y79, WERI-Rb1 (EpCAM (+ve/let-7b(down-regulated, EpCAM down regulated, let-7 over expressing normal retinal Müller glial cell line MIO-M1(EpCAM (-ve/let-7b(up-regulated, and EpCAM up regulated, let-7b up-regulated normal thyroid cell line N-Thy-Ori-3.1(EpCAM (+ve/let-7b(up-regulated in the study. The cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, apoptosis was measured by probing cleaved Caspase3, EpCAM and TK expression were quantified by Western blot. Our results showed that the EGP2-promoter HSV-TK (EGP2-TK construct with 2 or 4 copies of let-7b miRNA targets expressed TK gene only in Y79, WERI-Rb-1, while the TK gene did not express in MIO-M1. In summary, we have developed a tissue-specific, miRNA-regulated dual control vector, which selectively expresses the suicide gene in EpCAM over expressing cells.

  14. MiR-217 is down-regulated in psoriasis and promotes keratinocyte differentiation via targeting GRHL2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haigang; Hou, Liyue; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Zhiming, E-mail: lizm_1001@sina.com

    2016-02-26

    MiR-217 is a well-known tumor suppressor, and its down-regulation has been shown in a wide range of solid and leukaemic cancers. However, the biological role of miR-217 in psoriasis pathogenesis, especially in keratinocyte hyperproliferation and differentiation, is not clearly understood. In this study, we found the expression of miR-217 was markedly down-regulated in psoriasis keratinocytes of psoriatic patients. In addition, overexpression of miR-217 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. On the contrary, inhibition of endogenous miR-217 increased cell proliferation and delayed differentiation. Furthermore, Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) was identified as a direct target of miR-217 by luciferase reporter assay. The expression of miR-217 and GRHL2 was inversely correlated in both transfected keratinocytes and in psoriasis lesional skin. Moreover, knocking down GRHL2 expression by siRNA enhanced keratinocyte differentiation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for miR-217 in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation, partially through the regulation of GRHL2. - Highlights: • miR-217 is down-regulated in psoriasis skin lesions. • miR-217 inhibits the proliferation and promotes differentiation of keratinocytes. • GRHL2 is a novel target of miR-217 in keratinocytes. • GRHL2 is up-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-217 in psoriasis skin lesions.

  15. SUPPORT AND PROMOTION OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING THROUGH THE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL AT THE HELLENIC OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi NIKOLAKI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In distance education both the physical separation between learner and instructor, and the use of technology create an educational environment that is characterized by learning autonomy and the learner’s active involvement. Because of these, self-regulated learning constitutes an inseparable concept of distance education. This study explores the support and promotion of self-regulated learning in the educational environment of the Hellenic Open University. In particular, this paper examines how the educational material, as it is described in its institutional level of function, supports specific self-regulating strategies of learning in the curriculum provided by the Hellenic Open University. For this purpose, the study is based on literature review of distance education and self-regulated learning. Thus, the cognitive strategies of elobaration and organization, the metacognitive strategies of goal-setting, self-monitoring and self-evaluation, the resourse management strategies of seeking help, seeking information and time management, as well as, the motivation are all included in the self-regulated aspects that are examined. The results of the study indicate that the self-regulated learning is considerably supported and promoted by the printed educational material at the Hellenic Open Univesrity due to its interactive pedagogigal structure. However, it is pointed out that it is possible to maximize the support provided through the improvement of the present structures’ function.

  16. PARM-1 promotes cardiomyogenic differentiation through regulating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Naohiko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomosaburo, E-mail: ttaka@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Ogata, Takehiro; Adachi, Atsuo; Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Ueyama, Tomomi, E-mail: toueyama-circ@umin.ac.jp [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Matsubara, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PARM-1 expression is induced during cardiomyogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PARM-1 expression precedes Nkx2.5 and Tbx5 during cardiomyogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PARM-1 activates BMP/Smad signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PARM-1 enhances cardiac specification, resulting in promoted cardiomyogenesis. -- Abstract: PARM-1, prostatic androgen repressed message-1, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecule that is involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we assessed whether PARM-1 plays a role in the differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes. While PARM-1 was not expressed in undifferentiated P19CL6 embryonic carcinoma cells, PARM-1 expression was induced during cardiomyogenic differentiation. This expression followed expression of mesodermal markers, and preceded expression of cardiac transcription factors. PARM-1 overexpression did not alter the expression of undifferentiated markers and the proliferative property in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells. Expression of cardiac transcription factors during cardiomyogenesis was markedly enhanced by overexpression of PARM-1, while expression of mesodermal markers was not altered, suggesting that PARM-1 is involved in the differentiation from the mesodermal lineage to cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, overexpression of PARM-1 induced BMP2 mRNA expression in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells and enhanced both BMP2 and BMP4 mRNA expression in the early phase of cardiomyogenesis. PARM-1 overexpression also enhanced phosphorylation of Smads1/5/8. Thus, PARM-1 plays an important role in the cardiomyogenic differentiation of P19CL6 cells through regulating BMP/Smad signaling pathways, demonstrating a novel role of PARM-1 in the cardiomyogenic differentiation of stem cells.

  17. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  18. Promoter Analysis Reveals Globally Differential Regulation of Human Long Non-Coding RNA and Protein-Coding Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2014-10-02

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.

  19. DNA methylation of specific CpG sites in the promoter region regulates the transcription of the mouse oxytocin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimrat Mamrut

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a peptide hormone, well known for its role in labor and suckling, and most recently for its involvement in mammalian social behavior. All central and peripheral actions of oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor, which is the product of a single gene. Transcription of the oxytocin receptor is subject to regulation by gonadal steroid hormones, and is profoundly elevated in the uterus and mammary glands during parturition. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene transcription, and has been linked to reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor in individuals with autism. Here, we hypothesized that transcription of the mouse oxytocin receptor is regulated by DNA methylation of specific sites in its promoter, in a tissue-specific manner. Hypothalamus-derived GT1-7, and mammary-derived 4T1 murine cell lines displayed negative correlations between oxytocin receptor transcription and methylation of the gene promoter, and demethylation caused a significant enhancement of oxytocin receptor transcription in 4T1 cells. Using a reporter gene assay, we showed that methylation of specific sites in the gene promoter, including an estrogen response element, significantly inhibits transcription. Furthermore, methylation of the oxytocin receptor promoter was found to be differentially correlated with oxytocin receptor expression in mammary glands and the uterus of virgin and post-partum mice, suggesting that it plays a distinct role in oxytocin receptor transcription among tissues and under different physiological conditions. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the expression of the mouse oxytocin receptor gene is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of its promoter.

  20. A G-quadruplex motif in an envelope gene promoter regulates transcription and virion secretion in HBV genotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Banhi; Kandpal, Manish; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2017-09-13

    HBV genotypes differ in pathogenicity. In addition, genotype-specific differences in the regulation of transcription and virus replication exist in HBV, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show the presence of a G-quadruplex motif in the promoter of the preS2/S gene; this G-quadruplex is highly conserved only in HBV genotype B but not in other HBV genotypes. We demonstrate that this G-quadruplex motif forms a hybrid intramolecular G-quadruplex structure. Interestingly, mutations disrupting the G-quadruplex in HBV genotype B reduced the preS2/S promoter activity, leading to reduced hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels. G-quadruplex ligands stabilized the G-quadruplex in genotype B and enhanced the preS2/S promoter activity. Furthermore, mutations disrupting the G-quadruplex in the full-length HBV genotype B constructs were associated with impaired virion secretion. In contrast to typical G-quadruplexes within promoters which are negative regulators of transcription the G-quadruplex in the preS2/S promoter of HBV represents an unconventional positive regulatory element. Our findings highlight (a) G-quadruplex mediated enhancement of transcription and virion secretion in HBV and (b) a yet unknown role for DNA secondary structures in complex genotype-specific regulatory mechanisms in virus genomes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. ZmDof30 Negatively Regulates the Promoter Activity of the Pollen-Specific Gene Zm908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The maize (Zea mays pollen-predominant gene Zm908, a novel small-peptide gene, was reported to play critical roles in pollen germination and pollen tube growth in our previous work. In this study, we aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of Zm908. The putative promoter of Zm908 was cloned and analyzed. The activity analysis of a series of promoter truncations in different tissues of transgenic tobacco plants indicated that the Zm908 promoter is pollen-specific and that the –126 to –68 region is crucial for pollen expression. The 5′ deletion analysis of the –126 to –68 region revealed that the –126 to –102 region functions as a transcriptional suppression element. ZmDof30, which is predominantly expressed in pollen and whole anthers, was cloned and characterized. ZmDof30-GFP localized to the nuclei of maize protoplasts and possessed no transcriptional activation activity in a yeast system. ZmDof30 could bind to the AAAG elements in p184 sequence containing the –126 to +58 region of the Zm908 promoter in vitro and in vivo, and negatively regulated p184 activity in tobacco leaves. Collectively, ZmDof30 may function as a Zm908 transcriptional repressor in pollen, and these results may provide a better understanding of the regulation of the Zm908 gene. Additionally, the pollen-specific Zm908 promoter may be valuable for genetically engineering male sterility.

  2. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jinjia; Bai, Peng; Shi, Lei; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Mian; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Cai, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    The alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is the most powerful and commonly used promoter for driving protein expression. However, mechanisms regulating its transcriptional activity are unclear. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2Cys6-type methanol-induced transcription factor 1 (Mit1) and elucidated its roles in regulating PAOX1 activity in response to glycerol and methanol. Mit1 regulated the expression of many genes involved in methanol utilization pathway, including AOX1, but did not participate in peroxisome proliferation and transportation of peroxisomal proteins during methanol metabolism. Structural analysis of Mit1 by performing domain deletions confirmed its specific and critical role in the strict repression of PAOX1 in glycerol medium. Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated PAOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to PAOX1 at different sites and did not interact with each other. However, these factors cooperatively activated PAOX1 through a cascade. Mxr1 mainly functioned during carbon derepression, whereas Mit1 and Prm1 functioned during methanol induction, with Prm1 transmitting methanol signal to Mit1 by binding to the MIT1 promoter (PMIT1), thus increasingly expressing Mit1 and subsequently activating PAOX1. PMID:26828066

  3. Regulation of mRNA Levels by Decay-Promoting Introns that Recruit the Exosome Specificity Factor Mmi1

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    Cornelia Kilchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, inefficient splicing is surprisingly common and leads to the degradation of transcripts with retained introns. How pre-mRNAs are committed to nuclear decay is unknown. Here, we uncover a mechanism by which specific intron-containing transcripts are targeted for nuclear degradation in fission yeast. Sequence elements within these “decay-promoting” introns co-transcriptionally recruit the exosome specificity factor Mmi1, which induces degradation of the unspliced precursor and leads to a reduction in the levels of the spliced mRNA. This mechanism negatively regulates levels of the RNA helicase DDX5/Dbp2 to promote cell survival in response to stress. In contrast, fast removal of decay-promoting introns by co-transcriptional splicing precludes Mmi1 recruitment and relieves negative expression regulation. We propose that decay-promoting introns facilitate the regulation of gene expression. Based on the identification of multiple additional Mmi1 targets, including mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and sn/snoRNAs, we suggest a general role in RNA regulation for Mmi1 through transcript degradation.

  4. Cofilin 1 promotes bladder cancer and is regulated by TCF7L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Housheng; He, Fengrong; Xu, Congjie; Zhou, Jiaquan; Li, Daoyuan; Li, Guoping; Xu, Jianbing; Wu, Qinghui; Chen, Jianxiang; Su, Liangju; Wang, Weifu; Zhang, Shufang

    2017-01-01

    Earlier reports demonstrated that Cofilin expression is increased in bladder cancer samples, though its function remains unknown. Here, we found that Cofilin 1 expression was higher in bladder cancer tissues than in paracancerous tissues. Overexpression of Cofilin 1 promoted, while Cofilin 1 knockdown inhibited, proliferation, migration, and invasion in the T24 and RT4 bladder cancer cell lines. In addition, Cofilin 1 overexpression increased, while Cofilin 1 knockdown decreased, bladder tumor volumes in mouse xenograft experiments. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) targeted the promoter of the Cofilin 1 gene, and TCF7L2 knockdown or mutations in the Cofilin 1 promoter dramatically decreased Cofilin 1 transcription. TCF7L2 promoted cell proliferation and migration and increased Cofilin 1 protein levels in RT4 and T24 cells. Thus, TCF7L2 contributed to Cofilin 1-induced promotion of bladder cancer development by binding to the Cofilin 1 promoter and increasing its expression. PMID:29190896

  5. Regulation of gene expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba invadens identification of core promoter elements and promoters with stage-specific expression patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Dipak; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M.; Singh, Upinder

    2014-01-01

    Developmental switching between life-cycle stages is a common feature among many pathogenic organisms. Entamoeba histolytica is an important human pathogen and is a leading parasitic cause of death globally. During its life cycle, Entamoeba converts between cysts (essential for disease transmission) and trophozoites (responsible for tissue invasion). Despite being central to its biology, the triggers that are involved in the developmental pathways of this parasite are not well understood. In order to define the transcriptional network associated with stage conversion we used Entamoeba invadens which serves as a model system for Entamoeba developmental biology, and performed RNA sequencing at different developmental time points . In this study RNA-Seq data was utilized to define basal transcriptional control elements as well as to identify promoters which regulate stage-specific gene expression patterns. We discovered that the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions of E. invadens genes are short, a median of 20 nucleotides (nt) and 26 nt respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of DNA sequences proximate to the start and stop codons identified two conserved motifs: (i) E. invadens Core Promoter Motif - GAAC-Like (EiCPM-GL) (GAACTACAAA), and (ii) E. invadens 3’- U-Rich Motif (Ei3’-URM) (TTTGTT) in the 5’ and 3’ flanking regions, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that both motifs specifically bind nuclear protein(s) from E. invadens trophozoites. Additionally, we identified select genes with stage-specific expression patterns and analyzed the ability of each gene promoter to drive a luciferase reporter gene during the developmental cycle. This approach confirmed three trophozoite-specific, four encystation-specific and two excystation-specific promoters. This work lays the framework for use of stage-specific promoters to express proteins of interest in a particular life-cycle stage, adding to the molecular toolbox for genetic

  6. Regulation of gene expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba invadens: identification of core promoter elements and promoters with stage-specific expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Dipak; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Singh, Upinder

    2014-10-01

    Developmental switching between life-cycle stages is a common feature among many pathogenic organisms. Entamoeba histolytica is an important human pathogen and is a leading parasitic cause of death globally. During its life cycle, Entamoeba converts between cysts (essential for disease transmission) and trophozoites (responsible for tissue invasion). Despite being central to its biology, the triggers that are involved in the developmental pathways of this parasite are not well understood. In order to define the transcriptional network associated with stage conversion we used Entamoeba invadens which serves as a model system for Entamoeba developmental biology, and performed RNA sequencing at different developmental time points. In this study RNA-Seq data was utilised to define basal transcriptional control elements as well as to identify promoters which regulate stage-specific gene expression patterns. We discovered that the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of E. invadens genes are short, a median of 20 nucleotides (nt) and 26 nt respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of DNA sequences proximate to the start and stop codons identified two conserved motifs: (i) E. invadens Core Promoter Motif - GAAC-Like (EiCPM-GL) (GAACTACAAA), and (ii) E. invadens 3'-U-Rich Motif (Ei3'-URM) (TTTGTT) in the 5' and 3' flanking regions, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that both motifs specifically bind nuclear protein(s) from E. invadens trophozoites. Additionally, we identified select genes with stage-specific expression patterns and analysed the ability of each gene promoter to drive a luciferase reporter gene during the developmental cycle. This approach confirmed three trophozoite-specific, four encystation-specific and two excystation-specific promoters. This work lays the framework for use of stage-specific promoters to express proteins of interest in a particular life-cycle stage, adding to the molecular toolbox for genetic manipulation of E

  7. Spatially and Temporally Regulated NRF2 Gene Therapy Using Mcp-1 Promoter in Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fujita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell degeneration triggered by axonal injury is believed to underlie many ocular diseases, including glaucoma and optic neuritis. In these diseases, retinal ganglion cells are affected unevenly, both spatially and temporally, such that healthy and unhealthy cells coexist in different patterns at different time points. Herein, we describe a temporally and spatially regulated adeno-associated virus gene therapy aiming to reduce undesired off-target effects on healthy retinal neurons. The Mcp-1 promoter previously shown to be activated in stressed retinal ganglion cells following murine optic nerve injury was combined with the neuroprotective intracellular transcription factor Nrf2. In this model, Mcp-1 promoter-driven NRF2 expression targeting only stressed retinal ganglion cells showed efficacy equivalent to non-selective cytomegalovirus promoter-driven therapy for preventing cell death. However, cytomegalovirus promoter-mediated NRF2 transcription induced cellular stress responses and death of Brn3A-positive uninjured retinal ganglion cells. Such undesired effects were reduced substantially by adopting the Mcp-1 promoter. Combining a stress-responsive promoter and intracellular therapeutic gene is a versatile approach for specifically targeting cells at risk of degeneration. This strategy may be applicable to numerous chronic ocular and non-ocular conditions.

  8. Epigenetic down-regulated DDX10 promotes cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Muhuizi; Bo, Qifang; Qi, Lixia, E-mail: lixiaqi_dph@sina.com

    2016-01-22

    Ovarian cancer contributes to the majority of ovarian cancer, while the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, some DEAD box protein 1 has been reported play a tumor suppressor role in ovarian cancer progression. However, the functions of DEAD box protein (DDX) members in ovarian cancer development remain largely unknown. In current study, we retrieved GEO databases and surprisingly found that DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal ovary. These findings suggest that DDX10 might also play a suppressive role in ovarian cancer. We then validated the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 in fresh ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, both loss- and gain-functions assays reveal that the down-regulated DDX10 could promote ovarian cancer proliferation in vitro and the xenograft subcutaneous tumor formation assays confirmed these findings in vivo. In addition, we found that DDX10 is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we further preliminary illustrated that down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Taken together, in current study, we found a novel tumor suppressor, DDX10, is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer, and the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Our findings shed the light that DDX families might be a novel for ovarian cancer treatment. - Highlights: • A novel DEAD box protein, DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues. • Down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and growth both in vitro and in vivo. • miR-155-5p is highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and epigenetically targets DDX10. • DDX10 and miR-155-5p regulates Akt/p65 axis in ovarian cancer cells.

  9. 76 FR 71241 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Stay of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...) establishing an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for fresh cut Christmas trees... interested persons, including the Christmas tree industry and the general public, an opportunity to become...

  10. Up-Regulation of MiR-300 Promotes Proliferation and Invasion of Osteosarcoma by Targeting BRD7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhen; Zhao, Jindong; Niu, Liyuan; An, Gang; Guo, Yashan; Ni, Linying

    2015-01-01

    Increasing reports suggest that deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) might provide novel therapeutic targets for cancers. However, the expression and function of miR-300 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In our study, we found that the expression of miR-300 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells compared with paired adjacent non-tumor bone tissues and osteoblastic cells using RT-qPCR. The enforced expression of miR-300 could promote cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we identified that bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), a new tumor suppressor gene, was a direct target of miR-300. Ectopic expression of BRD7 could significantly inhibit miR-300-promoted proliferation, invasion and EMT. Therefore, our results identify an important role for miR-300 in osteosarcoma through regulating BRD7 expression.

  11. ADAM10-Interacting Tetraspanins Tspan5 and Tspan17 Regulate VE-Cadherin Expression and Promote T Lymphocyte Transmigration

    OpenAIRE

    Reyat, Jasmeet S.; Chimen, Myriam; Noy, Peter J.; Szyroka, Justyna; Rainger, G.Ed; Tomlinson, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The recruitment of blood leukocytes across the endothelium to sites of tissue infection is central to inflammation, but also promotes chronic inflammatory diseases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitous transmembrane molecular scissor that is implicated in leukocyte transmigration by proteolytically cleaving its endothelial substrates. These include VE-cadherin, a homotypic adhesion molecule that regulates endothelial barrier function, and transmembrane chemokines CX...

  12. Overlapping CRE and E-box promoter elements can independently regulate COX-2 gene transcription in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, J R; Rivadeneira, D E; Mackrell, P J; Duff, M; Stapleton, P P; Mack-Strong, V; Maddali, S; Smyth, G P; Tanabe, T; Daly, J M

    2001-05-11

    Macrophage cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription is mediated through the collaboration of different promoter elements. Here, the role of an overlapping cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE)/E-box was investigated. Nuclear proteins bound both the CRE and E-box, which synergized with other promoter elements to induce COX-2 transcription. Endotoxin induced binding of nuclear proteins to the CRE and E-box and each element independently induced higher COX-2 transcription levels than the overlapping CRE/E-box. Transcription factors associated with the CRE binding complex included c-Jun and CRE binding protein and with the E-box binding complex USF-1; their overexpression significantly induced COX-2 transcription. Therefore, both CRE and E-box promoter elements regulate COX-2 transcription in macrophages.

  13. HCV core protein-induced down-regulation of microRNA-152 promoted aberrant proliferation by regulating Wnt1 in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been reported to regulate cellular microRNAs (miRNAs. The HCV core protein is considered to be a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC, but HCV core-regulated miRNAs are largely unknown. Our preliminary experiments revealed significant down-regulation of microRNA-152 (miR-152 by HCV core protein in HepG2 cells. Through target gene prediction softwares, Wnt1 was predicted to be a potential target of miR-152. The present study was initiated to investigate whether miR-152 is aberrantly regulated by the HCV core protein, and involved in the regulation of the aberrant proliferation of HCV-HCC cells. METHODS: MiR-152 levels were examined by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR (SLqRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm miRNA-target association. Wnt1 expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: HCV core protein significantly suppressed miR-152 expression, and led to significant Wnt1 up-regulation with a concomitant aberrantly promoted proliferation. Moreover, we validated that miR-152 inhibition promoted, while miR-152 mimics inhibited cell proliferation. Using, qRT-PCR and western blot, Wnt1 was demonstrated to be regulated by miR-152. Luciferase activity assay showed that while miR-152 mimics significantly reduced the luciferase activity by 83.76% (P<0.0001, miR-152 inhibitor showed no effect on luciferase reporter. Most notably, salvage expression of miR-152 after Ad-HCV core infection for 24 h almost totally reversed the proliferation-promoting effect of the HCV core protein, and meanwhile, reduced the expression of both Wnt1 mRNA and protein to basal levels. CONCLUSION: These findings provide important evidence that the reduced miR-152 expression by HCV core protein can indirectly lose an inhibitory effect on Wnt1

  14. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Huang, Xiaohua [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); An, Yue [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Ren, Feng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta [Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Xiao, Zhicheng, E-mail: zhicheng.xiao@monash.edu [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Ma, Keli, E-mail: makeli666@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Li, Yali, E-mail: yalilipaper@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078 (Singapore)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  15. Regulation of alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and peroxisome biogenesis in different fermentation processes in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; Warburton, Shannon; Boldogh, Istvan; Svensson, Cecilia; Pon, Liza; d'Anjou, Marc; Stadheim, Terrance A; Choi, Byung-Kwon

    2013-07-20

    Production of recombinant proteins is affected by process conditions, where transcriptional regulation of Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (PpAOX1) promoter has been a key factor to influence expression levels of proteins of interest. Here, we demonstrate that the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis are regulated based on different process conditions. Two types of GFP-fusion proteins, Ub-R-GFP (short-lived GFP in the cytosol) and GFP-SKL (peroxisomal targeting GFP), were successfully used to characterize the time-course of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis, respectively. The activity of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis was highly subjected to different fermentation process conditions - methanol-limited condition at normoxy (ML), switched feeding of carbon sources (e.g., glucose and methanol) under carbon-limited condition at normoxy (SML), and oxygen-limited (OL) condition. The AOX1 promoter was most active under the ML, but less active under the OL. Peroxisome biogenesis showed a high dependency on methanol consumption. In addition, the proliferation of peroxisomes was inhibited in a medium containing glucose and stimulated in the methanol phase under a carbon-limited fed-batch culture condition. The specific productivity of a monoclonal antibody (qp) under the AOX1 promoter was higher at 86h of induction in the ML than in the OL (0.026 vs 0.020mgg(-1)h(-1)). However, the oxygen-limited condition was a robust process suitable for longer induction (180h) due to high cell fitness. Our study suggests that the maximal production of a recombinant protein is highly dependent on methanol consumption rate that is affected by the availability of methanol and oxygen molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Deciphering how LIP2 and POX2 promoters can optimally regulate recombinant protein production in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Hosni; Delvigne, Frank; Kar, Tambi; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Steels, Sebastien; Fickers, Patrick

    2016-09-20

    In recent years, the non-conventional model yeast species Yarrowia lipolytica has received much attention because it is a useful cell factory for producing recombinant proteins. In this species, expression vectors involving LIP2 and POX2 promoters have been developed and used successfully for protein production at yields similar to or even higher than those of other cell factories, such as Pichia pastoris. However, production processes involving these promoters can be difficult to manage, especially if carried out at large scales in fed-batch bioreactors, because they require hydrophobic inducers, such as oleic acid or methyl oleate. Thus, the challenge has become to reduce loads of hydrophobic substrates while simultaneously promoting recombinant protein production. One possible solution is to replace a portion of the inducer with a co-substrate that can serve as an alternative energy source. However, implementing such an approach would require detailed knowledge of how carbon sources impact promoter regulation, which is surprisingly still lacking for the LIP2 and POX2 promoters. This study's aim was thus to better characterize promoter regulation and cell metabolism in Y. lipolytica cultures grown in media supplemented with different carbon sources. pPOX2 induction could be detected when glucose or glycerol was used as sole carbon source, which meant these carbon source could not prevent promoter induction. In addition, when a mixture of glucose and oleic acid was used in complex medium, pPOX2 induction level was lower that that of pLIP2. In contrast, pLIP2 induction was absent when glucose was present in the culture medium, which meant that cell growth could occur without any recombinant gene expression. When a 40/60 mixture of glucose and oleic acid (w/w) was used, a tenfold increase in promoter induction, as compared to when an oleic-acid-only medium was observed. It was also clear that individual cells were adapting metabolically to use both glucose and oleic

  17. Substrate phosphorylation and feedback regulation in JFK-promoted p53 destabilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Luyang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Feng; Huangyang, Peiwei; Si, Wenzhe; Yang, Jie; Yao, Zhi; Shang, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    .... Previously, we reported that JFK, the only Kelch domain-containing F-box protein in human, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of p53 and that unlike the other E3 ligases for p53, all of which...

  18. Mechanical stimulation promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through epigenetic regulation of Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuandong; Shan, Shengzhou; Wang, Chenglong; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiao; Hu, Guoli; Dai, Kerong; Li, Qingfeng; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-03-15

    Mechanical unloading leads to bone loss and disuse osteoporosis partly due to impaired osteoblastogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS) promotes osteoblastogenesis of BMSCs both in vivo and in vitro. Besides, we found that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway was activated in this process. Inhibition of which by either knockdown of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) or treating BMSCs with Hh inhibitors attenuated the osteogenic effect of CMS on BMSCs, suggesting that Hh signaling pathway acts as an endogenous mediator of mechanical stimuli on BMSCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Shh expression level was regulated by DNA methylation mechanism. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that DNA methyltransferase 3b (Dnmt3b) binds to Shh gene promoter, leading to DNA hypermethylation in mechanical unloading BMSCs. However, mechanical stimulation down-regulates the protein level of Dnmt3b, results in DNA demethylation and Shh expression. More importantly, we found that inhibition of Dnmt3b partly rescued bone loss in HU mice by mechanical unloading. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that mechanical stimulation regulates osteoblastic genes expression via direct regulation of Dnmt3b, and the therapeutic inhibition of Dnmt3b may be an efficient strategy for enhancing bone formation under mechanical unloading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of pseudorabies virus gG glycoprotein gene promoter independently of pseudorabies immediate early IE180 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A L; Torres, M; Martín, B; Lerma, L; Tabarés, E

    2010-04-01

    The pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoprotein known as gG is generally regarded as an early protein, and the immediate early IE180 protein regulates its expression during infection. This study, however, provides evidence that although induction by IE180 is observed, the expression of a marker protein (EGFP), or gG itself, under the control of the gG promoter, can also occur independently of the expression of IE180. This result was demonstrated both with transient transfection assays using plasmids and with viral infections. In transient transfections, the expression under control of the gG promoter depends on the cell type and surprisingly, can be 1.3-fold higher than the expression under the control of the IE180 promoter in Hela Tet-Off cells. Recombinant PRV S3 was constructed by replacing gE in the PRV genome with a chimeric transgene, expressing EGFP under the control of the gG promoter. In PK15 cells infected with NIA-3 wild-type virus or with S3 recombinant virus, expression of gG PRV mRNA (or EGFP mRNA) under the control of the gG promoter in the presence of cycloheximide was detected by RT-PCR. This again indicates that some basal expression was produced in infected cells independently of IE180. This expression was augmented by IE180 protein in both plasmid transfections and viral infections.

  20. MiR529a modulates panicle architecture through regulating SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE genes in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Erkui; Li, Chao; Li, Yu; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Jian-Hong

    2017-07-01

    MiR529a affects rice panicle architecture by targeting OsSPL2,OsSPL14 and OsSPL17 genes that could regulate their downstream panicle related genes. The panicle architecture determines the grain yield and quality of rice, which could be regulated by many transcriptional factors. The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of panicle development, which are targeted by miR156 and miR529. The expression profile demonstrated that miR529a is preferentially expressed in the early panicle of rice and it might regulate panicle development in rice. However, the regulation mechanism of miR529-SPL is still not clear. In this study, we predicted five miR529a putative target genes, OsSPL2, OsSPL14, OsSPL16, OsSPL17 and OsSPL18, while only the expression of OsSPL2, OsSPL14, and OsSPL17 was regulated by miR529a in the rice panicle. Overexpression of miR529a dramatically affected panicle architecture, which was regulated by OsSPL2, OsSPL14, and OsSPL17. Furthermore, the 117, 35, and 25 pathway genes associated with OsSPL2, OsSPL14 and OsSPL17, respectively, were predicted, and they shared 20 putative pathway genes. Our results revealed that miR529a could play a vital role in the regulation of panicle architecture through regulating OsSPL2, OsSPL14, OsSPL17 and the complex networks formed by their pathway and downstream genes. These findings will provide new genetic resources for reshaping ideal plant architecture and breeding high yield rice varieties.

  1. Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in an On-Line Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mark; Oliver, Ron

    Self-regulation has long been seen as a desirable but difficult to achieve instructional aim. This is particularly true of online learning, where users have limited instructional support and where attrition rates tend to be greater than in face-to-face teaching. This paper examines the nature of self-regulation, identifying affective and cognitive…

  2. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  3. GBF1 differentially regulates CAT2 and PAD4 transcription to promote pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Mrunmay K; Singh, Nidhi; Banday, Zeeshan Z; Singh, Vijayata; Ram, Hathi; Singh, Deepjyoti; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Nandi, Ashis K

    2017-09-01

    G-BOX BINDING FACTOR 1 (GBF1) influences light-regulated seedling development in Arabidopsis, and inhibits CATALASE 2 (CAT2) expression during senescence. CAT2 functions as a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide. The role of GBF1 in the defense response is not known. We report here that GBF1 positively influences the defense against virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae. The gbf1 mutants are susceptible, whereas GBF1 over-expresser transgenic plants are resistant to bacterial pathogens. GBF1 negatively regulates pathogen-induced CAT2 expression and thereby positively regulates the hypersensitive response. In addition to CAT2 promoter, GBF1 binds to the G-box-like element present in the intron of PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4). This association of GBF1 with PAD4 intron is enhanced upon pathogenesis. GBF1 positively regulates PAD4 transcription in an intron-dependent manner. GBF1-mediated positive regulation of PAD4 expression is also evident in gbf1 mutant and GBF1 over-expression lines. Similar to pad4 mutants, pathogen-induced camalexin and salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, and expression of SA-inducible PATHOGENESIS RELATED1 (PR1) gene are compromised in the gbf1 mutant. Exogenous application of SA rescues the loss-of-defense phenotypes of gbf1 mutant. Thus, altogether, our results demonstrate that GBF1 is an important component of the plant defense response that functions upstream of SA accumulation and, by oppositely regulating CAT2 and PAD4, promotes disease resistance in Arabidopsis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) promoting gastric cancer cells proliferation via regulation of NF-κB1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Xin-Yang; Ning, Xiao-Fei [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining 272029 (China); Yuan, Chuan-Tao [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining 272029 (China); Wang, Ai-Liang, E-mail: wang_ailiang@126.com [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining 272029 (China)

    2015-09-18

    Background and objective: Long non-coding RNA, BANCR, has been demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation and migration of tumors. However, its molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer is still unknown. In present study, we investigated whether BANCR was involved in the development of gastric cancer cells via regulation of NF-κB1. Methods: Human gastric cancer tissues were isolated as well as human gastric cell lines MGC803 and BGC823 were cultured to investigate the role of BANCR in gastric cancer. Results: BANCR expression was significantly up-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and gastric cell lines. Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis, and it also contributed to a significant decrease of NF-κB1 (P50/105) expression and 3′UTR of NF-κB1 activity. Overexpression of NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. MiroRNA-9 (miR-9) targeted NF-κB1, and miR-9 inhibitor also reversed the effects of BANCR on gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: BANCR was highly expressed both in gastric tumor tissues and in cancer cells. NF-κB1 and miR-9 were involved in the role of BANCR in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. - Highlights: • BANCR up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines MGC803 and BGC823. • Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited GC cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. • Down-regulation of BANCR contributed to decreased 3′UTR of NF-κB1 and its expression. • Overexpressed NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on GC cell growth. • miR-9 inhibitor reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer GC cell growth.

  5. A non-coding RNA promotes bacterial persistence and decreases virulence by regulating a regulator in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Romilly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus produces a high number of RNAs for which the functions are poorly understood. Several non-coding RNAs carry a C-rich sequence suggesting that they regulate mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. We demonstrate that the Sigma B-dependent RsaA RNA represses the synthesis of the global transcriptional regulator MgrA by forming an imperfect duplex with the Shine and Dalgarno sequence and a loop-loop interaction within the coding region of the target mRNA. These two recognition sites are required for translation repression. Consequently, RsaA causes enhanced production of biofilm and a decreased synthesis of capsule formation in several strain backgrounds. These phenotypes led to a decreased protection of S. aureus against opsonophagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes compared to the mutant strains lacking RsaA. Mice animal models showed that RsaA attenuates the severity of acute systemic infections and enhances chronic catheter infection. RsaA takes part in a regulatory network that contributes to the complex interactions of S. aureus with the host immune system to moderate invasiveness and favour chronic infections. It is the first example of a conserved small RNA in S. aureus functioning as a virulence suppressor of acute infections. Because S. aureus is essentially a human commensal, we propose that RsaA has been positively selected through evolution to support commensalism and saprophytic interactions with the host.

  6. Distal promoter regions are responsible for differential regulation of human orosomucoid-1 and -2 gene expression and acute phase responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Kimie; Kurose, Kouichi; Koizumi, Tomoko; Katori, Noriko; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Tamura, Tomohide; Okuda, Haruhiro; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Human orosomucoid (ORM) is a major acute-phase plasma protein, encoded by 2 highly homologous genes, ORM1 and ORM2. Human ORM induction is assumed to be regulated by each proximal promoter region, where putative glucocorticoid responsive elements and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β binding sites are located. However, the details of the differential regulation of these genes remain unknown. To explore this, we assessed the role of the distal promoter region of each ORM in HeLa cells. Luciferase-reporter activities of full constructs, containing approximately 1.1 kbp (FULL), and those of deletion constructs, containing up to 188 bp region (DEL) upstream of the transcription start sites of ORM1 and ORM2 were compared under both basal and inducer-treated conditions. For ORM1 and ORM2 DEL constructs, significantly increased activities after dexamethasone (DEX) treatments (alone and combined with interleukin (IL)-1β) were observed. Significantly higher FULL construct activities than DEL construct activities were observed for ORM1 after IL-1β treatment, while those for ORM2 were significantly lower at basal level and after DEX treatments. Upon C/EBPβ overexpression, FULL construct activities were significantly higher than those of DEL constructs at basal level and after IL-1β treatment for ORM1, and at basal level and after inducer-treatments for ORM2. Higher transcription-induction activity in the distal promoter region was evident for ORM1 in the absence of C/EBPβ overexpression, and for ORM2 under C/EBPβ overexpression conditions. These findings suggest that the ORM distal promoter region differentially regulates expression of ORM genes at basal level and in acute phase responses.

  7. A cotton fiber-preferential promoter, PGbEXPA2, is regulated by GA and ABA in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tu, Lili; Ye, Zhengxiu; Wang, Maojun; Gao, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-09-01

    PGbEXPA2 (Promoter of GbEXPA2 ) was preferentially and strongly expressed during cotton fiber development, and the 461-bp PGbEXPA2 fragment was essential for responding to exogenous GA and ABA in Arabidopsis. Cotton fibers are highly elongated single-cell, unbranched and non-glandular seed trichomes. Previous studies have reported that the transcript level of GbEXPA2 is significantly up-regulated during fiber cell elongation, suggesting that GbEXPA2 has an important function in fiber development. In this study, the promoter of GbEXPA2 (839 bp) from the D(T) sub-genome was isolated from Gossypium barbadense 3-79. Consistent with the expression pattern of GbEXPA2, the promoter PGbEXPA2 was able to express GUS to high levels in elongating fibers, but not in the root, stem, or leaf. In Arabidopsis, GUS activity was only found in the rosette leaf trichomes and rosette leaf vascular tissue, indicating that the transcription factors which bind to PGbEXPA2 in the leaf trichomes of transgenic Arabidopsis were similar to those found in cotton fiber. A deletion analysis of PGbEXPA2 revealed that a 461-bp fragment was sufficient to drive GUS expression in cotton fibers and Arabidopsis rosette leaf trichomes. Exogenous phytohormonal treatments on transgenic Arabidopsis with different promoter lengths (P-839, P-705, P-588 and P-461) showed that GUS activity in Arabidopsis trichomes could be strongly up-regulated by GA and, in contrast, down-regulated by ABA.

  8. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Larry A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression is controlled by tissue-specific promoters. Aromatase mRNA is primarily transcribed from promoter I.4 in normal breast tissue and physiological levels of aromatase are found in breast adipose stromal fibroblasts. Under the conditions of breast cancer, as a result of the activation of a distinct set of aromatase promoters (I.3, II, and I.7 aromatase expression is enhanced leading to local overproduction of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Aromatase is considered as a potential target for endocrine treatment of breast cancer but due to nonspecific reduction of aromatase activity in other tissues, aromatase inhibitors (AIs are associated with undesirable side effects such as bone loss, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Inhibition of aromatase expression by inactivating breast tumor-specific aromatase promoters can selectively block estrogen production at the tumor site. Although several synthetic chemical compounds and nuclear receptor ligands are known to inhibit the activity of the tumor-specific aromatase promoters, further development of more specific and efficacious drugs without adverse effects is still warranted. Plants are rich in chemopreventive agents that have a great potential to be used in chemotherapy for hormone dependent breast cancer which could serve as a source for natural AIs. In this brief review, we summarize the studies on phytochemicals such as biochanin A, genistein, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol, and grape seed extracts related to their effect on the activation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters and discuss their aromatase inhibitory potential to be used as safer chemotherapeutic agents for

  9. Paralogous SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes differentially regulate leaf initiation and reproductive phase change in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C; Jorgensen, Stacy A; Orozco, Rebecca; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-02-01

    Duplicated petunia clade-VI SPL genes differentially promote the timing of inflorescence and flower development, and leaf initiation rate. The timing of plant reproduction relative to favorable environmental conditions is a critical component of plant fitness, and is often associated with variation in plant architecture and habit. Recent studies have shown that overexpression of the microRNA miR156 in distantly related annual species results in plants with perennial characteristics, including late flowering, weak apical dominance, and abundant leaf production. These phenotypes are largely mediated through the negative regulation of a subset of genes belonging to the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family of transcription factors. In order to determine how and to what extent paralogous SPL genes have partitioned their roles in plant growth and development, we functionally characterized petunia clade-VI SPL genes under different environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate that PhSBP1and PhSBP2 differentially promote discrete stages of the reproductive transition, and that PhSBP1, and possibly PhCNR, accelerates leaf initiation rate. In contrast to the closest homologs in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus, PhSBP1 and PhSBP2 transcription is not mediated by the gibberellic acid pathway, but is positively correlated with photoperiod and developmental age. The developmental functions of clade-VI SPL genes have, thus, evolved following both gene duplication and speciation within the core eudicots, likely through differential regulation and incomplete sub-functionalization.

  10. Up-Regulated FASN Expression Promotes Transcoelomic Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer Cell through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid synthase (FASN, responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, has been shown to act as an oncogene in various human cancers. However, the mechanisms by which FASN favors the progression of ovarian carcinoma remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated FASN expression in ovarian cancer and investigated how FASN regulates the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Our results show that increased FASN is associated with the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancers. Over-expression of FASN results in a significant increase of tumor burden in peritoneal dissemination, accompanied by augment in cellular colony formation and metastatic ability. Correspondingly, FASN knockdown using RNA interference in ovarian cancer cells inhibits the migration in vitro and experimental peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Mechanistic studies reveal that FASN promotes Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT via a transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin and N-cadherin, which is also confirmed by luciferase promoter activity analysis. Taken together, our work demonstrates that FASN promotes the peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells, at least in part through the induction of EMT. These findings suggest that FASN plays a critical role in the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Targeting de novo lipogenesis may have a therapeutic potential for advanced ovarian cancer.

  11. An Alternative Promoter in Intron1 of the Renin Gene is Regulated by Glucose Starvation via Serum Response Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lutze

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renin is known as a secretory glycoprotein that ultimately leads to angiotensin II generation. In this way renin exerts pro-inflammatory effects and promotes cardiac injury. Additional transcripts have been identified encoding for a cytosolic renin isoform that - in contrast to secretory renin - exhibits cardioprotective effects under ischemic conditions. The promoter of these transcripts is unknown. Methods: Using qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assay we examined the expression and promotor activity of cytosolic renin as well as the regulation by glucose starvation in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Results: We identified a promoter in intron1 of the rat renin gene with two glucose starvation-sensitive regions. One region contains a binding motif for serum response factor (SRF. Under glucose depletion expression of SRF increased prior to cytosolic renin. SRF knock down selectively decreased cytosolic renin expression and attenuated the increase of cytosolic renin expression under glucose depletion. Conclusions: Transcripts encoding for secretory and cytosolic renin are differentially expressed. The low basal expression of cytosolic renin as well as its induction under ischemia-related conditions represents an efficient system regulated in accordance with its previously identified unfavorable effects under control situations but protective effects seen after myocardial infarction or glucose depletion.

  12. An Alternative Promoter in Intron1 of the Renin Gene is Regulated by Glucose Starvation via Serum Response Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutze, Philipp; Wanka, Heike; Bäumgen, Inga; Staar, Doreen; Grunow, Bianka; Peters, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Renin is known as a secretory glycoprotein that ultimately leads to angiotensin II generation. In this way renin exerts pro-inflammatory effects and promotes cardiac injury. Additional transcripts have been identified encoding for a cytosolic renin isoform that - in contrast to secretory renin - exhibits cardioprotective effects under ischemic conditions. The promoter of these transcripts is unknown. Using qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assay we examined the expression and promotor activity of cytosolic renin as well as the regulation by glucose starvation in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. We identified a promoter in intron1 of the rat renin gene with two glucose starvation-sensitive regions. One region contains a binding motif for serum response factor (SRF). Under glucose depletion expression of SRF increased prior to cytosolic renin. SRF knock down selectively decreased cytosolic renin expression and attenuated the increase of cytosolic renin expression under glucose depletion. Transcripts encoding for secretory and cytosolic renin are differentially expressed. The low basal expression of cytosolic renin as well as its induction under ischemia-related conditions represents an efficient system regulated in accordance with its previously identified unfavorable effects under control situations but protective effects seen after myocardial infarction or glucose depletion. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hepcidin is regulated by promoter-associated histone acetylation and HDAC3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Lim, Pei Jin; Duarte, Tiago L; Casu, Carla; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Mleczko-Sanecka, Katarzyna; Suciu, Maria; Da Silva, Ana Rita; Al-Hourani, Kinda; Arezes, João; McHugh, Kirsty; Gooding, Sarah; Frost, Joe N; Wray, Katherine; Santos, Ana; Porto, Graça; Repapi, Emmanouela; Gray, Nicki; Draper, Simon J; Ashley, Neil; Soilleux, Elizabeth; Olinga, Peter; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Hughes, Jim R; Rivella, Stefano; Milne, Thomas A; Armitage, Andrew E; Drakesmith, Hal

    2017-01-01

    Hepcidin regulates systemic iron homeostasis. Suppression of hepcidin expression occurs physiologically in iron deficiency and increased erythropoiesis but is pathologic in thalassemia and hemochromatosis. Here we show that epigenetic events govern hepcidin expression. Erythropoiesis and iron

  14. Isolation and characterization of a rice glutathione S-transferase gene promoter regulated by herbicides and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingzhang; He, Shuai; Yang, Guojun; Zeng, Hua; Wang, Guixue; Chen, Zaigang; Huang, Xiaoyun

    2011-04-01

    OsGSTL2, encoding glutathione S-transferase, is a lambda class gene on chromosome 3 of rice (Oryza sativa L.). RNA blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays demonstrated that the transcription of OsGSTL2 in rice roots treated with chlorsulfuron increased significantly. To further understand OsGSTL2 promoter activity, a DNA fragment (GST2171) of 2,171 bp upstream of the OsGSTL2 coding region was isolated. In silico sequence analysis revealed that this fragment contains stress-regulated regulatory elements, hormone-responsive elements and three transposable elements. To define the core promoter sequence, a series of 5' truncation derivatives of GST2171 were fused to uidA gene. The chimeric genes were introduced into rice plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the GST2171::GUS transgene varied considerably. GUS staining indicated that the uidA gene is expressed in young seedlings, older leaves, flowering glumes and seeds, but not in older roots. Quantitative fluorescence assays revealed that the expression of the uidA gene is strong in young seedlings and decreases gradually over a period of 25 days. To our surprise, among the 5' truncation derivatives, the shortest promoter GST525 showed the highest GUS expression, and the second shortest promoter GST962 showed the lowest GUS expression. The uidA gene expression in the roots of transgenic rice seedlings is upregulated by chlorsulfuron, glyphosate, salicylic acid (SA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The possible roles of the repetitive elements on the OsGSTL2 promoter were discussed in terms of transcription repression and promoter induction by herbicides and hormones.

  15. SnoN regulates mammary gland alveologenesis and onset of lactation by promoting prolactin/Stat5 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahchan, Nadine S; Wang, Douglas; Bissell, Mina J; Luo, Kunxin

    2012-09-01

    Mammary epithelial cells undergo structural and functional differentiation at late pregnancy and parturition to produce and secrete milk. Both TGF-β and prolactin pathways are crucial regulators of this process. However, how the activities of these two antagonistic pathways are orchestrated to initiate lactation has not been well defined. Here, we show that SnoN, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, coordinates TGF-β and prolactin signaling to control alveologenesis and lactogenesis. SnoN expression is induced at late pregnancy by the coordinated actions of TGF-β and prolactin. The elevated SnoN promotes Stat5 signaling by enhancing its stability, thereby sharply increasing the activity of prolactin signaling at the onset of lactation. SnoN-/- mice display severe defects in alveologenesis and lactogenesis, and mammary epithelial cells from these mice fail to undergo proper morphogenesis. These defects can be rescued by an active Stat5. Thus, our study has identified a new player in the regulation of milk production and revealed a novel function of SnoN in mammary alveologenesis and lactogenesis in vivo through promotion of Stat5 signaling.

  16. Up-regulation of Rho-associated kinase 1/2 by glucocorticoids promotes migration, invasion and metastasis of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gao-Xiang; Wang, Yan; Su, Jie; Zhou, Peng; Li, Bo; Yin, Li-Juan; Lu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Although glucocorticoids (GCs) regulate proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells, their influence on metastasis of tumor cells is poorly understood. Melanoma is a type of skin cancers with high metastasis. We investigated the effect of GCs on metastasis of melanoma cells and its mechanism. We found that GCs significantly promoted the adhesion, migration, invasion of melanoma cells in vitro and lung metastasis in experimental melanoma metastasis mice. Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC, did not change the RhoA, RhoB and RhoC signalings, but significantly increased the expression and activity of Rho-associated kinase 1/2 (ROCK1/2). The effect of Dex was to increase ROCK1/2 stability mediated by glucocorticoid receptor. Inhibiting ROCK1/2 activity with Y-27632, a ROCK1/2 inhibitor abrogated the pro-migration and pro-metastasis effects of GCs in vitro and in vivo, indicating that ROCK1/2 mediated the pro-metastasis effects of GCs. Activation of PI3K/AKT also contributed to the pro-migration and pro-invasion effects of Dex partially through up-regulating ROCK1/2 expression. Additionally, Dex also down-regulated the expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Taken together, our findings provide new data to understand the possible promoting roles and mechanisms of GCs in melanoma metastasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF THE JUNB PROMOTER - ANALYSIS OF STAT-MEDIATED SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COFFER, P; LUTTICKEN, C; VANPUIJENBROEK, A; KLOPDEJONGE, M; HORN, F; KRUIJER, W

    1995-01-01

    The product of the junB gene is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors that activate transcription by binding to TPA-responsive elements (TREs) within the promoters of target genes, Components of AP-1 are immediate-early genes whose expression is upregulated by a plethora of

  18. Introduction of Team Self-Regulation for Teamwork Promotion. A Case Study in Energy Engineering Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, María Jesús; Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Alaoui, Fatima E. M.; Aguilar, Fernando; Meneses, Jesús; Montero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The learning and development of teamwork skill is only possible if its achievement is a self-building process of the student. In turn, the teachers must become guides in the process of a learning which is not limited only to the topic of their own course, but which must be imbedded with a good dose of this skill. Promotion of teamwork is not…

  19. Promoting human rights compliance through public procurement (regulation): the New European Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.

    2014-01-01

    While more and more governments use their purchasing power to stimulate green production and to promote social goals such as re-employment, integrating aspects concerning human rights compliance in the supply chain seems to be the next logical step in the ongoing trend of sustainable procurement.

  20. BRCA1-regulated RRM2 expression protects glioblastoma cells from endogenous replication stress and promotes tumorigenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rikke D.; Gajjar, Madhavsai K.; Tuckova, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene-evoked replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability in diverse cancer types. Here we report that BRCA1, traditionally regarded a tumour suppressor, plays an unexpected tumour-promoting role in glioblastoma (GBM), safeguarding a protective response to supraphysiological RS levels. Hi...

  1. Transcriptional regulation of teleost aicda genes. Pt 1 suppressors of promiscuous promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to better understand antibody affinity maturation in fishes we sought to identify gene regulatory elements that could drive expression of activated B-cell specific fluorescent reporter transgenes in zebrafish. Specifically the promoter and several non-coding regions of the channel catfish (...

  2. Genistein: a novel anthocyanin synthesis promoter that directly regulates biosynthetic genes in red cabbage in a light-dependent way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genistein (GNT, an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage.

  3. Mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 promotes subcerebral projection neuron identity in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, William L; Ortiz-Londono, Christian F; Mathew, Thomas K; Hoang, Kendy; Katzman, Sol; Chen, Bin

    2015-09-15

    Generation of distinct cortical projection neuron subtypes during development relies in part on repression of alternative neuron identities. It was reported that the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is required for proper development of callosal neuron identity and represses expression of genes that are essential for subcerebral axon development. Surprisingly, Satb2 has recently been shown to be necessary for subcerebral axon development. Here, we unravel a previously unidentified mechanism underlying this paradox. We show that SATB2 directly activates transcription of forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (Fezf2) and SRY-box 5 (Sox5), genes essential for subcerebral neuron development. We find that the mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 enables Satb2 to promote subcerebral neuron identity in layer 5 neurons, and to repress subcerebral characters in callosal neurons. Thus, Satb2 promotes the development of callosal and subcerebral neurons in a cell context-dependent manner.

  4. Downregulated ECRG4 is associated with poor prognosis in renal cell cancer and is regulated by promoter DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liya; Wu, Jianting; Xie, Jun; Xia, Lingling; Qian, Xuemin; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Zesong

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) has been proposed as a putative tumor suppressor gene in several tumors. However, the role and regulation of ECRG4 in the pathogenesis of human renal cancer remain largely unknown. Our current study revealed that expression of ECRG4 is downregulated in renal cell lines and renal cancer tissues. ECRG4 expression was significantly associated with histological grade of tumors (p renal cancer patients. Silencing of ECRG4 expression in renal cell lines was associated with its promoter methylation. Moreover, ectopic expression of ECRG4 markedly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in renal cancer cell lines. These results indicated that ECRG4 is frequently silenced by the methylation of promoter in renal cell cancers. ECRG4 may be a tumor suppressor in renal cancer and serve as a prognostic marker.

  5. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer granulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

  6. Co-regulated expression of HAND2 and DEIN by a bidirectional promoter with asymmetrical activity in neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAND2, a key regulator for the development of the sympathetic nervous system, is located on chromosome 4q33 in a head-to-head orientation with DEIN, a recently identified novel gene with stage specific expression in primary neuroblastoma (NB. Both genes are expressed in primary NB as well as most NB cell lines and are separated by a genomic sequence of 228 bp. The similar expression profile of both genes suggests a common transcriptional regulation mediated by a bidirectional promoter. Results Northern Blot analysis of DEIN and HAND2 in 20 primary NBs indicated concurrent expression levels of the two genes, which was confirmed by microarray analysis of 236 primary NBs (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.65. While DEIN expression in the latter cohort was associated with stage 4S (p = 0.02, HAND2 expression was not associated with tumor stage. In contrast, both HAND2 and DEIN transcript levels were highly associated with age at diagnosis DEIN orientation, an average 3.4 fold increase in activity was observed as compared to the promoterless vector, whereas an average 15.4 fold activation was detected in HAND2 orientation. The presence of two highly conserved putative regulatory elements, one of which was shown to enhance HAND2 expression in branchial arches previously, displayed weak repressor activity for both genes. Conclusion HAND2 and DEIN represent a gene pair that is tightly linked by a bidirectional promoter in an evolutionary highly conserved manner. Expression of both genes in NB is co-regulated by asymmetrical activity of this promoter and modulated by the activity of two cis-regulatory elements acting as weak repressors. The concurrent quantitative and tissue specific expression of HAND2 and DEIN suggests a functional link between both genes.

  7. Evidence for multiple promoter elements orchestrating male-specific regulation of the her-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Streit, A; Robertson, B; Wood, W B

    1999-01-01

    The sex-determining gene her-1 is required for male development in Caenorhabditis elegans. In XO males, two her-1 mRNAs, her-1a and her-1b, are transcribed from two separate promoters: P1, located in the 5'-flanking region, and P2, located in the large second intron. In XX hermaphrodites, accumulation of both her-1 transcripts is repressed by the sdc genes, which in turn are negatively regulated by the xol-1 gene. When introduced into a xol-1(y9) background, transgenic arrays, including 3.4 k...

  8. Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qiang [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Ning [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Cheng, Jing-Tao [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhang, Bin [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Jie [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Chen, Yong-Jin, E-mail: cyj1229@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation

  9. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulates CD147 via Sp1 in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Ma, Xiangdong; Yang, Hong; Hua, Wei; Chen, Biliang; Cai, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the highest mortality rate of all female reproductive malignancies. Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in malignant tumors. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein acts as an oncoprotein, regulates cell proliferation, and migration in breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines. The mRNA and protein levels of hepatitis B X-interacting protein were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive tissues, cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP and SKOV3/CP, and cisplatin-sensitive cell lines A2780 and SKOV3. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured to evaluate cellular sensitivity to cisplatin in A2780/CP cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the relationship between hepatitis B X-interacting protein and CD147. The in vivo function of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on tumor burden was assessed in cisplatin-resistant xenograft models. The results showed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was highly expressed in ovarian cancer of cisplatin-resistant tissues and cells. Notably, knockdown of hepatitis B X-interacting protein significantly reduced cell viability in A2780/CP compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein and cisplatin cooperated to induce apoptosis and increase the expression of c-caspase 3 as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. We confirmed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein up-regulated CD147 at the protein expression and transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was able to activate the CD147 promoter through Sp1. In vivo, depletion of hepatitis B X-interacting protein decreased the tumor volume and weight induced by cisplatin. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulated CD147 via Sp1 in

  10. USP22 is a positive regulator of NFATc2 on promoting IL2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yayi; Lin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Nie, Jia; Chen, Zuojia; Su, Jinsong; Tang, Jiayou; Wu, Qingsi; Li, Yangyang; Guo, Zhixiang; Gao, Zhimei; Li, Dan; Shen, Jijia; Ge, Shenglin; Tsun, Andy; Li, Bin

    2014-03-18

    Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is an important regulator of T cell activation. However, the molecular mechanism whereby NFATc2 regulates IL2 transcription is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22), known as a cancer stem cell marker, specifically interacted with and deubiquitinated NFATc2. USP22 stabilized NFATc2 protein levels, which required its deubiquitinase activity. Consistent with these observations, depletion of USP22 in T cells reduced the expression of IL2, which is a cytokine that signifies T effector cell activation. Our findings thus unveil a previously uncharacterized positive regulator of NFATc2, suggesting that targeting the deubiquitinase activity of USP22 could have therapeutic benefit to control IL2 expression and T cell function. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. EZH2 promotes cell proliferation by regulating the expression of RUNX3 in laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Rong; Ma, Huimin; Wu, Zhiyan; Zhang, Guozheng; Jiao, Lei; Miao, Wenjie; Jin, Qianqian; Li, Ruixue; Chen, Ping; Shi, Haixu; Yu, Wenfa

    2017-08-09

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a highly conserved histone methyltransferase, which is overexpressed in different types of cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. It is reported that EZH2 can directly down-regulate RUNX3 by increasing histone H3 methylation. However, the role of EZH2 in the development and progression of laryngeal carcinoma has not yet been investigated, and the relationship between EZH2 and RUNX3 in laryngeal carcinoma is rarely reported. The current study aims to determine the role of EZH2 in the progression of laryngeal carcinoma, and investigate the interaction between EZH2 and the tumor suppressor RUNX3. Our study found that EZH2 is overexpressed in laryngeal carcinoma patients, and silencing EZH2 by EZH2 siRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation of laryngeal carcinoma cells. Besides, we also found that RUNX3 is repressed in laryngeal carcinoma patients. Moreover, RUNX3 as a downstream target protein of EZH2 is up-regulated by EZH2 siRNA accompanied by a decrease in the trimethylation modification pattern of H3K27. RUNX3 siRNA inhibits the decreased proliferation induced by EZH2 siRNA. Furthermore, β-catenin protein expression is down-regulated by EZH2 siRNA and up-regulated by RUNX3 siRNA, and RUNX3 siRNA inhibits the down-regulation effect of EZH2 siRNA on β-catenin protein expression. Additionally, the Wnt/β-catenin activator BIO reverses the inhibitory effect of EZH2 siRNA on Hep-2 cell proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that EZH2 regulates cell proliferation potentially by targeting RUNX3 through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in laryngeal carcinoma.

  12. PCAF-primed EZH2 acetylation regulates its stability and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Junhu; Zhan, Jun; Li, Shuai; Ma, Ji; Xu, Weizhi; Liu, Chang; Xue, Xiaowei; Xie, Yuping; Fang, Weigang; Chin, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a key epigenetic regulator that catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K27 and is modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, the precise regulation of EZH2 PTMs remains elusive. We, herein, report that EZH2 is acetylated by acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and is deacetylated by deacetylase SIRT1. We identified that PCAF interacts with and acetylates EZH2 mainly at lysine 348 (K348). Mechanistically, K348 acetylation decr...

  13. [Growth-promoting effect and triptolide production regulation of endophytic bacteria from Tripterygium wilfordii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Jiao; Song, Ping; Feng, Lei; Hong, Wei; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Xi-Jun; Ge, Heng-Yi

    2014-06-01

    A total of twenty-three endophytic bacteria were isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, among which three strains were selected for further studying based on their capabilities of growth-promotion and wheat germination. All three isolated strains could produce phytohormone and siderophore, and LG3 and LJ10 strains were capable of dissolving phosphorus. Additionally, LG3 and LY4 strains were both proved to have nitrogen-fixing function and 1-aminocyclopropane-1carboxy-late deaminase activity. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequence identification and homology analysis suggested that LG3 and LY4 strains belonged to the Enterobacter and LJ10 belonged to the Pantoea. The results of reinoculation experiment demonstrated that three endophytic bacteria could not only promote the growth of Tripterygium wilfordii, but also improve the triptolide contents of different organs significantly.

  14. Up-regulation of CIT promotes the growth of colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zehua; Zhu, Xiangying; Xu, Wendi; Zhang,Yu; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Fabo; Zhang, Binyuan; Wu, Liqun; Peng, Zhihai; Tang, Huamei

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism and therapeutic targets of colon cancer have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that citron rho-interacting, serine/threonine kinase 21 (CIT) promotes the growth of human colon cancer cells. CIT is overexpressed in human colon cancer tissues and cell lines. High expression of CIT predicts poor survival for patients with colon cancer. In colon cancer cells, ...

  15. Specific expression of bioluminescence reporter gene in cardiomyocyte regulated by tissue specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Tae, Seong Ho; Le, Nguyen Uyen Chi; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As the human heart is not capable of regenerating the great numbers of cardiac cells that are lost after myocardial infarction, impaired cardiac function is the inevitable result of ischemic disease. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for tissue regeneration. In particular, hESCs are capable of cardiac lineage-specific differentiation and confer improvement of cardiac function following transplantation into animal models. Although such data are encouraging, the specific strategy for in vivo and non-invasive detection of differentiated cardiac lineage is still limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established the gene construction in which the optical reporter gene Firefly luciferase was controlled by Myosin Heavy Chain promoter for specific expressing in heart cells. The vector consisting of - MHC promoter and a firefly luciferase coding sequence flanked by full-length bovine growth hormone (BGH) 3'-polyadenylation sequence based on pcDNA3.1- vector backbone. To test the specific transcription of this promoter in g of MHC-Fluc or CMV-Flue (for control) plasmid DNA in myocardial tissue, 20 phosphate-buffered saline was directly injected into mouse myocardium through a midline sternotomy and liver. After 1 week of injection, MHC-Fluc expression was detected from heart region which was observed under cooled CCD camera of in vivo imaging system but not from liver. In control group injected with CMV-Flue, the bioluminescence was detected from all these organs. The expression of Flue under control of Myosin Heavy Chain promoter may become a suitable optical reporter gene for stem cell-derived cardiac lineage differentiation study.

  16. ATPase activity tightly regulates RecA nucleofilaments to promote homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bailin; Zhang, Dapeng; Li, Chengmin; Yuan, Zheng; Yu, Fangzhi; Zhong, Shangwei; Jiang, Guibin; Yang, Yun-Gui; Le, X Chris; Weinfeld, Michael; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR), catalyzed in an evolutionarily conserved manner by active RecA/Rad51 nucleofilaments, maintains genomic integrity and promotes biological evolution and diversity. The structures of RecA/Rad51 nucleofilaments provide information critical for the entire HR process. By exploiting a unique capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence polarization assay, we have discovered an active form of RecA nucleofilament, stimulated by ATP hydrolysis, that contains mainly unbound nucleotide sites. This finding was confirmed by a nuclease protection assay and electron microscopy (EM) imaging. We further found that these RecA-unsaturated filaments promote strand exchange in vitro and HR in vivo. RecA mutants (P67D and P67E), which only form RecA-unsaturated nucleofilaments, were able to mediate HR in vitro and in vivo, but mutants favoring the formation of the saturated nucleofilaments failed to support HR. We thus present a new model for RecA-mediated HR in which RecA utilizes its intrinsic DNA binding-dependent ATPase activity to remodel the nucleofilaments to a less saturated form and thereby promote HR.

  17. ADAM10-Interacting Tetraspanins Tspan5 and Tspan17 Regulate VE-Cadherin Expression and Promote T Lymphocyte Transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyat, Jasmeet S; Chimen, Myriam; Noy, Peter J; Szyroka, Justyna; Rainger, G Ed; Tomlinson, Michael G

    2017-07-15

    The recruitment of blood leukocytes across the endothelium to sites of tissue infection is central to inflammation, but also promotes chronic inflammatory diseases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitous transmembrane molecular scissor that is implicated in leukocyte transmigration by proteolytically cleaving its endothelial substrates. These include VE-cadherin, a homotypic adhesion molecule that regulates endothelial barrier function, and transmembrane chemokines CX3CL1 and CXCL16, which have receptors on leukocytes. However, a definitive role for endothelial ADAM10 in transmigration of freshly isolated primary leukocytes under flow has not been demonstrated, and the relative importance of distinct ADAM10 substrates is unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that ADAM10 can be regarded as six different molecular scissors with different substrate specificities, depending on which of six TspanC8 tetraspanins it is associated with, but TspanC8s remain unstudied in leukocyte transmigration. In the current study, ADAM10 knockdown on primary HUVECs was found to impair transmigration of freshly isolated human peripheral blood T lymphocytes, but not neutrophils or B lymphocytes, in an in vitro flow assay. This impairment was due to delayed transmigration rather than a complete block, and was overcome in the presence of neutrophils. Transmigration of purified lymphocytes was dependent on ADAM10 regulation of VE-cadherin, but not CX3CL1 and CXCL16. Tspan5 and Tspan17, the two most closely related TspanC8s by sequence, were the only TspanC8s that regulated VE-cadherin expression and were required for lymphocyte transmigration. Therefore endothelial Tspan5- and Tspan17-ADAM10 complexes may regulate inflammation by maintaining normal VE-cadherin expression and promoting T lymphocyte transmigration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors.

  18. THE REGULATIONS RELATING TO FOODSTUFFS FOR INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN (R 991): A FORMULA FOR THE PROMOTION OF BREASTFEEDING OR CENSORSHIP OF COMMERCIAL SPEECH?

    OpenAIRE

    Lize Mills

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of commercial speech in the interests of public health is an issue which recently has become the topic of numerous debates. Two examples of such governmental regulation are the subjects of discussion in this article, namely the prohibition on the advertising and promotion of tobacco products, as well as the proposed prohibition on the advertising and promotion of infant formulae and other foods and products marketed as being suitable for infants or young children. The article s...

  19. H3 lysine 4 is acetylated at active gene promoters and is regulated by H3 lysine 4 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Guillemette

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me is an evolutionarily conserved modification whose role in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied. In contrast, the function of H3K4 acetylation (H3K4ac has received little attention because of a lack of tools to separate its function from that of H3K4me. Here we show that, in addition to being methylated, H3K4 is also acetylated in budding yeast. Genetic studies reveal that the histone acetyltransferases (HATs Gcn5 and Rtt109 contribute to H3K4 acetylation in vivo. Whilst removal of H3K4ac from euchromatin mainly requires the histone deacetylase (HDAC Hst1, Sir2 is needed for H3K4 deacetylation in heterochomatin. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we show that H3K4ac is enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes and located just upstream of H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3, a pattern that has been conserved in human cells. We find that the Set1-containing complex (COMPASS, which promotes H3K4me2 and -me3, also serves to limit the abundance of H3K4ac at gene promoters. In addition, we identify a group of genes that have high levels of H3K4ac in their promoters and are inadequately expressed in H3-K4R, but not in set1Δ mutant strains, suggesting that H3K4ac plays a positive role in transcription. Our results reveal a novel regulatory feature of promoter-proximal chromatin, involving mutually exclusive histone modifications of the same histone residue (H3K4ac and H3K4me.

  20. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Promoting Self-Regulation through School-Based Martial Arts Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a…

  2. The oncogenic microRNA miR-21 promotes regulated necrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Conklin, Daniel J; Li, Fenge; Dai, Zhongping; Hua, Xiang; Li, Yan; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Young, Ken H; Xiong, Wei; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Sithu, Srinivas D; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Li, Yong

    2015-05-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate apoptosis, yet their role in regulated necrosis remains unknown. miR-21 is overexpressed in nearly all human cancer types and its role as an oncogene is suggested to largely depend on its anti-apoptotic action. Here we show that miR-21 is overexpressed in a murine model of acute pancreatitis, a pathologic condition involving RIP3-dependent regulated necrosis (necroptosis). Therefore, we investigate the role of miR-21 in acute pancreatitis injury and necroptosis. miR-21 deficiency protects against caerulein- or L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. miR-21 inhibition using locked-nucleic-acid-modified oligonucleotide effectively reduces pancreatitis severity. miR-21 deletion is also protective in tumour necrosis factor-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These data suggest that miRNAs are critical participants in necroptosis and miR-21 enhances cellular necrosis by negatively regulating tumour suppressor genes associated with the death-receptor-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway, and could be a therapeutic target for preventing pathologic necrosis.

  3. Functional analysis of a Lemna gibba rbcS promoter regulated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) are able to respond to multiple environmental and developmental signals, including light, sugar and abscisic acid (ABA). PhANGs have been extensively studied at the level of transcriptional regulation, and several cis-acting elements important for light responsiveness ...

  4. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Debra L; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4(Cdt2)) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression.

  5. Promoting Self-Regulation and Critical Reflection through Writing Students' Use of Electronic Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jill D.

    2011-01-01

    The role of reflection in the learning process has taken on new significance in a digital environment. The potential of using innovative teaching methods to prompt first-year writing students to self-regulate learning behaviors and write more critical reflection statements when using electronic portfolios was studied over eight fall semesters.…

  6. Cycling for Students with ASD: Self-Regulation Promotes Sustained Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg; Butler-Kisber, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included…

  7. A photo-responsive F-box protein FOF2 regulates floral initiation by promoting FLC expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Reqing; Li, Xinmei; Zhong, Ming; Yan, Jindong; Ji, Ronghuan; Li, Xu; Wang, Qin; Wu, Dan; Sun, Mengsi; Tang, Dongying; Lin, Jianzhong; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Hongtao; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying; Lin, Chentao

    2017-09-01

    Floral initiation is regulated by various genetic pathways in response to light, temperature, hormones and developmental status; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between different genetic pathways are not fully understood. Here, we show that the photoresponsive gene FOF2 (F-box of flowering 2) negatively regulates flowering. FOF2 encodes a putative F-box protein that interacts specifically with ASK14, and its overexpression results in later flowering under both long-day and short-day photoperiods. Conversely, transgenic plants expressing the F-box domain deletion mutant of FOF2 (FOF2ΔF), or double loss of function mutant of FOF2 and FOL1 (FOF2-LIKE 1) present early flowering phenotypes. The late flowering phenotype of the FOF2 overexpression lines is suppressed by the flc-3 loss-of-function mutation. Furthermore, FOF2 mRNA expression is regulated by autonomous pathway gene FCA, and the repressive effect of FOF2 in flowering can be overcome by vernalization. Interestingly, FOF2 expression is regulated by light. The protein level of FOF2 accumulates in response to light, whereas it is degraded under dark conditions via the 26S proteasome pathway. Our findings suggest a possible mechanistic link between light conditions and the autonomous floral promotion pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. miR-10 Regulates the Angiogenic Behavior of Zebrafish and Human Endothelial Cells by Promoting VEGF Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, David; Cheng, Paul; White, Mark P.; Ivey, Kathryn N.; Kroll, Jens; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Katus, Hugo A.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Srivastava, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Formation and remodeling of the vasculature during development and disease involves a highly conserved and precisely regulated network of attractants and repellants. Various signaling pathways control the behavior of endothelial cells, but their post-transcriptional dose-titration by miRNAs is poorly understood. Objective To identify miRNAs that regulate angiogenesis. Methods and Results We show that the highly conserved microRNA family encoding miR-10 regulates the behavior of endothelial cells during angiogenesis by positively titrating pro-angiogenic signaling. Knockdown of miR-10 led to premature truncation of intersegmental vessel growth (ISV) in the trunk of zebrafish larvae, while overexpression of miR-10 promoted angiogenic behavior in zebrafish and cultured human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that miR-10 functions, in part, by directly regulating the level of fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1), a cell-surface protein that sequesters VEGF, and its soluble splice variant sFLT1. The increase in FLT1/sFLT1 protein levels upon miR-10 knockdown in zebrafish and in HUVECs inhibited the angiogenic behavior of endothelial cells largely by antagonizing VEGF receptor-2 signaling. Conclusion Our study provides insights into how FLT1 and VEGF receptor-2 signaling is titrated in a miRNA-mediated manner and establishes miR-10 as a potential new target for the selective modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:22955733

  9. Loss of promoter IV-driven BDNF expression impacts oscillatory activity during sleep, sensory information processing and fear regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J L; Hardy, N F; Jimenez, D V; Maynard, K R; Kardian, A S; Pollock, C J; Schloesser, R J; Martinowich, K

    2016-08-23

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is characterized by hyperarousal, sensory processing impairments, sleep disturbances and altered fear regulation; phenotypes associated with changes in brain oscillatory activity. Molecules associated with activity-dependent plasticity, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), may regulate neural oscillations by controlling synaptic activity. BDNF synthesis includes production of multiple Bdnf transcripts, which contain distinct 5' noncoding exons. We assessed arousal, sensory processing, fear regulation and sleep in animals where BDNF expression from activity-dependent promoter IV is disrupted (Bdnf-e4 mice). Bdnf-e4 mice display sensory hyper-reactivity and impaired electrophysiological correlates of sensory information processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERP). Utilizing electroencephalogram, we identified a decrease in slow-wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, suggesting impaired sleep homeostasis. Fear extinction is controlled by hippocampal-prefrontal cortical BDNF signaling, and neurophysiological communication patterns between the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlate with behavioral performance during extinction. Impaired fear extinction in Bdnf-e4 mice is accompanied by increased HPC activation and decreased HPC-mPFC theta phase synchrony during early extinction, as well as increased mPFC activation during extinction recall. These results suggest that activity-dependent BDNF signaling is critical for regulating oscillatory activity, which may contribute to altered behavior.

  10. MicroRNA-181 regulates CARM1 and histone arginine methylation to promote differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Xu

    Full Text Available As a novel epigenetic mechanism, histone H3 methylation at R17 and R26, which is mainly catalyzed by coactivator-associated protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1, has been reported to modulate the transcription of key pluripotency factors and to regulate pluripotency in mouse embryos and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs in previous studies. However, the role of CARM1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and the regulatory mechanism that controls CARM1 expression during ESCs differentiation are presently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CARM1 plays an active role in the resistance to differentiation in hESCs by regulating pluripotency genes in response to BMP4. In a functional screen, we identified the miR-181 family as a regulator of CARM1 that is induced during ESC differentiation and show that endogenous miR-181c represses the expression of CARM1. Depletion of CARM1 or enforced expression of miR-181c inhibits the expression of pluripotency genes and induces differentiation independent of BMP4, whereas overexpression of CARM1 or miR-181c inhibitor elevates Nanog and impedes differentiation. Furthermore, expression of CARM1 rescue constructs inhibits the effect of miR-181c overexpression in promoting differentiation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of a miR-181c-CARM1 pathway in regulating the differentiation of hESCs.

  11. Cap-n-Collar Promotes Tissue Regeneration by Regulating ROS and JNK Signaling in the Drosophila melanogaster Wing Imaginal Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amanda R; Seto, Mabel; Smith-Bolton, Rachel K

    2017-07-01

    Regeneration is a complex process that requires an organism to recognize and repair tissue damage, as well as grow and pattern new tissue. Here, we describe a genetic screen to identify novel regulators of regeneration. We ablated the Drosophila melanogaster larval wing primordium by inducing apoptosis in a spatially and temporally controlled manner and allowed the tissue to regenerate and repattern. To identify genes that regulate regeneration, we carried out a dominant-modifier screen by assessing the amount and quality of regeneration in adult wings heterozygous for isogenic deficiencies. We have identified 31 regions on the right arm of the third chromosome that modify the regenerative response. Interestingly, we observed several distinct phenotypes: mutants that regenerated poorly, mutants that regenerated faster or better than wild-type, and mutants that regenerated imperfectly and had patterning defects. We mapped one deficiency region to cap-n-collar (cnc), the Drosophila Nrf2 ortholog, which is required for regeneration. Cnc regulates reactive oxygen species levels in the regenerating epithelium, and affects c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling, growth, debris localization, and pupariation timing. Here, we present the results of our screen and propose a model wherein Cnc regulates regeneration by maintaining an optimal level of reactive oxygen species to promote JNK signaling. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Down-regulation of microRNA-26a promotes mouse hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inadequate liver regeneration (LR is still an unsolved problem in major liver resection and small-for-size syndrome post-living donor liver transplantation. A number of microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell proliferation. Herein, we investigated the role of miR-26a as a pivotal regulator of hepatocyte proliferation in LR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice, undergoing 70% partial hepatectomy (PH, were treated with Ad5-anti-miR-26a-LUC or Ad5-miR-26a-LUC or Ad5-LUC vector via portal vein. The animals were subjected to in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Serum and liver samples were collected to test liver function, calculate liver-to-body weight ratio (LBWR, document hepatocyte proliferation (Ki-67 staining, and investigate potential targeted gene expression of miR-26a by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. The miR-26a level declined during LR after 70% PH. Down-regulation of miR-26a by anti-miR-26a expression led to enhanced proliferation of hepatocytes, and both LBWR and hepatocyte proliferation (Ki-67(+ cells % showed an increased tendency, while liver damage, indicated by aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and total bilirubin (T-Bil, was reduced. Furthermore, CCND2 and CCNE2, as possible targeted genes of miR-26a, were up-regulated. In addition, miR-26a over-expression showed converse results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MiR-26a plays crucial role in regulating the proliferative phase of LR, probably by repressing expressions of cell cycle proteins CCND2 and CCNE2. The current study reveals a novel miRNA-mediated regulation pattern during the proliferative phase of LR.

  13. Stress-induced nuclear RNA degradation pathways regulate yeast bromodomain factor 2 to promote cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomain proteins are key regulators of gene expression. How the levels of these factors are regulated in specific environmental conditions is unknown. Previous work has established that expression of yeast Bromodomain factor 2 (BDF2 is limited by spliceosome-mediated decay (SMD. Here we show that BDF2 is subject to an additional layer of post-transcriptional control through RNase III-mediated decay (RMD. We found that the yeast RNase III Rnt1p cleaves a stem-loop structure within the BDF2 mRNA to down-regulate its expression. However, these two nuclear RNA degradation pathways play distinct roles in the regulation of BDF2 expression, as we show that the RMD and SMD pathways of the BDF2 mRNA are differentially activated or repressed in specific environmental conditions. RMD is hyper-activated by salt stress and repressed by hydroxyurea-induced DNA damage while SMD is inactivated by salt stress and predominates during DNA damage. Mutations of cis-acting signals that control SMD and RMD rescue numerous growth defects of cells lacking Bdf1p, and show that SMD plays an important role in the DNA damage response. These results demonstrate that specific environmental conditions modulate nuclear RNA degradation pathways to control BDF2 expression and Bdf2p-mediated gene regulation. Moreover, these results show that precise dosage of Bromodomain factors is essential for cell survival in specific environmental conditions, emphasizing their importance for controlling chromatin structure and gene expression in response to environmental stress.

  14. Stress-Induced Nuclear RNA Degradation Pathways Regulate Yeast Bromodomain Factor 2 to Promote Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin; Chanfreau, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Bromodomain proteins are key regulators of gene expression. How the levels of these factors are regulated in specific environmental conditions is unknown. Previous work has established that expression of yeast Bromodomain factor 2 (BDF2) is limited by spliceosome-mediated decay (SMD). Here we show that BDF2 is subject to an additional layer of post-transcriptional control through RNase III-mediated decay (RMD). We found that the yeast RNase III Rnt1p cleaves a stem-loop structure within the BDF2 mRNA to down-regulate its expression. However, these two nuclear RNA degradation pathways play distinct roles in the regulation of BDF2 expression, as we show that the RMD and SMD pathways of the BDF2 mRNA are differentially activated or repressed in specific environmental conditions. RMD is hyper-activated by salt stress and repressed by hydroxyurea-induced DNA damage while SMD is inactivated by salt stress and predominates during DNA damage. Mutations of cis-acting signals that control SMD and RMD rescue numerous growth defects of cells lacking Bdf1p, and show that SMD plays an important role in the DNA damage response. These results demonstrate that specific environmental conditions modulate nuclear RNA degradation pathways to control BDF2 expression and Bdf2p-mediated gene regulation. Moreover, these results show that precise dosage of Bromodomain factors is essential for cell survival in specific environmental conditions, emphasizing their importance for controlling chromatin structure and gene expression in response to environmental stress. PMID:25232960

  15. Conditions and Regulation of Mixed Culture to Promote Shiraia bambusicola and Phoma sp. BZJ6 for Laccase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Sun, Chunlong; Wang, Jun; Xie, Wenjun; Wang, Baoqin; Liu, Xuehong; Zhang, Yumiao; Fan, Yanhui

    2017-12-19

    Mixing cultures induces the biosynthesis of laccase in mixed cells, produces signal molecules, and regulates the production of mixed-cell metabolites. The fungal strain, which promotes laccase production, has been isolated and screened from the host bamboos of endophytic fungi and identified as Phoma sp. BZJ6. When the culture medium is mainly composed of soluble starch, yeast extract, and Phoma sp., the laccase output can reach 4,680 U/L. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to promote the regulation of laccase synthesis. Plasma membrane NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors and NO-specific quenchers can inhibit not only the accumulation of ROS induced and NO synthesis but also the biosynthesis of laccase. The results indicate that the accumulation of superoxide anion radical (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced by the mixed culture was partially dependent on NO. The mixed culture can also reduce the biomass, increase the synthesis of total phenolics and flavonoids, and enhance the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase. This phenomenon is probably the result of the activated phenylpropanoids-flavonoid pathway. Results confirmed that the mixture culture is advantageous for laccase production and revealed that NO, O2-, and H2O2 are necessary signal molecules to induce laccase synthesis.

  16. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  17. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu

    2017-01-01

    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer.

  18. Hepatic Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs: High Promoter Conservation and Dynamic, Sex-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation by Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Tisha; Hao, Pengying; Yilmaz, Feyza; Waxman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key chromatin regulators, yet few studies have characterized lincRNAs in a single tissue under diverse conditions. Here, we analyzed 45 mouse liver RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data sets collected under diverse conditions to systematically characterize 4,961 liver lincRNAs, 59% of them novel, with regard to gene structures, species conservation, chromatin accessibility, transcription factor binding, and epigenetic states. To investigate the potential for functionality, we focused on the responses of the liver lincRNAs to growth hormone stimulation, which imparts clinically relevant sex differences to hepatic metabolism and liver disease susceptibility. Sex-biased expression characterized 247 liver lincRNAs, with many being nuclear RNA enriched and regulated by growth hormone. The sex-biased lincRNA genes are enriched for nearby and correspondingly sex-biased accessible chromatin regions, as well as sex-biased binding sites for growth hormone-regulated transcriptional activators (STAT5, hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 [HNF6], FOXA1, and FOXA2) and transcriptional repressors (CUX2 and BCL6). Repression of female-specific lincRNAs in male liver, but not that of male-specific lincRNAs in female liver, was associated with enrichment of H3K27me3-associated inactive states and poised (bivalent) enhancer states. Strikingly, we found that liver-specific lincRNA gene promoters are more highly species conserved and have a significantly higher frequency of proximal binding by liver transcription factors than liver-specific protein-coding gene promoters. Orthologs for many liver lincRNAs were identified in one or more supraprimates, including two rat lincRNAs showing the same growth hormone-regulated, sex-biased expression as their mouse counterparts. This integrative analysis of liver lincRNA chromatin states, transcription factor occupancy, and growth hormone regulation provides novel insights into the

  19. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics...... cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division....

  20. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiao-Li

    2016-04-29

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  1. SynDIG1 promotes excitatory synaptogenesis independent of AMPA receptor trafficking and biophysical regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Lovero

    Full Text Available AMPA receptors-mediators of fast, excitatory transmission and synaptic plasticity in the brain-achieve great functional diversity through interaction with different auxiliary subunits, which alter both the trafficking and biophysical properties of these receptors. In the past several years an abundance of new AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits have been identified, adding astounding variety to the proteins known to directly bind and modulate AMPA receptors. SynDIG1 was recently identified as a novel AMPA receptor interacting protein that directly binds to the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in heterologous cells. Functionally, SynDIG1 was found to regulate the strength and density of AMPA receptor containing synapses in hippocampal neurons, though the way in which SynDIG1 exerts these effects remains unknown. Here, we aimed to determine if SynDIG1 acts as a traditional auxiliary subunit, directly regulating the function and localization of AMPA receptors in the rat hippocampus. We find that, unlike any of the previously characterized AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits, SynDIG1 expression does not impact AMPA receptor gating, pharmacology, or surface trafficking. Rather, we show that SynDIG1 regulates the number of functional excitatory synapses, altering both AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated transmission. Our findings suggest that SynDIG1 is not a typical auxiliary subunit to AMPA receptors, but instead is a protein critical to excitatory synaptogenesis.

  2. The demands of lactation promote differential regulation of lipid stores in fasting elephant seals.

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    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting animals must ration stored reserves appropriately for metabolic demands. Animals that experience fasting concomitant with other metabolically demanding activities are presented with conflicting demands of energy conservation and expenditure. Our objective was to understand how fasting northern elephant seals regulate the mobilization of lipid reserves and subsequently milk lipid content during lactation. We sampled 36 females early and 39 at the end of lactation. To determine the separate influences of lactation from fasting, we also sampled fasting but non-lactating females early and late (8 and 6 seals, respectively) in their molting fasting period. Mass and adiposity were measured, as well as circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triacylglycerol (TAG), cortisol, insulin and growth hormone levels. Milk was collected from lactating females. Milk lipid content increased from 31% in early to 51% in late lactation. In lactating females plasma NEFA was positively related to cortisol and negatively related to insulin, but in molting seals, only variation in cortisol was related to NEFA. Milk lipid content varied with mass, adiposity, NEFA, TAG, cortisol and insulin. Surprisingly, growth hormone concentration was not related to lipid metabolites or milk lipid. Suppression of insulin release appears to be the differential regulator of lipolysis in lactating versus molting seals, facilitating mobilization of stored lipids and maintenance of high NEFA concentrations for milk synthesis. Milk lipid was strongly impacted by the supply of substrate to the mammary gland, indicating regulation at the level of mobilization of lipid reserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 associates with MINISEED3 and HAIKU2 promoters in vivo to regulate Arabidopsis seed development.

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    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Kang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhang, Xiansheng; Ni, Min

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes an initial phase of endosperm proliferation followed by a second phase in which the embryo grows at the expense of the endosperm. As mature seed size is largely attained during the initial phase, seed size is coordinately determined by the growth of the maternal ovule, endosperm, and embryo. Here, we identify SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis seed development that affects both cell size and cell number. shb1-D, a gain-of-function overexpression allele, increases seed size, and shb1, a loss-of-function allele, reduces seed size. SHB1 is transmitted zygotically. The increase in shb1-D seed size is associated with endosperm cellurization, chalazal endosperm enlargement, and embryo development. SHB1 is required for the proper expression of two other genes that affect endosperm development, MINISEED3 (MINI3) and HAIKU2 (IKU2), a WRKY transcription factor gene and a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase gene. SHB1 associates with both MINI3 and IKU2 promoters in vivo. SHB1 may act with other proteins that bind to MINI3 and IKU2 promoters to promote a large seed cavity and endosperm growth in the early phase of seed development. In the second phase, SHB1 enhances embryo cell proliferation and expansion through a yet unknown IKU2-independent pathway.

  4. Generation and evaluation of an IPTG-regulated version of Vav-gene promoter for mouse transgenesis.

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    Francesca Grespi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Different bacteria-derived systems for regulatable gene expression have been developed for the use in mammalian cells and some were also successfully adopted for in vivo use in vertebrate model organisms. However, certain limitations apply to most of these systems, including leakiness of transgene expression, inefficient transgene silencing or activation, as well as limited tissue accessibility of transgene-inducers or their unfavourable pharmacokinetics. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of the lac-operon/lac-repressor (lacO/lacI system for the regulation of the well-established Vav-gene promoter that allows inducible transgene expression in different haematopoietic lineages in mice. Using the fluorescence marker protein Venus as a reporter, we observed that the lacO/lacI system could be amended to modulate transgene-expression in haematopoietic cells. However, reporter expression was not uniform and the lacO elements introduced into the Vav-gene promoter only conferred limited repression and reversion of lacI-mediated gene silencing after administration of IPTG. Although further optimization of the system is required, the lacO-modified version of the Vav-gene promoter may be adopted as a tool where low basal gene-expression and limited transient induction of protein expression are desired, e.g. for the activation of oncogenes or transgenes that act in a dominant-negative manner.

  5. Sgo1 regulates both condensin and Ipl1/Aurora B to promote chromosome biorientation.

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    Karolina Peplowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correct chromosome segregation is essential in order to prevent aneuploidy. To segregate sister chromatids equally to daughter cells, the sisters must attach to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles. This so-called biorientation manifests itself by increased tension and conformational changes across kinetochores and pericentric chromatin. Tensionless attachments are dissolved by the activity of the conserved mitotic kinase Aurora B/Ipl1, thereby promoting the formation of correctly attached chromosomes. Recruitment of the conserved centromeric protein shugoshin is essential for biorientation, but its exact role has been enigmatic. Here, we identify a novel function of shugoshin (Sgo1 in budding yeast that together with the protein phosphatase PP2A-Rts1 ensures localization of condensin to the centromeric chromatin in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Failure to recruit condensin results in an abnormal conformation of the pericentric region and impairs the correction of tensionless chromosome attachments. Moreover, we found that shugoshin is required for maintaining Aurora B/Ipl1 localization on kinetochores during metaphase. Thus, shugoshin has a dual function in promoting biorientation in budding yeast: first, by its ability to facilitate condensin recruitment it modulates the conformation of the pericentric chromatin. Second, shugoshin contributes to the maintenance of Aurora B/Ipl1 at the kinetochore during gradual establishment of bipolarity in budding yeast mitosis. Our findings identify shugoshin as a versatile molecular adaptor that governs chromosome biorientation.

  6. B cells promote tumor progression via STAT3 regulated-angiogenesis.

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    Chunmei Yang

    Full Text Available The role of B cells in cancer and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. Here, we show that tumor-associated B cells with activated STAT3 contribute to tumor development by promoting tumor angiogenesis. B cells with or without Stat3 have opposite effects on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in both B16 melanoma and Lewis Lung Cancer mouse models. Ex vivo angiogenesis assays show that B cell-mediated tumor angiogenesis is mainly dependent on the induction of pro-angiogenic gene expression, which requires Stat3 signaling in B cells. Furthermore, B cells with activated STAT3 are mainly found in or near tumor vasculature and correlate significantly with overall STAT3 activity in human tumors. Moreover, the density of B cells in human tumor tissues correlates significantly with expression levels of several STAT3-downstream pro-angiogenic genes, as well as the degree of tumor angiogenesis. Together, these findings define a novel role of B cells in promoting tumor progression through angiogenesis and identify STAT3 in B cells as potential therapeutic target for anti-angiogenesis therapy.

  7. Ras induces experimental lung metastasis through up-regulation of RbAp46 to suppress RECK promoter activity.

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    Yeh, Hsuan-Heng; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Shan-Ying; Raghavaraju, Giri; Cheng, Da-En; Lee, Ying-Ray; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Chow, Nan-Haw; Hung, Wen-Chun; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2015-03-25

    Mutant Ras plays multiple functions in tumorigenesis including tumor formation and metastasis. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a metastasis inhibitor gene, suppresses matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the metastatic cascade. Clarifying the relationship between Ras and RECK and understanding the underlying molecular mechanism may lead to the development of better treatment for Ras-related tumors. Suppression subtractive hybridization PCR (SSH PCR) was conducted to identify Ha-ras (val12) up-regulated genes in bladder cancer cells. Stable cell lines of human breast cancer (MCF-7-ras) and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts (7-4) harboring the inducible Ha-ras (val12) oncogene, which could be induced by isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG), were used to clarify the relationship between Ras and the up-regulated genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) and RECK reporter gene assay were utilized to confirm the complex formation and binding with promoters. Retinoblastoma binding protein-7 (RbAp46) was identified and confirmed as a Ha-ras (val12) up-regulated gene. RbAp46 could bind with histone deacetylase (HDAC1) and Sp1, followed by binding to RECK promoter at the Sp1 site resulting in repression of RECK expression. High expression of Ras protein accompanied with high RbAp46 and low RECK expression were detected in 75% (3/4) of the clinical bladder cancer tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal parts. Ras induced RbAp46 expression increases invasion of the bladder cancer T24 cells and MMP-9 activity was increased, which was confirmed by specific lentiviral shRNAs inhibitors against Ras and RbAp46. Similarly, knockdown of RbAp46 expression in the stable NIH3T3 cells "7-4" by shRNA decreased Ras-related lung metastasis using a xenograft nude mice model. We confirmed that RbAp46 is a Ha-ras (val12) up-regulated gene and binds with HDAC1 and Sp1. Furthermore, RbAp46 binds to the RECK

  8. Association of PITX2 mRNA down-regulation in prostate cancer with promoter hypermethylation and poor prognosis.

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    Vinarskaja, Anna; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Ingenwerth, Marc; Hader, Christiane; Arsov, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Hypermethylation of the PITX2 (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2) gene promoter is strongly associated with recurrence after radical prostatectomy. We hypothesized that PITX2 hypermethylation leads to PITX2 silencing and that decreased PITX2 expression is likewise associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancers. Moreover, it is unknown so far how PITX2 hypermethylation relates to other molecular changes in prostate cancer, such as ERG oncogenic activation in about half of all cases. To investigate how PITX2 expression and methylation are related, whether biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy can be predicted by PITX2 mRNA levels, and how changes in PITX2 relate to ERG overexpression. We measured PITX2 and ERG expression in 45 cancerous and 13 benign tissues from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (age range: 59-74 years). Methylation of the PITX2 gene was analyzed in an extended series of 93 cancers. Follow-up was performed for all patients for a 98-month median period. Additionally, expression and methylation changes of PITX2 were investigated in prostate carcinoma cell lines. Gene expression and methylation were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Biochemical recurrence defined as a total PSA of >0.2 ng/ml on 2 consecutive tests was considered as the surrogate endpoint for survival analysis. PITX2 expression was significantly and strongly decreased in prostate cancer compared to benign tissues. Cases with decreased PITX2 experienced significantly earlier biochemical recurrences. PITX2 down-regulation was associated with PITX2 promoter hypermethylation in tumor samples and cell lines. PITX2 hypermethylation was more pronounced in cases with ERG overexpression. PITX2 down-regulation is associated with promoter hypermethylation and is a good predictor of clinical outcomes after radical prostatectomy. PITX2 methylation might be influenced by oncogenic ERG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  9. The Interplay between Wnt Mediated Expansion and Negative Regulation of Growth Promotes Robust Intestinal Crypt Structure and Homeostasis.

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    Huijing Du

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the small intestinal crypt, which has a vital role in protecting the underlying tissue from the harsh intestinal environment, is completely renewed every 4-5 days by a small pool of stem cells at the base of each crypt. How is this renewal controlled and homeostasis maintained, particularly given the rapid nature of this process? Here, based on the recent observations from in vitro "mini gut" studies, we use a hybrid stochastic model of the crypt to investigate how exogenous niche signaling (from Wnt and BMP combines with auto-regulation to promote homeostasis. This model builds on the sub-cellular element method to account for the three-dimensional structure of the crypt, external regulation by Wnt and BMP, internal regulation by Notch signaling, as well as regulation by internally generated diffusible signals. Results show that Paneth cell derived Wnt signals, which have been observed experimentally to sustain crypts in cultured organs, have a dramatically different influence on niche dynamics than does mesenchyme derived Wnt. While this signaling can indeed act as a redundant backup to the exogenous gradient, it introduces a positive feedback that destabilizes the niche and causes its uncontrolled expansion. We find that in this setting, BMP has a critical role in constraining this expansion, consistent with observations that its removal leads to crypt fission. Further results also point to a new hypothesis for the role of Ephrin mediated motility of Paneth cells, specifically that it is required to constrain niche expansion and maintain the crypt's spatial structure. Combined, these provide an alternative view of crypt homeostasis where the niche is in a constant state of expansion and the spatial structure of the crypt arises as a balance between this expansion and the action of various sources of negative regulation that hold it in check.

  10. The Interplay between Wnt Mediated Expansion and Negative Regulation of Growth Promotes Robust Intestinal Crypt Structure and Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huijing; Nie, Qing; Holmes, William R

    2015-08-01

    The epithelium of the small intestinal crypt, which has a vital role in protecting the underlying tissue from the harsh intestinal environment, is completely renewed every 4-5 days by a small pool of stem cells at the base of each crypt. How is this renewal controlled and homeostasis maintained, particularly given the rapid nature of this process? Here, based on the recent observations from in vitro "mini gut" studies, we use a hybrid stochastic model of the crypt to investigate how exogenous niche signaling (from Wnt and BMP) combines with auto-regulation to promote homeostasis. This model builds on the sub-cellular element method to account for the three-dimensional structure of the crypt, external regulation by Wnt and BMP, internal regulation by Notch signaling, as well as regulation by internally generated diffusible signals. Results show that Paneth cell derived Wnt signals, which have been observed experimentally to sustain crypts in cultured organs, have a dramatically different influence on niche dynamics than does mesenchyme derived Wnt. While this signaling can indeed act as a redundant backup to the exogenous gradient, it introduces a positive feedback that destabilizes the niche and causes its uncontrolled expansion. We find that in this setting, BMP has a critical role in constraining this expansion, consistent with observations that its removal leads to crypt fission. Further results also point to a new hypothesis for the role of Ephrin mediated motility of Paneth cells, specifically that it is required to constrain niche expansion and maintain the crypt's spatial structure. Combined, these provide an alternative view of crypt homeostasis where the niche is in a constant state of expansion and the spatial structure of the crypt arises as a balance between this expansion and the action of various sources of negative regulation that hold it in check.

  11. Coronin 3 promotes gastric cancer metastasis via the up-regulation of MMP-9 and cathepsin K

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    Ren Gui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronins are a family of highly evolutionary conserved proteins reportedly involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, although only coronin 3 has been shown to be related to cancer cell migration. In glioblastoma cells, the knockdown of coronin 3 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion. Coronin 3 is also associated with the aggression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this paper, we analyze the migration, invasion and metastasis abilities of gastric cancer cells after up- or down-regulation of coronin 3, and explore the mechanism of coronin 3 in the process of gastric cancer metastasis. Results The expression of coronin 3 was higher in the highly metastatic sub-cell line MKN28-M, which we established in our laboratory. We also demonstrated that the expression of coronin 3 was remarkably higher in lymph lode metastases than in primary gastric cancer tissues, and over-expression of coronin 3 was correlated with the increased clinical stage and lymph lode metastasis. Recombinant lentiviral vectors encoding shRNAs were designed to down-regulate coronin 3 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Stable knockdown of coronin 3 by this lentiviral vector could efficiently inhibit the migration and invasion of MKN45 gastric cancer cells. In contrast, up-regulation of coronin 3 significantly enhanced migration and invasion of MKN28-NM cells. In addition, knockdown of coronin 3 significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after tail vein injection of gastric cancer cells. The Human Tumor Metastasis PCR Array was used to screen the metastasis-associated genes identified by the down-regulation of coronin 3, and the results suggested that, following the knockdown of coronin 3, the tumor cell migration and invasion were inhibited by the reduced expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K. Conclusion Coronin 3 is highly expressed in gastric cancer metastases and can promote the metastatic behaviors of gastric cancer

  12. Sterol regulation of human fatty acid synthase promoter I requires nuclear factor-Y- and Sp-1-binding sites.

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    Xiong, S; Chirala, S S; Wakil, S J

    2000-04-11

    To understand cholesterol-mediated regulation of human fatty acid synthase promoter I, we tested various 5'-deletion constructs of promoter I-luciferase reporter gene constructs in HepG2 cells. The reporter gene constructs that contained only the Sp-1-binding site (nucleotides -82 to -74) and the two tandem sterol regulatory elements (SREs; nucleotides -63 to -46) did not respond to cholesterol. Only the reporter gene constructs containing a nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) sequence, the CCAAT sequence (nucleotides -90 to -86), an Sp-1 sequence, and the two tandem SREs responded to cholesterol. The NF-Y-binding site, therefore, is essential for cholesterol response. Mutating the SREs or the NF-Y site and inserting 4 bp between the Sp-1- and NF-Y-binding sites both resulted in a minimal cholesterol response of the reporter genes. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays using anti-SRE-binding protein (SREBP) and anti-NF-Ya antibodies confirmed that these SREs and the NF-Y site bind the respective factors. We also identified a second Sp-1 site located between nucleotides -40 and -30 that can substitute for the mutated Sp-1 site located between nucleotides -82 and -74. The reporter gene expression of the wild-type promoter and the Sp-1 site (nucleotides -82 to -74) mutant promoter was similar when SREBP1a [the N-terminal domain of SREBP (amino acids 1-520)] was constitutively overexpressed, suggesting that Sp-1 recruits SREBP to the SREs. Under the same conditions, an NF-Y site mutation resulted in significant loss of reporter gene expression, suggesting that NF-Y is required to activate the cholesterol response.

  13. Lysophosphatidic Acid Up-Regulates Hexokinase II and Glycolysis to Promote Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells1

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    Mukherjee, Abir; Ma, Yibao; Yuan, Fang; Gong, Yongling; Fang, Zhenyu; Mohamed, Esraa M.; Berrios, Erika; Shao, Huanjie; Fang, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a blood-borne lipid mediator, is present in elevated concentrations in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and other malignant effusions. LPA is a potent mitogen in cancer cells. The mechanism linking LPA signal to cancer cell proliferation is not well understood. Little is known about whether LPA affects glucose metabolism to accommodate rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Here we describe that in ovarian cancer cells, LPA enhances glycolytic rate and lactate efflux. A real time PCR-based miniarray showed that hexokinase II (HK2) was the most dramatically induced glycolytic gene to promote glycolysis in LPA-treated cells. Analysis of the human HK2 gene promoter identified the sterol regulatory element-binding protein as the primary mediator of LPA-induced HK2 transcription. The effects of LPA on HK2 and glycolysis rely on LPA2, an LPA receptor subtype overexpressed in ovarian cancer and many other malignancies. We further examined the general role of growth factor-induced glycolysis in cell proliferation. Like LPA, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited robust glycolytic and proliferative responses in ovarian cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, however, potently stimulated cell proliferation but only modestly induced glycolysis. Consistent with their differential effects on glycolysis, LPA and EGF-dependent cell proliferation was highly sensitive to glycolytic inhibition while the growth-promoting effect of IGF-1 or insulin was more resistant. These results indicate that LPA- and EGF-induced cell proliferation selectively involves up-regulation of HK2 and glycolytic metabolism. The work is the first to implicate LPA signaling in promotion of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:26476080

  14. MicroRNA-184 promotes proliferation ability of glioma cells by regulating FOXO3.

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    Cui, Qing-Ke; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yun-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of microRNA (miR-184) on regulating the genesis, development and proliferation of glioma cells. Lipidosome was used to transfect miR-184 mimic and inhibitor to glioma cell line, and the cell proliferation ability changes were determined by MTT and plate cloning experiment after the transfection. WB test was used to measure the levels of cyclinD1, p27 and FOXO3. Meanwhile, QPCR was used to detect miR-184 expression in glioma cell line, glioma tissues and adjacent tissues. Luciferase experiment was used to test 3'UTR gene targeting regulation of miR-184 and FOXO3. QPCR results showed a significant lower miR-184 expression level in glioma cell line and glioma tissues than that in juxtacancerous tissue. MTT and plate cloning experiments have shown that after over-expressing of miR-184, the cell proliferation capacity of glioma U87 and T98G was significantly increased, which was significantly inhibited after the inhibition of miR-184. WB results showed a lower expression level of p27 in U87 and T98G cells, and a higher expression level of cyclinD1 after over-expressing of miR-184 was observed. However, a lower expression level of cyclinD1 and a higher expression level of p27 after the inhibition of miR-184. The luciferase activity was inhibited after the over-expressing of miR-184. MiR-184 can affect the proliferation abilities of glioma cells and regulate the cell cycle related protein. It plays an important role in the occurrence and development of gliomas. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Papillomavirus E2 Regulates SRSF3 (SRp20) To Promote Capsid Protein Expression in Infected Differentiated Keratinocytes.

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    Klymenko, T; Hernandez-Lopez, H; MacDonald, A I; Bodily, J M; Graham, S V

    2016-05-15

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is tightly linked to differentiation of the infected epithelial cell, suggesting a sophisticated interplay between host cell metabolism and virus replication. Previously, we demonstrated in differentiated keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo that HPV type 16 (HPV16) infection caused increased levels of the cellular SR splicing factors (SRSFs) SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF2 (SC35), and SRSF3 (SRp20). Moreover, the viral E2 transcription and replication factor that is expressed at high levels in differentiating keratinocytes could bind and control activity of the SRSF1 gene promoter. Here, we show that the E2 proteins of HPV16 and HPV31 control the expression of SRSFs 1, 2, and 3 in a differentiation-dependent manner. E2 has the greatest transactivation effect on expression of SRSF3. Small interfering RNA depletion experiments in two different models of the HPV16 life cycle (W12E and NIKS16) and one model of the HPV31 life cycle (CIN612-9E) revealed that only SRSF3 contributed significantly to regulation of late events in the virus life cycle. Increased levels of SRSF3 are required for L1 mRNA and capsid protein expression. Capsid protein expression was regulated specifically by SRSF3 and appeared independent of other SRSFs. Taken together, these data suggest a significant role of the HPV E2 protein in regulating late events in the HPV life cycle through transcriptional regulation of SRSF3 expression. Human papillomavirus replication is accomplished in concert with differentiation of the infected epithelium. Virus capsid protein expression is confined to the upper epithelial layers so as to avoid immune detection. In this study, we demonstrate that the viral E2 transcription factor activates the promoter of the cellular SRSF3 RNA processing factor. SRSF3 is required for expression of the E4(^)L1 mRNA and so controls expression of the HPV L1 capsid protein. Thus, we reveal a new dimension of virus-host interaction crucial for production

  16. The Vesicle Priming Factor CAPS Functions as a Homodimer via C2 Domain Interactions to Promote Regulated Vesicle Exocytosis.

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    Petrie, Matt; Esquibel, Joseph; Kabachinski, Greg; Maciuba, Stephanie; Takahashi, Hirohide; Edwardson, J Michael; Martin, Thomas F J

    2016-09-30

    Neurotransmitters and peptide hormones are secreted by regulated vesicle exocytosis. CAPS (also known as CADPS) is a 145-kDa cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for vesicle docking and priming steps that precede Ca 2+ -triggered vesicle exocytosis. CAPS binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) and SNARE proteins and is proposed to promote SNARE protein complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. We characterized purified soluble CAPS as mainly monomer in equilibrium with small amounts of dimer. However, the active form of CAPS bound to PC12 cell membranes or to liposomes containing PI(4,5)P 2 and Q-SNARE proteins was mainly dimer. CAPS dimer formation required its C2 domain based on mutation or deletion studies. Moreover, C2 domain mutations or deletions resulted in a loss of CAPS function in regulated vesicle exocytosis, indicating that dimerization is essential for CAPS function. Comparison of the CAPS C2 domain to a structurally defined Munc13-1 C2A domain dimer revealed conserved residues involved in CAPS dimerization. We conclude that CAPS functions as a C2 domain-mediated dimer in regulated vesicle exocytosis. The unique tandem C2-PH domain of CAPS may serve as a PI(4,5)P 2 -triggered switch for dimerization. CAPS dimerization may be coupled to oligomeric SNARE complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Identification of CiaR Regulated Genes That Promote Group B Streptococcal Virulence and Interaction with Brain Endothelial Cells.

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    Mu, Rong; Cutting, Andrew S; Del Rosario, Yvette; Villarino, Nicholas; Stewart, Lara; Weston, Thomas A; Patras, Kathryn A; Doran, Kelly S

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major causative agent of neonatal meningitis due to its ability to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the central nervous system (CNS). It has been demonstrated that GBS can invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC), a primary component of the BBB; however, the mechanism of intracellular survival and trafficking is unclear. We previously identified a two component regulatory system, CiaR/H, which promotes GBS intracellular survival in hBMEC. Here we show that a GBS strain deficient in the response regulator, CiaR, localized more frequently with Rab5, Rab7 and LAMP1 positive vesicles. Further, lysosomes isolated from hBMEC contained fewer viable bacteria following initial infection with the ΔciaR mutant compared to the WT strain. To characterize the contribution of CiaR-regulated genes, we constructed isogenic mutant strains lacking the two most down-regulated genes in the CiaR-deficient mutant, SAN_2180 and SAN_0039. These genes contributed to bacterial uptake and intracellular survival. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS had a significant survival advantage over the Δ2180 and Δ0039 mutants in the bloodstream and brain.

  18. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT

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    Zhen-Yu He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3 significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  19. Dihydroceramide is a key metabolite that regulates autophagy and promotes fibrosis in hepatic steatosis model.

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    Lee, Ah Young; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Ji-Eun; Mock, Hyuck Jun; Park, Sungjin; Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Jung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2017-10-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common chronic liver disease worldwide. Sphingolipids are a family of lipids that play essential roles as critical regulators in metabolic disorders. Some sphingolipids are known key factors in metabolic dysfunction. However, the precise effect of dihydroceramide on NAFLD remains unknown. Here, we report how dihydroceramide in autophagosome accumulation activates fibrogenesis in human liver Chang cells treated with free fatty acids (FFA). According to LC/MS lipid profiling, FFA increased the levels of sphingolipids and triacylglycerol (TG). To demonstrate the potential role of dihydroceramide metabolism in autophagy, several sphingolipid synthesis inhibitors were used. Increased dihydroceramide led to impairment of autophagic flux, resulting in increased TG storage in lipid droplets (LD) and upregulated expression of fibrosis markers. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, LX-2 cells) were co-cultured with Chang cells to assess the potential fibrogenic response to dihydroceramide, Treatment with rapamycin recovered autophagic flux in Chang cells and fibrogenesis in the co-culture system. Our results identified a critical function of dihydroceramide metabolism in autophagy. It could play an important role in the progression of NAFLD associated with lipid over-accumulation. Therefore, preventing autophagic flux by regulating dihydroceramide could be a potential strategic approach for providing therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Mitochondrial translocation of EGFR regulates mitochondria dynamics and promotes metastasis in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Ting-Fang; Lin, Ching-Wen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Han, Chia-Li; Chang, Yih-leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-11-10

    Dysfunction of the mitochondria is well-known for being associated with cancer progression. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondria proteomics of lung cancer cell lines with different invasion abilities and found that EGFR is highly expressed in the mitochondria of highly invasive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. EGF induces the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR; further, it leads to mitochondrial fission and redistribution in the lamellipodia, upregulates cellular ATP production, and enhances motility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR can regulate mitochondrial dynamics by interacting with Mfn1 and disturbing Mfn1 polymerization. Overexpression of Mfn1 reverses the phenotypes resulting from EGFR mitochondrial translocation. We show that the mitochondrial EGFR expressions are higher in paired samples of the metastatic lymph node as compared with primary lung tumor and are inversely correlated with the overall survival in NSCLC patients. Therefore, our results demonstrate that besides the canonical role of EGFR as a receptor tyrosine, the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR may enhance cancer invasion and metastasis through regulating mitochondria dynamics.

  1. The hippo pathway promotes Notch signaling in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and oocyte polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Yu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Specification of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila oocytes requires proper communication between the germ-line cells and the somatically derived follicular epithelial cells. Multiple signaling pathways, including Notch, contribute to oocyte polarity formation by controlling the temporal and spatial pattern of follicle cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we show that the newly identified Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway plays a crucial role in the posterior follicle cells in the regulation of oocyte polarity. Disruption of the Hippo pathway, including major components Hippo, Salvador, and Warts, results in aberrant follicle-cell differentiation and proliferation and dramatic disruption of the oocyte anterior-posterior axis. These phenotypes are related to defective Notch signaling in follicle cells, because misexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch alleviates the oocyte polarity defects. We also find that follicle cells defective in Hippo signaling accumulate the Notch receptor and display defects in endocytosis markers. Our findings suggest that the interaction between Hippo and classic developmental pathways such as Notch is critical to spatial and temporal regulation of differentiation and proliferation and is essential for development of the body axes in Drosophila.

  2. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

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    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn, E-mail: LoneB.Madsen@agrsci.dk

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  3. Differential regulation of sense and antisense promoter activity at the Csf1R locus in B cells by the transcription factor PAX5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard M; Valeaux, Stephanie; Wilson, Nicola; Bouhlel, M Amine; Clarke, Deborah; Krüger, Imme; Kulu, Divine; Suske, Guntram; Philipsen, Sjaak; Tagoh, Hiromi; Bonifer, Constanze

    2011-07-01

    The transcription factor PAX5 is essential for the activation of B-cell-specific genes and for the silencing of myeloid-specific genes. We previously determined the molecular mechanism by which PAX5 silences the myeloid-specific colony-stimulating-factor-receptor (Csf1R) gene and showed that PAX5 directly binds to the Csf1r promoter as well as to an intronic enhancer that generates an antisense transcript in B cells. Here we examine the role of PAX5 in the regulation of sense and antisense transcription in B cells. We performed PAX5-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses across the Csfr1 locus. We investigated the role of PAX5 in regulating Csf1r sense and antisense promoter activity by transient transfections and by employing a Pax5(-/-) pro-B-cell line expressing an inducible PAX5 protein. PAX5 interacting factors were identified by pull-down experiments. The role of the transcription factor Sp3 in driving antisense promoter expression was examined in B cells from Sp3 knockout mice. PAX5 differentially regulates the Csf1r promoter and the promoter of the antisense transcript. PAX5 interferes with PU.1 transactivation at the sense promoter by binding to a PAX5 consensus sequence. At the antisense promoter, PAX5 does not specifically recognize DNA, but interacts with Sp3 to upregulate antisense promoter activity. Antisense promoter activation by PAX5 is dependent on the presence of its partial homeo-domain. We demonstrate that PAX5 regulates Csf1r in B cells by reducing the frequency of binding of the basal transcription machinery to the promoter and by activating antisense RNA expression. Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FBXO3 Protein Promotes Ubiquitylation and Transcriptional Activity of AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Zumer, Kristina; Fujinaga, Koh; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2016-01-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor which is expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells. It directs the expression of otherwise tissue-specific antigens, which leads to the elimination of autoreactive T cells during development. AIRE is modified post-translationally by phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In this report we connected these modifications. AIRE, which is phosphorylated on two specific residues near its N terminus, then binds to the F-box protein 3 (FBXO3) E3 ubiquitin ligase. In turn, this SCFFBXO3 (SKP1-CUL1-F box) complex ubiquitylates AIRE, increases its binding to the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), and potentiates its transcriptional activity. Because P-TEFb is required for the transition from initiation to elongation of transcription, this interaction ensures proper expression of AIRE-responsive tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. PMID:27365398

  5. FBXO3 Protein Promotes Ubiquitylation and Transcriptional Activity of AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Zumer, Kristina; Fujinaga, Koh; Peterlin, B Matija

    2016-08-19

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor which is expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells. It directs the expression of otherwise tissue-specific antigens, which leads to the elimination of autoreactive T cells during development. AIRE is modified post-translationally by phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In this report we connected these modifications. AIRE, which is phosphorylated on two specific residues near its N terminus, then binds to the F-box protein 3 (FBXO3) E3 ubiquitin ligase. In turn, this SCF(FBXO3) (SKP1-CUL1-F box) complex ubiquitylates AIRE, increases its binding to the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), and potentiates its transcriptional activity. Because P-TEFb is required for the transition from initiation to elongation of transcription, this interaction ensures proper expression of AIRE-responsive tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Autophagy Regulates the Post-Translational Cleavage of BCL-2 and Promotes Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 is one of the more widely investigated anti-apoptotic protein in mammals, and its levels are critical for protecting from programmed cell death. We report here that the cellular content of BCL-2 is regulated at post-translational level along the autophagy/lysosome pathways in organotypic cultures of post-natal mouse cerebellar cortex. Specifically this mechanism appears to be effective in the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs that are known to undergo massive programmed cell death (apoptosis during post-natal maturation. By the use of specific agonists/antagonist of calcium channels at the endoplasmic reticulum it was possible to understand the pivotal role of calcium release from intracellular stores in CGC neuroprotection. The more general significance of these findings is supported by a very recent study Niemann-Pick transgenic mice.

  7. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

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    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ardianto, Bambang [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55282 (Indonesia); Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kumagai, Shunichi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kawano, Seiji, E-mail: sjkawano@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  8. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M; Anderson, Katie L; Graef, Ashley J; Scott, Milcah C; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C; O'Brien, Timothy D; Dickerson, Erin B; Modiano, Jaime F

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into "IL-8 high" and "IL-8 low" groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the "IL-8 high" tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a "reactive microenvironment," including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spermidine promotes Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation by activating expression of the matrix regulator slrR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Li, Bin; Wood, Jennifer L; Kim, Sok Ho; Naidoo, Jacinth; Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Khomutov, Maxim; Khomutov, Alexey; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Michael, Anthony J

    2017-07-21

    Ubiquitous polyamine spermidine is not required for normal planktonic growth of Bacillus subtilis but is essential for robust biofilm formation. However, the structural features of spermidine required for B. subtilis biofilm formation are unknown and so are the molecular mechanisms of spermidine-stimulated biofilm development. We report here that in a spermidine-deficient B. subtilis mutant, the structural analogue norspermidine, but not homospermidine, restored biofilm formation. Intracellular biosynthesis of another spermidine analogue, aminopropylcadaverine, from exogenously supplied homoagmatine also restored biofilm formation. The differential ability of C-methylated spermidine analogues to functionally replace spermidine in biofilm formation indicated that the aminopropyl moiety of spermidine is more sensitive to C-methylation, which it is essential for biofilm formation, but that the length and symmetry of the molecule is not critical. Transcriptomic analysis of a spermidine-depleted B. subtilis speD mutant uncovered a nitrogen-, methionine-, and S-adenosylmethionine-sufficiency response, resulting in repression of gene expression related to purine catabolism, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and methionine salvage, and signs of altered membrane status. Consistent with the spermidine requirement in biofilm formation, single-cell analysis of this mutant indicated reduced expression of the operons for production of the exopolysaccharide and TasA protein biofilm matrix components and SinR antagonist slrR Deletion of sinR or ectopic expression of slrR in the spermidine-deficient ΔspeD background restored biofilm formation, indicating that spermidine is required for expression of the biofilm regulator slrR Our results indicate that spermidine functions in biofilm development by activating transcription of the biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide and TasA operons through the regulator slrR. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  10. Foxn1 promotes keratinocyte differentiation by regulating the activity of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Baxter, Ruth M; Weiner, Lorin; Goetinck, Paul F; Calautti, Enzo; Brissette, Janice L

    2007-10-01

    The transcription factor Foxn1 (the product of the nude locus) promotes the terminal differentiation of epithelial cells in the epidermis and hair follicles. Activated early in terminal differentiation, Foxn1 can modulate the timing or order of trait acquisition, as it induces early features of epidermal differentiation while suppressing late features. Here, we identify protein kinase C (PKC) as a key target of Foxn1 in keratinocyte differentiation control. Foxn1 has broad negative effects on the PKC family, as the loss of Foxn1 function leads to higher levels of total, primed, and activated PKC. Phosphorylated PKC substrates (the mediators of PKC function) rise when Foxn1 is inactivated and fall when Foxn1 is overproduced, suggesting that Foxn1 antagonizes PKC's effects. When PKC inhibitors are applied to nude (Foxn1 null) keratinocytes, nude defects are normalized or suppressed, as the inhibitors prevent nude cells from underproducing early differentiation markers and overproducing late markers. Taken together, the results suggest that Foxn1 acts as a restraint or brake on PKC signaling and that without this brake PKC disrupts differentiation. The results further suggest that Foxn1 modulates stage-specific markers by modulating PKC activity, providing control over the timing of steps in the differentiation program.

  11. p53 regulates cell cycle and microRNAs to promote differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav K Jain

    Full Text Available Multiple studies show that tumor suppressor p53 is a barrier to dedifferentiation; whether this is strictly due to repression of proliferation remains a subject of debate. Here, we show that p53 plays an active role in promoting differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and opposing self-renewal by regulation of specific target genes and microRNAs. In contrast to mouse embryonic stem cells, p53 in hESCs is maintained at low levels in the nucleus, albeit in a deacetylated, inactive state. In response to retinoic acid, CBP/p300 acetylates p53 at lysine 373, which leads to dissociation from E3-ubiquitin ligases HDM2 and TRIM24. Stabilized p53 binds CDKN1A to establish a G(1 phase of cell cycle without activation of cell death pathways. In parallel, p53 activates expression of miR-34a and miR-145, which in turn repress stem cell factors OCT4, KLF4, LIN28A, and SOX2 and prevent backsliding to pluripotency. Induction of p53 levels is a key step: RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of p53 delays differentiation, whereas depletion of negative regulators of p53 or ectopic expression of p53 yields spontaneous differentiation of hESCs, independently of retinoic acid. Ectopic expression of p53R175H, a mutated form of p53 that does not bind DNA or regulate transcription, failed to induce differentiation. These studies underscore the importance of a p53-regulated network in determining the human stem cell state.

  12. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    Paper 1, Local Solutions to Global Problems: Climate Change Policies and Regulatory Jurisdiction, considers the efficacy of various types of environmental regulations when they are applied locally to pollutants whose damages extend beyond the jurisdiction of the local regulators. Local regulations of a global pollutant may be ineffective if producers and consumers can avoid them by transacting outside the reach of the local regulator. In many cases, this may involve the physical relocation of the economic activity, a problem often referred to as "leakage." This paper highlights another way in which local policies can be circumvented: through the shuffling of who buys from whom. The paper maintains that the problems of reshuffling are exacerbated when the options for compliance with the regulations are more flexible. Numerical analyses is presented demonstrating that several proposed policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the California electricity sector may have very little effect on carbon emissions if they are applied only within that state. Paper 1 concludes that although local subsidies for energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and transportation biofuels constitute attempts to pick technology winners, they may be the only mechanisms that local jurisdictions, acting alone, have at their disposal to address climate change. Paper 2, Pass-Through of Solar PV Incentives to Consumers: The Early Years of California's Solar PV Incentives, examines the pass through of incentives to California solar PV system owners. The full post-subsidy price consumers pay for solar power is a key metric of the success of solar PV incentive programs and of overall PV market performance. This study examines the early years of California's most recent wave of distributed solar PV incentives (2000-2008) to determine the pass-through of incentives. Examination of this period is both intellectually and pragmatically important due to the high level of incentives provided and

  13. Interferon-α regulates glutaminase 1 promoter through STAT1 phosphorylation: relevance to HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Zhao

    Full Text Available HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND develop during progressive HIV-1 infection and affect up to 50% of infected individuals. Activated microglia and macrophages are critical cell populations that are involved in the pathogenesis of HAND, which is specifically related to the production and release of various soluble neurotoxic factors including glutamate. In the central nervous system (CNS, glutamate is typically derived from glutamine by mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase. Our previous study has shown that glutaminase is upregulated in HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM and microglia. However, how HIV-1 leads to glutaminase upregulation, or how glutaminase expression is regulated in general, remains unclear. In this study, using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system, we demonstrated that interferon (IFN α specifically activated the glutaminase 1 (GLS1 promoter. Furthermore, IFN-α treatment increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 phosphorylation and glutaminase mRNA and protein levels. IFN-α stimulation of GLS1 promoter activity correlated to STAT1 phosphorylation and was reduced by fludarabine, a chemical that inhibits STAT1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, STAT1 was found to directly bind to the GLS1 promoter in MDM, an effect that was dependent on STAT1 phosphorylation and significantly enhanced by IFN-α treatment. More importantly, HIV-1 infection increased STAT1 phosphorylation and STAT1 binding to the GLS1 promoter, which was associated with increased glutamate levels. The clinical relevance of these findings was further corroborated with investigation of post-mortem brain tissues. The glutaminase C (GAC, one isoform of GLS1 mRNA levels in HIV associated-dementia (HAD individuals correlate with STAT1 (p<0.01, IFN-α (p<0.05 and IFN-β (p<0.01. Together, these data indicate that both HIV-1 infection and IFN-α treatment increase glutaminase expression through STAT1 phosphorylation and

  14. RpoE promotes invasion and intracellular survival by regulating SPI-1 and SPI-2 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifang; Jia, Yanwei; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Shungao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Huang, Xinxiang; Du, Hong

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the role of RpoE during the later stage of hyperosmotic stress in Salmonella. Expressions of SPI-1 and SPI-2 under hyperosmotic stress for 120 min were investigated by a microarray, and the invasion and intracellular survival of wild-type and ΔrpoE strains were compared. The global differential expression of bacterial proteins between the wild-type and ΔrpoE strains was examined after 120 min of hyperosmotic stress. SPI-1 and SPI-2 were repressed, and the invasion and intracellular survival were defected in the ΔrpoE strain. Thirteen bacterial-associated proteins and 11 secreted proteins differed significantly between the wild-type and ΔrpoE strains. RpoE may promote invasion and intracellular survival by regulating the expression of SPI-1 and SPI-2.

  15. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  16. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk, E-mail: jhkim@umn.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Robinson, Sally [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Sharkey, Leslie C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); O' Brien, Timothy D. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Dickerson, Erin B. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Modiano, Jaime F., E-mail: modiano@umn.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  17. Type I interferons promote fatal immunopathology by regulating inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils during Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Majer

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections by Candida albicans (Ca are a frequent cause of lethal sepsis in intensive care unit patients. While a contribution of type I interferons (IFNs-I in fungal sepsis remains unknown, these immunostimulatory cytokines mediate the lethal effects of endotoxemia and bacterial sepsis. Using a mouse model lacking a functional IFN-I receptor (Ifnar1⁻/⁻, we demonstrate a remarkable protection against invasive Ca infections. We discover a mechanism whereby IFN-I signaling controls the recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells, including Ly6C(hi monocytes and neutrophils, to infected kidneys by driving expression of the chemokines CCL2 and KC. Within kidneys, monocytes differentiate into inflammatory DCs but fail to functionally mature in Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice, as demonstrated by the impaired upregulation of the key activation markers PDCA1 and iNOS. The increased activity of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils results in hyper-inflammation and lethal kidney pathology. Pharmacological diminution of monocytes and neutrophils by treating mice with pioglitazone, a synthetic agonist of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, strongly reduces renal immunopathology during Ca infection and improves mouse survival. Taken together, our data connect for the first time the sepsis-promoting functions of IFNs-I to the CCL2-mediated recruitment and the activation of inflammatory monocytes/DCs with high host-destructing potency. Moreover, our data demonstrate a therapeutic relevance of PPAR-γ agonists for microbial infectious diseases where inflammatory myeloid cells may contribute to fatal tissue damage.

  18. Evidence for multiple promoter elements orchestrating male-specific regulation of the her-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Streit, A; Robertson, B; Wood, W B

    1999-05-01

    The sex-determining gene her-1 is required for male development in Caenorhabditis elegans. In XO males, two her-1 mRNAs, her-1a and her-1b, are transcribed from two separate promoters: P1, located in the 5'-flanking region, and P2, located in the large second intron. In XX hermaphrodites, accumulation of both her-1 transcripts is repressed by the sdc genes, which in turn are negatively regulated by the xol-1 gene. When introduced into a xol-1(y9) background, transgenic arrays, including 3.4 kb of her-1 intron 2 sequence (P2), result in phenotypes that mimic those of sdc(lf) mutants, including suppression of XO lethality and masculinization of both XX and XO animals. The masculinization, but not the suppression of XO lethality, is dependent on endogenous her-1 activity. These effects could therefore result from sequestration (titration) of sdc gene products by sequences in the arrays, causing derepression of her-1 (masculinizing effect) and disruption of the dosage compensation machinery (allowing survival of XO animals). We used these effects as an assay in a deletion analysis of the two her-1 promoter regions to define potential cis-regulatory sites required for the putative titration. Several regions in P2 contributed to these effects. P1 was effective only in combination with certain P2 sequences and only if a particular P1 site previously implicated in her-1 repression was intact. These results suggest that normal repression of transcription from P1 in XX animals may involve cooperative interaction with sequences in the P2 region. In experiments to test for a possible role of the her-1b transcript in regulation of sdc genes, no significant effects could be demonstrated.

  19. B-Myb Is Up-Regulated and Promotes Cell Growth and Motility in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuelei; Zhu, Huifang; Cai, Wei; Fan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yitao; Niu, Yulong; Song, Fangzhou; Bu, Youquan

    2017-05-27

    B-Myb is a transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers. However, its potential implication in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we have for the first time investigated the expression profile of B-Myb and its functional impact in lung cancer. Expression analysis by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that B-Myb expression is aberrantly overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and positively correlated with pathologic grade and clinical stage of NSCLC. A gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of B-Myb significantly increases lung cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Conversely, a loss-of-function study showed that knockdown of B-Myb decreases cell growth, migration, and invasion. B-Myb overexpression also promoted tumor growth in vivo in a NSCLC xenograft nude mouse model. A molecular mechanistic study by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that B-Myb overexpression causes up-regulation of various downstream genes (e.g., COL11A1, COL6A1, FN1, MMP2, NID1, FLT4, INSR, and CCNA1) and activation of multiple critical pathways (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and phosphorylated-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways) involved in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Collectively, our results indicate a tumor-promoting role for B-Myb in NSCLC and thus imply its potential as a target for the diagnosis and/or treatment of NSCLC.

  20. Magnesium supplement promotes sciatic nerve regeneration and down-regulates inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) supplements have been shown to significantly improve functional recovery in various neurological disorders. The essential benefits of Mg supplementation in peripheral nerve disorders have not been elucidated yet. The effect and mechanism of Mg supplementation on a sciatic nerve crush injury model was investigated. Sciatic nerve injury was induced in mice by crushing the left sciatic nerve. Mice were randomly divided into three groups with low-, basal- or high-Mg diets (corresponding to 10, 100 or 200% Mg of the basal diet). Neurobehavioral, electrophysiological and regeneration marker studies were conducted to explore nerve regeneration. First, a high Mg diet significantly increased plasma and nerve tissue Mg concentrations. In addition, Mg supplementation improved neurobehavioral, electrophysiological functions, enhanced regeneration marker, and reduced deposits of inflammatory cells as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, reduced Schwann cell apoptosis was in line with the significant expression of bcl-2, bcl-X(L) and down-regulated expression of active caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In summary, improved neurological function recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration were found in mice with a sciatic nerve injury that were fed a high- Mg diet, and Schwann cells may have been rescued from apoptosis by the suppression of inflammatory responses.

  1. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

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    Guo, Kai, E-mail: gk161@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Department of Respiration, 161th Hospital, PLA, Wuhan 430015 (China); Jin, Faguang, E-mail: jinfag@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  2. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongsheng [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Wu, Fenping [The 7th People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Yan [The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Yan, Chong [School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Su, Wenmei, E-mail: wenmeisutg@126.com [Oncology of Affiliated Hospital Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  3. Health Promoting Effects of Brassica-Derived Phytochemicals: From Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities to Epigenetic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anika Eva; Terschluesen, Anna Maria; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of brassica vegetables may be associated with a decreased chronic disease risk. Health promoting effects of Brassicaceae have been partly attributed to glucosinolates and in particular to their hydrolyzation products including isothiocyanates. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest a chemopreventive activity of isothiocyanates through the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Furthermore, studies in cultured cells, in laboratory rodents, and also in humans support an anti-inflammatory effect of brassica-derived phytochemicals. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these compounds mediate their health promoting effects are yet not fully understood. Recent findings suggest that brassica-derived compounds are regulators of epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that isothiocyanates may inhibit histone deacetylase transferases and DNA-methyltransferases in cultured cells. Only a few papers have dealt with the effect of brassica-derived compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in laboratory animals, whereas data in humans are currently lacking. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the biological activities of brassica-derived phytochemicals regarding chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, and epigenetic pathways. PMID:24454992

  4. Developmental Functions of miR156-Regulated SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Mingli Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Correct developmental timing is essential for plant fitness and reproductive success. Two important transitions in shoot development-the juvenile-to-adult vegetative transition and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition-are mediated by a group of genes targeted by miR156, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP genes. To determine the developmental functions of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized their expression patterns, and their gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes. Our results reveal that SBP-LIKE (SPL genes in Arabidopsis can be divided into three functionally distinct groups: 1 SPL2, SPL9, SPL10, SPL11, SPL13 and SPL15 contribute to both the juvenile-to-adult vegetative transition and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition, with SPL9, SP13 and SPL15 being more important for these processes than SPL2, SPL10 and SPL11; 2 SPL3, SPL4 and SPL5 do not play a major role in vegetative phase change or floral induction, but promote the floral meristem identity transition; 3 SPL6 does not have a major function in shoot morphogenesis, but may be important for certain physiological processes. We also found that miR156-regulated SPL genes repress adventitious root development, providing an explanation for the observation that the capacity for adventitious root production declines as the shoot ages. miR156 is expressed at very high levels in young seedlings, and declines in abundance as the shoot develops. It completely blocks the expression of its SPL targets in the first two leaves of the rosette, and represses these genes to different degrees at later stages of development, primarily by promoting their translational repression. These results provide a framework for future studies of this multifunctional family of transcription factors, and offer new insights into the role of miR156 in Arabidopsis development.

  5. Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meixiang; Nekhayeva, Ilona; Cross, Courtney E; Rondelli, Catherine M; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2014-03-01

    The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18-119% increase; P haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents.

  6. HBx regulates fatty acid oxidation to promote hepatocellular carcinoma survival during metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Da; Wu, Han; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Hui-Lu; Qin, Chen-Jie; Zhao, Ling-Hao; Fu, Gong-Bo; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Xian-Ming; Tang, Liang; Wen, Wen; Yang, Wen; Tang, Shan-Hua; Cao, Dan; Guo, Lin-Na; Zeng, Min; Wu, Meng-Chao; Yan, He-Xin; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2016-02-09

    Due to a high rate of nutrient consumption and inadequate vascularization, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells constantly undergo metabolic stress during tumor development. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HBV-induced HCC. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of HBx in HCC adaptation to metabolic stress. Up-regulation of HBx increased the intracellular ATP and NADPH generation, and induced the resistance to glucose deprivation, whereas depletion of HBx via siRNA abolished these effects and conferred HCC cells sensitive to glucose restriction. Though HBx did not affect the glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation capacity of HCC cells under normal culture conditions, it facilitated fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the absence of glucose, which maintained NADPH and ATP levels. Further investigation showed that HBx expression, under glucose deprivation, stimulated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) via a calcium/CaMKK-dependent pathway, which was required for the activation of FAO. Conversely, inhibition of FAO by etomoxir (ETO) restored the sensitivity of HBx-expressing cells to glucose deficiency in vitro and retarded xenograft tumor formation in vivo. Finally, HBx-induced activation of the AMPK and FAO pathways were also observed in xenograft tumors and HBV-associated HCC specimens. Our data suggest that HBx plays a key role in the maintenance of redox and energy homeostasis by activating FAO, which is critical for HCC cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress and might be exploited for therapeutic benefit.

  7. Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gawronska-Kozak

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are key molecules that finely tune gene expression in response to injury. We focused on the role of a transcription factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 mice with Western Blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Foxn1 expression in non-injured skin localized to the epidermis and hair follicles. Post-injured skin tissues showed an intense Foxn1-eGFP signal at the wound margin and in leading epithelial tongue, where it co-localized with keratin 16, a marker of activated keratinocytes. This data support the concept that suprabasal keratinocytes, expressing Foxn1, are key cells in the process of re-epithelialization. The occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT was confirmed by high levels of Snail1 and Mmp-9 expression as well as through co-localization of vimentin/E-cadherin-positive cells in dermis tissue at four days post-wounding. Involvement of Foxn1 in the EMT process was verified by co-localization of Foxn1-eGFP cells with Snail1 in histological sections. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase of double positive E-cadherin/N-cadherin cells within Foxn1-eGFP population of post-wounded skin cells isolates, which corroborated histological and gene expression analyses. Together, our findings indicate that Foxn1 acts as regulator of the skin wound healing process through engagement in re-epithelization and possible involvement in scar formation due to Foxn1 activity during the EMT process.

  8. Activation of islet 5-HT4 receptor regulates glycemic control through promoting insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Hong, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Ji; Yao, Yuan-Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Li-Fei; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2016-10-15

    Mosapride, a gastrointestinal prokinetic drug, is an agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 4 that also reduces blood glucose. Whether 5-HT4 receptor is distributed in pancreatic islets and whether mosapride can directly stimulate insulin secretion is unclear. In the present study, the protein expression and cellular location of 5-HT4 receptor in pancreas was detected through western blotting and immunofluorescence. The acute effects of 5-HT4 receptor agonists, mosapride and prucalopride, on insulin secretion were investigated in vivo and in vitro in normal and alloxan-induced diabetes rats. The results indicated that 5-HT4 receptor immunoreactivity was co-existed in the islets insulin-immunoreactive cells of rat, mouse, pig and human. However the immunoreactive cells of insulin and 5-HT4 receptor and the protein expression of 5-HT4 receptor were significantly decreased in the pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetes rats. In normal rats, mosapride and prucalopride decreased blood glucose and increased insulin secretion during glucose tolerance test, in association with an increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which was abolished by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808. In diabetes rats, mosapride and prucalopride failed to improve blood glucose and insulin levels in the group of 180mg/kg alloxan, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the group of 120mg/kg alloxan in vitro. We conclude that 5-HT4 receptor is distributed in the islet β cell. Activation of 5-HT4 receptor is able to stimulate insulin secretion directly, thereby reduce blood glucose. The study provides important experimental evidences for the 5-HT4 receptor regulating insulin secretion and acting as a potential drug target in diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Klf10 regulates odontoblast differentiation and mineralization via promoting expression of dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Wentong; Wang, Han; Wan, Chunyan; Luo, Daoshu; Deng, Shuli

    2016-01-01

    Klf10, a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, is critical for osteoblast differentiation, bone formation and mineralization. However, whether Klf10 is involved in odontoblastic differentiation and tooth development has not been determined. In this study, we investigate the expression patterns of Klf10 during murine tooth development in vivo and its role in odontoblastic differentiation in vitro. Klf10 protein was expressed in the enamel organ and the underlying mesenchyme, ameloblasts and odontoblasts at early and later stages of murine molar formation. Furthermore, the expression of Klf10, Dmp1, Dspp and Runx2 was significantly elevated during the process of mouse dental papilla mesenchymal differentiation and mineralization. The overexpression of Klf10 induced dental papilla mesenchymal cell differentiation and mineralization as detected by alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red S assay. Klf10 additionally up-regulated the expression of odontoblastic differentiation marker genes Dmp1, Dspp and Runx2 in mouse dental papilla mesenchymal cells. The molecular mechanism of Klf10 in controlling Dmp1 and Dspp expression is thus to activate their regulatory regions in a dosage-dependent manner. Our results suggest that Klf10 is involved in tooth development and promotes odontoblastic differentiation via the up-regulation of Dmp1 and Dspp transcription. PMID:26310138

  10. Klf10 regulates odontoblast differentiation and mineralization via promoting expression of dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Wentong; Wang, Han; Wan, Chunyan; Luo, Daoshu; Deng, Shuli; Chen, Hui; Chen, Shuo

    2016-02-01

    Klf10, a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, is critical for osteoblast differentiation, bone formation and mineralization. However, whether Klf10 is involved in odontoblastic differentiation and tooth development has not been determined. In this study, we investigate the expression patterns of Klf10 during murine tooth development in vivo and its role in odontoblastic differentiation in vitro. Klf10 protein was expressed in the enamel organ and the underlying mesenchyme, ameloblasts and odontoblasts at early and later stages of murine molar formation. Furthermore, the expression of Klf10, Dmp1, Dspp and Runx2 was significantly elevated during the process of mouse dental papilla mesenchymal differentiation and mineralization. The overexpression of Klf10 induced dental papilla mesenchymal cell differentiation and mineralization as detected by alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red S assay. Klf10 additionally up-regulated the expression of odontoblastic differentiation marker genes Dmp1, Dspp and Runx2 in mouse dental papilla mesenchymal cells. The molecular mechanism of Klf10 in controlling Dmp1 and Dspp expression is thus to activate their regulatory regions in a dosage-dependent manner. Our results suggest that Klf10 is involved in tooth development and promotes odontoblastic differentiation via the up-regulation of Dmp1 and Dspp transcription.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n=9 at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4°C and the 100°C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region.

  12. bFGF regulates PI3-kinase-Rac1-JNK pathway and promotes fibroblast migration in wound healing.

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    Shigeyuki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Fibroblast proliferation and migration play important roles in wound healing. bFGF is known to promote both fibroblast proliferation and migration during the process of wound healing. However, the signal transduction of bFGF-induced fibroblast migration is still unclear, because bFGF can affect both proliferation and migration. Herein, we investigated the effect of bFGF on fibroblast migration regardless of its effect on fibroblast proliferation. We noticed involvement of the small GTPases of the Rho family, PI3-kinase, and JNK. bFGF activated RhoA, Rac1, PI3-kinase, and JNK in cultured fibroblasts. Inhibition of RhoA did not block bFGF-induced fibroblast migration, whereas inhibition of Rac1, PI3-kinase, or JNK blocked the fibroblast migration significantly. PI3-kinase-inhibited cells down-regulated the activities of Rac1 and JNK, and Rac1-inhibited cells down-regulated JNK activity, suggesting that PI3-kinase is upstream of Rac1 and that JNK is downstream of Rac1. Thus, we concluded that PI3-kinase, Rac1, and JNK were essential for bFGF-induced fibroblast migration, which is a novel pathway of bFGF-induced cell migration.

  13. MiR-21 promoted proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma through negative regulation of Navigator-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhipeng, E-mail: dr_zpwang@163.com [The Digestive and Vascural Surgery Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (China); Yang, Huan [The Department of Liver and Biliary Pancreatic Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830000, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (China); Ren, Lei [The Department of General Surgery, Branching Hospital of the First People' s Hospital of Urumqi, 830000, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (China)

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been well-established and found to be over-expressed in various human cancers and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-21 involvement in the development and progression of HCC remains to be understood. In the present study, we firstly identified that the Navigator-3 (NAV-3) gene as a novel direct target of miR-21. Knock-down of NAV-3 using shRNA can rescue the effects of anti-miR-21 inhibitor in HCC cell lines, whereas re-expression of miR-21 using transfection with miR-21 mimics phenocopied the NAV-3 knock-down model. Additionally, miR-21 levels inversely correlated with NAV-3 both in HCC cells and tissues. Knock-down of NAV-3 promoted both the proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Together, our findings suggest an important role for miR-21 in the progression of HCC, which negatively regulated Navigator-3 in the migration of HCC. - Highlights: • Navigator-3 (NAV-3) suppresses proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis of HCC cells. • NAV-3 was a novel target of miR-21. • MiR-21 negatively regulates NAV-3 in HCC.

  14. Annexin A2, up-regulated by IL-6, promotes the ossification of ligament fibroblasts from ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-He; He, Chong-Ru; Liu, Fu-Ping; Li, Jia; Gao, Jin-Wei; Li, Yang; Xu, Wei-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Annexin A2, a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein, is involved in osteogenesis. The objective of the present study was to explore the expression of Annexin A2 in spinal ligament tissues (LT) of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and determine its pathological functions. mRNA and protein expression of Annexin A2 was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured with ALP activity kit on a microplate reader. mRNA and protein expression of Annexin A2 in LT, and IL-6 concentration in serum were significantly increased in AS patients. Moreover, exogenous IL-6 treatment significantly up-regulated Annexin A2 expression and ALP activity. Silencing of Annexin A2 expression significantly ameliorated IL-6-induced ossification of fibroblasts from AS patients, as indicated by ALP activity, expression of proteins associated with osteogenic differentiation, including bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osterix, and the ratio of osteoprotegerin to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand. Further MEK inhibitor experiments suggested that Annexin A2 may exert its function through extracellular signal-related kinase pathway. Annexin A2, up-regulated by IL-6, may promote ligament ossification of AS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The RNA-binding protein Spo5 promotes meiosis II by regulating cyclin Cdc13 in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Mayumi; Sato, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Meiosis comprises two consecutive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and II. Despite this unique progression through the cell cycle, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the sequential divisions. In this study, we carried out a genetic screen to identify factors that regulate the initiation of meiosis II in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We identified mutants deficient in meiosis II progression and repeatedly isolated mutants defective in spo5, which encodes an RNA-binding protein. Using fluorescence microscopy to visualize YFP-tagged protein, we found that spo5 mutant cells precociously lost Cdc13, the major B-type cyclin in fission yeast, before meiosis II. Importantly, the defect in meiosis II was rescued by increasing CDK activity. In wild-type cells, cdc13 transcripts increased during meiosis II, but this increase in cdc13 expression was weaker in spo5 mutants. Thus, Spo5 is a novel regulator of meiosis II that controls the level of cdc13 expression and promotes de novo synthesis of Cdc13. We previously reported that inhibition of Cdc13 degradation is necessary to initiate meiosis II; together with the previous information, the current findings indicate that the dual control of Cdc13 by de novo synthesis and suppression of proteolysis ensures the progression of meiosis II. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Sustained expression of miR-26a promotes chromosomal instability and tumorigenesis through regulation of CHFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Leandro; Dabrowska, Aleksandra; Pellegrino, Loredana; Ottaviani, Silvia; Cathcart, Paul; Frampton, Adam E; Krell, Jonathan; Stebbing, Justin

    2017-05-05

    MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a) reduces cell viability in several cancers, indicating that miR-26a could be used as a therapeutic option in patients. We demonstrate that miR-26a not only inhibits G1-S cell cycle transition and promotes apoptosis, as previously described, but also regulates multiple cell cycle checkpoints. We show that sustained miR-26a over-expression in both breast cancer (BC) cell lines and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) induces oversized cells containing either a single-large nucleus or two nuclei, indicating defects in mitosis and cytokinesis. Additionally, we demonstrate that miR-26a induces aneuploidy and centrosome defects and enhances tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, it acts by targeting G1-S transition genes as well as genes involved in mitosis and cytokinesis such as CHFR, LARP1 and YWHAE. Importantly, we show that only the re-expression of CHFR in miR-26a over-expressing cells partially rescues normal mitosis and impairs the tumorigenesis exerted by miR-26a, indicating that CHFR represents an important miR-26a target in the regulation of such phenotypes. We propose that miR-26a delivery might not be a viable therapeutic strategy due to the potential deleterious oncogenic activity of this miRNA. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Placental Growth Factor Promotes Metastases of Ovarian Cancer Through MiR-543-Regulated MMP7

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    Ning Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer (OC cell invasion and migration may provide important evidence for developing efficient therapy. Recently, Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP has been shown to be regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor family members, especially placental growth factor (PLGF, as a potential mechanism underlying cancer invasion. Here, we studied the molecular relationship between PLGF and MMP7 in the OC. Methods: We examined the levels of PLGF and MMP7 in the resected OC specimens and compared to paired adjacent non-tumor ovarian tissue. We also examined the correlation between PLGF and MMP7. We modified PLGF levels in a human OC cell line, OVCAR3, and analyzed the effects on MMP7. Prediction of microRNA (miRNA binding to 3'-UTR of MMP7 mRNA was performed by bioinformatics analyses and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay using miR-543-modifed OC cells. The levels of miR-543 were examined in the OC specimens, and the correlation between miR-543 and PLGF or MMP7 was performed. Results: PLGF and MMP7 both significantly increased in the OC specimens, compared to paired adjacent non-tumor ovarian tissue. PLGF significantly increased MMP7 in the OC cells at protein level, but not at mRNA level. In OC cells, PLGF significantly decreased the levels of miR-543, which suppressed the translation of MMP7 mRNA via 3'-UTR binding. In OC specimen, miR-543 significantly decreased, compared to paired adjacent non-tumor ovarian tissue. An inverse correlation was detected between the levels of miR-543 and PLGF or MMP7 in the OC specimens. Conclusion: MiR-543 inhibits translation of MMP7 through binding to the 3'-UTR of MMP7 mRNA in OC. PLGF suppresses miR-543, which activates MMP7-mediated cancer invasion.

  18. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ballesteros-Martinez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, the most serious and life-threatening allergic reaction, produces the release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1 is a negative regulator of mast-cell degranulation. The action of mediators leads to vasodilation and an increase in vascular permeability, causing great loss of intravascular volume in a short time. Nevertheless, the molecular basis remains unexplored on the vascular level. We investigated Rcan1 expression induced by histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and epinephrine in primary human vein (HV-/artery (HA-derived endothelial cells (ECs and human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC-D. Vascular permeability was analyzed in vitro in human ECs with forced Rcan1 expression using Transwell migration assays and in vivo using Rcan1 knockout mice. Histamine, but neither PAF nor epinephrine, induced Rcan1-4 mRNA and protein expression in primary HV-ECs, HA-ECs, and HMVEC-D through histamine receptor 1 (H1R. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine A. Moreover, intravenous histamine administration increased Rcan1 expression in lung tissues of mice undergoing experimental anaphylaxis. Functional in vitro assays showed that overexpression of Rcan1 promotes barrier integrity, suggesting a role played by this molecule in vascular permeability. Consistent with these findings, in vivo models of subcutaneous and intravenous histamine-mediated fluid extravasation showed increased response in skin, aorta, and lungs of Rcan1-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals. These findings reveal that endothelial Rcan1 is synthesized in response to histamine through a calcineurin-sensitive pathway and may reduce barrier breakdown, thus contributing to the strengthening of the endothelium and resistance to anaphylaxis. These new insights underscore its potential role as a regulator of sensitivity to anaphylaxis in humans.

  19. Regulations on measures to promote the qualification of women in universities, colleges, and technical schools, 31 August 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    These Regulations of the German Democratic Republic, introduced on 1 October 1988, are intended to make it easier for certain categories of women--particularly those with heavy family responsibilities--to study at universities and technical colleges in the German Democratic Republic. The regulations apply to women who have either several children under age 16; a severely handicapped child under age 18; or a family member requiring continual care, supervision, or support. To benefit from the new scheme, women must be selected to sign a "training agreement" by an enterprise, which must have formal plans for promoting its female workforce. Once courses are completed, trainees must be integrated into jobs corresponding to their new skills. The new regulations make it easier to follow correspondence courses by allowing up to 100 days of paid time off each year for study and examination purposes. In following a full-time course, women will receive an allowance equalling 80% of the difference between a basic student allowance and her actual or average earnings prior to enrolling in the course. This will be paid by the employing enterprise. In addition to time off from work, enterprises must provide a support network which includes welfare services, reduced workload, use of the enterprise's training equipment and facilities, and the provision of work assignments linked to training. Steps must be taken to assist women to acquire the qualifications for access to executive and managerial functions. At the core of the new scheme is a whole new range of "specially tailored" correspondence and evening courses which have been introduced into universities and technical colleges. With an average course duration of four and half to five years, course participants will all be nominated by their employing enterprise. The scheme as a whole will be progressively extended to cover all branches of engineering, economic, and agrarian sciences, with special emphasis on information

  20. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) ameliorates liver fibrosis via promoting activated stellate cell apoptosis and reversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuting; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhou, Qun; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Xu, Fengyun; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    SIRT1 (silent information regulator 1), a conserved NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is closely related with various biological processes. Moreover, the important role of SIRT1 in alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver and HCC had been widely reported. Recently, a novel role of SIRT1 was uncovered in organ fibrosis diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 in liver fibrogenesis. SIRT1 protein was dramatically decreased in CCl4-treated mice livers. Stimulation of LX-2 cells with TGF-β1 also resulted in a significant suppression of SIRT1 protein. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cell activation was inhibited by SIRT1 plasmid, and this was accompanied by up-regulation of cell apoptosis-related proteins. Overexpression of SIRT1 also attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers α-SMA and COL1a. However, the important characteristic of the recovery of liver fibrosis is not only the apoptosis of activated stellate cells but also the reversal of the myofibroblast-like phenotype to a quiescent-like phenotype. Restoration of SIRT1 protein was observed in the in vivo spontaneously liver fibrosis reversion model and in vitro MDI (isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin)-induced reversed stellate cells, and forced expression of SIRT1 also promoted the reversal of activated stellate cells. Furthermore, lncRNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) was increased in liver fibrosis. RNAi-mediated suppression of MALAT1 resulted in a decrease of myofibroblast markers and restoration of SIRT1 protein. These observations suggested that SIRT1 contributed to apoptosis and reversion of activated LX-2 cells and SIRT1 might be regulated by MALAT1 in liver fibrosis. Therefore, SIRT1 could be considered as a valuable therapeutic target for translational studies of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. TSA-induced DNMT1 down-regulation represses hTERT expression via recruiting CTCF into demethylated core promoter region of hTERT in HCT116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Soo Hyun; Ko, Young Jong; Kang, Yoonsung; Moon, Young Joon; Rhee, Sangmyung; Ham, Seung Wook; Park, Ae Ja; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a well-known antitumor agent that effectively and selectively induces tumor growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, it was reported that hTERT is one of the primary targets for TSA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells but the mechanism of which has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, to better understand the epigenetic regulation mechanism responsible for the repression of hTERT by TSA, we examined expression of hTERT in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line after treatment with TSA and performed site-specific CpG methylation analysis of the hTERT promoter. We found that TSA-induced the demethylation of site-specific CpGs on the promoter of hTERT, which was caused by down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Among the demethylated region, the 31st-33rd CpGs contained a binding site for CTCF, an inhibitor of hTERT transcription. ChIP analysis revealed that TSA-induced demethylation of the 31st-33rd CpGs promoted CTCF binding on hTERT promoter, leading to repression of hTERT. Taken together, down-regulation of DNMT1 by TSA caused demethylation of a CTCF binding site on the hTERT promoter, the result of which was repression of hTERT via recruitment of CTCF to the promoter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Roles of PucR, G1nR, and TnrA in regulating expression of the Bacillus subtilis ure p3 promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, J.L.; Wray, L.V.; Beier, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the P3 promoter of the Bacillus subtilis ureABC operon is activated during nitrogen-limited growth by PucR, the transcriptional regulator of the purine-degradative genes. Addition of allantoic acid, a purine-degradative intermediate, to nitrogen-limited cells stimulated transcription...... of ure P3 twofold. Since urea is produced during purine degradation in B. subtilis, regulation of ureABC expression by PucR allows purines to be completely degraded to ammonia. The nitrogen transcription factor TnrA was found to indirectly regulate ure P3 expression by activating pucR expression. The two...... consensus GlnR/TnrA binding sites located in the ure P3 promoter region were shown to be required for negative regulation by GlnR. Mutational analysis indicates that a cooperative interaction occurs between GlnR dimers bound at these two sites. B. subtilis is the first example where urease expression...

  3. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promote down-regulation and display functional selectivity at human 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andressen, K W; Manfra, O; Brevik, C H; Ulsund, A H; Vanhoenacker, P; Levy, F O; Krobert, K A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Classically, ligands of GPCRs have been classified primarily upon their affinity and efficacy to activate a signal transduction pathway. Recent reports indicate that the efficacy of a particular ligand can vary depending on the receptor-mediated response measured (e.g. activating G proteins, other downstream responses, internalization). Previously, we reported that inverse agonists induce both homo- and heterologous desensitization, similar to agonist stimulation, at the Gs-coupled 5-HT7 receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether different inverse agonists at the 5-HT7 receptor also induce internalization and/or degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Experimental Approach HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT7(a, b or d) receptors were pre-incubated with 5-HT, clozapine, olanzapine, mesulergine or SB269970 and their effects upon receptor density, AC activity, internalization, recruitment of β-arrestins and lysosomal trafficking were measured. Key Results The agonist 5-HT and three out of four inverse agonists tested increased internalization independently of β-arrestin recruitment. Among these, only the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promoted lysosomal sorting and reduced 5-HT7 receptor density (∼60% reduction within 24 h). Inhibition of lysosomal degradation with chloroquine blocked the clozapine- and olanzapine-induced down-regulation of 5-HT7 receptors. Incubation with SB269970 decreased both 5-HT7(b) constitutive internalization and receptor density but increased 5-HT7(d) receptor density, indicating differential ligand regulation among the 5-HT7 splice variants. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, we found that various ligands differentially activate regulatory processes governing receptor internalization and degradation in addition to signal transduction. Thus, these data extend our understanding of functional selectivity at the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25884989

  5. Knockdown of both FoxO1 and C/EBPβ promotes adipogenesis in porcine preadipocytes through feedback regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiong; Weijun, Pang; Ning, Wei; Yu, Wang; Wenkai, Ren; Gongshe, Yang

    2013-09-01

    FoxO1 and C/EBPβ are important transcription factors during adipogenic differentiation; however, the potential mechanisms of their inter-regulation in adipogenesis remain unknown. We found that FoxO1 and C/EBPβ are abundant in adipose tissues of 3- and 180-day pigs at the mRNA and protein levels. During porcine preadipocyte differentiation, C/EBPβ expression increases to the peak at Day 2 and then decreases. In contrast, FoxO1 is lowest on Day 2 and gradually increases. Knockdown of FoxO1 or C/EBPβ with lentivirus-mediated shRNA enhances or inhibits lipid accumulation and adipogenic maker (C/EBPα and aP2) expression, respectively. FoxO1 depletion causes a mild decrease of C/EBPβ protein level, and C/EBPβ interference also inhibits the expression of FoxO1 protein. Knockdown of both FoxO1 and C/EBPβ promotes lipid accumulation at Day 8, and increases the adipogenic markers during differentiation in comparison with the controls and the FoxO1 knockdown alone. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that FoxO1 binds to C/EBPβ in adipose tissues and in vitro. In conclusion, the results suggest that FoxO1 and C/EBPβ regulate preadipocyte adipogenesis possibly through C/EBPβ → FoxO1 → C/EBPβ feedback regulatory loop and FoxO1-C/EBPβ protein complex. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Cockayne's Syndrome A and B Proteins Regulate Transcription Arrest after Genotoxic Stress by Promoting ATF3 Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchintsev, Alexey; Costanzo, Federico; Rauschendorf, Marc-Alexander; Caputo, Manuela; Ye, Tao; Donnio, Lise-Marie; Proietti-de-Santis, Luca; Coin, Frederic; Laugel, Vincent; Egly, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-21

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is caused by mutations in CSA and CSB. The CSA and CSB proteins have been linked to both promoting transcription-coupled repair and restoring transcription following DNA damage. We show that UV stress arrests transcription of approximately 70% of genes in CSA- or CSB-deficient cells due to the constitutive presence of ATF3 at CRE/ATF sites. We found that CSB, CSA/DDB1/CUL4A, and MDM2 were essential for ATF3 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. ATF3 removal was concomitant with the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and the restart of transcription. Preventing ATF3 ubiquitination by mutating target lysines prevented recovery of transcription and increased cell death following UV treatment. Our data suggest that the coordinate action of CSA and CSB, as part of the ubiquitin/proteasome machinery, regulates the recruitment timing of DNA-binding factors and provide explanations about the mechanism of transcription arrest following genotoxic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prefoldins Negatively Regulate Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Promoting Nuclear Proteasome-Mediated HY5 Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Resa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Milla, Miguel A; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Salinas, Julio

    2017-06-05

    The process of cold acclimation is an important adaptive response whereby many plants from temperate regions increase their freezing tolerance after being exposed to low non-freezing temperatures. The correct development of this response relies on proper accumulation of a number of transcription factors that regulate expression patterns of cold-responsive genes. Multiple studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms involved in promoting the accumulation of these transcription factors. Interestingly, however, the mechanisms implicated in controlling such accumulation to ensure their adequate levels remain largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that prefoldins (PFDs) control the levels of HY5, an Arabidopsis transcription factor with a key role in cold acclimation by activating anthocyanin biosynthesis, in response to low temperature. Our results show that, under cold conditions, PFDs accumulate into the nucleus through a DELLA-dependent mechanism, where they interact with HY5, triggering its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. The degradation of HY5 would result, in turn, in anthocyanin biosynthesis attenuation, ensuring the accurate development of cold acclimation. These findings uncover an unanticipated nuclear function for PFDs in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple Shared Motifs (SSM in conserved region of promoters: a new approach to identify co-regulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théret Nathalie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression plays a pivotal role in cellular functions. However, understanding the dynamics of transcription remains a challenging task. A host of computational approaches have been developed to identify regulatory motifs, mainly based on the recognition of DNA sequences for transcription factor binding sites. Recent integration of additional data from genomic analyses or phylogenetic footprinting has significantly improved these methods. Results Here, we propose a different approach based on the compilation of Simple Shared Motifs (SSM, groups of sequences defined by their length and similarity and present in conserved sequences of gene promoters. We developed an original algorithm to search and count SSM in pairs of genes. An exceptional number of SSM is considered as a common regulatory pattern. The SSM approach is applied to a sample set of genes and validated using functional gene-set enrichment analyses. We demonstrate that the SSM approach selects genes that are over-represented in specific biological categories (Ontology and Pathways and are enriched in co-expressed genes. Finally we show that genes co-expressed in the same tissue or involved in the same biological pathway have increased SSM values. Conclusions Using unbiased clustering of genes, Simple Shared Motifs analysis constitutes an original contribution to provide a clearer definition of expression networks.

  9. Arabidopsis actin-depolymerizing factor7 severs actin filaments and regulates actin cable turnover to promote normal pollen tube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiyan; Xie, Yurong; Jiang, Yuxiang; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-09-01

    Actin filaments are often arranged into higher-order structures, such as the longitudinal actin cables that generate the reverse fountain cytoplasmic streaming pattern present in pollen tubes. While several actin binding proteins have been implicated in the generation of these cables, the mechanisms that regulate their dynamic turnover remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana actin-depolymerizing factor7 (ADF7) is required for turnover of longitudinal actin cables. In vitro biochemical analyses revealed that ADF7 is a typical ADF that prefers ADP-G-actin over ATP-G-actin. ADF7 inhibits nucleotide exchange on actin and severs filaments, but its filament severing and depolymerizing activities are less potent than those of the vegetative ADF1. ADF7 primarily decorates longitudinal actin cables in the shanks of pollen tubes. Consistent with this localization pattern, the severing frequency and depolymerization rate of filaments significantly decreased, while their maximum lifetime significantly increased, in adf7 pollen tube shanks. Furthermore, an ADF7-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion with defective severing activity but normal G-actin binding activity could not complement adf7, providing compelling evidence that the severing activity of ADF7 is vital for its in vivo functions. These observations suggest that ADF7 evolved to promote turnover of longitudinal actin cables by severing actin filaments in pollen tubes.

  10. β5 Integrin Up-Regulation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes Cell Motility in Human Chondrosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Liu, Shan-Chi; Chen, Po-Chun; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues showed significant expression of BDNF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage and primary chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased the migration and expression of β5 integrin in human chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, knockdown of BDNF expression markedly inhibited migratory activity. BDNF-mediated migration and β5 integrin up-regulation were attenuated by antibody, inhibitor, or siRNA against the TrkB receptor. Pretreatment of chondrosarcoma cells with PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors or mutants also abolished BDNF-promoted migration and integrin expression. The PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway was activated after BDNF treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing β5 integrin expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23874483

  11. β5 integrin up-regulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes cell motility in human chondrosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Lin

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues showed significant expression of BDNF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage and primary chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased the migration and expression of β5 integrin in human chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, knockdown of BDNF expression markedly inhibited migratory activity. BDNF-mediated migration and β5 integrin up-regulation were attenuated by antibody, inhibitor, or siRNA against the TrkB receptor. Pretreatment of chondrosarcoma cells with PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors or mutants also abolished BDNF-promoted migration and integrin expression. The PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway was activated after BDNF treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing β5 integrin expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis.

  12. Visual properties of transgenic rats harboring the channelrhodopsin-2 gene regulated by the thy-1.2 promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tomita

    Full Text Available Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2, one of the archea-type rhodopsins from green algae, is a potentially useful optogenetic tool for restoring vision in patients with photoreceptor degeneration, such as retinitis pigmentosa. If the ChR2 gene is transferred to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, which send visual information to the brain, the RGCs may be repurposed to act as photoreceptors. In this study, by using a transgenic rat expressing ChR2 specifically in the RGCs under the regulation of a Thy-1.2 promoter, we tested the possibility that direct photoactivation of RGCs could restore effective vision. Although the contrast sensitivities of the optomotor responses of transgenic rats were similar to those observed in the wild-type rats, they were enhanced for visual stimuli of low-spatial frequency after the degeneration of native photoreceptors. This result suggests that the visual signals derived from the ChR2-expressing RGCs were reinterpreted by the brain to form behavior-related vision.

  13. Ectopic expression of the phosphomimic mutant version of Arabidopsis response regulator 1 promotes a constitutive cytokinin response phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurepa, Jasmina; Li, Yan; Perry, Sharyn E; Smalle, Jan A

    2014-01-14

    Cytokinins control numerous plant developmental processes, including meristem formation and activity, nutrient distribution, senescence timing and responses to both the abiotic and biotic environments. Cytokinin signaling leads to the activation of type-B response regulators (RRBs), Myb-like transcription factors that are activated by the phosphorylation of a conserved aspartate residue in their response receiver domain. Consistent with this, overexpression of RRBs does not substantially alter plant development, but instead leads to cytokinin hypersensitivity. Here we present comparative analysis of plants overexpressing Arabidopsis RRB 1 (ARR1) or a phosphomimic ARR1D94E mutant in which the conserved aspartate-94 (D94) is replaced by the phosphomimic residue glutamate (E). The D94E substitution causes a 100-fold increase in response activation and instigates developmental and physiological changes that characterize wild-type plants treated with cytokinins or transgenic plants with increased cytokinin content. The current model of cytokinin signaling emphasizes the essential role of conserved aspartate residue phosphorylation of RRBs in promoting cytokinin responses. Our comparative analyses of developmental and physiological traits of ARR1 and ARR1D94E overexpressing plants revealed that the ARR1D94E protein is indeed a constitutive and wide-spectrum cytokinin response activator.

  14. miR-130b targets NKD2 and regulates the Wnt signaling to promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi [Department of Human Anatomy and Histoembryology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University (China); Li, Youjun, E-mail: liyoujunn@126.com [Department of Human Anatomy and Histoembryology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University (China); Wang, Nan; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiandong [Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical College (China)

    2016-03-18

    miR-130b was significantly up-regulated in osteosarcoma (OS) cells. Naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2) inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in OS by suppressing Wnt signaling. We used three miRNA target analysis tools to identify potential targets of miR-130b, and found that NKD2 is a potential target of miR-130b. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that miR-130b might target NKD2 and regulate the Wnt signaling to promote OS growth. We detected the expression of miR-130b and NKD2 mRNA and protein by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays, respectively, and found up-regulation of miR-130b and down-regulation of NKD2 mRNA and protein exist in OS cell lines. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that miR-130b inhibitors inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that NKD2 is a direct target of miR-130b, and miR-130b regulated proliferation and apoptosis of OS cells by targeting NKD2. We further investigated whether miR-130b and NKD2 regulate OS cell proliferation and apoptosis by inhibiting Wnt signaling, and the results confirmed our speculation that miR-130b targets NKD2 and regulates the Wnt signaling to promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of OS cells. These findings will offer new clues for OS development and progression, and novel potential therapeutic targets for OS. - Highlights: • miR-130b is up-regulated and NKD2 is down-regulated in osteosarcoma cell lines. • Down-regulation of miR-130b inhibits proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. • Down-regulation of miR-130b promotes apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. • miR-130b directly targets NKD2. • NKD2 regulates OS cell proliferation and apoptosis by inhibiting the Wnt signaling.

  15. Variant histone H2A.Z is globally localized to the promoters of inactive yeast genes and regulates nucleosome positioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Guillemette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available H2A.Z is an evolutionary conserved histone variant involved in transcriptional regulation, antisilencing, silencing, and genome stability. The mechanism(s by which H2A.Z regulates these various biological functions remains poorly defined, in part due to the lack of knowledge regarding its physical location along chromosomes and the bearing it has in regulating chromatin structure. Here we mapped H2A.Z across the yeast genome at an approximately 300-bp resolution, using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with tiling microarrays. We have identified 4,862 small regions--typically one or two nucleosomes wide--decorated with H2A.Z. Those "Z loci" are predominantly found within specific nucleosomes in the promoter of inactive genes all across the genome. Furthermore, we have shown that H2A.Z can regulate nucleosome positioning at the GAL1 promoter. Within HZAD domains, the regions where H2A.Z shows an antisilencing function, H2A.Z is localized in a wider pattern, suggesting that the variant histone regulates a silencing and transcriptional activation via different mechanisms. Our data suggest that the incorporation of H2A.Z into specific promoter-bound nucleosomes configures chromatin structure to poise genes for transcriptional activation. The relevance of these findings to higher eukaryotes is discussed.

  16. CpG METHYLATION ATTENUATES SP1 AND SP3 BINDING TO HUMAN EXTRACELLULAR SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE PROMOTER AND REGULATES ITS CELL-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelko, Igor N.; Mueller, Michael R.; Folz, Rodney J.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) plays an important role in maintaining normal redox homeostasis in the lung. It is expressed at very high levels in pulmonary fibroblasts, alveolar type II epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The molecular mechanism(s) governing this cell-specific expression of EC-SOD are mostly unknown. In our previous studies we showed that EC-SOD cell specific expression was not attributed to differential transcriptional regulation, suggesting that other, possibly epigenetic, mechanisms are involved in regulation of its expression. In this paper, we found high levels of promoter methylation in A549 cells and correspondingly low levels of methylation in MRC5 cells. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase activity by 5-azacytidine in A549 cells reactivated EC-SOD transcription (2.75±0.16 fold, p<0.001) demonstrating the importance of methylation in repression of EC-SOD expression. Furthermore, methylation of cytosines in the promoter markedly decreased Sp1/Sp3 driven promoter activity to 30.09±2.85% (p<0.001) compare to unmethylated promoter. This attenuation of transcription in the promoter-reporter construct was, at least in part, attributed to the binding of methyl-binding protein MeCP2 in the insect cells. However, no binding of MeCP2 or MBD2 proteins to EC-SOD promoter was detected in mammalian cells in vivo. We also found marked differences in the chromatin organization of the EC-SOD promoter between these two cell lines, further supporting the important role epigenetic modifications play in the regulation of EC-SOD expression. PMID:20079429

  17. Counter regulation of ECRG4 gene expression by hypermethylation-dependent inhibition and the Sp1 transcription factor-dependent stimulation of the c2orf40 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xitong; Zeng, Xiaorong; Coimbra, Raul; Eliceiri, Brian P; Baird, Andrew

    2017-12-15

    The human cytokine precursor ECRG4 has been associated with multiple physiological, developmental and pathophysiological processes involving cell proliferation, cell migration, innate immunity, inflammation, cancer progression and metastases. Although down-regulation of ECRG4 gene expression has been largely attributed to hypermethylation of CpG islands in the 5'untranslated region of the ECRG4 promoter, the mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of its regulation have never been systematically described. Here we show that the ECRG4 gene is widely expressed in human tissues and report that its core promoter lies between the -780 to +420 base pairs relative to the ATG start codon of the ECRG4 open reading frame. This sequence, which contains several CpG islands, also includes multiple overlapping Sp1 consensus binding sequences and a putative binding site for NF-kB activation. 5'RACE of mRNA derived from human leukocytes shows that ECRG4 transcription initiates from the guanidine at -11 from the initiation ATG of the ECRG4 open reading frame. While there is no canonical TATA- or CAAT-boxes proximal to this translational initiation site, there is a distal TATA-sequence in the 5'UTR. This region was identified as the sequence targeted by hypermethylation because in vitro methylation of plasmids encoding the ECRG4 promoter abolish promoter activity and the treatment of Jurkat cells (which naturally express ECRG4) with the methylation inhibitor 5-AzaC, increases endogenous ECRG4 expression. Because ChIP assays show that Sp1 binds the ECRG4 promoter, that forced Sp1 expression trans-activates the ECRG4 promoter and Sp1 inhibition with mithramycin inhibits ECRG4 expression, we conclude that the dynamic positive and negative regulatory elements controlling ECRG4 expression include a counter regulation between promoter methylation and Sp1 activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. MiRNA-133a is involved in the regulation of postmenopausal osteoporosis through promoting osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wenzhi; Huang, Yan

    2018-02-07

    The important role of miR-133a in the progress and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been reported, however, the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In this study, qRT-PCR analysis was performed to assess miR-133 expression in serum isolated from postmenopausal osteoporosis patients (PMOP) and healthy controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results showed that miR-133a was significantly upregulated and negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in serum of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The miR-133a mimic, miR-133a inhibitor, and the corresponding controls were transfected into RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells, respectively. TRAP-positive cells were counted and the protein expression of NFATc1, c-Fos and TRAP were detected by western blot analysis. We found that MiR-133a was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis, and overexpression of miR-133a promoted RANKL-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells into osteoclasts, whereas miR-133a knockdown showed the reversed results. In in vivo experiment, rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and injected with antagomiR-133a or antagoNC, and were sacrificed for collecting serum and lumbar spine for ELISA, micro-computed Tomography (CT) and bone histomorphology analysis, respectively. It was found that, in OVX rats, miR-133a knockdown altered the levels of osteoclastogenesis-related factors in serum and increased lumbar spine BMD and changed bone histomorphology. Collectively, miRNA-133a is involved in the regulation of postmenopausal osteoporosis through promoting osteoclast differentiation. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  20. AMPK does not play a requisite role in regulation of PPARGC1A gene expression via the alternative promoter in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Daniil V; Lysenko, Evgeny A; Butkov, Alexey D; Vepkhvadze, Tatiana F; Perfilov, Dmitriy V; Vinogradova, Olga L

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? This study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in the regulation of PGC-1α gene expression via the alternative promoter through a cAMP response element-binding protein-1-dependent mechanism in human skeletal muscle. What is the main finding and its importance? Low-intensity exercise markedly increased the expression of PGC-1α mRNA via the alternative promoter, without increases in ACCSer79/222 (a marker of AMPK activation) and AMPKThr172 phosphorylation. A single dose of the AMPK activator metformin indicated that AMPK was not involved in regulating PGC-1α mRNA expression via the alternative promoter in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle. In human skeletal muscle, PGC-1α is constitutively expressed via the canonical promoter. In contrast, the expression of PGC-1α mRNA via the alternative promoter was found to be highly dependent on the intensity of exercise and to contribute largely to the postexercise increase of total PGC-1α mRNA. This study investigated the role of AMPK in regulating PGC-1α gene expression via the alternative promoter through a cAMP response element-binding protein-1-dependent mechanism in human skeletal muscle. AMPK activation and PGC-1α gene expression were assayed in skeletal muscle of nine endurance-trained men before and after low-intensity exercise (38% of maximal oxygen uptake) and with or without administration of a single dose (2 g) of the AMPK activator metformin. Low-intensity exercise markedly and significantly increased (∼100-fold, P expression of PGC-1α mRNA via the alternative promoter, without increasing ACCSer79/222 (a marker of AMPK activation) and AMPKThr172 phosphorylation. Moreover, in contrast to placebo, metformin increased the level of ACCSer79/222 phosphorylation immediately after exercise (2.6-fold, P expression of PGC-1α gene via the alternative promoter was not affected. This study was unable to confirm that AMPK plays a role in regulating PGC-1

  1. Structural analysis of the essential resuscitation promoting factor YeaZ suggests a mechanism of nucleotide regulation through dimer reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci Aydin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The yeaZ gene product forms part of the conserved network YjeE/YeaZ/YgjD essential for the survival of many gram-negative eubacteria. Among other as yet unidentified roles, YeaZ functions as a resuscitation promoting factor required for survival and resuscitation of cells in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate in detail the structure/function relationship of this family of proteins we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus YeaZ. The YeaZ structure showed that it has a classic actin-like nucleotide-binding fold. Comparisons of this crystal structure to that of available homologues from E. coli, T. maritima and S. typhimurium revealed two distinctly different modes of dimer formation. In one form, prevalent in the absence of nucleotide, the putative nucleotide-binding site is incomplete, lacking a binding pocket for a nucleotide base. In the second form, residues from the second subunit complete the nucleotide-binding site. This suggests that the two dimer architectures observed in the crystal structures correspond to a free and a nucleotide-bound form of YeaZ. A multiple sequence alignment of YeaZ proteins from different bacteria allowed us to identify a large conserved hydrophobic patch on the protein surface that becomes exposed upon nucleotide-driven dimer re-arrangement. We hypothesize that the transition between two dimer architectures represents the transition between the 'on' and 'off' states of YeaZ. The effect of this transition is to alternately expose and bury a docking site for the partner protein YgjD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This paper provides the first structural insight into the putative mechanism of nucleotide regulation of YeaZ through dimer reorganization. Our analysis suggests that nucleotide binding to YeaZ may act as a regulator or switch that changes YeaZ shape, allowing it to switch partners between YjeE and YgjD.

  2. Relative Roles of the fla/che PA, PD-3, and PsigD Promoters in Regulating Motility and sigD Expression in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joyce T.; Estacio, William; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Three promoters have been identified as having potentially important regulatory roles in governing expression of the fla/che operon and of sigD, a gene that lies near the 3′ end of the operon. Two of these promoters, fla/che PA and PD-3, lie upstream of the >26-kb fla/che operon. The third promoter, PsigD, lies within the operon, immediately upstream of sigD. fla/che PA, transcribed by EςA, lies ≥24 kb upstream of sigD and appears to be largely responsible for sigD expression. PD-3, transcribed by EςD, has been proposed to participate in an autoregulatory positive feedback loop. PsigD, a minor ςA-dependent promoter, has been implicated as essential for normal expression of the fla/che operon. We tested the proposed functions of these promoters in experiments that utilized strains that bear chromosomal deletions of fla/che PA, PD-3, or PsigD. Our analysis of these strains indicates that fla/che PA is absolutely essential for motility, that PD-3 does not function in positive feedback regulation of sigD expression, and that PsigD is not essential for normal fla/che expression. Further, our results suggest that an additional promoter(s) contributes to sigD expression. PMID:10940026

  3. Transcriptional regulation of human mucin MUC4 by bile acids in oesophageal cancer cells is promoter-dependent and involves activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Christophe; Perrais, Michaël; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Hémon, Brigitte; Pigny, Pascal; Batra, Surinder; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Triboulet, Jean-Pierre; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2004-02-01

    Abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux and bile acids have been linked to the presence of Barrett's oesophageal premalignant lesion associated with an increase in mucin-producing goblet cells and MUC4 mucin gene overexpression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of MUC4 by bile acids are unknown. Since total bile is a complex mixture, we undertook to identify which bile acids are responsible for MUC4 up-regulation by using a wide panel of bile acids and their conjugates. MUC4 apomucin expression was studied by immunohistochemistry both in patient biopsies and OE33 oesophageal cancer cell line. MUC4 mRNA levels and promoter regulation were studied by reverse transcriptase-PCR and transient transfection assays respectively. We show that among the bile acids tested, taurocholic, taurodeoxycholic, taurochenodeoxycholic and glycocholic acids and sodium glycocholate are strong activators of MUC4 expression and that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. By using specific pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C, we demonstrate that bile acid-mediated up-regulation of MUC4 is promoter-specific and mainly involves activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This new mechanism of regulation of MUC4 mucin gene points out an important role for bile acids as key molecules in targeting MUC4 overexpression in early stages of oesophageal carcinogenesis.

  4. Increased Expression of SETD7 Promotes Cell Proliferation by Regulating Cell Cycle and Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of SET domain containing 7 (SETD7 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and determine whether SETD7 can be used as a predictor of overall survival in HCC patients.mRNAs and proteins of SETD7 and related genes in HCC tumor samples and paired adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (ANLTs (n = 20 or culture cells were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis with SETD7 knockdown SMMC-7721 cells or SETD7 overexpressed HepG2 cells were analyzed by CCK8 assay or flow cytometry. Gene expression alterations in SETD7 knockdown of SMMC-7721 cells were determined by digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Defined data on patients (n = 225 with HCC were retrieved for the further study. Tissue microarrays (TMAs were performed using paraffin tissues with tumor and ANLTs. SETD7 and related proteins were determined by TMAs immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were conducted to associate SETD7 expression with tumor features and patient outcomes, as well as related proteins expression.SETD7 expression was significantly higher in HCC tumor tissues than in ANLTs. SETD7 overexpression in vitro can promote HepG2 cell proliferation, whereas SETD7 knockdown can inhibit SMMC-7721 cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle. SETD7 expression was significantly correlated with five genes expression. Increased SETD7 is associated with metastasis, recurrence, large tumor size, and poor tumor differentiation, and indicates poor prognosis in HCC patients.SETD7 plays a critical role in HCC, and its immunohistochemistry signature provides potential clinical significance for personalized prediction of HCC prognosis.

  5. Positive-feedback regulation of subchondral H-type vessel formation by chondrocyte promotes osteoarthritis development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiansen; Zhang, Haiyan; Cai, Daozhang; Zeng, Chun; Lai, Pinglin; Shao, Yan; Fang, Hang; Li, Delong; Ouyang, Jiayao; Zhao, Chang; Xie, Denghui; Huang, Bin; Yang, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Bai, Xiaochun

    2018-01-12

    Vascular-invasion-mediated interactions between activated articular chondrocytes and subchondral bone are essential for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Here, we determined the role of nutrient sensing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the crosstalk across the bone cartilage interface and its regulatory mechanisms. Then mice with chondrocyte-specific mTORC1 activation (Tsc1 CKO and Tsc1 CKOER ) or inhibition (Raptor CKOER ) and their littermate controls were subjected to OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or not. DMM or Tsc1 CKO mice were treated with bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A antibody that blocks angiogenesis. Articular cartilage degeneration was evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score. Immunostaining and western blotting were conducted to detect H-type vessels and protein levels in mice. Primary chondrocytes from mutant mice and ADTC5 cells were treated with interleukin-1β to investigate the role of chondrocyte mTORC1 in VEGF-A secretion and in vitro vascular formation. Clearly, H-type vessels were increased in subchondral bone in DMM-induced OA and aged mice. Cartilage mTORC1 activation stimulated VEGF-A production in articular chondrocyte and H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone. Chondrocyte mTORC1 promoted OA partially through formation of VEGF-A-stimulated subchondral H-type vessels. In particular, vascular-derived nutrients activated chondrocyte mTORC1, and stimulated chondrocyte activation and production of VEGF, resulting in further angiogenesis in subchondral bone. Thus a positive-feedback regulation of H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone by articular chondrocyte nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling is essential for the pathogenesis and progression of OA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell type-restricted activity of hnRNPM promotes breast cancer metastasis via regulating alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yilin; Gao, Xin D; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Huang, Huilin; Tan, Haiyan; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Reinke, Lauren M; Peter, Marcus E; Feng, Yue; Gius, David; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Peng, Junmin; Xiao, Xinshu; Cheng, Chonghui

    2014-06-01

    Tumor metastasis remains the major cause of cancer-related death, but its molecular basis is still not well understood. Here we uncovered a splicing-mediated pathway that is essential for breast cancer metastasis. We show that the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNPM) promotes breast cancer metastasis by activating the switch of alternative splicing that occurs during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Genome-wide deep sequencing analysis suggests that hnRNPM potentiates TGFβ signaling and identifies CD44 as a key downstream target of hnRNPM. hnRNPM ablation prevents TGFβ-induced EMT and inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice, whereas enforced expression of the specific CD44 standard (CD44s) splice isoform overrides the loss of hnRNPM and permits EMT and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed hnRNPM acts in a mesenchymal-specific manner to precisely control CD44 splice isoform switching during EMT. This restricted cell-type activity of hnRNPM is achieved by competition with ESRP1, an epithelial splicing regulator that binds to the same cis-regulatory RNA elements as hnRNPM and is repressed during EMT. Importantly, hnRNPM is associated with aggressive breast cancer and correlates with increased CD44s in patient specimens. These findings demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism through which tumor metastasis is endowed by the hnRNPM-mediated splicing program. © 2014 Xu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Increased Expression of SETD7 Promotes Cell Proliferation by Regulating Cell Cycle and Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shengsheng; Hu, Jiewei; Yu, Chaoqin; He, Miaoxia; Cai, Zailong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of SET domain containing 7 (SETD7) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and determine whether SETD7 can be used as a predictor of overall survival in HCC patients. mRNAs and proteins of SETD7 and related genes in HCC tumor samples and paired adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (ANLTs) (n = 20) or culture cells were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis with SETD7 knockdown SMMC-7721 cells or SETD7 overexpressed HepG2 cells were analyzed by CCK8 assay or flow cytometry. Gene expression alterations in SETD7 knockdown of SMMC-7721 cells were determined by digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. Defined data on patients (n = 225) with HCC were retrieved for the further study. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were performed using paraffin tissues with tumor and ANLTs. SETD7 and related proteins were determined by TMAs immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were conducted to associate SETD7 expression with tumor features and patient outcomes, as well as related proteins expression. SETD7 expression was significantly higher in HCC tumor tissues than in ANLTs. SETD7 overexpression in vitro can promote HepG2 cell proliferation, whereas SETD7 knockdown can inhibit SMMC-7721 cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle. SETD7 expression was significantly correlated with five genes expression. Increased SETD7 is associated with metastasis, recurrence, large tumor size, and poor tumor differentiation, and indicates poor prognosis in HCC patients. SETD7 plays a critical role in HCC, and its immunohistochemistry signature provides potential clinical significance for personalized prediction of HCC prognosis.

  8. L-selectin Promotes the Maturation of Dendritic Cells via Up-regulation the Expression of TLR4 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhishuai; Liu, Jia; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jianing; Huang, Rongchong

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between dendritic cells (DCs) and L-selectin in the progress of atherosclerosis is unclear. Here, we used L-selectin co-cultured with DCs to investigate the effect of L-selectin on the maturation of DCs in vitro Monocytes derived DCs were isolated and cultured from human peripheral blood. After being stimulated with L-selectin and/or its antagonist for 24-48 hours, the feather of cells was observed by the electron microscope. The expression of mature antigens CD1a, CD80, CD83, and CD86 were investigated by flow cytometric analysis (FACS). RT-PCR and FACS were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR-4). We found that only the cells of giving L-selectin have the mature special feature for irregular shapes. DCs which were stimulated by L-selectin have a larger number of expressing CD1a, CD80, CD83, and CD86 compared with non-stimulated and cultured with L-selectin antagonist. The transcript levels of TLR4 were significantly higher after L-selectin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated. And the antagonist of L-selectin can deeply decrease the expression of CD1a, CD80, CD83, and CD86 on DCs appeared to coincide with the level of TLR4 transcription. The results demonstrate L-selectin can promote the maturation of DCs via up-regulation the expression of TLR4. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Androgen receptor regulated microRNA miR-182-5p promotes prostate cancer progression by targeting the ARRDC3/ITGB4 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingjing [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Xu, Chen [Research Center of Developmental Biology, Second Military Medical University, 800th Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, 415th Feng Yang Road, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Fang, Ziyu; Li, Yaoming [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Liu, Houqi; Wang, Yue [Research Center of Developmental Biology, Second Military Medical University, 800th Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Translational Medicine Center, Second Military Medical University, 800th Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Xu, Chuanliang [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Sun, Yinghao, E-mail: sunyh@medmail.com.cn [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Abstracts: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important endogenous gene regulators that play key roles in prostate cancer development and metastasis. However, specific miRNA expression patterns in prostate cancer tissues from Chinese patients remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared miRNA expression patterns in 65 pairs of prostate cancer and para-cancer tissues by RNA sequencing and found that miR-182-5p was the most up-regulated miRNA in prostate cancer tissues. The result was validated using realtime PCR in 18 pairs of prostate cancer and para-cancer tissues. In in vitro analysis, it was confirmed that miR-182-5p promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, the androgen receptor directly regulated the transcription of miR-182-5p, which could target to the 3′UTR of ARRDC3 mRNA and affect the expression of ARRDC3 and its downstream gene ITGB4. For the in vivo experiment, miR-182-5p overexpression also promoted the growth and progression of prostate cancer tumors. In this regard, we suggest that miR-182-5p may be a key androgen receptor-regulated factor that contributes to the development and metastasis of Chinese prostate cancers and may be a potential target for the early diagnosis and therapeutic studies of prostate cancer. -- Highlights: •miR-182-5p is the mostly up-regulated miRNA in Chinese prostate cancer. •miR-182-5p is regulated by androgen receptor. •miR-182-5p promotes prostate cancer progression. •miR-182-5p regulates ARRDC3/ITGB4 pathway.

  10. Down-regulation of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes cell proliferation and epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiao-cai; Xiao, Cui-cui; Li, Hua [Department of Hepatic Surgery, 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Liver Disease Research, Guangzhou (China); Tai, Yan; Zhang, Qi [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Liver Disease Research, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Yang, E-mail: yysysu2@163.com [Department of Hepatic Surgery, 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-19

    Background: Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 (TLE4) has been reported to be involved in some subsets of acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of TLE4 in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The expression pattern of TLE4 in HCC was determined by Western-blot and qRT-PCR, gain-of-function and loss-of-function was used to explore the biological role of TLE4 in HCC cells. A xenograft model was established to confirm its effects on proliferation. Results: The protein expression levels of TLE4 were significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal liver tissues. In vitro, down-regulation of TLE4 in Huh7 or SMMC-7721 promoted cell proliferation and ectopical expression of TLE4 in Hep3B or Bel-7404 suppressed cell proliferation. In addition, the cell colony formation ability was enhanced after down-regulation of TLE4 expression in Huh-7 but suppressed after over-expression in Hep3B. Furthermore, down-regulation of TLE4 increased the cell invasion ability, as well as increased the expression level of Vimentin and decreased that of E-cadherin, indicating a phenotype of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells. On the contrary, ectopical expression of TLE4 in HCC cells decreased the cell invasion ability and inhibited EMT. In vivo, compared to control group, xenograft tumor volumes were significantly decreased in TLE4 overexpression group. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that TLE4 might play important regulatory roles in cellular proliferation and EMT process in HCC. - Highlights: • TLE4 is significantly down-regulated in HCC samples. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes cell proliferation. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  11. Growth phase-dependent regulation and stringent control of fis are conserved processes in enteric bacteria and involve a single promoter (fis P) in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Prabhat; Pratt, Timothy S; Beach, Michael B; Bradley, Meranda D; Undamatla, Jayanthi; Osuna, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of the Escherichia coli factor for inversion stimulation (Fis), a global regulator of transcription and a facilitator of certain site-specific DNA recombination events, varies substantially in response to changes in the nutritional environment and growth phase. Under conditions of nutritional upshift, fis is transiently expressed at very high levels, whereas under induced starvation conditions, fis is repressed by stringent control. We show that both of these regulatory processes operate on the chromosomal fis genes of the enterobacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris, strongly suggesting that the physiological role of Fis is closely tied to its transcriptional regulation in response to the nutritional environment. These transcriptional regulatory processes were previously shown to involve a single promoter (fis P) preceding the fis operon in E. coli. Recent work challenged this notion by presenting evidence from primer extension assays which appeared to indicate that there are multiple promoters upstream of fis P that contribute significantly to the expression and regulation of fis in E. coli. Thus, a rigorous analysis of the fis promoter region was conducted to assess the contribution of such additional promoters. However, our data from primer extension analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, beta-galactosidase assays, and in vitro transcription analysis all indicate that fis P is the sole E. coli fis promoter in vivo and in vitro. We further show how certain conditions used in the primer extension reactions can generate artifacts resulting from secondary annealing events that are the likely source of incorrect assignment of additional fis promoters.

  12. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  13. THE REGULATIONS RELATING TO FOODSTUFFS FOR INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN (R 991: A FORMULA FOR THE PROMOTION OF BREASTFEEDING OR CENSORSHIP OF COMMERCIAL SPEECH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of commercial speech in the interests of public health is an issue which recently has become the topic of numerous debates. Two examples of such governmental regulation are the subjects of discussion in this article, namely the prohibition on the advertising and promotion of tobacco products, as well as the proposed prohibition on the advertising and promotion of infant formulae and other foods and products marketed as being suitable for infants or young children. The article seek to evaluate the recently proposed regulations published in terms of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act in the light of the reasoning by the Supreme Court of Appeal in the British American Tobacco South Africa (Pty Limited v Minister of Health 463/2011 [2012] ZASCA 107 (20 June 2012 decision, and in particular in terms of the section 36 test of reasonableness and proportionality found in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. It argues that, although the South African Department of Health must be applauded for its attempt at improving public health in the country, some of the provisions of the proposed regulations are not constitutionally sound. It will be contended that, despite the fact that the promotion of breastfeeding is a laudable goal, the introduction only of measures which restrict the right to advertise these types of products will not necessarily achieve this objective.

  14. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michael Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  15. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  16. Isolation and functional characterization of cold-regulated promoters, by digitally identifying peach fruit cold-induced genes from a large EST dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cold acclimation is the process by which plants adapt to the low, non freezing temperatures that naturally occur during late autumn or early winter. This process enables the plants to resist the freezing temperatures of winter. Temperatures similar to those associated with cold acclimation are also used by the fruit industry to delay fruit ripening in peaches. However, peaches that are subjected to long periods of cold storage may develop chilling injury symptoms (woolliness and internal breakdown. In order to better understand the relationship between cold acclimation and chilling injury in peaches, we isolated and functionally characterized cold-regulated promoters from cold-inducible genes identified by digitally analyzing a large EST dataset. Results Digital expression analyses of EST datasets, revealed 164 cold-induced peach genes, several of which show similarities to genes associated with cold acclimation and cold stress responses. The promoters of three of these cold-inducible genes (Ppbec1, Ppxero2 and Pptha1 were fused to the GUS reporter gene and characterized for cold-inducibility using both transient transformation assays in peach fruits (in fruta and stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana. These assays demonstrate that the promoter Pptha1 is not cold-inducible, whereas the Ppbec1 and Ppxero2 promoter constructs are cold-inducible. Conclusion This work demonstrates that during cold storage, peach fruits differentially express genes that are associated with cold acclimation. Functional characterization of these promoters in transient transformation assays in fruta as well as stable transformation in Arabidopsis, demonstrate that the isolated Ppbec1 and Ppxero2 promoters are cold-inducible promoters, whereas the isolated Pptha1 promoter is not cold-inducible. Additionally, the cold-inducible activity of the Ppbec1 and Ppxero2 promoters suggest that there is a conserved heterologous cold-inducible regulation

  17. Aberrant expression of human mucin gene MUC5B in gastric carcinoma and cancer cells. Identification and regulation of a distal promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrais, M; Pigny, P; Buisine, M P; Porchet, N; Aubert, J P; Van Seuningen-Lempire, I

    2001-05-04

    In gastric cancer, altered expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 mucin genes has already been described. We show in this report by the means of in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and transfection assays that MUC5B is also abnormally expressed in gastric carcinomatous tissues and cell lines. We thus undertook to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that regulate the transcription of MUC5B in gastric cancer cells. To this end, high expressing (KATO-III) and low expressing (AGS) gastric cancer cell lines were chosen to study human mucin gene MUC5B expression and promoter activity. Sequencing of the promoter region revealed a distal TATA box located 1 kilobase upstream of the proximal TATA box. Functional activity of the promoter was addressed by using deletion mutants covering 2044 nucleotides upstream of the MUC5B transcription start site. We identified a distal promoter 10 times more active than the proximal promoter in KATO-III cells. In AGS cells, both promoters, much less active, showed the same range of activity. Binding assays allowed us to show that the transcription factor ATF-1 binds to a cis-element present in the distal promoter. Sp1, which binds to both promoters specifically transactivates the proximal promoter. Treatment of transfected cells with PMA, cholera toxin A subunit, and calcium ionophore showed that only PMA led to a substantial activation of the distal promoter. MUC5B 5'-flanking region having a high GC content, influence of methylation on the MUC5B expression was assessed. Our results indicate that repression of MUC5B expression visualized in AGS cells is due in part to the presence of numerous methylated cytosine residues throughout the 5'-flanking region. Altogether these results demonstrate that MUC5B expression in gastric cancer cells is governed by a highly active distal promoter that is up-regulated by protein kinase C and that repression is under the influence of methylation.

  18. Regulated Expression of pdx-1 Promotes In Vitro Differentiation of Insulin-Producing Cells From Embryonic Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satsuki Miyazaki; Eiji Yamato; Jun-ichi Miyazaki

    2004-01-01

    ... Regulation Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan Address correspondence and reprint requests to Jun-ichi Miyazaki, MD, PhD, Division of Stem Cell Regulation Research (G6...

  19. Promoter of CaZF, a chickpea gene that positively regulates growth and stress tolerance, is activated by an AP2-family transcription factor CAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    Full Text Available Plants respond to different forms of stresses by inducing transcription of a common and distinct set of genes by concerted actions of a cascade of transcription regulators. We previously reported that a gene, CaZF encoding a C2H2-zinc finger family protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum imparted high salinity tolerance when expressed in tobacco plants. We report here that in addition to promoting tolerance against dehydration, salinity and high temperature, the CaZF overexpressing plants exhibited similar phenotype of growth and development like the plants overexpressing CAP2, encoding an AP2-family transcription factor from chickpea. To investigate any relationship between these two genes, we performed gene expression analysis in the overexpressing plants, promoter-reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A number of transcripts that exhibited enhanced accumulation upon expression of CAP2 or CaZF in tobacco plants were found common. Transient expression of CAP2 in chickpea leaves resulted in increased accumulation of CaZF transcript. Gel mobility shift and transient promoter-reporter assays suggested that CAP2 activates CaZF promoter by interacting with C-repeat elements (CRTs in CaZF promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay demonstrated an in vivo interaction of CAP2 protein with CaZF promoter.

  20. Understanding the transcriptional regulation of cervix cancer using microarray gene expression data and promoter sequence analysis of a curated gene set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant; Mangal, Manu; Agarwal, Subhash Mohan

    2014-02-10

    Cervical cancer, the malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the top-most cancer in India. Several factors are responsible for causing cervical cancer, which alter the expression of oncogenic genes resulting in up or down-regulation of gene expression and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes/gene products. Gene expression is regulated by interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and specific regulatory elements in the promoter regions of target genes. Thus, it is important to decipher and analyze TFs that bind to regulatory regions of diseased genes and regulate their expression. In the present study, computational methods involving the combination of gene expression data from microarray experiments and promoter sequence analysis of a curated gene set involved in the cervical cancer causation have been utilized for identifying potential regulatory elements. Consensus predictions of two approaches led to the identification of twelve TFs that might be crucial to the regulation of cervical cancer progression. Subsequently, TF enrichment and oncomine expression analysis suggested that the transcription factor family E2F played an important role for the regulation of genes involve in cervical carcinogenesis. Our results suggest that E2F possesses diagnostic/prognostic value and can act as a potential drug target in cervical cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of the Human Ghrelin Promoter Activity by Transcription Factors, NF-κB and Nkx2.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Shiimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the gene expression of ghrelin, a growth hormone releasing and appetite stimulating hormone from stomach, we constructed human ghrelin promoter-reporter vectors and analyzed the promoter activity. The ghrelin promoter activity was high when cultured cells that express ghrelin mRNA endogenously like TT or ECC10 cells were used, indicating that these cells contain factors necessary for full expression of the human ghrelin gene. The human ghrelin promoter contains both positive and negative regulatory regions. A transient decrease of the promoter activity was found when the reporter vector with the −1600 fragment of the human ghrelin promoter was transfected into cultured cells. We then examined the effect of several transcription factors on the ghrelin promoter activity and found that NF-κB suppressed and that Nkx2.2, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is important for ghrelin cell development in pancreas, activates the promoter activity. These transcription factors may be possible targets for the control of ghrelin gene expression.

  2. Characterization of the iron-regulated desA promoter of Streptomyces pilosus as a system for controlled gene expression in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Francisco J; Rincón, Javier; Martín, Juan F

    2003-05-19

    BACKGROUND: The bioavailability of iron is quite low since it is usually present as insoluble complexes. To solve the bioavailability problem microorganisms have developed highly efficient iron-scavenging systems based on the synthesis of siderophores that have high iron affinity. The systems of iron assimilation in microorganisms are strictly regulated to control the intracellular iron levels since at high concentrations iron is toxic for cells. Streptomyces pilosus synthesizes the siderofore desferrioxamine B. The first step in desferrioxamine biosynthesis is decarboxylation of L-lysine to form cadaverine, a desferrioxamine B precursor. This reaction is catalyzed by the lysine decarboxylase, an enzyme encoded by the desA gene that is repressed by iron. RESULTS: The binding of the DmdR (acronym for divalent metal dependent repressor) to the desA promoter in presence of Fe2+ or other divalent ions has been characterized. A 51 bp DNA fragment of the desA promoter containing the 9 bp inverted repeat was sufficient for binding of the DmdR repressor, as observed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The desA mobility shift was prevented by neutralizing DmdR with anti-DmdR antibodies or by chelating the divalent metal in the binding reaction with 2,2'-dipyridyl. Binding to the desA promoter was observed with purified DmdR repressors of Streptomyces coelicolor or Rhodococcus fascians suggesting that there is a common mechanism of iron-regulation in actinomycetes. The complete desA promoter region was coupled using transcriptional fusions to the amy reporter gene (encoding alpha-amylase) in low copy or multicopy Streptomyces vectors. The iron-regulated desA promoter was induced by addition of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl resulting in a strong expression of the reporter gene. CONCLUSIONS: The iron-regulated desA promoter can be used for inducible expression of genes in Streptomyces species, as shown by de-repression of the promoter when coupled to a

  3. Characterization of the iron-regulated desA promoter of Streptomyces pilosus as a system for controlled gene expression in actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Juan F

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioavailability of iron is quite low since it is usually present as insoluble complexes. To solve the bioavailability problem microorganisms have developed highly efficient iron-scavenging systems based on the synthesis of siderophores that have high iron affinity. The systems of iron assimilation in microorganisms are strictly regulated to control the intracellular iron levels since at high concentrations iron is toxic for cells. Streptomyces pilosus synthesizes the siderofore desferrioxamine B. The first step in desferrioxamine biosynthesis is decarboxylation of L-lysine to form cadaverine, a desferrioxamine B precursor. This reaction is catalyzed by the lysine decarboxylase, an enzyme encoded by the desA gene that is repressed by iron. Results The binding of the DmdR (acronym for divalent metal dependent repressor to the desA promoter in presence of Fe2+ or other divalent ions has been characterized. A 51 bp DNA fragment of the desA promoter containing the 9 bp inverted repeat was sufficient for binding of the DmdR repressor, as observed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The desA mobility shift was prevented by neutralizing DmdR with anti-DmdR antibodies or by chelating the divalent metal in the binding reaction with 2,2'-dipyridyl. Binding to the desA promoter was observed with purified DmdR repressors of Streptomyces coelicolor or Rhodococcus fascians suggesting that there is a common mechanism of iron-regulation in actinomycetes. The complete desA promoter region was coupled using transcriptional fusions to the amy reporter gene (encoding α-amylase in low copy or multicopy Streptomyces vectors. The iron-regulated desA promoter was induced by addition of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl resulting in a strong expression of the reporter gene. Conclusions The iron-regulated desA promoter can be used for inducible expression of genes in Streptomyces species, as shown by de-repression of the promoter

  4. Regulated viral BDNF delivery in combination with Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration through capillary alginate hydrogels after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwen; Sandner, Beatrice; Schackel, Thomas; Nicholson, LaShae; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Puttagunta, Radhika; Müller, Rainer; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin

    2017-09-15

    Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally. In addition, we examined whether SC injection into the caudal spinal parenchyma would further enhance regeneration of descending axons to re-enter the host spinal cord. Our data show that both serotonergic and descending axons traced by biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) extend throughout the scaffolds. The number of regenerating axons is significantly increased when caudal BDNF expression is activated and transient BDNF delivery is able to sustain axons after gene expression is switched off. Descending axons are confined to the caudal graft/host interface even with continuous BDNF expression for 8weeks. Only with a caudal injection of SCs, a pathway facilitating axonal regeneration through the host/graft interface is generated allowing axons to successfully re-enter the caudal spinal cord. Recovery from spinal cord injury is poor due to the limited regeneration observed in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Biomaterials, cell transplantation and growth factors that can guide axons across a lesion site, provide a cellular substrate, stimulate axon growth and have shown some promise in increasing the growth distance of regenerating axons. In the present study, we combined an alginate biomaterial with linear channels with transplantation of Schwann cells within

  5. Transcriptional Regulation of the AP-2α Promoter by BTEB-1 and AP-2rep, a Novel wt-1/egr-Related Zinc Finger Repressor

    OpenAIRE

    Imhof, Axel; Schuierer, Marion; Werner, Oliver; Moser, Markus; Roth, Christina; Bauer, Reinhard; Buettner, Reinhard

    1999-01-01

    AP-2 transcription factors have been suggested to exert key regulatory functions in vertebrate embryonic development, in tumorigenicity of various cancer cell types, and in controlling cell cycle and apoptotic effector genes. In this study, we investigated transcriptional regulation of the AP-2α gene promoter mediated by an autoregulatory element (referred to as A32) with a core consensus AP-2 binding site at position −336 relative to the mRNA initiation site. AP-2 and multiple different nucl...

  6. Ciliary dyslexia candidate genes DYX1C1 and DCDC2 are regulated by Regulatory Factor X (RFX) transcription factors through X-box promoter motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimies, Kristiina; Bieder, Andrea; Lauter, Gilbert; Sugiaman-Trapman, Debora; Torchet, Rachel; Hokkanen, Marie-Estelle; Burghoorn, Jan; Castrén, Eero; Kere, Juha; Tapia-Páez, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter

    2016-10-01

    DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319 are three of the most replicated dyslexia candidate genes (DCGs). Recently, these DCGs were implicated in functions at the cilium. Here, we investigate the regulation of these DCGs by Regulatory Factor X transcription factors (RFX TFs), a gene family known for transcriptionally regulating ciliary genes. We identify conserved X-box motifs in the promoter regions of DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319 and demonstrate their functionality, as well as the ability to recruit RFX TFs using reporter gene and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Furthermore, we uncover a complex regulation pattern between RFX1, RFX2, and RFX3 and their significant effect on modifying the endogenous expression of DYX1C1 and DCDC2 in a human retinal pigmented epithelial cell line immortalized with hTERT (hTERT-RPE1). In addition, induction of ciliogenesis increases the expression of RFX TFs and DCGs. At the protein level, we show that endogenous DYX1C1 localizes to the base of the cilium, whereas DCDC2 localizes along the entire axoneme of the cilium, thereby validating earlier localization studies using overexpression models. Our results corroborate the emerging role of DCGs in ciliary function and characterize functional noncoding elements, X-box promoter motifs, in DCG promoter regions, which thus can be targeted for mutation screening in dyslexia and ciliopathies associated with these genes.-Tammimies, K., Bieder, A., Lauter, G., Sugiaman-Trapman, D., Torchet, R., Hokkanen, M.-E., Burghoorn, J., Castrén, E., Kere, J., Tapia-Páez, I., Swoboda, P. Ciliary dyslexia candidate genes DYX1C1 and DCDC2 are regulated by Regulatory Factor (RF) X transcription factors through X-box promoter motifs. © The Author(s).

  7. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters drive highly specific, tightly regulated and unique expression patterns during floral transition, initiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjin; Yan, Guohua; Wen, Zhifeng; An, Young-Qiang; Singer, Stacy D; Liu, Zongrang

    2014-02-01

    The genetic engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters that drive expression in floral tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco APETALA1-like (AP1-like) promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using the GUS reporter system, along with tissue-specific ablation analyses. Our results demonstrated that the two promoters are active in floral inflorescences but not in vegetative apical meristems or other vegetative tissues, as reflected by strong GUS staining and DT-A-mediated ablation of apical shoot tips during reproductive but not vegetative growth. We also showed that the NtAP1Lb1 promoter was more active than NtAP1La in inflorescences, as the former yielded higher frequencies and greater phenotypic evidence of tissue ablation compared to the latter. We further revealed that both promoters were uniformly expressed in the meristems of stage 1 and 2 floral buds, but were differentially expressed in floral organs later during development. While NtAP1La was found to be active in stage 4-5 carpels, later becoming confined to ovary tissue from stage 9 onwards, NtAP1Lb1 activity was apparent in all floral organs from stages 3 to 7, becoming completely absent in all floral organs from stage 11 onward. Therefore, it seems that the two tobacco promoters have acquired similar but distinct inflorescence-, floral meristem- and floral organ-specific and development-dependent regulatory features without any leaky activity in vegetative tissues. These features are novel and have rarely been observed in other flower-specific promoters characterized to date. The potential application of these promoters for engineering sterility, increasing biomass production and modifying flower architecture, as well as their putative use in flower-specific transgene excision, will be discussed.

  8. HY1 genetically interacts with GBF1 and regulates the activity of the Z-box containing promoters in light signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V Babu Rajendra; Gupta, Nisha; Nandi, Ashis; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis HY1/HO1, heme oxygenase enzyme, catalyses the oxygenation of heme to produce biliverdin, an essential step in the phytochrome-chromophore biosynthesis pathway. GBF1/ZBF2 is a G/Z-box binding bZIP protein that plays a dual but opposite regulatory roles in blue light-mediated seedling development and gene expression. Here, we show the genetic interactions of HY1 and GBF1 in seedling photomorphogenesis, and the role of HY1 in the regulation of promoters containing the Z-box light responsive element. Our results indicate that whereas the additional mutation in GBF1 does not affect the phenotype of hy1 mutant seedlings in red or far-red light, the additional mutation in HY1 suppresses the hyper photomorphogenic phenotype of gbf1 in BL. Further, transgenic studies using promoter-reporter constructs indicate that functional HY1 is essential for the optimal induction of Z-box containing synthetic and native promoters at various stages of Arabidopsis growth and development. Thus, this study establishes a functional relation of HY1 with GBF1, and HY1-mediated regulation of Z-box containing promoters in Arabidopsis seedling development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-11-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2506-2512, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Oncogenic miR-19a and miR-19b co-regulate tumor suppressor MTUS1 to promote cell proliferation and migration in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT MTUS1 (microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 has been identified that can function as a tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. However, the function and mechanisms underlying the regulation of MTUS1 are unclear. In the present study, we reported that miR-19a and miR-19b (miR-19a/b promote proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells by targeting MTUS1. First, MTUS1 was proved to function as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and was linked to cell proliferation and migration promotion. Second, an inverse correlation between miR-19a/b expression and MTUS1 mRNA/protein expression was noted in human lung cancer tissues. Third, MTUS1 was appraised as a direct target of miR-19a/b by bioinformatics analysis. Fourth, direct MTUS1 regulation by miR-19a/b in lung cancer cells was experimentally affirmed by cell transfection assay and luciferase reporter assay. Finally, miR-19a/b were shown to cooperatively repress MTUS1 expression and synergistically regulate MTUS1 expression to promote lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, our findings have provided the first clues regarding the roles of miR-19a/b, which appear to function as oncomirs in lung cancer by downregulating MTUS1.

  11. Zinc finger gene 217 (ZNF217) Promoted Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) through Regulating E2 Synthesis and Inhibiting Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Junyu; Liu, Jiansheng; Cheng, Xiaoyue; Li, Shang; Hong, Yan; Sun, Kang; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Du, Yanzhi; Li, Weiping

    2017-06-12

    Zinc finger gene 217 (ZNF217) is a candidate gene of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is vulnerable to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). However, the relationship between ZNF217 and OHSS is largely unknown. Our study demonstrated that ZNF217 was mainly distributed in the granulosa cells of rat ovary. Significantly higher expression of ovarian ZNF217 was detected in OHSS rats, being consistent with serum 17β-estradiol concentration and ovarian aromatase. Moreover, OHSS rats also showed decreased ovarian TSP-1 mRNA, an acknowledged VEGF signaling suppressor. The same changes were detected in human granulosa cells and follicular fluid. Thus, the increased ZNF217 and decreased TSP-1 may participate in OHSS onset. In vitro experiment revealed that ZNF217 positively regulated E2 synthesis through promoting cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and thereby CYP19A1 in KGN cells. Furthermore, ZNF217 negatively regulated TSP-1 in KGN cells while TSP-1 promoted claudin1 and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) in HUVECs and HAECs. Both of claudin1 and NO are responsible for the regulation of vascular permeability (VP). Therefore, we demonstrated that ZNF217 contributed to OHSS onset through promoting E2 synthesis and the increase of VP. Moreover, the increased ZNF217 and decreased TSP-1 provided new targets for the prevention or treatment of OHSS in the future.

  12. The Escherichia coli regulator of sigma 70 protein, Rsd, can up-regulate some stress-dependent promoters by sequestering sigma 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennie E; Oshima, Taku; Piper, Sarah E; Webster, Christine L; Westblade, Lars F; Karimova, Gouzel; Ladant, Daniel; Kolb, Annie; Hobman, Jon L; Busby, Stephen J W; Lee, David J

    2007-05-01

    The Escherichia coli Rsd protein forms complexes with the RNA polymerase sigma(70) factor, but its biological role is not understood. Transcriptome analysis shows that overexpression of Rsd causes increased expression from some promoters whose expression depends on the alternative sigma(38) factor, and this was confirmed by experiments with lac fusions at selected promoters. The LP18 substitution in Rsd increases the Rsd-dependent stimulation of these promoter-lac fusions. Analysis with a bacterial two-hybrid system shows that the LP18 substitution in Rsd increases its interaction with sigma(70). Our experiments support a model in which the role of Rsd is primarily to sequester sigma(70), thereby increasing the levels of RNA polymerase containing the alternative sigma(38) factor.

  13. The Escherichia coli Regulator of Sigma 70 Protein, Rsd, Can Up-Regulate Some Stress-Dependent Promoters by Sequestering Sigma 70▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennie E.; Oshima, Taku; Piper, Sarah E.; Webster, Christine L.; Westblade, Lars F.; Karimova, Gouzel; Ladant, Daniel; Kolb, Annie; Hobman, Jon L.; Busby, Stephen J. W.; Lee, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Rsd protein forms complexes with the RNA polymerase σ70 factor, but its biological role is not understood. Transcriptome analysis shows that overexpression of Rsd causes increased expression from some promoters whose expression depends on the alternative σ38 factor, and this was confirmed by experiments with lac fusions at selected promoters. The LP18 substitution in Rsd increases the Rsd-dependent stimulation of these promoter-lac fusions. Analysis with a bacterial two-hybrid system shows that the LP18 substitution in Rsd increases its interaction with σ70. Our experiments support a model in which the role of Rsd is primarily to sequester σ70, thereby increasing the levels of RNA polymerase containing the alternative σ38 factor. PMID:17351046

  14. Function and regulation domains of a newly isolated putative β-actin promoter from pacific white shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Shi

    Full Text Available Current development of transgenic shrimp research has been hampered due to the lack of the suitable promoters and efficient transfection methods for crustaceans. A 1642 bp sequence, containing 5'-upstream sequence, exon 1, intron 1 and partial exon 2, which is responsible for transcriptional initiation of the newly reported shrimp β-actin (actinT1, has been isolated from the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and named as SbaP. To determine its function and potential application in marine biotechnology, the sequence and functional domains were examined by constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter gene. We have identified 5' regions that play a central role in the expression of the β-actin gene. The proximal promoter (-1642/-1325 contains two highly conserved transcriptional sites, CCAAT box and CArG motif. Two negative (-1140/-924, -222/-21 and one positive (-810/-425 regulatory elements have been identified in intron1. Transient transfection assay with a construct containing proximal promoter and enhancer (SbaPΔ-222/+1Δ-1325/-924 regions of the shrimp β-actin coupled with luciferase and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein showed that the promoter was not only functional in sf21 cells, but promoter activity was more than 8-fold higher than a viral-origin promoter (ie1, white spot syndrome virus immediate early gene promoter. Furthermore, SbaPΔ-222/+1Δ-1325/-924 drove a successful expression of luciferase injection assay in vivo injection and also showed higher promoter activity than the ie1 promoter, suggesting that the expression vectors constructed with SbaPΔ-222/+1Δ-1325/-924 have important potential in gene transfer studies for shrimp and other crustacean species.

  15. Effects of extracts and isolated compounds from safflower on some index of promoting blood circulation and regulating menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Miao, Li; Wang, Linyan

    2016-09-15

    Carthamus tinctorius is used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) materials in prescriptions and composite to promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis, regulate menstruation and alleviate pain for over 2500 years. Modern pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that safflower has wide-reaching biological activities, including dilating coronary artery, modulating immune system, improving myocardial ischemia, anticoagulation and thromboprophylaxis, antioxidation, antihypoxic, antiaging, antifatigue, antiinflammation, anti-hepatic fibrosis, antitumor, analgesia, etc. Platelet aggregation of safflower extract and main constituents in safflower were determined by PAF-induced or ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Anticoagulation activity was measured by clotting assay of thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) according to the methods provided by the biological reagents provider (Sun Biochemical). Antioxidant effects of safflower were assessed using DPPH radical-scavenging activity test, ABTS radical-scavenging activity test and ferric reducing antioxidant power test. In addition, rats ovary granulosa cell proliferation activity was used for the bio-activity index on regulate menstruation of safflower. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.7g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.5g/mL (P<0.01) had significantly antagonistic effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation, compared with negative control. And the anti-platelet aggregation of 0.7g/mL safflower extract was significantly stronger than that of positive control (P<0.001). 0.7g/mL of hydroxysafflor yellow A (P<0.01), anhydrosafflor yellow B (P<0.05), 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (P<0.05), keampferol-3-O-β-rutinoside (P<0.01) had significant effect on platelet aggregation compared with negative control. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.5g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.125g/mL (P<0.01) could significantly inhibit ADP-induced platelet

  16. The Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lisa L.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufficient to protect the public. The food industry has made highly visible pledges to curtail children's food marketing, sell fewer unhealthy products in schools, and label foods in responsible ways. Ceding regulation to industry carries opportunities but is highly risky. In some industries (e.g., tobacco), self-regulation has been an abject failure, but in others (e.g., forestry and marine fisheries), it has been more successful. We examined food industry self-regulation in the context of other self-regulatory successes and failures and defined 8 standards that should be met if self-regulation is to be effective. PMID:20019306

  17. Regulated expression of functional external guide sequences in mammalian cells using a U6 RNA polymerase III promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovrigina, Elizaveta; Yang, Li; Pfund, Emmanuel; Altman, Sidney

    2005-10-01

    A regulatable promoter has been stably integrated into a human embryonic kidney cell line. The promoter is a pol III mouse promoter and is under the control of ponasterone A, an ecdysone inducer. The promoter controls transcription of an external guide sequence (EGS) targeted against Rpp38, a protein subunit of human RNase P, or of lamin A/C, a gene product located in the nucleus. The amounts of protein of both gene products are severely reduced when the EGSs are made. Several other, but not all, of the protein subunits of RNase P are also inhibited in both mRNA and protein levels when Rpp38 mRNA is targeted.

  18. Report from the Country of Georgia: Protecting and Promoting Breastfeeding through Regulation of Artificial-Feeding Marketing Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemsadze, Ketevan

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the southwest Asian country of Georgia's experience in creating efforts to protect and promote breastfeeding and to implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes...

  19. The Jasmonate-Activated Transcription Factor MdMYC2 Regulates ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes to Promote Ethylene Biosynthesis during Apple Fruit Ripening[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaxiu; Zhang, Lichao; Ji, Yinglin; Tan, Dongmei; Yuan, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is critical for ripening in climacteric fruits, including apple (Malus domestica). Jasmonate (JA) promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that JA-induced ethylene production in apple fruit is dependent on the expression of MdACS1, an ACC synthase gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis. The expression of MdMYC2, encoding a transcription factor involved in the JA signaling pathway, was enhanced by MeJA treatment in apple fruits, and MdMYC2 directly bound to the promoters of both MdACS1 and the ACC oxidase gene MdACO1 and enhanced their transcription. Furthermore, MdMYC2 bound to the promoter of MdERF3, encoding a transcription factor involved in the ethylene-signaling pathway, thereby activating MdACS1 transcription. We also found that MdMYC2 interacted with MdERF2, a suppressor of MdERF3 and MdACS1. This protein interaction prevented MdERF2 from interacting with MdERF3 and from binding to the MdACS1 promoter, leading to increased transcription of MdACS1. Collectively, these results indicate that JA promotes ethylene biosynthesis through the regulation of MdERFs and ethylene biosynthetic genes by MdMYC2. PMID:28550149

  20. The Jasmonate-Activated Transcription Factor MdMYC2 Regulates ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes to Promote Ethylene Biosynthesis during Apple Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Xu, Yaxiu; Zhang, Lichao; Ji, Yinglin; Tan, Dongmei; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2017-06-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is critical for ripening in climacteric fruits, including apple (Malus domestica). Jasmonate (JA) promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that JA-induced ethylene production in apple fruit is dependent on the expression of MdACS1, an ACC synthase gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis. The expression of MdMYC2, encoding a transcription factor involved in the JA signaling pathway, was enhanced by MeJA treatment in apple fruits, and MdMYC2 directly bound to the promoters of both MdACS1 and the ACC oxidase gene MdACO1 and enhanced their transcription. Furthermore, MdMYC2 bound to the promoter of MdERF3, encoding a transcription factor involved in the ethylene-signaling pathway, thereby activating MdACS1 transcription. We also found that MdMYC2 interacted with MdERF2, a suppressor of MdERF3 and MdACS1 This protein interaction prevented MdERF2 from interacting with MdERF3 and from binding to the MdACS1 promoter, leading to increased transcription of MdACS1 Collectively, these results indicate that JA promotes ethylene biosynthesis through the regulation of MdERFs and ethylene biosynthetic genes by MdMYC2. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus plantarum depends on a conserved promoter arrangement with consensus binding sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risoen, PA; Johnsborg, O; Diep, DB; Hamoen, L; Venema, G; Nes, IF

    Bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus plantarum? C11 is regulated by a three-component signal transduction system comprising a peptide pheromone (PlnA), a histidine protein kinase (PlnB), and two homologous response regulators (RRs; PlnC and PlnD). Both RRs are DNA-binding proteins that bind to

  2. SPF45-related SPLICING FACTOR FOR PHYTOCHROME SIGNALING promotes photomorphogensis by regulating pre-mRNA splicing in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light signals regulate plant growth and development by controlling a plethora of gene expression changes. Post-transcriptional regulation, especially pre-mRNA processing, is a key modulator of gene expression; however, the molecular mechanisms linking pre-mRNA processing and light signaling are not ...

  3. Down-regulation of filamin A interacting protein 1-like is associated with promoter methylation and induces an invasive phenotype in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elizabeth R.; Gaffar, Aneesa; Lee, Soo Jin; Adeshuko, Folashade; Whitney, Kathleen D.; Chung, Joon-Yong; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Huang, Gloria S.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Libutti, Steven K.; Kwon, Mijung

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy with a five-year survival rate below 25% for patients with stage III–IV disease. Identifying key mediators of ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis is critical to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions. We previously identified Filamin A interacting protein 1-like (FILIP1L) as an important mediator of cell proliferation and migration. In addition, targeted expression of FILIP1L in tumors inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In our present study, we confirmed that both mRNA and protein expression of FILIP1L were down-regulated in ovarian cancer cells compared to normal ovarian epithelial cells. FILIP1L expression was inversely correlated with the invasive potential of ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical ovarian cancer specimens. We also provide evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which FILIP1L is down-regulated in ovarian cancer. The CpG island in the FILIP1L promoter was heavily methylated in ovarian cancer cells. Methylation status of the FILIP1L promoter was inversely correlated with FILIP1L expression in ovarian cell lines and clinical ovarian specimens. Reduced methylation in the FILIP1L promoter following treatment with a DNA demethylating agent was associated with restoration of FILIP1L expression in ovarian cancer cells. A transcription activator, CREB was shown to bind to the CREB/ATF site in the CpG island of the FILIP1L promoter. Overall, these findings suggest that down-regulation of FILIP1L associated with DNA methylation is related with the invasive phenotype in ovarian cancer and that modulation of FILIP1L expression has the potential to be a target for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:21693594

  4. miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes cell proliferation and invasion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hong; Miao, Mei-hua; Ji, Xue-qiang; Xue, Jun; Shao, Xue-jun, E-mail: xuejunshao@hotmail.com

    2015-04-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in leukaemia, particularly T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), has remained elusive. Here, we identified miR-664 and its predicted target gene PLP2 were differentially expressed in T-ALL using bioinformatics methods. In T-ALL cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-664, while miR-664 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation. Moreover, migration and invasion assay showed that overexpression of miR-664 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, whereas miR-664 inhibitor could reduce cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-664 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PLP2, and western blotting showed that miR-664 suppressed the expression of PLP2 at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cell lines. Thus, miR-664 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-ALL intervention. - Highlights: • miR-664 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 targets 3′ UTR of PLP2 in T-ALL cells. • miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 in T-ALL cells.

  5. Functional characterization of the promoter region of the human EVI1 gene in acute myeloid leukemia: RUNX1 and ELK1 directly regulate its transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, M; Vázquez, I; Vicente, C; García-Sánchez, M A; Marcotegui, N; Urquiza, L; Calasanz, M J; Odero, M D

    2013-04-18

    The EVI1 gene (3q26) codes for a transcription factor with important roles in normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. High expression of EVI1 is a negative prognostic indicator of survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) irrespective of the presence of 3q26 rearrangements. However, the only known mechanisms that lead to EVI1 overexpression are 3q aberrations, and the MLL-ENL oncoprotein, which activates the transcription of EVI1 in hematopoietic stem cells. Our aim was to characterize the functional promoter region of EVI1, and to identify transcription factors involved in the regulation of this gene. Generation of seven truncated constructs and luciferase reporter assays allowed us to determine a 318-bp region as the minimal promoter region of EVI1. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays identified RUNX1 and ELK1 as putative transcription factors of EVI1. Furthermore, knockdown of RUNX1 and ELK1 led to EVI1 downregulation, and their overexpression to upregulation of EVI1. Interestingly, in a series of patient samples with AML at diagnosis, we found a significant positive correlation between EVI1 and RUNX1 at protein level. Moreover, we identified one of the roles of RUNX1 in the activation of EVI1 during megakaryocytic differentiation. EVI1 knockdown significantly inhibited the expression of megakaryocytic markers after treating K562 cells with TPA, as happens when knocking down RUNX1. In conclusion, we define the minimal promoter region of EVI1 and demonstrate that RUNX1 and ELK1, two proteins with essential functions in hematopoiesis, regulate EVI1 in AML. Furthermore, our results show that one of the mechanisms by which RUNX1 regulates the transcription of EVI1 is by acetylation of the histone H3 on its promoter region. This study opens new directions to further understand the mechanisms of EVI1 overexpressing leukemias.

  6. ZmMYB14 is an important transcription factor involved in the regulation of the activity of the ZmBT1 promoter in starch biosynthesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianlin; Wang, Yayun; Du, Jia; Li, Hui; Wei, Bin; Wang, Yongbin; Li, Yangping; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Yinghong; Hu, Yufeng; Huang, Yubi

    2017-09-01

    The biosynthesis of starch is a complex process that depends on the regulatory mechanisms of different functional enzymes, and transcriptional regulation plays an important role in this process. Brittle 1, encoded by BT1, is a transporter of adenosine diphosphate-glucose, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch in the endosperm of cereals. Here, we report that the promoter (pZmBT1) of the maize BT1 homolog, ZmBT1, contains an MBSI site (TAACTG), which is important for its activity. Moreover, high expression level of the gene for ZmMYB14 transcription factor was observed in the maize endosperm; its expression pattern was similar to those of the starch synthesis-related genes in maize seeds. ZmMYB14 is a typical 2R-MYB transcription factor localized in the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. ZmMYB14 could bind to the region of pZmBT1 from -280 to -151 bp and promote its activity through the TAACTG site. It was also observed to promote the activity of pZmSh2, pZmBt2, pZmGBSSI, pZmSSI, and pZmSBE1 in the maize endosperm in transient gene overexpression assays. Furthermore, ZmMYB14 was also shown to bind directly to the promoters of six starch-synthesizing genes, ZmGBSSI, ZmSSI, ZmSSIIa, ZmSBE1, ZmISA1, and ZmISA2 in yeast. These findings indicate that ZmMYB14 functions as a key regulator of ZmBT1 and is closely related to the biosynthesis of starch. Our results provide crucial information related to the regulation of starch biosynthesis in maize and would be helpful in devising strategies for modulating starch production in maize endosperm. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills Promote Angiogenesis of Ischemic Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating MicroRNA-223-3p Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM research shows that Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ can promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis. Studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs are the key component of gene regulation networks, which play a vital role in angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms involving miRNA by which TCM promotes ischemic cardiac angiogenesis have not been reported. We found that microRNA-223-3p (mir-223-3p was the core miRNA of angiogenesis of rats ischemic cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs and inhibited angiogenesis by affecting RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signal pathway in previous study. Based on the results, we observed biological characteristics and optimal dosage for QSYQ intervening in rats ischemic CMECs angiogenesis and concluded that QSYQ low-dose group had the strongest ability to promote angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium. Using miRNA chip and real-time PCR techniques in this study, we identified mir-223-3p as the pivotal miRNA in QSYQ that regulated angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. From real-time PCR and western blot analysis, research showed that gene and protein expression of factors located RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signaling pathway, including HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK, PI3K, and AKT, were significantly upregulated by QSYQ to regulate angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. This study showed that QSYQ promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis by downregulating mir-223-3p expression in rats ischemic CMECs.

  8. Characterization of the cis elements in the proximal promoter regions of the anthocyanin pathway genes reveals a common regulatory logic that governs pathway regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixin; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Yiting; Guan, Shan; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jingyu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Xie, Lulu; Lu, Yingqing

    2015-07-01

    Cellular activities such as compound synthesis often require the transcriptional activation of an entire pathway; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying pathway activation have rarely been explained. Here, the cis regulatory architecture of the anthocyanin pathway genes targeted by the transcription factor (TF) complex including MYB, bHLH, and WDR was systematically analysed in one species and the findings extended to others. In Ipomoea purpurea, the IpMYB1-IpbHLH2-IpWDR1 (IpMBW) complex was found to be orthologous to the PAP1-GL3-TTG1 (AtPGT) complex of Arabidopsis thaliana, and interacted with a 7-bp MYB-recognizing element (MRE) and a 6-bp bHLH-recognizing element (BRE) at the proximal promoter region of the pathway genes. There was little transcription of the gene in the absence of the MRE or BRE. The cis elements identified experimentally converged on two syntaxes, ANCNNCC for MREs and CACN(A/C/T)(G/T) for BREs, and our bioinformatic analysis showed that these were present within anthocyanin gene promoters in at least 35 species, including both gymnosperms and angiosperms. For the anthocyanin pathway, IpMBW and AtPGT recognized the interspecific promoters of both early and later genes. In A. thaliana, the seed-specific TF complex (TT2, TT8, and TTG1) may regulate all the anthocyanin pathway genes, in addition to the proanthocyanidin-specific BAN. When multiple TF complexes in the anthocyanin pathway were compared, the cis architecture played a role larger than the TF complex in determining the variation in promoter activity. Collectively, a cis logic common to the pathway gene promoters was found, and this logic is essential for the trans factors to regulate the pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Gastrin regulates ABCG2 to promote the migration, invasion and side populations in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of NF-κB signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan; Xin, Beibei; Wang, Hui; He, Xiaodan [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Huanhu West Road, Tianjin 300060 (China); Shen, Xiaohong, E-mail: zebal2014@163.com [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Gastrin is absent in most normal adult pancreatic tissues but is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Although Gastrin expression was reported to be associated with tumor proliferation in human pancreatic cancer, studies on the relationship between Gastrin and tumor metastasis in pancreatic cancer are rare. In this study, we performed an analysis to determine the effects of Gastrin on modulating the side populations, cell proportion and tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. We indicated that Gastrin and ABCG2 were widely expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines and overexpressed in cancer tissues. Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression, and this effect was mediated by NF-κB activation. Gastrin regulated the SP proportion of BxPC-3 cells via modulating ABCG2 expression. Through the regulation of the functions of NF-κB/ABCG2, Gastrin functionally promoted the migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cell. The present study indicated that Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression by activating NF-κB and thereby modulated the SP proportion, tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity in pancreatic cancer. Gastrin could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the metastasis of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Gastrin induces ABCG2 expression mediated by NF-κB activation. • Gastrin regulates NF-κB's function that binds to the ABCG2 promoter in BxPC-3 cells. • Gastrin promotes the SP proportion in BxPC-3 cells by modulating ABCG2 expression via activation of NF-κB molecule. • Gastrin induces an increase in migration and invasion potential in pancreatic cancer cell by regulating NF-κB/ABCG2 signaling.

  10. Cloning and regulation of a stress-regulated Pennisetum glaucum vacuolar ATPase c gene and characterization of its promoter that is expressed in shoot hairs and floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Wricha; Rajagopal, Divya; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Reddy, Malireddy K; Sopory, Sudhir K

    2005-08-01

    We have cloned and characterized the cDNA, genomic clone and upstream promoter region of a vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) c subunit (PgVHA-c1) from Pennisetum glaucum. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 98-71% sequence identity with V-ATPase from rice and Arabidopsis, and is a highly hydrophobic protein with four transmembrane regions. PgVHA-c1-GFP fusion protein is expressed in BY2 cells on the endo-membranes surrounding vacuoles; however, PgVHA-c1 could not functionally complement V-ATPase-c deletion mutants of yeast. The sequence analysis of the genomic clone revealed the presence of two introns in the coding region, and the splice junctions followed the typical canonical GU-AG consensus sequence. The transcript analysis showed that the expression of PgVHA-c1 was stimulated more in response to salinity stress and very marginally in response to drought and low temperature stress. Exogenous application of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and calcium stimulated the transcript level in the absence of stress. We have cloned the 5'-flanking regions of PgVHA-c1 and mapped its transcript start site at 78 bp upstream of ATG. Transgenic tobacco with promoter::GUS constructs showed that the region -288/+78 was sufficient for GUS expression. The expression of the reporter gene even with the full-length promoter was limited to shoot hairs and to male and female reproductive organs. The dehydration-responsive element (DRE) and ABA-responsive element (ABRE) in the promoter did not show consensus flanking regions; however, gel mobility shift assays showed that Pennisetum has specific transacting factors that showed binding to the core DRE, ABRE and TCA elements.

  11. SmgGDS is a transient nucleolar protein that protects cells from nucleolar stress and promotes the cell cycle by regulating DREAM complex gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyo, P; Bergom, C; Brandt, A C; Tsaih, S-W; Sun, Y; Bigley, T M; Lorimer, E L; Terhune, S S; Rui, H; Flister, M J; Long, R M; Williams, C L

    2017-12-14

    The chaperone protein and guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS (RAP1GDS1) is a key promoter of cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. SmgGDS undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, suggesting that it has both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions that promote cancer. Previous studies indicate that SmgGDS binds cytoplasmic small GTPases and promotes their trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, little is known about the functions of SmgGDS in the nucleus, or how these nuclear functions might benefit cancer cells. Here we show unique nuclear localization and regulation of gene transcription pathways by SmgGDS. Strikingly, SmgGDS depletion significantly reduces expression of over 600 gene products that are targets of the DREAM complex, which is a transcription factor complex that regulates expression of proteins controlling the cell cycle. The cell cycle regulators E2F1, MYC, MYBL2 (B-Myb) and FOXM1 are among the DREAM targets that are diminished by SmgGDS depletion. E2F1 is well known to promote G1 cell cycle progression, and the loss of E2F1 in SmgGDS-depleted cells provides an explanation for previous reports that SmgGDS depletion characteristically causes a G1 cell cycle arrest. We show that SmgGDS localizes in nucleoli, and that RNAi-mediated depletion of SmgGDS in cancer cells disrupts nucleolar morphology, signifying nucleolar stress. We show that nucleolar SmgGDS interacts with the RNA polymerase I transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF). The RNAi-mediated depletion of UBF diminishes nucleolar localization of SmgGDS and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of SmgGDS, indicating that nucleolar sequestration of SmgGDS by UBF stabilizes SmgGDS protein. The ability of SmgGDS to interact with UBF and localize in the nucleolus is diminished by expressing DiRas1 or DiRas2, which are small GTPases that bind SmgGDS and act as tumor suppressors. Taken together, our results support a novel nuclear role for SmgGDS in protecting malignant

  12. Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Itch Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Formation by Promoting Deubiquitination of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-associated Factor 6*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengwei; Wu, Chengwu; Matesic, Lydia E.; Li, Xing; Wang, Zhiyu; Boyce, Brendan F.; Xing, Lianping

    2013-01-01

    Itch is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates protein stability. Itch−/− mice develop an autoimmune disease phenotype characterized by itchy skin and multiorgan inflammation. The role of Itch in the regulation of osteoclast function has not been examined. We report that Itch−/− bone marrow and spleen cells formed more osteoclasts than cells from WT littermates in response to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and was associated with increased expression of the osteoclastogenic transcription factors c-fos and Nfatc1. Overexpression of Itch in Itch−/− cells rescued increased osteoclastogenesis. RANKL increased Itch expression, which can be blocked by a NF-κB inhibitor. The murine Itch promoter contains NF-κB binding sites. Overexpression of NF-κB p65 increased Itch expression, and RANKL promoted the binding of p65 onto the NF-κB binding sites in the Itch promoter. Itch−/− osteoclast precursors had prolonged RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and delayed TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) deubiquitination. In WT osteoclast precursors, Itch bound to TRAF6 and the deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis. Adult Itch−/− mice had normal bone volume, but they had significantly increased LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Thus, Itch is a new RANKL target gene that is induced during osteoclastogenesis. Itch interacts with the deubiquitinating enzyme and is required for deubiquitination of TRAF6, thus limiting RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. PMID:23782702

  13. Increased dosage of AOX1 promoter-regulated expression cassettes leads to transcription attenuation of the methanol metabolism in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Elena; Landes, Nils; Albiol, Joan; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard; Ferrer, Pau

    2017-01-01

    The methanol-regulated alcohol oxidase promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is one of the strongest promoters for heterologous gene expression in this methylotrophic yeast. Although increasing gene dosage is one of the most common strategies to increase recombinant protein productivities, the increase of gene dosage of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) in P. pastoris has been previously shown to reduce cell growth, lipase production and substrate consumption in high-copy strains. To better assess that physiological response, transcriptomics analysis was performed of a subset of strains with 1 to 15 ROL copies. The macroscopic physiological parameters confirm that growth yield and carbon uptake rate are gene dosage dependent, and were supported by the transcriptomic data, showing the impact of increased dosage of AOX1 promoter-regulated expression cassettes on P. pastoris physiology under steady methanolic growth conditions. Remarkably, increased number of cassettes led to transcription attenuation of the methanol metabolism and peroxisome biogenesis in P. pastoris, concomitant with reduced secretion levels of the heterologous product. Moreover, our data also point to a block in ROL mRNA translation in the higher ROL-copies constructs, while the low productivities of multi-copy strains under steady growth conditions do not appear to be directly related to UPR and ERAD induction. PMID:28295011

  14. TAFI deficiency promotes liver damage in murine models of liver failure through defective down-regulation of hepatic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, Greg C. G.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Porte, Robert J.; Lisman, Ton

    Emerging evidence indicates that various haemostatic components can regulate the progression of liver disease. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) possesses anti-inflammatory properties besides its anti-fibrinolytic function. Here, we investigated the contribution of TAFI to the

  15. Genetic variants of methyl metabolizing enzymes and epigenetic regulators: Associations with promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Wouters, K.A.D.; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.; Engeland, M. van

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation affects carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Folate metabolizing enzymes may influence the bioavailability of methyl groups, whereas DNA and histone methyltransferases are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We studied associations of genetic variants of

  16. Systematically reviewing the potential of concept mapping technologies to promote self-regulated learning in primary and secondary science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Matt P.; Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    analysis assessing how each technology affects self-regulated learning through cognitive, metacognitive, and motivation strategies, according to Schraw et al. (2006)'s model. We suggest concept mapping technologies may affect self-regulated learning through enhancing these strategies to varying degrees....... Computer software was particularly useful for developing cognitive strategies through ease of use. Teaching agents were particularly useful for developing metacognitive strategies by coupling visualisation of knowledge patterns with performance monitoring, aided by a teaching metaphor. Finally, mobile...

  17. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzenbach Heidi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. Methods In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Results Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. Conclusions This study is one

  18. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  19. Growth promotion in pigs by oxytetracycline coincides with down regulation of serum inflammatory parameters and of hibernation-associated protein HP-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Laura; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jessen, Flemming; Escribano, Damian; Niewold, Theo

    2016-05-01

    The growth promoting effect of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics like tetracycline has traditionally been attributed to their antibiotic character. However, more evidence has been accumulated on their direct anti-inflammatory effect during the last two decades. Here we used a pig model to explore the systemic molecular effect of feed supplementation with sub therapeutic levels of oxytetracycline (OTC) by analysis of serum proteome changes. Results showed that OTC promoted growth, coinciding with a significant down regulation of different serum proteins related to inflammation, oxidation and lipid metabolism, confirming the anti-inflammatory mechanism of OTC. Interestingly, apart from the classic acute phase reactants also down regulation was seen of a hibernation associated plasma protein (HP-27), which is to our knowledge the first description in pigs. Although the exact function in non-hibernators is unclear, down regulation of HP-27 could be consistent with increased appetite, which is possibly linked to the anti-inflammatory action of OTC. Given that pigs are good models for human medicine due to their genetic and physiologic resemblance, the present results might also be used for rational intervention in human diseases in which inflammation plays an important role such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nerve growth factor regulates CD133 function to promote tumor cell migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Beibei; He, Xiaodan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Shen, Xiaohong

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is extremely high frequency among the various metastatic routes in pancreatic cancer. Nerve growth factor, secreted by astroglial cells, exerts effects on tumor invasion in some cancer cells, but its function on migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we determined the effects of NGF on modulating tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. NGF and CD133 expression were detected in tumor tissues using immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. The effects of NGF on the regulation of CD133 expression and the promotion of cancer migration and invasion were investigated using wound healing and matrigel transwell assay. A related mechanism that NGF regulates CD133's function via activating ERK1/2 signaling also was observed. NGF/CD133 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and promotes the migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the ERK/CD133 signaling cascade. NGF/ERK signaling modulates the cancer cell EMT process, migration and invasion through the regulation of CD133 expression and its subcellular localization. NGF/CD133 signaling initiated the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. NGF/CD133 might be an effective and potent therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer metastasis, particularly in PNI. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethical, Legal, and Practical Issues in the Control and Regulation of Suicide Promotion and Assistance over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2007-01-01

    The promotion of suicide and description of suicide methods on the Internet have led to widespread concern that legal control is mandated. Apart from value concerns pertaining to attitudes about suicide, the guarantee of freedom of expression presents a serious challenge to the introduction of restrictive laws. Recent developments in Australia and…

  2. Regulation of MLH1 mRNA and protein expression by promoter methylation in primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann; Byriel, Lene

    2013-01-01

    In colorectal cancer MLH1 deficiency causes microsatellite instability, which is relevant for the patient's prognosis and treatment, and its putative heredity. Dysfunction of MLH1 is caused by sporadic gene promoter hypermethylation or by hereditary mutations as seen in Lynch Syndrome. The aim...

  3. Tumor-associated macrophages promote Ezrin phosphorylation-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma through FUT4/LeY up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aman; Lu, Chang; Ning, Zhen; Gao, Wei; Xie, Yunpeng; Zhang, Ningning; Liang, Jinxiao; Abbasi, Faisal S; Yan, Qiu; Liu, Jiwei

    2017-04-25

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key components of tumor microenvironment (TME) during tumorigenesis and progression. However, the role of TAMs in lung adenocarcinoma is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the crosstalk between TAMs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung adenocarcinoma. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was aberrantly elevated in various solid tumors, it plays critical role in the invasion and metastasis. Here, we found that in lung adenocarcinoma samples, the density of TAMs correlates with E-cadherin level and LeY level. In vitro assays, M2 macrophages promoted FUT4/LeY expression through the transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. FUT4/LeY was indispensable in M2 macrophages-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling and EMT. Furthermore, fucosylation of Ezrin mediated by FUT4/LeY can promote the phosphorylation of Ezrin, which was the critical mechanism of M2 macrophages-induced EMT. In vivo assays confirmed that M2 macrophages promoted EMT through the up-regulation of LeY and phosphorylated Ezrin. Together, our results revealed that TAMs promote Ezrin phosphorylation-mediated EMT in lung adenocarcinoma through FUT4/LeY- mediated fucosylation. Targeting this newly identified signaling may offer new possibilities for immunotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma.

  4. BORIS up-regulates OCT4 via histone methylation to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuying; Chen, Kefei; Liu, Zhongjian; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Rongce; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiaoqin; He, Jingyang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianguo; Qin, Yang; Li, Bo

    2017-09-10

    Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues. Exogenous overexpression of BORIS promoted CSC-like properties, including self-renewal, chemoresistance, migration and invasion in Huh7 and HCCLM3 cells. Conversely, BORIS knockdown suppressed CSC-like properties in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells and inhibited tumorigenicity in SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, BORIS alteration did not affect the DNA methylation status of the minimal promoter and exon 1 region of OCT4. However, BORIS overexpression enhanced the amount of BORIS bound on the OCT4 promoter and increased H3K4me2, while reducing H3K27me3; BORIS depletion decreased BORIS and H3K4me2 on the OCT4 promoter, while increasing H3K27me3. These results revealed that BORIS is associated with the CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of OCT4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contextual attributes promote or hinder self-regulated learning: A qualitative study contrasting rural physicians with undergraduate learners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yasushi; Nakaya, Motoyuki; Okazaki, Hitoaki; Leppink, Jimmie; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-11-26

    Previous studies support the notion that East Asian medical students do not possess sufficient self-regulation for postgraduate clinical training. However, some East Asian physicians who are employed in geographically isolated and educationally underserved rural settings can self-regulate their study during the early phase of their postgraduate career. To explore the contextual attributes that contribute to self-regulated learning (SRL), we examined the differences in self-regulation between learning as an undergraduate and in a rural context in East Asia. We conducted interviews and diary data collection among rural physicians (n = 10) and undergraduates (n = 11) in Japan who undertook self-study of unfamiliar diseases. We analyzed three domains of Zimmerman's definition of SRL: learning behaviors, motivation, and metacognition using constructivist grounded theory. Rural physicians recognized their identity as unique, and as professionals with a central role of handling diseases in the local community by conducting self-study. They simultaneously found themselves being at risk of providing inappropriate aid if their self-study was insufficient. They developed strategic learning strategies to cope with this high-stakes task. Undergraduates had a fear of being left behind and preferred to remain as one of the crowd with students in the same school year. Accordingly, they copied the methods of other students for self-study and used monotonous and homogeneous strategies. Different learning contexts do not keep East Asian learners from being self-regulated. Awareness of their unique identity leads them to view learning tasks as high-stakes, and to initiate learning strategies in a self-regulated manner. Teacher-centered education systems cause students to identify themselves as one of the crowd, and tasks as low-stakes, and to accordingly employ non-self-regulated strategies.

  6. Complaints, Complainants, and Rulings Regarding Drug Promotion in the United Kingdom and Sweden 2004–2012: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Pharmaceutical Industry Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Merlo, Juan; Mulinari, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Background In many European countries, medicines promotion is governed by voluntary codes of practice administered by the pharmaceutical industry under its own system of self-regulation. Involvement of industry organizations in policing promotion has been proposed to deter illicit conduct, but few detailed studies on self-regulation have been carried out to date. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for promotion and self-regulation in the UK and Sweden, two countries frequently cited as examples of effective self-regulation. Methods and Findings We performed a qualitative content analysis of documents outlining the constitutions and procedures of these two systems. We also gathered data from self-regulatory bodies on complaints, complainants, and rulings for the period 2004–2012. The qualitative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the countries. For example, self-regulatory bodies in both countries are required to actively monitor promotional items and impose sanctions on violating companies, but the range of sanctions is greater in the UK where companies may, for instance, be audited or publicly reprimanded. In total, Swedish and UK bodies ruled that 536 and 597 cases, respectively, were in breach, equating to an average of more than one case/week for each country. In Sweden, 430 (47%) complaints resulted from active monitoring, compared with only two complaints (0.2%) in the UK. In both countries, a majority of violations concerned misleading promotion. Charges incurred on companies averaged €447,000 and €765,000 per year in Sweden and the UK, respectively, equivalent to about 0.014% and 0.0051% of annual sales revenues, respectively. One hundred cases in the UK (17% of total cases in breach) and 101 (19%) in Sweden were highlighted as particularly serious. A total of 46 companies were ruled in breach of code for a serious offence at least once in the two countries combined (n = 36 in the UK; n = 27 in Sweden); seven

  7. MAS promoter regulation: a role for Sry and tyrosine nitration of the KRAB domain of ZNF274 as a feedback mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jeremy W; Rauscher, Frank J; Peng, Hongzhuang; Liu, Yuanjie; Araujo, Fabiano C; Watanabe, Ingrid; Reis, Fernando M; Milsted, Amy

    2014-05-01

    The ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)/Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]/MAS axis of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system) has emerged as a pathway of interest in treating both cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The MAS protein is known to bind to and be activated by Ang-(1-7); however, the mechanisms of this activation are just starting to be understood. Although there are strong biochemical data regarding the regulation and activation of the AT1R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and the AT2R (angiotensin II type 2 receptor), with models of how AngII (angiotensin II) binds each receptor, fewer studies have characterized MAS. In the present study, we characterize the MAS promoter and provide a potential feedback mechanism that could compensate for MAS degradation following activation by Ang-(1-7). Analysis of ENCODE data for the MAS promoter revealed potential epigenetic control by KRAB (Krüppel-associated box)/KAP-1 (KRAB-associated protein-1). A proximal promoter construct for the MAS gene was repressed by the SOX [SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) box] proteins SRY, SOX2, SOX3 and SOX14, of which SRY is known to interact with the KRAB domain. The KRAB-KAP-1 complex can be tyrosine-nitrated, causing the dissociation of the KAP-1 protein and thus a potential loss of epigenetic control. Activation of MAS can lead to an increase in nitric oxide, suggesting a feedback mechanism for MAS on its own promoter. The results of the present study provide a more complete view of MAS regulation and, for the first time, suggest biochemical outcomes for nitration of the KRAB domain.

  8. Hypocotyl Transcriptome Reveals Auxin Regulation of Growth-Promoting Genes through GA-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Cristina; Sartor, Ryan; Bialy, Agniezska; Sun, Tai-ping; Estelle, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Many processes critical to plant growth and development are regulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin responses are initiated through activation of a transcriptional response mediated by the TIR1/AFB family of F-box protein auxin receptors as well as the AUX/IAA and ARF families of transcriptional regulators. However, there is little information on how auxin regulates a specific cellular response. To begin to address this question, we have focused on auxin regulation of cell expansion in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. We show that auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation is dependent upon the TIR1/AFB family of auxin receptors and degradation of AUX/IAA repressors. We also use microarray studies of elongating hypocotyls to show that a number of growth-associated processes are activated by auxin including gibberellin biosynthesis, cell wall reorganization and biogenesis, and others. Our studies indicate that GA biosynthesis is required for normal response to auxin in the hypocotyl but that the overall transcriptional auxin output consists of PIF-dependent and -independent genes. We propose that auxin acts independently from and interdependently with PIF and GA pathways to regulate expression of growth-associated genes in cell expansion. PMID:22590525

  9. Loss of the alpha7 integrin promotes extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and altered vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Jennifer V; Lange, Naomi; Singer, Cherie A; Elorza, Margaret; Scowen, Paul; Keef, Kathleen D; Gerthoffer, William T; Burkin, Dean J

    2007-09-28

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are underlying factors in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that altered expression of vascular integrins and extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to the vascular remodeling observed after arterial injury and during disease. We have recently shown that loss of the alpha7beta1 integrin results in VSMC hyperplasia. To investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenotype, we have examined changes in cell signaling pathways associated with VSMC proliferation. Several studies have demonstrated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is activated in response to vascular injury and disease. In this study, we show that loss of the alpha7 integrin in VSMCs results in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and translocation of the activated kinase to the nucleus. Forced expression of the alpha7 integrin or use of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 inhibitor U0126 in alpha7 integrin-deficient VSMCs suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and restored the differentiated phenotype to alpha7 integrin-null cells in a manner dependent on Ras signaling. Alpha7 integrin-null mice displayed profound vascular remodeling in response to injury with pronounced neointimal formation and reduced vascular compliance. These findings demonstrate that the alpha7beta1 integrin negatively regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and suggests an important role for this integrin as part of a signaling complex regulating VSMC phenotype switching.

  10. An Atypical SCF-like Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Promotes Wallerian Degeneration through Regulation of Axonal Nmnat2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Yamagishi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Axon degeneration is a tightly regulated, self-destructive program that is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this program remain poorly understood. Here, we identify S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (Skp1a, a core component of a Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as a critical regulator of axon degeneration after injury in mammalian neurons. Depletion of Skp1a prolongs survival of injured axons in vitro and in the optic nerve in vivo. We demonstrate that Skp1a regulates the protein level of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2 in axons. Loss of axonal Nmnat2 contributes to a local ATP deficit that triggers axon degeneration. Knockdown of Skp1a elevates basal levels of axonal Nmnat2, thereby delaying axon degeneration through prolonged maintenance of axonal ATP. Consistent with Skp1a functioning through regulation of Nmnat2, Skp1a knockdown fails to protect axons from Nmnat2 knockdown. These results illuminate the molecular mechanism underlying Skp1a-dependent axonal destruction.

  11. A compartmentalized phosphoinositide signaling axis at cilia is regulated by INPP5E to maintain cilia and promote Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conduit, S E; Ramaswamy, V; Remke, M; Watkins, D N; Wainwright, B J; Taylor, M D; Mitchell, C A; Dyson, J M

    2017-10-26

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling at primary cilia drives the proliferation and progression of a subset of medulloblastomas, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumor. Severe side effects associated with conventional treatments and resistance to targeted therapies has led to the need for new strategies. SHH signaling is dependent on primary cilia for signal transduction suggesting the potential for cilia destabilizing mechanisms as a therapeutic target. INPP5E is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase that hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P2 and more potently, the phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase product PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. INPP5E promotes SHH signaling during embryonic development via PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis at cilia, that in turn regulates the cilia recruitment of the SHH suppressor GPR161. However, the role INPP5E plays in cancer is unknown and the contribution of PI3-kinase signaling to cilia function is little characterized. Here, we reveal INPP5E promotes SHH signaling in SHH medulloblastoma by negatively regulating a cilia-compartmentalized PI3-kinase signaling axis that maintains primary cilia on tumor cells. Conditional deletion of Inpp5e in a murine model of constitutively active Smoothened-driven medulloblastoma slowed tumor progression, suppressed cell proliferation, reduced SHH signaling and promoted tumor cell cilia loss. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, its effector pAKT and the target pGSK3β, which when non-phosphorylated promotes cilia assembly/stability, localized to tumor cell cilia. The number of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/pAKT/pGSK3β-positive cilia was increased in cultured Inpp5e-null tumor cells relative to controls. PI3-kinase inhibition or expression of wild-type, but not catalytically inactive HA-INPP5E partially rescued cilia loss in Inpp5e-null tumor cells in vitro. INPP5E mRNA and copy number were reduced in human SHH medulloblastoma compared to other molecular subtypes and consistent with the murine model, reduced INPP5E was associated with improved overall survival

  12. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  13. The global regulator Ncb2 escapes from the core promoter and impacts transcription in response to drug stress in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Shariq; Sanjiveeni Dhamgaye; Remya Nair; Neha Goyal; Vaibhav Jain; Arnab Mukhopadhyay; Mondal, Alok K.; Gauranga Mukhopadhyay; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Ncb2, the ? subunit of NC2 complex, a heterodimeric regulator of transcription was earlier shown to be involved in the activated transcription of CDR1 gene in azole resistant isolate (AR) of Candida albicans. This study examines its genome-wide role by profiling Ncb2 occupancy between genetically matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and AR clinical isolates. A comparison of Ncb2 recruitment between the two isolates displayed that 29 genes had higher promoter occupancy of Ncb2 in the AR isolat...

  14. Characterization of the human Activin-A receptor type II-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 promoter and its regulation by Sp1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella Luisa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1 is a Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β receptor type I, mainly expressed in endothelial cells that plays a pivotal role in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Mutations in the ALK1 gene (ACVRL1 give rise to Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a dominant autosomal vascular dysplasia caused by a haploinsufficiency mechanism. In spite of its patho-physiological relevance, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Here, we have studied the different origins of ACVRL1 transcription, we have analyzed in silico its 5'-proximal promoter sequence and we have characterized the role of Sp1 in the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Results We have performed a 5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'RACE of ACVRL1 transcripts, finding two new transcriptional origins, upstream of the one previously described, that give rise to a new exon undiscovered to date. The 5'-proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 (-1,035/+210 was analyzed in silico, finding that it lacks TATA/CAAT boxes, but contains a remarkably high number of GC-rich Sp1 consensus sites. In cells lacking Sp1, ACVRL1 promoter reporters did not present any significant transcriptional activity, whereas increasing concentrations of Sp1 triggered a dose-dependent stimulation of its transcription. Moreover, silencing Sp1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a marked decrease of ACVRL1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated multiple Sp1 binding sites along the proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 in endothelial cells. Furthermore, demethylation of CpG islands, led to an increase in ACVRL1 transcription, whereas in vitro hypermethylation resulted in the abolishment of Sp1-dependent transcriptional activation of ACVRL1. Conclusions Our results describe two new transcriptional start sites in ACVRL1 gene, and indicate that Sp1 is a key regulator of ACVRL1 transcription, providing new insights into

  15. Down-regulation of LRP1B in colon cancer promoted the growth and migration of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Peng; Gao, Chun; Chen, Ji; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhonghao; Xu, Ming; Shao, Jun; Zhang, Yunpeng; Xie, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Aberrant activation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling is one of the hallmarks of colon cancer. It is of great interest to study the mechanism for the regulation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling. In this study, it was found that LRP1B was down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of colon cancer cells. The molecular mechanism study revealed that LRP1B interacted with DVL2, inhibited the interaction between DVL2 and Axin, and negatively regulated beta-catenin/TCF signaling. Taken together, our study demonstrated the suppressive roles of LRP1B in the progression of colon cancer, implicating that restoring the function of LRP1B would be a promising strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Expression of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase in Pichia pastoris under control of the nitrogen source-regulated formaldehyde dehydrogenase promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resina, David; Serrano, Alícia; Valero, Francisco; Ferrer, Pau

    2004-04-08

    A Rhizopus oryzae lipase gene has been expressed in Pichia pastoris as a reporter using the formaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 promoter (PFLD1) of this organism, which has been reported to be strongly and independently induced by either methanol as sole carbon source or methylamine as sole nitrogen source. Levels of lipase expressed and secreted under the control of the PFLD1 at different induction conditions have been compared to those obtained with the commonly used alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (PAOX1) in small (shake flask) and 1l bioreactor batch cultures. PFLD1-controlled heterologous gene expression was strongly repressed by excess of either glycerol or glucose-but not sorbitol-during growth using methylamine both as sole nitrogen source and inducing substrate. Co-induction of PFLD1 with methanol and methylamine resulted in a synergistic effect on extracellular lipase expression levels. In all tested conditions, the substitution of ammonium for methylamine as carbon source provoked a clear decrease in the specific growth rate and yield of biomass per gram of carbon source. Overall, this study demonstrates that the PFLD1 promoter is at least as efficient as the PAOX1 for extracellular expression of heterologous proteins in P. pastoris bioreactor cultures and provides a first basis for the further design of methanol-free high cell density fed-batch cultivation strategies for controlled overproduction of foreign proteins in P. pastoris.

  17. Thrombospondin-2 promotes prostate cancer bone metastasis by the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 through down-regulating miR-376c expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2 is a secreted matricellular glycoprotein that is found to mediate cell-to-extracellular matrix attachment and participates in many physiological and pathological processes. The expression profile of TSP-2 on tumors is controversial, and it up-regulates in some cancers, whereas it down-regulates in others, suggesting that the functional role of TSP-2 on tumors is still uncertain. Methods The expression of TSP-2 on prostate cancer progression was determined in the tissue array by the immunohistochemistry. The molecular mechanism of TSP-2 on prostate cancer (PCa metastasis was investigated through pharmaceutical inhibitors, siRNAs, and miRNAs analyses. The role of TSP-2 on PCa metastasis in vivo was verified through xenograft in vivo imaging system. Results Based on the gene expression omnibus database and immunohistochemistry, we found that TSP-2 increased with the progression of PCa, especially in metastatic PCa and is correlated with the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression. Additionally, through binding to CD36 and integrin ανβ3, TSP-2 increased cell migration and MMP-2 expression. With inhibition of p38, ERK, and JNK, the TSP-2-induced cell migration and MMP-2 expression were abolished, indicating that the TSP-2’s effect on PCa is MAPK dependent. Moreover, the microRNA-376c (miR-376c was significantly decreased by the TSP-2 treatment. Furthermore, the TSP-2-induced MMP-2 expression and the subsequent cell motility were suppressed upon miR-376c mimic stimulation. On the other hand, the animal studies revealed that the bone metastasis was abolished when TSP-2 was stably knocked down in PCa cells. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that TSP-2 enhances the migration of PCa cells by increasing MMP-2 expression through down-regulation of miR-376c expression. Therefore, TSP-2 may represent a promising new target for treating PCa.

  18. Role of an ER stress response element in regulating the bidirectional promoter of the mouse CRELD2 - ALG12 gene pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata Yoko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we identified cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (CRELD2 as a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-inducible gene and characterized its transcriptional regulation by ATF6 under ER stress conditions. Interestingly, the CRELD2 and asparagine-linked glycosylation 12 homolog (ALG12 genes are arranged as a bidirectional (head-to-head gene pair and are separated by less than 400 bp. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional regulation of the mouse CRELD2 and ALG12 genes that is mediated by a common bidirectional promoter. Results This short intergenic region contains an ER stress response element (ERSE sequence and is well conserved among the human, rat and mouse genomes. Microarray analysis revealed that CRELD2 and ALG12 mRNAs were induced in Neuro2a cells by treatment with thapsigargin (Tg, an ER stress inducer, in a time-dependent manner. Other ER stress inducers, tunicamycin and brefeldin A, also increased the expression of these two mRNAs in Neuro2a cells. We then tested for the possible involvement of the ERSE motif and other regulatory sites of the intergenic region in the transcriptional regulation of the mouse CRELD2 and ALG12 genes by using variants of the bidirectional reporter construct. With regards to the promoter activities of the CRELD2-ALG12 gene pair, the entire intergenic region hardly responded to Tg, whereas the CRELD2 promoter constructs of the proximal region containing the ERSE motif showed a marked responsiveness to Tg. The same ERSE motif of ALG12 gene in the opposite direction was less responsive to Tg. The direction and the distance of this motif from each transcriptional start site, however, has no impact on the responsiveness of either gene to Tg treatment. Additionally, we found three putative sequences in the intergenic region that antagonize the ERSE-mediated transcriptional activation. Conclusions These results show that the mouse CRELD2 and ALG12 genes are arranged as a

  19. LeMYC2 acts as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenic growth, and promotes the growth of adult tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis ZBF1/MYC2bHLH transcription factor is a repressor of photomorphogenesis, and acts as a point of cross talk in light, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. MYC2 also functions as a positive regulator of lateral root development and flowering time under long day conditions. However, the function of MYC2 in growth and development remains unknown in crop plants. Results Here, we report the functional analyses of LeMYC2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The amino acid sequence of LeMYC2 showed extensive homology with Arabidopsis MYC2, containing the conserved bHLH domain. To study the function of LeMYC2 in tomato, overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) LeMYC2 tomato transgenic plants were generated. Examination of seedling morphology, physiological responses and light regulated gene expression has revealed that LeMYC2 works as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenesis. Furthermore, LeMYC2 specifically binds to the G-box of LeRBCS-3A promoter. Overexpression of LeMYC2 has led to increased root length with more number of lateral roots. The tomato plants overexpressing LeMYC2 have reduced internode distance with more branches, and display the opposite morphology to RNAi transgenic lines. Furthermore, this study shows that LeMYC2 promotes ABA and JA responsiveness. Conclusions Collectively, this study highlights that working in light, ABA and JA signaling pathways LeMYC2 works as an important regulator for growth and development in tomato plants. PMID:24483714

  20. THAP and ATF-2 regulated sterol carrier protein-2 promoter activities in the larval midgut of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Peng

    Full Text Available Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2 in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream -1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the -1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the -1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled -1.6/-1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2, antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between -1.6 to -1.3 kb 5' upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression.

  1. Promoting Socially Shared Metacognitive Regulation in Collaborative Project-Based Learning: A Framework for the Design of Structured Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Cheolil

    2018-01-01

    Despite the emergence of collaborative project-based learning in higher education settings, how it can be supported has received little attention. We noted the positive impact of socially shared metacognitive regulation on students' collaboration processes. The purpose of this study was to present a framework for the design and implementation of…

  2. CUDC-907 Promotes Bone Marrow Adipocytic Differentiation Through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase and Regulation of Cell Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Dalia; Alshammari, Hassan; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    The role of bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) in overall energy metabolism and their effects on bone mass are currently areas of intensive investigation. BMAs differentiate from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs); however, the molecular mechanisms regulating BMA differentiation are not fully understoo...

  3. Transcultural Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Program to Promote Self-Regulated Learning in Mozambique, Chile, Portugal, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Trigo, Luisa; Guimarães, Carina; Fernández, Estrella; Cerezo, Rebeca; Fuentes, Sonia; Orellana, Marcela; Santibáñez, América; Fulano, Celso; Ferreira, Ângelo; Figueiredo, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aims at assessing the effectiveness of an intervention program designed to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies at the university level, with students from different cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds. The central tool of the program is a set of letters in which a fictional first-year student…

  4. The sorting protein PACS-2 promotes ErbB signalling by regulating recycling of the metalloproteinase ADAM17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob; Petersen, Camilla Hansson

    2015-01-01

    are poorly understood. Here, through a functional genome-wide siRNA screen, we identify the sorting protein PACS-2 as a regulator of ADAM17 trafficking and ErbB signalling. PACS-2 loss reduces ADAM17 cell-surface levels and ADAM17-dependent ErbB ligand shedding, without apparent effects on related proteases...

  5. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei

    2016-06-17

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of Glia Number in Drosophila by Rap/Fzr, an Activator of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex, and Loco, an RGS Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Margarita E.; Korayem, Adam H.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri R.

    2008-01-01

    Glia mediate a vast array of cellular processes and are critical for nervous system development and function. Despite their immense importance in neurobiology, glia remain understudied and the molecular mechanisms that direct their differentiation are poorly understood. Rap/Fzr is the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1, a regulatory subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex well characterized for its role in cell cycle progression. In this study, we have uncovered a novel cellular role for Rap/Fzr. Loss of rap/fzr function leads to a marked increase in the number of glia in the nervous system of third instar larvae. Conversely, ectopic expression of UAS-rap/fzr, driven by repo-GAL4, results in the drastic reduction of glia. Data from clonal analyses using the MARCM technique show that Rap/Fzr regulates the differentiation of surface glia in the developing larval nervous system. Our genetic and biochemical data further indicate that Rap/Fzr regulates glial differentiation through its interaction with Loco, a regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein and a known effector of glia specification. We propose that Rap/Fzr targets Loco for ubiquitination, thereby regulating glial differentiation in the developing nervous system. PMID:18430931

  7. miR-208-3p promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion through regulating ARID2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Peng; Wu, Dingguo; You, Yu; Sun, Jing; Lu, Lele; Tan, Jiaxing; Bie, Ping, E-mail: bieping2010@163.com

    2015-08-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. miRNA dysregulation plays a causal role in cancer progression. In this study, miR-208-3p was highly expressed and directly repressed ARID2 expression. As a result, ARID2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was decreased. In vitro, miR-208-3p down-regulation and ARID2 over-expression elicited similar inhibitory effects on HCC cell proliferation and invasion. In vivo test results revealed that miR-208-3p down-regulation inhibited HCC tumorigenesis in Hep3B cells. Moreover, ARID2 was possibly a downstream element of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1)/miR-208-3p/ARID2 regulatory pathway. These findings suggested that miR-208-3p up-regulation is associated with HCC cell progression and may provide a new target for liver cancer treatment. - Highlights: • miR-208-3p was highly expressed and directly repressed the expression of ARID2 in HCC. • miR-208-3p contributed to HCC cell progression both in vitro and in vivo. • Over-expression of ARID2 inhibited the HCC cell proliferation and invasion. • Restoration of ARID2 partly reversed the the effect of miR-208-3p down-regulation on HCC cells. • Newly regulatory pathway: miR-208-3p mediated the repression of ARID2 by TGFβ1 in HCC cells.

  8. International cooperation for the development of consistent and stable transportation regulations to promote and enhance safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strosnider, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    International commerce of radioactive materials crosses national boundaries, linking separate regulatory institutions with a common purpose and making it necessary for these institutions to work together in order to achieve common safety goals in a manner that does not place an undue burden on industry and commerce. Widespread and increasing use of radioactive materials across the world has led to increases in the transport of radioactive materials. The demand for consistency in the oversight of international transport has also increased to prevent unnecessary delays and costs associated with incongruent or redundant regulatory requirements by the various countries through which radioactive material is transported. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the authority for international regulation of transportation of radioactive materials responsible for promulgation of regulations and guidance for the establishment of acceptable methods of transportation for the international community. As such, the IAEA is seen as the focal point for consensus building between its Member States to develop consistency in transportation regulations and reviews and to ensure the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. International cooperation is also needed to ensure stability in our regulatory processes. Changes to transportation regulations should be based on an anticipated safety benefit supported by risk information and insights gained from continuing experience, evaluation, and research studies. If we keep safety as the principle basis for regulatory changes, regulatory stability will be enhanced. Finally, as we endeavour to maintain consistency and stability in our international regulations, we must be mindful of the new security challenges that lay before the international community as a result of a changing terrorist environment. Terrorism is a problem of global concern that also requires international cooperation and support, as we look for ways to

  9. The GATA factor elt-1 regulates C. elegans developmental timing by promoting expression of the let-7 family microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Max L; Kim, Sunhong; Morita, Kiyokazu; Kim, Seong Heon; Han, Min

    2015-03-01

    Postembryonic development in Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for the study of the temporal regulation of development and for the roles of microRNAs in controlling gene expression. Stable switch-like changes in gene expression occur during development as stage-specific microRNAs are expressed and subsequently down-regulate other stage-specific factors, driving developmental progression. Key genes in this regulatory network are phylogenetically conserved and include the post-transcriptional microRNA repressor LIN-28; the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12; and the microRNAs LIN-4, LET-7, and the three LET-7 family miRNAs (miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241). DAF-12 is known to regulate transcription of miR-48, miR-84 and miR-241, but its contribution is insufficient to account for all of the transcriptional regulation implied by the mutant phenotypes. In this work, the GATA-family transcription factor ELT-1 is identified from a genetic enhancer screen as a regulator of developmental timing in parallel to DAF-12, and is shown to do so by promoting the expression of the LET-7, miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241 microRNAs. The role of ELT-1 in developmental timing is shown to be separate from its role in cell-fate maintenance during post-embryonic development. In addition, analysis of Chromatin Immnoprecipitation (ChIP) data from the modENCODE project and this work suggest that the contribution of ELT-1 to the control of let-7 family microRNA expression is likely through direct transcription regulation.

  10. Bisphenol A promotes cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells by up-regulation of NPC1L1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Shanshan; Li, Xuechun; Li, Peiyang; Lu, Minqi

    2017-01-06

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an commonly exposed environmental chemicals in humans, has been shown to have a hypercholesterolemic effect with molecular mechanism not clear. Since intestinal cholesterol absorption plays a major role in maintaining total body cholesterol homeostasis, the present study is to investigate whether BPA affects cholesterol absorption in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. The Caco-2 cells were pretreated with BPA at different concentrations for 24 h and then incubated with radioactive micellar cholesterol for 2 h. The absorption of radioactive cholesterol was quantified by liquid scintillation. The expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) was analyzed by Western blot and qPCR. We found that confluent Caco-2 cells expressed NPC1L1, and the absorption of cholesterol in the cells was inhibited by ezetimibe, a specific inhibitor of NPC1L1. We then pretreated the cells with 0.1-10 nM BPA for 24 h and found that BPA at 1 and 10 nM doses promoted cholesterol absorption. In addition, we found that the BPA-induced promotion of cholesterol absorption was associated with significant increase in the levels of NPC1L1 protein and NPC1L1 mRNA. Moreover, the stimulatory effects of BPA on cholesterol absorption and NPC1L1 expression could be prevented by blockade of the SREBP-2 pathway. This study provides the first evidence that BPA promotes cholesterol absorption in the intestinal cells and the stimulatory effect of BPA is mediated, at least in part, by SREBP-2-NPC1L1 signaling pathway.

  11. The genetic switch regulating activity of early promoters of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P.L.; Johansen, Annette Helle; Hammer, Karin

    1999-01-01

    A functional analysis of open reading frame 4 (ORF4) and ORF5 from the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1 was performed by mutant and deletion analysis combined with transcriptional studies of the early phage promoters p(R) and p(L). ORF4 (180 amino acids) was identified as a phage repressor...... or lysogenic life cycle after phage infection and that a protein complex consisting of ORF4 and ORF5 may constitute a new type of genetic switch in bacteriophages....

  12. ATM regulates NF-κB-dependent immediate-early genes via RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation coupled to CDK9 promoter recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Choudhary, Sanjeev; Zhao, Yingxin; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Yang, Chunying; Boldogh, Istvan; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-like kinase family, is a master regulator of the double strand DNA break-repair pathway after genotoxic stress. Here, we found ATM serves as an essential regulator of TNF-induced NF-kB pathway. We observed that TNF exposure of cells rapidly induced DNA double strand breaks and activates ATM. TNF-induced ROS promote nuclear IKKγ association with ubiquitin and its complex formation with ATM for nuclear export. Activated cytoplasmic ATM is involved in the selective recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP to phospho-IκBα proteosomal degradation. Importantly, ATM binds and activates the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), ribosmal S6 kinase that controls RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. In ATM knockdown cells, TNF-induced RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation is significantly decreased. We further observed decreased binding and recruitment of the transcriptional elongation complex containing cyclin dependent kinase-9 (CDK9; a kinase necessary for triggering transcriptional elongation) to promoters of NF-κB-dependent immediate-early cytokine genes, in ATM knockdown cells. We conclude that ATM is a nuclear damage-response signal modulator of TNF-induced NF-κB activation that plays a key scaffolding role in IκBα degradation and RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation of decreased innate immune response associated with A-T mutation. PMID:24957606

  13. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting (PGPB) or stress homeostasis-regulating (PSHB) bacteria associated to the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroy, Verónica; Cassán, Fabricio; Masciarelli, Oscar; Del Papa, María Florencia; Lagares, Antonio; Luna, Virginia

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from halophyte Prosopis strombulifera grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion or stress homeostasis regulation. Isolates obtained from P. strombulifera were compared genotypically by BOX-polymerase chain reaction, grouped according to similarity, and identified by amplification and partial sequences of 16S DNAr. Isolates were grown until exponential growth phase to evaluate the atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores, and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as antifungal, protease, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. A total of 29 endophytic strains were grouped into seven according to similarity. All bacteria were able to grow and to produce some phytohormone in chemically defined medium with or without addition of a nitrogen source. Only one was able to produce siderophores, and none of them solubilized phosphate. ACC deaminase activity was positive for six strains. Antifungal and protease activity were confirmed for two of them. In this work, we discuss the possible implications of these bacterial mechanisms on the plant growth promotion or homeostasis regulation in natural conditions.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes CadC Regulates Cadmium Efflux and Fine-tunes Lipoprotein Localization to Escape the Host Immune Response and Promote Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombinho, Rita; Camejo, Ana; Vieira, Ana; Reis, Olga; Carvalho, Filipe; Almeida, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, Jorge Campos; Sousa, Sandra; Cabanes, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed L. monocytogenes cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that L. monocytogenes CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC but not CadA is required for L. monocytogenes infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection. lspB overexpression promotes the release of the LpeA lipoprotein to the extracellular medium, inducing tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 expression, thus impairing L. monocytogenes survival in macrophages. We propose that L. monocytogenes uses CadC to repress lspB expression during infection to avoid LpeA exposure to the host immune system, diminishing inflammatory cytokine expression and promoting intramacrophagic survival and virulence. CadC appears as the first metal efflux pump regulator repurposed during infection to fine-tune lipoprotein processing and host responses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. WISP-1 a novel angiogenic regulator of the CCN family promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma angiogenesis through VEGF-A expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Po-Chun; Tsao, Ching-Wen; Chang, An-Chen; Lein, Ming-Yu; Lin, Ching-Chia; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-02-28

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which accounts for nearly 90% of head and neck cancers, is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. VEGF-A is the most established angiogenic factor involved in the angiogenic-regulated tumor progression. WISP-1/CCN4 is an extracellular matrix-related protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family and regulates many biological functions, such as angiogenesis. Previous studies indicated the role of WISP-1 in tumor progression. However, the angiogenic property of WISP-1 in the cancer microenvironment has never been discussed. Here, we provide novel insights regarding the role of WISP-1 in the angiogenesis through promoting VEGF-A expression. In this study, the correlation of WISP-1 and VEGF-A was confirmed by IHC staining of specimens from patients with OSCC. In vitro results indicated that WISP-1 induced VEGF-A expression via the integrin αvβ3/FAK/c-Src pathway, which transactivates the EGFR/ERK/HIF1-α signaling pathway in OSCC. This pathway in turn induces the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells and triggers the neovascularization in the tumor microenvironment. Our in vivo data revealed that tumor-secreted WISP-1 promoted the angiogenesis through VRGF expression and increased angiogenesis-related tumor growth. Our study offers new information that highlights WISP-1 as a potential novel therapeutic target for OSCC.

  16. MeCP2 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression Through Regulating FOXF1/Wnt5a/β-Catenin and MYOD1/Caspase-3 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 has recently been characterized as an oncogene frequently amplified in several types of cancer. However, its precise role in gastric cancer (GC and the molecular mechanism of MeCP2 regulation are still largely unknown. Here we report that MeCP2 is highly expressed in primary GC tissues and the expression level is correlated with the clinicopathologic features of GC. In our experiments, knockdown of MeCP2 inhibited tumor growth. Molecular mechanism of MeCP2 regulation was investigated using an integrated approach with combination of microarray analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq. The results suggest that MeCP2 binds to the methylated CpG islands of FOXF1 and MYOD1 promoters and inhibits their expression at the transcription level. Furthermore, we show that MeCP2 promotes GC cell proliferation via FOXF1-mediated Wnt5a/β-Catenin signaling pathway and suppresses apoptosis through MYOD1-mediated Caspase-3 signaling pathway. Due to its high expression level in GC and its critical function in driving GC progression, MeCP2 represents a promising therapeutic target for GC treatment.

  17. Insulin promotes glucose consumption via regulation of miR-99a/mTOR/PKM2 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Insulin is known to regulate multiple cellular functions and is used for the treatment of diabetes. MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in many human diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. In this study, we showed that insulin decreased miR-99a expression levels, but induced glucose consumption and lactate production, and increased the expression of mTOR, HIF-1α and PKM2 in HepG2 and HL7702 cells. Forced expression of miR-99a or rapamycin treatment blocked insulin-induced PKM2 and HIF-1α expression, and glucose consumption and lactate production. Meanwhile, knockdown of HIF-1α inhibited PKM2 expression and insulin-induced glucose consumption. Taken together, these findings will reveal the role and mechanism of insulin in regulating glycolytic activities via miR-99a/mTOR.

  18. PMCA2 regulates HER2 protein kinase localization and signaling and promotes HER2-mediated breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaekwang; VanHouten, Joshua N.; Dann, Pamela; Kim, Wonnam; Sullivan, Catherine; Yu, Herbert; Liotta, Lance; Espina, Virginia; Stern, David F.; Friedman, Peter A.; Wysolmerski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    In the lactating mammary gland, the plasma membrane calcium ATPase2 (PMCA2) transports milk calcium. Its expression is activated in breast cancers, where high tumor levels predict increased mortality. We find that PMCA2 expression correlates with HER2 levels in breast cancers and that PMCA2 interacts with HER2 in specific actin-rich membrane domains. Knocking down PMCA2 increases intracellular calcium, disrupts interactions between HER2 and HSP-90, inhibits HER2 signaling, and results in internalization and degradation of HER2. Manipulating PMCA2 levels regulates the growth of breast cancer cells, and knocking out PMCA2 inhibits the formation of tumors in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu mice. These data reveal previously unappreciated molecular interactions regulating HER2 localization, membrane retention, and signaling, as well as the ability of HER2 to generate breast tumors, suggesting that interactions between PMCA2 and HER2 may represent therapeutic targets for breast cancer. PMID:26729871

  19. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    self-assessment of mood (Fig. 4D). Ectopic expression of OR TBI biomarkers in multiple brain regions outside of the olfactory bulb The brain represents...observation that the three OR biomarkers were ectopically expressed in multiple brain regions outside of the olfactory bulb suggested potential function...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0582 TITLE: Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in

  20. Ailanthone promotes human vestibular schwannoma cells apoptosis and autophagy by down-regulation of miR-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peizhen; Sun, Dechong; Jiang, Fei

    2018-01-03

    Ailanthone (AIL) is a quassinoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Ailanthus altissima. The anti-tumor activities of AIL have been reported in several cancers. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of AIL on vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Various concentration of AIL (0~1 μM) was used to treat human primary VS cells, and then cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy were assessed, respectively. Expression of miR-21 in VS cells was altered by miRNA transfection. The functional actions of AIL on miR-21 dysregulated cells were also assessed. AIL significantly reduced the viability of VS cells, and the IC50 value was 0.48 ± 0.023 μM. In response to 0.6 μM AIL, BrdU positive cell rate and CyclinD1 expression were reduced, apoptotic cell rate was increased, caspase-3 and -9 were cleaved, Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ were accumulated and p62 was down-regulated. miR21 was low expressed in AIL-treated cells, and AIL-induced apoptosis and autophagy were attenuated by miR-21 overexpression. Besides, AIL down-regulated Ras and Raf, and deactivated MEK, ERK, mTOR, and p70S6K, while the down-regulation and deactivation induced by AIL was reversed by miR-21 overexpression. To conclude, AIL inhibited VS cells proliferation, and induced apoptosis and autophagy. The anti-tumor activities of AIL in VS cells were realized possibly via down-regulation of miR-21 and blocking Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and mTOR pathways.

  1. Germ-Cell-Specific Inflammasome Component NLRP14 Negatively Regulates Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Sensing to Promote Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki; Lee, Albert; Sitharam, Ramaswami; Kesner, Jordan; Rabadan, Raul; Shapira, Sagi D

    2017-04-18

    Cytosolic sensing of nucleic acids initiates tightly regulated programs to limit infection. Oocyte fertilization represents a scenario wherein inappropriate responses to exogenous yet non-pathogen-derived nucleic acids would have negative consequences. We hypothesized that germ cells express negative regulators of nucleic acid sensing (NAS) in steady state and applied an integrated data-mining and functional genomics approach to identify a rheostat of DNA and RNA sensing-the inflammasome component NLRP14. We demonstrated that NLRP14 interacted physically with the nucleic acid sensing pathway and targeted TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) for ubiquitination and degradation. We further mapped domains in NLRP14 and TBK1 that mediated the inhibitory function. Finally, we identified a human nonsense germline variant associated with male sterility that results in loss of NLRP14 function and hyper-responsiveness to nucleic acids. The discovery points to a mechanism of nucleic acid sensing regulation that may be of particular importance in fertilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Up-regulation of Axin2 by dexamethasone promotes adipocyte differentiation in ROB-C26 mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Masako; Mikami, Yoshikazu; Takagi, Minoru; Takahashi, Tomihisa

    2013-12-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) regulates osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation in mesenchymal progenitor cells through regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of Dex, we examine the expression of Axin2, which is an intracellular inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, in ROB-C26 clonal mesenchymal progenitor cells (C26). We observed the induction of Axin2 mRNA in C26 cells in response to Dex treatment. Treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, mifepristone, showed that Dex-induced up-regulation of Axin2 is mediated by the GR. In the absence of Dex, gene silencing by using Axin2-targeted short hairpin RNA increased the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive and nuclear β-catenin-positive cells and ALP activity. In the presence of Dex, Axin2 knockdown resulted in an increased number of ALP-positive and nuclear β-catenin-positive cells. Furthermore, Axin2 knockdown in Dex-treated cells suppressed adipocyte differentiation (as determined by reduced Oil Red O staining), reduced the number of PPARγ-positive and aP2-positive cells and decreased the mRNA expression of PPARγ2 and aP2. These results suggest that Axin2 plays a key role in adipocyte and osteoblastic differentiation by controlling β-catenin expression.

  3. CCL5 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and induces angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-199a in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Huang, Yuan-Li; Tzeng, Huey-En; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-02-28

    Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. Angiogenesis is a critical step in tumor growth and metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (previously called RANTES) has been shown to facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the relationship of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is mostly unknown. In this study, CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mice model in vivo. MicroRNA analysis was performed in CCL5-treated chondrosarcoma cells versus control cells to investigate the mechanism of CCL5-mediated promotion of chondrosarcoma angiogenesis. Among the miRNAs regulated by CCL5, miR-199a was the most downregulated miRNA after CCL5 treatment. In addition, co-transfection with miR-199a mimic reversed the CCL5-mediated VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, overexpression of CCL5 increased tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth by downregulating miR-199a in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by downregulating miR-199a. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Twist2 promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation and invasion by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression in the ECM-receptor interaction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-jie; Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Hu, Xin; Rong, Rui-ming; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Tong-yu

    2016-01-01

    Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence has proven that Twist2 is involved in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay were analyzed using the Cell Count Kit-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell analysis, respectively. In this study, we showed that Twist2 was upregulated in human kidney cancer tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. Twist2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and augmented cell migration and invasion in human kidney-cancer-derived cells in vitro. Twist2 also promoted tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that the knockdown of Twist2 decreased the levels of ITGA6 and CD44 expression. This result indicates that Twist2 may promote migration and invasion of kidney cancer cells by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression. Therefore, our data demonstrated that Twist2 is involved in kidney cancer progression. The identification of the role of Twist2 in the migration and invasion of kidney cancer provides a potential appropriate treatment for human kidney cancer. PMID:27099513

  5. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large ‘leader bleb.’ Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08314.001 PMID:26163656

  6. PML promotes metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer through transcriptional regulation of HIF1A target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponente, Manfredi; Campanini, Letizia; Cuttano, Roberto; Piunti, Andrea; Delledonne, Giacomo A; Coltella, Nadia; Valsecchi, Roberta; Villa, Alessandra; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pattini, Linda; Doglioni, Claudio; Bernardi, Rosa

    2017-02-23

    Elucidating the molecular basis of tumor metastasis is pivotal for eradicating cancer-related mortality. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) encompasses a class of aggressive tumors characterized by high rates of recurrence and metastasis, as well as poor overall survival. Here, we find that the promyelocytic leukemia protein PML exerts a prometastatic function in TNBC that can be targeted by arsenic trioxide. We found that, in TNBC patients, constitutive HIF1A activity induces high expression of PML, along with a number of HIF1A target genes that promote metastasis at multiple levels. Intriguingly, PML controls the expression of these genes by binding to their regulatory regions along with HIF1A. This mechanism is specific to TNBC cells and does not occur in other subtypes of breast cancer where PML and prometastatic HIF1A target genes are underexpressed. As a consequence, PML promotes cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in TNBC cell and mouse models. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PML with arsenic trioxide, a PML-degrading agent used to treat promyelocytic leukemia patients, delays tumor growth, impairs TNBC metastasis, and cooperates with chemotherapy by preventing metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, we report identification of a prometastatic pathway in TNBC and suggest clinical development toward the use of arsenic trioxide for TNBC patients.

  7. YB-1 regulates tumor growth by promoting MACC1/c-Met pathway in human lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mengying; Li, Nan; Li, Zhuoshi; Xu, Lingzhi; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Patrick C.; Rosell, Rafael; Li, Jinxiu; Gu, Chundong

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant overexpression of the transcription/translation factor Y-box-binding protein (YB-1) is associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma, however the underlying mechanism by which YB-1 acts has not been fully elucidated. Here, we reported that inhibition of YB-1 diminished proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Interestingly, we identified metastasis associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) as a target of YB-1. Depletion of YB-1 markedly decreased MACC1 promoter activity and suppressed the MACC1/c-Met signaling pathway in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that YB-1 bound to the MACC1 promoter. Moreover, YB-1 was positively correlated with MACC1, and both proteins were over-expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. The Cox-regression analysis indicated that high YB-1 expression was an independent risk factor for prognosis in enrolled patients. Furthermore, depletion of YB-1 attenuated tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse model and reduced MACC1 expression in tumor tissues. Collectively, our data suggested that targeting YB-1 suppressed lung adenocarcinoma progression through the MACC1/c-Met pathway and that the high expression of YB-1/MACC1 is a potential prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28624808

  8. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-07-11

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large 'leader bleb.' Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement.

  9. MicroRNA miR-29c down-regulation leading to de-repression of its target DNA methyltransferase 3a promotes ischemic brain damage.

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    Gopal Pandi

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that stroke extensively alters cerebral microRNA (miRNA expression profiles and several miRNAs play a role in mediating ischemic pathophysiology. We currently evaluated the significance of miR-29c, a highly expressed miRNA in rodent brain that was significantly down-regulated after focal ischemia in adult rats as well as after oxygen-glucose deprivation in PC12 cells. Bioinformatics indicated that DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a is a major target of miR-29c and co-transfection with premiR-29c prevented DNMT3a 3'UTR vector expression. In PC12 cells, treatment with premiR-29c prevented OGD-induced cell death (by 58 ± 6%; p<0.05. Furthermore, treatment with antagomiR-29c resulted in a 46 ± 5% cell death in PC12 cells. When rats were treated with premiR-29c and subjected to transient focal ischemia, post-ischemic miR-29c levels were restored and the infarct volume decreased significantly (by 34 ± 6%; p<0.05 compared to control premiR treated group. DNMT3a siRNA treatment also significantly curtailed the post-OGD cell death in PC12 cells (by 54 ± 6%; p<0.05 and decreased the post-ischemic infarct volume in rats (by 30 ± 5%; p<0.05 compared to respective control siRNA treated groups. The miR-29c gene promoter showed specific binding sites for the transcription factor REST and the miR-29c promoter vector expression was curtailed when cotransfected with a REST expressing plasmid. Furthermore, treatment with REST siRNA prevented the post-ischemic miR-29c down-regulation and DNMT3a induction in PC12 cells and curtailed ischemic cell death (by 64 ± 9%; p<0.05 compared to control siRNA treatment. These studies suggest that miR-29c is a pro-survival miRNA and its down-regulation is a promoter of ischemic brain damage by acting through its target DNMT3a. Furthermore, REST is an upstream transcriptional controller of miR-29c and curtailing REST induction prevents miR-29c down-regulation and ischemic neuronal death.

  10. Heme and nitric oxide binding by the transcriptional regulator DnrF from the marine bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae increases napD promoter affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Matthias; Schweyen, Peter; Bröring, Martin; Laass, Sebastian; Härtig, Elisabeth; Jahn, Dieter

    2017-09-15

    Under oxygen-limiting conditions, the marine bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12(T) generates energy via denitrification, a respiratory process in which nitric oxide (NO) is an intermediate. Accumulation of NO may cause cytotoxic effects. The response to this nitrosative (NO-triggered) stress is controlled by the Crp/Fnr-type transcriptional regulator DnrF. We analyzed the response to NO and the mechanism of NO sensing by the DnrF regulator. Using reporter gene fusions and transcriptomics, here we report that DnrF selectively repressed nitrate reductase (nap) genes, preventing further NO formation. In addition, DnrF induced the expression of the NO reductase genes (norCB), which promote NO consumption. We used UV-visible and EPR spectroscopy to characterize heme binding to DnrF and subsequent NO coordination. DnrF detects NO via its bound heme cofactor. We found that the dimeric DnrF bound one molecule of heme per subunit. Purified recombinant apo-DnrF bound its target promoter sequences (napD, nosR2, norC, hemA, and dnrE) in electromobility shift assays, and we identified a specific palindromic DNA-binding site 5'-TTGATN4ATCAA-3' in these target sequences via mutagenesis studies. Most importantly, successive addition of heme as well as heme and NO to purified recombinant apo-DnrF protein increased affinity of the holo-DnrF for its specific binding motif in the napD promoter. On the basis of these results, we propose a model for the DnrF-mediated NO stress response of this marine bacterium. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID genes and promotes neuronal survival

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    Tan Yan-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein is the prototypical signal-regulated transcription factor. In neurons, it is the target of the synaptic activity-induced nuclear calcium-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK IV signaling pathway that controls the expression of genes important for acquired neuroprotection as well as other long-lasting adaptive processes in the nervous system. The function of CREB as a transcriptional activator is controlled by its phosphorylation on serine 133, which can be catalyzed by CaMKIV and leads to the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB binding protein (CBP. Activation of CBP function by nuclear calcium-CaMKIV signaling is a second regulatory step required for CREB/CBP-mediated transcription. Results Here we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV to increase the levels of wild type CREB or to overexpress a mutant version of CREB (mCREB containing a serine to alanine mutation at position amino acid 133 in mouse hippocampal neurons. Increasing the levels of CREB was sufficient to boost neuroprotective activity even under basal conditions (i.e., in the absence of stimulation of synaptic activity. In contrast, overexpression of mCREB increased cell death. The ratio of phospho(serine 133CREB to CREB immunoreactivity in unstimulated hippocampal neurons was similar for endogenous CREB and overexpressed wild type CREB and, as expected, dramatically reduced for overexpressed mCREB. A gene expression analysis revealed that increased expression of CREB but not that of mCREB in hippocampal neurons led to elevated expression levels of bdnf as well as that of several members of a previously characterized set of Activity-regulated Inhibitor of Death (AID genes, which include atf3, btg2, gadd45β, and gadd45γ. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the expression levels of wild type CREB are a critical determinant of the ability of hippocampal neurons to survive harmful conditions

  12. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway

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    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan, E-mail: moonsonlife@yahoo.com; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei, E-mail: doctorlife@126.com

    2016-06-17

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. -- Highlights: •Blockage of glycolysis might be a novel way to anticancer. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate could inhibit glycolysis and regulate mitochondrial pathway in cancer cells. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate would be the novel agents on treatment of gastric cancer.

  13. PCI-24781 down-regulates EZH2 expression and then promotes glioma apoptosis by suppressing the PIK3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

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    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCI-24781 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits tumor proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether PCI-24781 inhibits Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2 expression in malignant gliomas. In this work, three glioma cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of PCI-24781 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 M and analyzed for cell proliferation by the MTS 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium assay and colony formation, and cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of EZH2 and apoptosis-related proteins was assessed by western blotting. Malignant glioma cells were also transfected with EZH2 siRNA to examine how PCI-24781 suppresses tumor cells. EZH2 was highly expressed in the three glioma cell lines. Incubation with PCI-24781 reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis by down-regulating EZH2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were simulated by EZH2 siRNA. In addition, PCI-24781 or EZH2 siRNA accelerated cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k, glycogen synthase kinase 3A and B (GSK3a/b and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. These data suggest that PCI-24781 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating gliomas by down-regulating EZH2 which promotes cell apoptosis by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway.

  14. Up-regulation effect of hepatitis B virus genome A1846T mutation on viral replication and core promoter activity

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    Ling JIANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV genome nucleotide A1846T mutation on the viral replication capacity and the transcription activity of HBV core promoter (CP in vitro. Methods  A total of 385 patients with hepatitis B admitted to the 302 Hospital of PLA were enrolled in the study, including 116 with moderate chronic hepatitis B (CHB-M, 123 with severe chronic hepatitis B (CHB-S, and 146 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF. Serum HBV DNA was isolated and full-length HBV genome was amplified. The incidence of A1846T was analyzed. Full-length HBV genomes containing 1846T mutation were cloned into pGEM-T easy vector, and the counterpart wild-type 1846A plasmids were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The full-length HBV genome was released from recombinant plasmid by BspQ Ⅰ/Sca Ⅰ digestion, and then transfected into HepG2 cells. Secreted HBsAg level and intracellular HBV core particles were measured 72 hours post-transfection to analyze the replication capacity (a 1.0-fold HBV genome model. 1846 mutant and wild-type full-length HBV genomes were extracted to amplify the fragment of HBV CP region, and the dual luciferase reporter of the pGL3-CP was constructed. The luciferase activity was detected 48 hours post-transfection. Results  The incidence of A1846T mutation gradually increased with the severity of hepatitis B, reaching 31.03%, 42.27%, and 55.48% in CHB-M, CHB-S and ACLF patients respectively (P<0.01. The replication capacity of 1846T mutants, level of secreted HBsAg, and transcriptional activity of CP promoter were increased by 320%, 28% and 85% respectively, compared with 1846A wild-type strains. While the more common double mutation A1762T/G1764A in CP region was increased by 67%, 9% and 72% respectively, compared with its counterpart wild-type strains. A1846T had a greater influence on viral replication capacity in vitro. Conclusions A1846T mutation could significantly increase the

  15. β-Arrestin regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation promotes AT1aR-mediated cell contraction and migration.

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    Elie Simard

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, it has been established that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs signal not only through canonical G-protein-mediated mechanisms, but also through the ubiquitous cellular scaffolds β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2. Previous studies have implicated β-arrestins as regulators of actin reorganization in response to GPCR stimulation while also being required for membrane protrusion events that accompany cellular motility. One of the most critical events in the active movement of cells is the cyclic phosphorylation and activation of myosin light chain (MLC, which is required for cellular contraction and movement. We have identified the myosin light chain phosphatase Targeting Subunit (MYPT-1 as a binding partner of the β-arrestins and found that β-arrestins play a role in regulating the turnover of phosphorylated myosin light chain. In response to stimulation of the angiotensin Type 1a Receptor (AT1aR, MLC phosphorylation is induced quickly and potently. We have found that β-arrestin-2 facilitates dephosphorylation of MLC, while, in a reciprocal fashion, β-arrestin 1 limits dephosphorylation of MLC. Intriguingly, loss of either β-arrestin-1 or 2 blocks phospho-MLC turnover and causes a decrease in the contraction of cells as monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Furthermore, by employing the β-arrestin biased ligand [Sar(1,Ile(4,Ile(8]-Ang, we demonstrate that AT1aR-mediated cellular motility involves a β-arrestin dependent component. This suggests that the reciprocal regulation of MLC phosphorylation status by β-arrestins-1 and 2 causes turnover in the phosphorylation status of MLC that is required for cell contractility and subsequent chemotaxic motility.

  16. Eya2 overexpression promotes the invasion of human astrocytoma through the regulation of ERK/MMP9 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifeng; Liang, Chuansheng; Pan, Qichen; Wang, Yunjie

    2017-01-01

    The overexpression of eyes absent (Eya) 2 has been found in several human cancers. However, its biological roles and clinical significance in human astrocytoma have not yet been explored. This study investigated the clinical significance and biological roles of Eya2 in human astrocytoma tissues and cell lines. Using immunohistochemistry, we found Eya2 overexpression in 33 out of 90 (36.7%) astrocytoma specimens. The rate of Eya2 overexpression was higher in grade III–IV (48.1%) than in grade I+II astrocytomas (21.1%). Transfection with an Eya2 expression plasmid was performed in A172 cells with a low endogenous expression of Eya2 and the knockdown of Eya2 was carried out in U251 cells with a high endogenous expression using siRNA. Eya2 overexpres-sion induced A172 cell proliferation and invasion, while the knockdown of Eya2 using siRNA decreased the proliferation and invasion of U251 cells. In addition, we found that transfection with the Eya2 expression plasmid facilitated cell cycle progression, and that the knockdown of Eya2 inhibited cell cycle progression, accompanied by a change in the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Eya2 also positively regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 expression. The blockade of ERK signaling using an inhibitor abolished the effects of Eya2 on A172 cell invasion and MMP9 production. In addition, we found that there was a positive correlation between Eya2 and Six1 in the astrocytoma cell lines. Immunoprecipitation revealed that Eya2 interacted with Six1 protein in the U251 cell line, which exhibited a high expression of both proteins. Eya2 failed to upregulate MMP expression in the A172 cells in which Six1 was silenced. On the whole, our data indicate that Eya2 may serve as a potential oncoprotein in human astrocytoma. Eya2 regulates astrocytoma cell proliferation and invasion, possibly through the regulation of ERK signaling

  17. Rab23 is overexpressed in human astrocytoma and promotes cell migration and invasion through regulation of Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Dong, Qianze; Wang, Yunjie

    2016-08-01

    Rab23 overexpression has been implicated in several human cancers. However, its biological roles and molecular mechanism in astrocytoma have not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore clinical significance and biological roles of Rab23 in astrocytoma. We observed negative Rab23 staining in normal astrocytes and positive staining in 39 out of 86 (45 %) astrocytoma specimens using immunohistochemistry. The positive rate of Rab23 was higher in grades III and IV (56.5 %, 26/46) than grades I + II astrocytomas (32.5 %, 13/40, p astrocytoma by regulating cell invasion and migration through Rac1 activity.

  18. Identification of a novel human glucagon receptor promoter: regulation by cAMP and PGC-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Dichmann, Darwin Sorento; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    inhibitory effects of cAMP on glucagon receptor mRNA expression is mediated at the level of gene transcription. The cAMP-mediated downregulation of the proximal promoter was examined by deletion analysis in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and the cAMP responsiveness was found to be located in a region...... between 1051 and 1016 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site, which contains several putative cAMP responsive elements. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), known to be upregulated in the liver by fasting, was found to abolish the c......AMP-dependent downregulation of glucagon receptor mRNA expression in vitro, whereas overexpression of PGC-1beta had no effect....

  19. G1/S-regulated E2F-containing protein complexes bind to the mouse thymidine kinase gene promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Q P; Zhao, S; Levin, A H

    1994-01-01

    By performing DNase I footprint analysis, we had identified three distinct protein binding sequences (MT1, MT2, and MT3) located on the mouse thymidine kinase (TK) upstream promoter (Dou, Q.-P., Fridovich-Keil, J. L., and Pardee, A.B. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 1157-1161). Here we....... (iii) Formation of both these DNA-protein complexes were cell cycle-dependent: a G0/G1 phase-specific complex (E2F.G0/G1) was replaced by an S phase-specific complex(es) (E2F.S), whereas "free" E2F increased after the G1/S transition. (iv) Pulse inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide...

  20. JNK Promotes Epithelial Cell Anoikis by Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of BH3-Only Proteins

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    Nomeda Girnius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis. While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells.

  1. Randomized Trial ofPromoting First Relationships: Effects on Maltreated Toddlers' Separation Distress and Sleep Regulation after Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Monica L; Fleming, Charles B; Nelson, Elizabeth M; Kelly, Jean F; Spieker, Susan J

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of an attachment focused intervention, Promoting First Relationships (PFR), on sleep problems among toddlers in child welfare recently reunified with their birth parent. Recently reunified parent-toddler dyads (n = 43) were drawn from a larger random control trial. Toddlers (11-36 months) and their parents were assessed in two-hour research home visits at enrollment (baseline), and a 6-month post-intervention follow-up. Measures included parental report of sleep problems and research visitor observation of separation distress (using the Toddler Attachment Sort-45) . The PFR intervention predicted fewer sleep problems, adjusting for a baseline measure of sleep problems and other covariates. A path model showed evidence of an indirect effect of PFR on sleep problems through declines in separation distress. An attachment focused intervention like PFR that reduces infant separation distress can lead to reductions in sleep problems.

  2. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

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    Ismael Palacios-García

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that

  3. Up-regulation of METCAM/MUC18 promotes motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells

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    Cai Shao-xi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM in the Ig-like gene super-family, as both a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor in the development of breast cancer. To resolve this, we have re-investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines were used for the tests: one luminal-like breast cancer cell line, MCF7, which did not express any METCAM/MUC18, and two basal-like breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which expressed moderate levels of the protein. MCF7 cells were transfected with the human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones which expressed the protein and were used for testing effects of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility and invasiveness, and in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis. Both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells already expressed METCAM/MUC18. They were directly used for in vitro tests in the presence and absence of an anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody. Results In MCF7 cells, enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenesis, and in vivo tumorigenesis. In both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody inhibited both motility and invasiveness. Though both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells established a disorganized growth in 3D basement membrane culture assay, the introduction of the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody completely destroyed their growth in the 3D culture. Conclusion These findings support the notion that human METCAM/MUC18 expression promotes the progression of human breast cancer cells by increasing their motility, invasiveness and tumorigenesis.

  4. Enhanced glycolysis, regulated by HIF-1α via MCT-4, promotes inflammation in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Zou, Zhonglan; Liu, Xinlu; Ling, Min; Wang, Qingling; Wang, Qi; Lu, Lu; Shi, Le; Liu, Yonglian; Liu, Qizhan; Zhang, Aihua

    2017-06-01

    Arsenite is well established as a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms leading to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis are complex and elusive. Accelerated glycolysis, a common process in tumor cells called the Warburg effect, is associated with various biological phenomena. However, the role of glycolysis induced by arsenite is unknown. We have found that, with chronic exposure to arsenite, L-02 cells undergo a metabolic shift to glycolysis. In liver cells exposed to arsenite, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT-4) are over-expressed. MCT-4, directly mediated by HIF-1α, maintains a high level of glycolysis, and the enhanced glycolysis promotes pro-inflammatory properties, which are involved in arsenite carcinogenesis. In addition, serum lactate and cytokines are higher in arsenite-exposed human populations, and there is a positive correlation between them. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between lactate and cytokines with arsenic in hair. In sum, these findings indicate that MCT-4, mediated by HIF-1α, enhances the glycolysis induced by arsenite. Lactate, the end product of glycolysis, is released into the extracellular environment. The acidic microenvironment promotes production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to arsenite-induced liver carcinogenesis. These results provide a link between the induction of glycolysis and inflammation in liver cells exposed to arsenite, and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Piceatannol promotes apoptosis via up-regulation of microRNA-129 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines

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    Zhang, Haogang [Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Jia, Ruichun [Department of Blood Transfusion, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Wang, Chunjing; Hu, Tianming [Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Wang, Fujing, E-mail: wangfujing-hyd@163.com [Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Piceatannol induces apoptosis in cultured CRC cells. • Piceatannol promotes expression of miR-129. • miR-129 mediates proapoptotic effects of piceatannol. - Abstract: Piceatannol, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, has been confirmed as an antitumor agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effect and mechanisms of piceatannol on colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been well understood. This study aimed to test whether piceatannol could inhibit growth of CRC cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of CRC cells. Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 levels were analyzed by Western blot and miR-129 levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited HCT116 and HT29 cells growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Piceatannol induced apoptosis by promoting expression of miR-129, and then inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, an known target for miR-129. Moreover, knock down of miR-129 could reverse the reduction of cell viability induced by piceatannol in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Taken together, our study unraveled the ability of piceatannol to suppress colorectal cancer growth and elucidated the participation of miR-129 in the anti-cancer action of piceatannol. Our findings suggest that piceatannol can be considered to be a promising anticancer agent for CRC.

  6. Combinatorial Control of Transgene Expression by Hypoxia-Responsive Promoter and MicroRNA Regulation for Neural Stem Cell-Based Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their strong migratory capacity, tumor tropism, and tumor inhibitory effect, neural stem cells (NSCs have recently emerged as one of the most attractive gene delivery vectors for cancer therapy. However, further animal studies found that proportional NSC vectors were distributed to nontarget organs after intravenous injection and the nonspecific transgene expression led to significant cytotoxic effects in these organs. Hence, an expression cassette that controls the transgene expression within NSC vectors in a tumor site-specific manner is desired. Considering hypoxia as a hallmark of tumor microenvironment, we have developed a novel NSC vector platform coupling transcriptional targeting with microRNA (miRNA regulation for tumor hypoxia targeting. This combinatorial vector employed a hypoxia-responsive promoter and repeated targeting sequences of an miRNA that is enriched in NSCs but downregulated upon hypoxia induction to control the transgene expression. This resulted in significantly improved hypoxic selectivity over the use of a control vector without miRNA regulation. Thus, incorporating miRNA regulation into a transcriptional targeting vector adds an extra layer of security to prevent off-target transgene expression and should be useful for the development of NSC vectors with high targeting specifcity for cancer therapy.

  7. Long noncoding RNA NEAT1 promotes cell proliferation and invasion by regulating hnRNP A2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

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    Mang YY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyi Mang, Li Li, Jianghua Ran, Shengning Zhang, Jing Liu, Laibang Li, Yiming Chen, Jian Liu, Yang Gao, Gang Ren Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, The Calmette Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, The First Hospital of Kunming, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Growing evidence demonstrates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are involved in the progression of various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The role of nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1, an essential lncRNA for the formation of nuclear body paraspeckles, has not been fully explored in HCC. We aimed to determine the expression, roles and functional mechanisms of NEAT1 in the proliferation and invasion of HCC. Based on real-time polymerase chain reaction data, we suggest that NEAT1 is upregulated in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous liver tissues. The knockdown of NEAT1 altered global gene expression patterns and reduced HCC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays confirmed that U2AF65 binds to NEAT1. Furthermore, the study indicated that NEAT1 regulated hnRNP A2 expression and that this regulation may be associated with the NEAT1–U2AF65 protein complex. Thus, the NEAT1-hnRNP A2 regulation mechanism promotes HCC pathogenesis and may provide a potential target for the prognosis and treatment of HCC. Keywords: long noncoding RNA, NEAT1, RNA-binding protein, HCC

  8. Oligogalacturonic acids promote tomato fruit ripening through the regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthesis at the transcriptional and post-translational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingxuan; Zhou, Leilei; Wang, Zhichao; Chen, Jianting; Qu, Guiqin

    2016-01-09

    Oligogalacturonic acids (OGs) are oligomers of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonosyl residues that are released from cell walls by the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acids upon fruit ripening and under abiotic/biotic stress. OGs may induce ethylene production and fruit ripening, however, the mechanism(s) behind these processes is unknown. Tomato cultivar 'Ailsa Craig' (AC) and mutant Neverripe, ripening inhibitor, non-ripening, and colorless non-ripening fruits were treated with OGs at different stages. Only AC fruits at mature green stage 1 showed an advanced ripening phenomenon, although transient ethylene production was detected in all of the tomato fruits. Ethylene synthesis genes LeACS2 and LeACO1 were rapidly up-regulated, and the phosphorylated LeACS2 protein was detected after OGs treatment. Protein kinase/phosphatase inhibitors significantly affected the ripening process induced by the OGs. As a potential receptor of OGs, LeWAKL2 was also up-regulated in their presence. We demonstrated that OGs promoted tomato fruit ripening by inducing ethylene synthesis through the regulation of LeACS2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels.

  9. Loss of p27Kip¹ promotes metaplasia in the pancreas via the regulation of Sox9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, Pauline; Callot, Caroline; Baer, Romain; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Guerra, Carmen; Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Bachs, Oriol; Besson, Arnaud

    2015-11-03

    p27Kip1 (p27) is a negative regulator of proliferation and a tumor suppressor via the inhibition of cyclin-CDK activity in the nucleus. p27 is also involved in the regulation of other cellular processes, including transcription by acting as a transcriptional co-repressor. Loss of p27 expression is frequently observed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas in human and is associated with decreased patient survival. Similarly, in a mouse model of K-Ras-driven pancreatic cancer, loss of p27 accelerates tumor development and shortens survival, suggesting an important role for p27 in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Here, we sought to determine how p27 might contribute to early events leading to tumor development in the pancreas. We found that K-Ras activation in the pancreas causes p27 mislocalization at pre-neoplastic stages. Moreover, loss of p27 or expression of a mutant p27 that does not bind cyclin-CDKs causes the mislocalization of several acinar polarity markers associated with metaplasia and induces the nuclear expression of Sox9 and Pdx1 two transcription factors involved in acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. Finally, we found that p27 directly represses transcription of Sox9, but not that of Pdx1. Thus, our results suggest that K-Ras activation, the earliest known event in pancreatic carcinogenesis, may cause loss of nuclear p27 expression which results in derepression of Sox9, triggering reprogramming of acinar cells and metaplasia.

  10. Sonic hedgehog regulation of Foxf2 promotes cranial neural crest mesenchyme proliferation and is disrupted in cleft lip morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Joshua L; Fink, Dustin M; Yoon, Joon Won; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Kietzman, Henry W; Ansen-Wilson, Lydia J; Chung, Hannah M; Walterhouse, David O; Marazita, Mary L; Lipinski, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Cleft lip is one of the most common human birth defects, yet our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lip morphogenesis is limited. Here, we show in mice that sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced proliferation of cranial neural crest cell (cNCC) mesenchyme is required for upper lip closure. Gene expression profiling revealed a subset of Forkhead box (Fox) genes that are regulated by Shh signaling during lip morphogenesis. During cleft pathogenesis, reduced proliferation in the medial nasal process mesenchyme paralleled the domain of reduced Foxf2 and Gli1 expression. SHH ligand induction of Foxf2 expression was dependent upon Shh pathway effectors in cNCCs, while a functional GLI-binding site was identified downstream of Foxf2 Consistent with the cellular mechanism demonstrated for cleft lip pathogenesis, we found that either SHH ligand addition or FOXF2 overexpression is sufficient to induce cNCC proliferation. Finally, analysis of a large multi-ethnic human population with cleft lip identified clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXF2 These data suggest that direct targeting of Foxf2 by Shh signaling drives cNCC mesenchyme proliferation during upper lip morphogenesis, and that disruption of this sequence results in cleft lip. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Attaches Tumor Suppressor PTEN to the Membrane and Promotes Anti Pseudomonas aeruginosa Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Sebastián A; Hopkins, Benjamin D; Wolfe, Andrew L; DiMango, Emily; Kitur, Kipyegon; Parsons, Ramon; Prince, Alice

    2017-12-19

    The tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell proliferation by regulating phosphatidylin