WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulations governing activities

  1. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  2. Government regulation of gambling business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepasyuk S.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the problems of modern gambling business in the Russian Federation, political and legal, civil and economic aspects of state politics development in the field of activities regulation. The Federal Law regulating the activity of gambling business has been analyzed. The author has offered some developments of gambling business in the Russian Federation in order to increase the revenues to the budgets of the regions; to increase the attractiveness of the Russian resorts; to create more job opportunities and to eradicate unemployment.

  3. Regulation to create environments conducive to physical activity: understanding the barriers and facilitators at the Australian state government level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2012-01-01

    Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. POLICY INTERVENTIONS MOST COMMONLY SUGGESTED BY PARTICIPANTS FELL INTO TWO AREAS: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful 'road lobby', weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful 'road lobby' and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the

  4. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...... transformation of company law and corporate governance regulation. Her findings about the marketization of corporate control are at the core to a better understanding of the broader context of capitalist restructuring in the European Union....

  5. Performance, corporate governance and new regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Garcia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the adoption of the Corporate Governance Code (Code in Mexico, many companies increased financial performance and the leveraged during the following five years; we investigated the effect of how those firms improved the corporate governance practices and how was translated into better risk return company. We analyzed how and where better corporate governance practices affects performance and what was the relationship with Transparency, New Regulation and Governance Practices. Also we explored the gaps between transparency and information disclosure of Mexican Firms listed in U.S stock exchange and non U.S listed firms our findings were related to the potential growth of the Mexico Financial Market, Law and Finance.

  6. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J K; Iwankow, C [Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada`s perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs.

  7. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  8. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  9. Japan's nuclear PA activity in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Nobuyuki

    1995-01-01

    This presentation emphasises some points of PA activities, based on the experience of 'cooperation projects for local governments'. Local governments distribute the public information directly to the residents. This is very important because officers of the local government can be the opinion leaders of the region. Local government exist very close to the residents, while the central government is a distant and faceless existence for the local people. It is believed that the local governments play an imperative role in PA activities. In other words, we must further utilize the organizations and functions of the local governments to implement PA activities. In conclusion, three recommendations are offered. Firstly, enough budget and authority should be given to the local governments as far as PA activities in their areas are concerned, and most of such activities should be entrusted to the local governments. Local governments should place more public relations officers, and continue the manpower development. Second, with regard to highly technical or specialized issues which a local governments cannot treat alone, related organizations like JAERO should support their PA activities. Third, such related organizations should also cooperate with local government including assistance in providing know-how, when their public information activities focus on educators, journalists, or the women. These three points should be given due consideration in our cooperation projects for the local governments, and JAERO is doing its best every day

  10. The role of government and regulation in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W

    2017-08-01

    The world population is ageing and increasing in size. As a result, the numbers of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Cancer is also a growing problem in developing countries. Government, be it local, state, provincial, national, or even a union of nations, has clear roles in the control of cancer. It is widely appreciated that much of the research that has defined the causes and treatment of cancer was, and is, government funded. Less appreciated, the body of work about how to control cancer shows the importance of an environment that encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviours, and government has a vitally important role. Through regulation, education, and support programmes, governments can create an environment in which tobacco use is reduced and citizens maintain good levels of physical activity, healthy bodyweight, and good nutrition. Cancer prevention and the creation of a culture of health is an essential mission of government, beyond that of the traditional health-focused departments such as health ministries; it is in the domain of governmental agencies involved in environmental protection, occupational safety, and transportation. Cancer prevention and health promotion are also in the realm of the zoning board, the board of education, and the board of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SIGNALS AND REGULATORS THAT GOVERN STREPTOMYCES DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joseph R.; Flärdh, Klas

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is the genetically best characterized species of a populous genus belonging to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes are filamentous soil organisms, well known for the production of a plethora of biologically active secondary metabolic compounds. The Streptomyces developmental life cycle is uniquely complex, and involves coordinated multicellular development with both physiological and morphological differentiation of several cell types, culminating in production of secondary metabolites and dispersal of mature spores. This review presents a current appreciation of the signaling mechanisms used to orchestrate the decision to undergo morphological differentiation, and the regulators and regulatory networks that direct the intriguing development of multigenomic hyphae, first to form specialized aerial hyphae, and then to convert them into chains of dormant spores. This current view of S. coelicolor development is destined for rapid evolution as data from “-omics” studies shed light on gene regulatory networks, new genetic screens identify hitherto unknown players, and the resolution of our insights into the underlying cell biological processes steadily improve. PMID:22092088

  12. Balancing government-regulated participation with community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore the nature and extent of community participation and support for the Taung Skull World Heritage Site (TSWHS) scheme. Utilising the social exchange theory, the paper's central argument suggests meaningful community involvement in government-sponsored participation as a prerequisite to ...

  13. Bank governance, regulation, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.; Levine, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts the first empirical assessment of theories concerning risk taking by banks, their ownership structures, and national bank regulations. We focus on conflicts between bank managers and owners over risk, and we show that bank risk taking varies positively with the comparative power

  14. Economics of Philanthropic Institutions, Regulation and Governance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Babacan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper merges the literature on regulation, specifically private provision of public goods, and governance with the literature on philanthropic institutions (awqaf) in Turkey. Traditionally, awqaf (plural for the waqf) have been very functional regarding the socioeconomic realms in Muslim societies. On the other hand, the provision of public goods is one of the core discussions under the literature on regulation and governance, particularly the property rights. This paper analyzes the rol...

  15. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  16. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  17. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  18. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robbin S.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product’s development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REGULATION IN EMERGING COUNTRIES. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on corporate governance emphasizes that firms should be run in the interests of shareholders. This is a suitable objective function when markets are perfect and complete. In many emerging economies this is not the case: markets are imperfect and incomplete. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance issues and the extra obstacles they have to overcome due to a lack of regulations. Romanian case study is examined.

  20. Corporate Governance Convergence : Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the research on corporate governance by predicting the effects of European takeover regulation.In particular, we investigate whether the recent reforms of takeover regulation in Europe are leading to a harmonization of the national legislations.With the help of 150

  1. Corporate Governance in Crisis? The Politics of EU Corporate Governance Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    on the transformation of company law and corporate governance in the last decade. Here, the article illustrates how company law has become increasingly focused on the rights of shareholders, while worker rights have been relegated to the area of social policies and labour law. The study also traces the shift from...... a legislative programme centred on company law harmonisation towards a regulatory approach based on minimum requirements and mutual recognition, increasingly geared at adjusting the governance of corporations to the demands of liberalised capital markets. The second section then reflects on the current...... developments in corporate governance regulation in the context of financial and economic crisis....

  2. The Role of Self-Regulation in Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); D.V. DeJong; G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); C. Wasley

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper assesses the effectiveness of self-regulation to promote investor interests. The Netherlands provides an excellent opportunity to gather such evidence for two reasons. First, characteristics of the Dutch corporate governance structure have made it the recent focus of attention

  3. Data-driven Regulation and Governance in Smart Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Klop, Abram; Mak, Vanessa; Berlee, Anna; Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the concept of data-driven regulation and governance in the context of smart cities by describing how these urban centres harness these technologies to collect and process information about citizens, traffic, urban planning or waste production. It describes how several smart

  4. Government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the domestic experience in government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier.Compared the degree of economic freedom in Ukraine. The emphasis is on the need to develop a national strategy of institutional development of domestic entrepreneurship.

  5. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  6. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  7. Network governance of active employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Torfing, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, ......, the tight metagovernance of the LECs does not seem to straightjacket the LECs as there is a considerable scope for local policy making which makes it worthwhile for the social partners to participate in the local networks.......The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data......, this study aims to analyse the impact of the governance reform by assessing the initial experiences with the Local Employment Councils (LECs). The analysis shows that the LECs are relatively well-functioning and contribute to an effective and democratic governance of local employment policy. Furthermore...

  8. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  9. Risk regulation and deliberation in EU administrative governance: GMO regulation and its reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not

  10. A nuclear factor I-like activity and a liver-specific repressor govern estrogen-regulated in vitro transcription from the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin B1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R; Claret, F X; Wahli, W

    1989-01-01

    A hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to identify novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter region. In addition to the already well-documented estrogen-responsive element (ERE), two elements were found within the 140 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. One of them, a negative regulatory element, is responsible for the lack of promoter activity in the absence of the hormone and...

  11. A nuclear factor I-like activity and a liver-specific repressor govern estrogen-regulated in vitro transcription from the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin B1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R; Claret, F X; Wahli, W

    1989-12-01

    A hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to identify novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter region. In addition to the already well-documented estrogen-responsive element (ERE), two elements were found within the 140 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. One of them, a negative regulatory element, is responsible for the lack of promoter activity in the absence of the hormone and, as demonstrated by DNA-binding assays, interacts with a liver-specific transcription factor. The second is required in association with the estrogen-responsive element to mediate hormonal induction and is recognized by the Xenopus liver homolog of nuclear factor I.

  12. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  14. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Telecommunications in South Africa: Governance of who is actually regulating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-F Pau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Republic of South Africa telecommunications market is a maturing one with a large customer base to serve, it has been repeatedly been observed over the past few years that many good intentions were formulated in the regulatory sphere with sometimes poor outcomes and unclear governance. A number of surprising observations have been made on the outcomes, the delays or other process related events linked to regulatory measures. The paper thus researches first, from a governance point of view, who is actually regulating the telecommunications industry; it identifies next opportunities and bottlenecks whereby a change might happen to reach the expected outcomes. A political economy methodology is taken, backed up by extensive field work over 2010 and 2011, leading to a web of conjectures providing answers to the first question, based on an extensive analysis of key stakeholders goals, positions and interactions. Finally, a number of measures are proposed to improve the governance, regulatory impact and efficiency, and evolve the South African telecommunications eco-system.

  16. The European Energy Regulators Group. A panacea for good governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses how the European Energy Regulators Group (ERGEG) may promote good governance in the EU. It is concluded that the ERGEG to some extent can stimulate national regulatory authorities into implementing European law more consistently, effectively and proportionally. Since the European Commission has a special responsibility as regards the functioning of the ERGEG, the future role of the ERGEG will depend on whether or not the Commission will leave it some autonomy to develop its advisory-, benchmarking- and coordinating role. Since the European legal framework does not include clear procedural good governance norms, there is a danger that the interests of the market parties are inadequately represented and protected at the European level. Although the ERGEG cannot take legally binding decisions, it is argued that its decisions or common standards may have legal effects. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the European legal framework regulates the right of access to ERGEG documents, the exchange and use of information within the ERGEG, the protection of confidential information, the right of participation and the involvement of the European Parliament [nl

  17. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  18. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation required to be filed by §§ 221.20 and 221.30 and/or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air...

  19. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...

  20. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  1. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance

  2. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance...

  3. How can we characterize nano-specific soft regulation? Lessons from occupational health and safety governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichow, Aline; Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Konrad, Kornelia; Coenen, Christopher; Dijkstra, Anne; Milburn, Colin; van Lente, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Soft regulation is a widely used instrument in the governance of emerging technologies, especially in the governance of nanotechnologies. So far, evaluations on the effects of nano-specific soft regulation cannot build on a coherent and consistent typology. Characterization of soft regulation is

  4. Government Strategic Support for Investment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekulova, Assiya N.; Mukhambetova, Lyazzat K.; Doshan, Almagul S.; Issabekov, Baurzhan N.; Chimgentbayeva, Gulbakyt K.; Turegeldinova, Aliya Zh.

    2016-01-01

    When system risks are high most investors choose to exit the market; however, there are some contrarian investors who opt to make investments. The authors analyzed the main goals of the investment process and measures that should be provided by the government to stimulate investments and innovation especially by means of investment banking. The…

  5. Analysis of combinatorial regulation: scaling of partnerships between regulators with the number of governed targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Bhardwaj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Through combinatorial regulation, regulators partner with each other to control common targets and this allows a small number of regulators to govern many targets. One interesting question is that given this combinatorial regulation, how does the number of regulators scale with the number of targets? Here, we address this question by building and analyzing co-regulation (co-transcription and co-phosphorylation networks that describe partnerships between regulators controlling common genes. We carry out analyses across five diverse species: Escherichia coli to human. These reveal many properties of partnership networks, such as the absence of a classical power-law degree distribution despite the existence of nodes with many partners. We also find that the number of co-regulatory partnerships follows an exponential saturation curve in relation to the number of targets. (For E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, only the beginning linear part of this curve is evident due to arrangement of genes into operons. To gain intuition into the saturation process, we relate the biological regulation to more commonplace social contexts where a small number of individuals can form an intricate web of connections on the internet. Indeed, we find that the size of partnership networks saturates even as the complexity of their output increases. We also present a variety of models to account for the saturation phenomenon. In particular, we develop a simple analytical model to show how new partnerships are acquired with an increasing number of target genes; with certain assumptions, it reproduces the observed saturation. Then, we build a more general simulation of network growth and find agreement with a wide range of real networks. Finally, we perform various down-sampling calculations on the observed data to illustrate the robustness of our conclusions.

  6. TERRITORIAL REGULATION OF THE DUTCH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN NEDERLANDS NIEUW GUINEA 1898-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmaida Sinaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed about the regulation of the Dutch colonial administration for its expansion in Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG between 1898 and 1962.  The arrangement covered the expansion area, uniting and abolition of the government. This process began with the exploration activities, construction of infrastructure facilities and transportation/communication and recruitment of government officials. Construction of transportation and communication made local economy was increase. Government officials who stationed in the region must meet the specific requirements such as familiar with the area and experienced in their duties as well as having a high spirit of devotion. Territorial structuring was based on consideration of geographic/transportation access, culture, economic and political values of such area. Government policy on regional growth aims to shorten the span of colonial government control over territory and population of NNG and government's services that closer to the territory’s population.Key words: Territorial regulation, expansion, NNG  Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang peraturan pemerintahan kolonial Belanda atas segala bentuk ekspansi di Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG pada tahun 1898 dan 1962. Peraturan ini meliputi perluasan wilayah, menyatukan dan penghapusan pemerintah. Proses ini dimulai dengan kegiatan eksplorasi, pembangunan fasilitas infrastruktur dan transportasi / komunikasi dan perekrutan pejabat pemerintah. Pembangunan transportasi dan komunikasi membuat perekonomian lokal meningkat. Pejabat pemerintah yang ditempatkan di wilayah tersebut harus memenuhi persyaratan tertentu seperti akrab dengan daerah dan berpengalaman dalam tugas-tugas mereka serta memiliki semangat  pengabdian tinggi. Penataan wilayah didasarkan pada pertimbangan geografis / akses transportasi, budaya, ekonomi dan nilai-nilai politik daerah tersebut. Kebijakan pemerintah mengenai pertumbuhan regional bertujuan untuk memperpendek

  7. Governance strategies for living technologies: bridging the gap between stimulating and regulating technoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Est, Rinie; Stemerding, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The life sciences present a politically and ethically sensitive area of technology development. NBIC convergence-the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive technology-presents an increased interaction between the biological and physical sciences. As a result the bio-debate is no longer dominated by biotechnology, but driven by NBIC convergence. NBIC convergence enables two bioengineering megatrends: "biology becoming technology" and "technology becoming biology." The notion of living technologies captures the latter megatrend. Accordingly, living technology presents a politically and ethically sensitive area. This implies that governments sooner or later are faced with the challenge of both promoting and regulating the development of living technology. This article describes four current political models to deal with innovation promotion and risk regulation. Based on two specific developments in the field of living technologies-(psycho)physiological computing and synthetic biology-we reflect on appropriate governance strategies for living technologies. We conclude that recent pleas for anticipatory and deliberative governance tend to neglect the need for anticipatory regulation as a key factor in guiding the development of the life sciences from a societal perspective. In particular, when it is expected that a certain living technology will radically challenge current regulatory systems, one should opt for just such a more active biopolitical approach.

  8. Cross-country differences in government sector activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis presented in the article is to identify various economic, social, political, demographic and cultural factors that could shape the differences in the size of government sector across countries and, with the use of econometric analysis empirically verify the effect of those factors. The analysis focuses only on ”budgetary” government, meaning that the size of government is measured with a certain government spending ratio. The results of the analysis revealed that economic factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of government consumption spending, whereas political, social and cultural factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of transfer spending. In addition, the results indicate that the relative size of government spending is inversely related to the extent of the regulation of the economy.

  9. Outsourcing Technology in Government: Owned, Controlled, or Regulated Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mark L.; Walsh, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the growing trend toward and objectives of government outsourcing of information technology (IT) both in the United States and around the world. Describes representative outsourcing arrangements; highlights steps governments should take to ensure that objectives are met; and discusses factors influencing management of public sector…

  10. A Corporate Governance Index : Convergence and Diversity of National Corporate Governance Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of appropriate corporate governance framework has been a focal point of recent reforms in many countries. This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their evolution over the last 15 years in 30 European countries and the US. It

  11. Act No. 25 of 31 January 1983 amending Act No. 1103 of 4 August 1965 and Decree No. 680 of 6 March 1968 on regulations governing the activities of technicians in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Act amends Act No. 1103 of 4 August 1965 and Decree No. 680 of 6 March 1968 of the President of the Republic regulating the activities of auxiliary personnel engaged in medical radiology. It establishes new conditions for training and qualifications of such technicians in respect of radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. (NEA) [fr

  12. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  13. The Regulation and Improvement of Suburban Landless Peasants’ Community in the Charge of the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suburban landless peasants’ communities are both the transfiguration in the passive urbanization and transformation in the leading of governments. The specificity of suburban landless peasants community-generated determines the specificity in governing. The deficiency of well governance mechanisms, the scarcity of citizen spirit, the low level of self-organization and the deficiency of social capital in suburban landless peasants’ community in the charge of the government bring about a serious of developing dilemma. The regulation and improvement of government should embark on reconstructive governance mechanisms, straighten out organizational system; Cultivating citizen spirit, promoting public participation; Remodeling social capital, tamping autonomy foundation.

  14. The relation between external governance environment and over-investment: Evidence from industry regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Law and Finance theory, and the regulatory capture theory, external governance environment and industrial regulations can exert a certain influence on corporate over-investment. On the basis of qualitative analysis of the relationship between external governance environment and corporate over-investment under different industrial regulation conditions, this paper, using data of non-financial companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in the period 2001-2010, describes the regional distribution characteristics of over-investment of Chinese listed companies, and establishes an OLS regression model of the relationship between external governance environment and over-investment. The study respectively groups data from regulated and non-regulated industries as a sample and empirically tests the OLS regression model. Results show that: from the perspective of economic geography, there exists a local spatial cluster phenomenon in the distribution of over-investment of listed companies in regulated industries, while non-regulated industries conform to no regularity. In regulated industries, external governance environment factors (level of government intervention, rule of law and financial development may exert a significant negative influence on the degree of over-investment of listed companies, but on non-regulated industries, their effect is reversed. Also, government intervention, legal enforcement and financial development are positively correlated to over-investment. Further research indicates that, compared with government intervention and financial development, legal enforcement influences over-investment the most.

  15. Transparency and Accountability of Government Regulations as an Integral Part of Social Responsibility Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Frolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author's view on the role of government in promoting social responsibility of business and the individual is described. The main features of the socio-economic situation in Russia today are presented (horizontal and vertical mobility of the population, a small number of organizations and the extra-centralized public authorities, the predominance of personal relations between economic agents. The necessity of increasing the role of individuals and businesses in the social system is substantiated and the basic directions of activity are suggested (prosocial preferences, interpersonal trust, redistribution of social responsibility. Transparency and accountability of public authorities are very powerful tool to improve the quality of governance and it is one of the important conditions for the social responsibility, as well as to economic performance in modern Russia. The legitimacy of government is a multidimensional issue. And if we take into account the Russian features it is necessary to point out public control and enforcement, quality of formal institutions, and effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. Also governance is important to enhance quality of regulation.

  16. 77 FR 12937 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... from ``30 days'' to ``60 days or such other time frame agreed to by the PLCO.'' FAR 52.245-1: Add a... Government will not bear any of the costs incident to such donations, regardless of who incurred them. ``As..., public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance...

  17. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil & Gas Activities: Multilevel Governance & Legal Pluralism at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the governance process of offshore oil and gas activities in the Arctic with the concept of multilevelgovernance and legal pluralism to address both issues of management of the environment and public participation. The analysis goes beyond the single issue of fragmentation p...... and from regional government, indigenous shareholders and corporation perspectives, could be helpful in providing relevant actors with arguments to weigh the decision on seismic and drilling activities in relation to risk acceptance.......This article analyses the governance process of offshore oil and gas activities in the Arctic with the concept of multilevelgovernance and legal pluralism to address both issues of management of the environment and public participation. The analysis goes beyond the single issue of fragmentation...... pertaining to the international and supranational levels, to encompass national and regional levels and evaluate how the interactions between those levels structure the policy process and impact the efficiency of environmental management and public participation. Four paths of reflection arise from...

  18. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations... language in the final paragraph of the 2003 regulations dealt with the transition of special purpose permit... regulations is to remove all of the language under paragraph (i). This change is simply a ministerial...

  19. GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE ECONOMY: RISKS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rjahovskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of state regulation of the economy by the example of the Russian power industry and utilities, the reasons for the negative results, the validity of the concepts, analyzes the conceptual elements of the reform, the expected and the resulting effect, the reasons for failure and return to the state in the housing sector. Particular attention is given to certain aspects of the functioning of self-regulation institute inRussia. 

  20. Government regulations and other influences on the medical use of computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishelevich, D J; Grams, R R; Mize, S G; Smith, J P

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents points brought out in a panel discussion held at the 12th Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences, January 1979. The session was attended by approximately two dozen interested parties from various segments of the academic, government, and health care communities. The broad categories covered include the specific problems of government regulations and their impact on specific clinical information systems installed at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, opportunities in a regulated environment, problems in a regulated environment, vendor-related issues in the marketing and manufacture of computer-based information systems, rational approaches to government control, and specific issues related to medical computer science.

  1. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unified Solar PV Tariff The Chinese Government has set a unified national solar photovoltaic(PV) benchmarking on-grid tariff in order to improve its PV tariff policy to standardize solar PV tariff management and promote sustainable development of solar PV industry. Power grid operators will be required to pay solar energy producers 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kwh of electricity,according to

  2. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  3. Getting the right balance between regulation and governance in the non-bank financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Mayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of the collapse of the finance company sector in New Zealand in 2006-2010 to illustrate the problems with light touch regulation and a reliance on good governance to ensure financial stability. It shows two major governance failures, the first in the governance of the sector by the authorities and the second, serious failures in corporate governance by the firms involved. While a light touch may assist economic development it also increases fragility. New Zealand has now switched to a greater emphasis on regulation and to a better alignment of incentives to ensure good governance. While other countries might consider implementing aspects of its new bank resolution regime most are opting for considerably more regulation and compliance costs.

  4. Synergism in regulation of nuclear and radiological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdugan, A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the reform of nuclear activity regulation in Moldova was initiated. On May 11, 2006, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova passed the law Nr 111-XVI 'About Safe Accomplishment of Nuclear and Radiological Activity'. On the 23rd of March, 2007 the National Agency for Regulation of Nuclear and Radiological Activities (NARNRA) was founded due to the decree of the Government under the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources. Its first objective was elaboration of necessary regulation documents in this field

  5. 75 FR 38765 - Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ..., facility assessment services, certifications of quantity and quality, import product inspections, and... control number. These include export certification, inspection of section 8e import products, and...] Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of...

  6. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  7. 75 FR 38675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... contractor to use the property on an independent research and development (IR&D) program rent free, if-- (a... Government for all property acquired or fabricated by the Contractor in accordance with the financing...-0029; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL41 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property...

  8. 75 FR 33734 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) The Director publishes a special edition of the Federal Register called ``The United States Government... its regulations the requirement that the United States Government Manual (Manual) be published and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy P. Bunk, Director of Legal Affairs and Policy, Office of the Federal Register, at...

  9. 78 FR 30233 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Number 0750-AG38 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access... Government support contractors to have access to proprietary technical data belonging to prime contractors and other third parties, provided that the technical data owner may require the support contractor to...

  10. The Use of Government Funding and Taxing Power to Regulate Religious Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Kline; Esbeck, Carl H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the concept of governmental funding of private schools and whether this would be the means whereby unwanted and obstrusive regulations would be applied to those schools. Government funding in Spain, Malta, and France was the mechanism by which those governments extended control over church-related schools. (MD)

  11. AMPK governs lineage specification through Tfeb-dependent regulation of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan P; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Van Nostrand, Jeanine L; Eichner, Lillian J; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Dayn, Yelena; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-03-01

    Faithful execution of developmental programs relies on the acquisition of unique cell identities from pluripotent progenitors, a process governed by combinatorial inputs from numerous signaling cascades that ultimately dictate lineage-specific transcriptional outputs. Despite growing evidence that metabolism is integrated with many molecular networks, how pathways that control energy homeostasis may affect cell fate decisions is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central metabolic regulator, plays critical roles in lineage specification. Although AMPK-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were normal in the pluripotent state, these cells displayed profound defects upon differentiation, failing to generate chimeric embryos and preferentially adopting an ectodermal fate at the expense of the endoderm during embryoid body (EB) formation. AMPK(-/-) EBs exhibited reduced levels of Tfeb, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomes, leading to diminished endolysosomal function. Remarkably, genetic loss of Tfeb also yielded endodermal defects, while AMPK-null ESCs overexpressing this transcription factor normalized their differential potential, revealing an intimate connection between Tfeb/lysosomes and germ layer specification. The compromised endolysosomal system resulting from AMPK or Tfeb inactivation blunted Wnt signaling, while up-regulating this pathway restored expression of endodermal markers. Collectively, these results uncover the AMPK pathway as a novel regulator of cell fate determination during differentiation. © 2016 Young et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Is More Government Regulation Needed to Promote E-commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    Layne-Farrar, Anne; Hahn, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    E-commerce has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years. Nonetheless, senators, privacy watchdog groups, and the Federal Trade Commission have argued that e-commerce is being held back by consumer worries about online privacy and security. Some privacy advocates are calling for additional regulations, specifically new online privacy rules aimed at providing consumers with more information and customer choice. And Congress has tried to answer that call, most recently with a bill i...

  13. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unified Solar PV Tariff The Chinese Government has set a unified national solar photovoltaic (PV) benchmarking on grid tariff in order to improve its PV tariffpolicy to standardize solar PV tariff management and promote sustain able development of solar PV industry.Power grid operators will be required to pay solar energy producers 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kwh of electricity,according to a notice posted on the website of the National Development and Reform Commission.The notice also stated that the prices only apply to solar power project that were approved before July 1.Electricity generated by projects that were approved after July 1 will be priced at 1 yuan ($0.15) per kwh,the notice said.

  14. Regulations on environmental data for the petroleum activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The publication deals with the regulations on environmental data for the petroleum activity, stipulated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate on 1 December 1989 pursuant to Royal Decree of 28 June 1985, cf. Sections 7 and 33, cf. delegation of authority by the Ministry of Local Government and Labour of 28 June 1985. 1 tab

  15. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  16. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  17. 33 CFR 209.200 - Regulations governing navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the United States as public necessity may require for the protection of life and property, or for... to avoiding interagency conflicts, (ii) has obtained clearance from the proper Regional Subcommittee... civil works activities in an atmosphere of public understanding, trust, and mutual cooperation and in a...

  18. Normative Regulation of Anti-Corruption in the System of Local Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya F. Kupcha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors attempt to analyze normative acts aimed at regulating relations in the sphere of counteracting corruption at the level of local self-government. In the conclusion authors summarize that despite criticism, in the Russian Federation, a system of regulatory regulation to counteract corruption (including at the local level is formed. Further improvements of this system should be made in the legal regulation at the local level.

  19. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  20. The role of government in a competitive power market : strategic behaviors and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Restructuring in the Korean power industry has fundamentally changed the role of government. The role of government in a new environment may include : (1) promoting competition (2) prohibiting collusion or unfair trade practices (3) securing uninterrupted power supply (4) providing universal services to consumers (5) implementing appropriate price regulation. Focusing on the first two issues, this report has analyzed anti-competitive strategic behaviors and an impact of market power and tried to provide regulatory guidelines. This report surveyed three types of theoretical models analyzing a bidding behavior in an electric power market. The Cournot model is applied to the Korean electricity market. The following policy implications are derived. (1) The Cournot-Nash equilibrium price can be regarded as a threshold in market surveillance. (2) Had the fossil stations been divided among six instead of five companies, then market power would have been weakened in a reasonable degree. This finding also renders some implications with respect to business permission, divestiture, and merger. Among those, it is argued that a large new entrant rather than small IPPs contributes to increasing competition and lowering market power. (3) Increase in responsiveness of final demand to wholesale price fluctuation is an important factor to lower the Cournot equilibrium price and so market power. Therefore, appropriate regulatory system should be arranged to make power demand more elastic. (4) Activating contract markets such as CfD and introducing the capacity credit market can greatly help to lower market power. (author). 36 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larasati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7 kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7. DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53 checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1 domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3 roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1 have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7 to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1.

  2. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  3. 25 CFR 1000.429 - What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or compacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.429 What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What statutes and regulations govern resolution of...

  4. The Implementation of Government Regulation No 19/2008 about Sub District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasoloan Nadeak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the implementation of the policy of districts in the city of Bogor; to determine and analyze the technical and operational guidelines support the tasks assigned to the sub-district and the districts in the city of Bogor; and to determine and analyze the performance of the policy after the implementation of the district and sub-district in each region. Implementation of Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2008 concerning the sub-district is a must, because of government regulation in question is the implementing regulations that apply nationally and mandated by Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Government. The approach used to look at the problem in question is descriptive qualitative content analysis or document analysis. Based approach is known that the City Government has implemented PP No. 19 of 2008 in the form of Mayor Regulation No. 54 Year 2010 on Main Duties, Functions, Duties Work Procedures and structural positions within the District and No. 10 of 2010 on Delegation of Authority. The implementation of policy shall include: (1 Common Tasks Government, and (2 Some tasks are delegated by the Mayor of the District Head in terms of regional autonomy.

  5. Lagged impacts of reforms of government regulations of business on nations’ gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arch G. Woodside

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article develops theory and examines relationships among reforms in government regulation of business, competitiveness, and national economic development in term of GDP per capita. The findings shed light on the ongoing debate of supporting versus refuting reducing/eliminating government regulations of business. Applying Campbell’s (1968, 1969 seminal contributions in examining the impact of reforms as quasi-experiments and Mill’s (1872/1973 method of differences, the study shows that the reforms in reductions and eliminations of government regulations of business help to increase national economic growth the lagged impact (e.g., 2, 3 years after introduction of reforms should be expected. Also, medium-to-large reductions in the ranking of government regulations of business (increase in competitiveness associate with increases in GDP per capita in comparison to a large increase in the ranking (decrease in competitiveness. The results also provide insights into the different regulatory environments (i.e., high vs. low government corruption and media-freedom vs. highly ethical behavior and lack of media-freedom may condition the impact of the reforms.

  6. Recent hospital charity care controversies highlight ambiguities and outdated features of government regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKelvie, Charles; Apolskis, Michael; Unland, James J

    2005-01-01

    For years the hospital industry has been embroiled in controversies involving pricing, charity care, and collection practices. Unfortunately, Medicare regulations and policies governing hospital charge-setting and collection practices have not helped bring much clarity to the situation, nor has related CMS and OIG guidance. Coordinated effort by hospitals and regulatory bodies can help clarify unclear government regulation of charity care, pricing, and collections and end potentially destructive controversies that sap valuable time, energy, and resources from efforts addressing much graver long-term threats to hospital viability.

  7. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  8. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  9. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The National Science Board (NSB) National Science Foundation...

  10. 78 FR 62362 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ...] Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic Tariff... under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 or the Natural Gas Act.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective November 12, 2013, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing...

  11. 76 FR 17762 - Regulations Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... receipt of a bachelor's or higher degree in either actuarial mathematics or another area which include at..., actuarial mathematics, and other areas determined by the Joint Board. These regulations provide that an... Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...

  12. The meta-governance of organic seed regulation in the USA, European Union and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, Erica; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith; Jiggins, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Seed governance in agriculture is a challenging global issue. This paper analyses the evolution of organic seed regulation in the USA, the European Union and Mexico as model cases of how these challenges are being addressed, based on a study conducted between 2007 and 2014. It highlights how

  13. The Role of Self-Regulation in Corporate Governance : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Mertens, G.M.H.; Wasley, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gather evidence on the success of market forces in promoting investor interests through self-regulation.Corporate governance is a complex mechanism design problem that is both economic and legal/political based.As such there is great interest in whether (and when)

  14. National report card on energy efficiency : 2. annual report card on government activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This second annual report card produced by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a means by which to monitor the efforts of Canada's federal, provincial and territorial governments in energy efficiency activities. The Alliance works in partnership with manufacturers, utilities, governments, builders, labour, consumer groups and environmental organizations. Energy efficiency is one of the primary tools governments can use to meet the Kyoto climate change commitment. The issue of climate change was examined in greater depth in this second annual report card. Ten specific measures that each government should take in order to be efficiency leaders were identified. These included minimum standards and regulations for buildings and appliances, supporting energy efficiency in the marketplace, and leadership programs to improve energy efficiency and achieve emission reduction targets. Efficiency in transportation was not included in this report card. A brief summary of what the federal government, as well as each provincial and territorial government are doing to promote energy efficiency was included. Each jurisdiction was given a grade. The Yukon received the highest mark of A minus. Saskatchewan received the lowest, and only failed mark. It was emphasized that public and private utilities also play a key role in supporting energy efficiency in Canada. 2 tabs

  15. 17 CFR 1.59 - Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing board members, committee members...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities of self-regulatory... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.59 Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing...) Self-regulatory organization means “self-regulatory organization,” as defined in Commission regulation...

  16. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  17. Do regulators pay attention? An assessment of IT governance implementation in systemically important banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sepahvand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of Information Technology systems in systematically important banks raise the need for creating an IT governance architecture that could make IT strategy aligned with business strategy and delivers value while it effectively identifies and manages IT risk. This study traces the links between IT governance and two more applied risk management frameworks, COSO and BCBS’s principles for managing IT risk. Then it argues due to the magnitude of potential losses caused by any weakness in IT governance in D-SIBs, the assessment of IT governance in these banks should be one of the main concerns of local regulators and supervisors. As a case study, it assesses the relative rank of D-SIBs in Iranian banking system to see where these banks would stand in an ordered list of the banks including both private and public banks in terms of IT governance implementation. The application of the Fuzzy AHP technique shows that IT governance practice in Iranian D-SIBs is not as good as the private banks while it outperforms some state-owned banks.

  18. Self-regulation as a type of managerial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Algazina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.9The subject. In the context of the ongoing administrative reform in the Russian Federation the issue of self-regulation is becoming increasingly important.Introduction of Institute of self-regulation is intended to reduce the degree of state intervention in private spheres of professional activity, to eliminate excessive administrative barriers, reduce government expenditures on regulation and control in their respective areas of operation, which is especially important in the current economic conditions.However, in Russian legal science is no recognized definition of "self-regulation", but a unity of views on the question of the relationship between self-regulation and state regulation of business relations.In this regard, the author attempts to examine the concept of "self-regulation" through the prism of knowledge about public administration.The purpose of the article is to identify the essential features and to articulate the concept of self-regulation by comparing it with other varieties of regulation.Methodology. The methodological basis for the study: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison, description; private and academic (interpretation, formal-legal.Results, scope. Based on the analysis allocated in the science of administrative law approaches to the system of public administration justifies the conclusion that the notion "regulation" is specific in relation to the generic concept of "management" and is a kind of management, consisting in the drafting of rules of conduct and sanctions for non-compliance or inadequate performance.In addition, the article highlights the problem of the genesis of self-regulation, building a system of principles of self-regulation, comparison of varieties of self-regulatory organizations among themselves.Conclusions. The comparison of self-regulation other types of regulation (such as state regulation and co-regulation highlighted the essential features of this phenomenon

  19. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...

  20. [Radiation protection. Implications for clinical practice on the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-08-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effect of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  1. Trust in government and support for governmental regulation: the case of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herian, Mitchel N; Shank, Nancy C; Abdel-Monem, Tarik L

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results from a public engagement effort in Nebraska, USA, which measured public opinions about governmental involvement in encouraging the use of electronic health records (EHRs). We examine the role of trust in government in contributing to public support for government involvement in the development of EHR technologies. We hypothesize that trust in government will lead to support for federal and state governmental encouragement of the use of EHRs among doctors and insurance companies. Further, because individual experiences with health-care professionals will reduce perceptions of risk, we expect that support for governmental involvement will be tempered by greater personal experience with the health-care industry. Examining a small survey of individuals on the issue, we find general support for both of our hypotheses. The findings suggest that trust in government does have a positive relationship with support for government involvement in the policy domain, but that the frequency of personal experiences with health-care providers reduces the extent to which the public supports governmental involvement in the development of EHR technology. This inquiry contributes to our understanding of public attitudes towards government involvement in EHRs in the United States specifically and contributes to social science examining links between trust in government and support for governmental activity in the emerging policy domain regarding electronic health records systems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stakeholder involvement in international conventions governing civil nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerechts, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Mr Emmerechts explained that international conventions have varying positions on stakeholders and their involvement depending upon the intent of the legislator and the field they cover, ranging from a narrow to a broad interpretation. He addressed stakeholder involvement in two other international conventions governing civil nuclear activities, namely the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), both concluded under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). He noted that the Convention on Nuclear Safety remains a 'traditional' international legal instrument, focusing on governments and governmental bodies as the main stakeholders and limiting obligations regarding the involvement of the public and intergovernmental organisations to their receiving information and observing. Likewise, the Joint Convention limits obligations regarding public involvement to access to information, notably as to the siting of proposed facilities. However, he noted that in the European Union, the Directive on Nuclear Safety (2014/87/Euratom) and the Directive for the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (2011/70/Euratom) have more advanced public participation requirements in nuclear decision making. Mr Emmerechts explained that the substantial differences between nuclear legislation and the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions with regards to public involvement requirements could partly be explained by the technicality of nuclear information and by issues related to nuclear security

  3. CONDITIONS GOVERNING THE EXERCISE OF COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES BY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Narcisa Stoicu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Constitution establishes that market economy in Romania is based on private property and is developed under the law of supply and demand. As such, the State has the obligation to ensure freedom of trade, protection of fair competition and to create an appropriate framework for the use of all factors of production. The Constitution also provides that the choice of profession should be free, and that the exercise of this freedom may be limited "only by law", with regard to the right to work. The operative principle in relation to commercial activities is the freedom of trade, according to which anyone is free to exercise a commercial profession, provided they respect the limitations and the special conditions prescribed by law. As regards the conditions governing the exercise of commercial activities, the law establishes certain conditions on the capacity of individuals to conduct economic activities, also establishing certain incapacities, as well as incompatibilities, forfeitures and bans on making trade. The law sets specific conditions regarding the capacity of individuals to conduct commercial professional activities, but it also establishes some incapacities to provide shelter from adverse consequences to some persons.

  4. Government regulation of gambling advertising: Replacing vice prevention with consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, M; Robbins, H

    1991-12-01

    From 1895 to 1975, federal law forbade gambling advertising by use of the mail, interstate commerce, and the broadcast media. Congress exempted state lotteries in 1975 and charitable gambling (including casino games) in 1988. However, the Supreme Court requires a significant government interest, directly applied and narrowly tailored, in order to justify a commercial speech regulation. The exemptions for private charity casino games has arguably destroyed any constitutionally defensible government interest in restricting for-profit casinos. Casinos in new gambling jurisdictions (such as Iowa or Illinois) will probably push the hardest for an exemption for all legal gambling, as they have the most to gain from the freedom to advertise. Federal regulation of gambling advertising will fall to the Federal Trade Commission under prohibitions against "unfair or deceptive" trade practices. But as State regulations are not well developed even in states that permit casino gambling, there is a pressing need for new research to review state laws regulating gambling advertising and to propose a model statute.

  5. Regulation of p21ras activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowy, D R; Zhang, K; DeClue, J E

    1992-01-01

    The ras genes encode GTP/GDP-binding proteins that participate in mediating mitogenic signals from membrane tyrosine kinases to downstream targets. The activity of p21ras is determined by the concentration of GTP-p21ras, which is tightly regulated by a complex array of positive and negative control...... mechanisms. GAP and NF1 can negatively regulate p21ras activity by stimulating hydrolysis of GTP bound to p21ras. Other cellular factors can positively regulate p21ras by stimulating GDP/GTP exchange....

  6. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  7. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  8. Algorhythmic governance: Regulating the ‘heartbeat’ of a city using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Coletta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, research examining the socio-spatial effects of smart city technologies have charted how they are reconfiguring the production of space, spatiality and mobility, and how urban space is governed, but have paid little attention to how the temporality of cities is being reshaped by systems and infrastructure that capture, process and act on real-time data. In this article, we map out the ways in which city-scale Internet of Things infrastructures, and their associated networks of sensors, meters, transponders, actuators and algorithms, are used to measure, monitor and regulate the polymorphic temporal rhythms of urban life. Drawing on Lefebvre, and subsequent research, we employ rhythmanalysis in conjunction with Miyazaki’s notion of ‘algorhythm’ and nascent work on algorithmic governance, to develop a concept of ‘algorhythmic governance’. We then use this framing to make sense of two empirical case studies: a traffic management system and sound monitoring and modelling. Our analysis reveals: (1 how smart city technologies computationally perform rhythmanalysis and undertake rhythm-making that intervenes in space-time processes; (2 distinct forms of algorhythmic governance, varying on the basis of adaptiveness, immediacy of action, and whether humans are in-, on-, or, off-the-loop; (3 and a number of factors that shape how algorhythmic governance works in practice.

  9. Evaluation of the audit committees of government ministries in Namibia: Their compositions, functions and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Winnie Kandandu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the underlying study to this paper is to evaluate the audit committees in the government ministries in Namibia; by assessing their composition, the function and regulations that govern committees. The study used a qualitative approach of inquiry. A purposive sampling method was used as the researcher selected ministries with audit committees. Thematic and content analysis was used in this study. Both primary and secondary and data were used. On primary data, interviews were conducted and recorded with a voice recorder. Secondary data was during the review of existing literature on the subject. The study found that from the 4 government ministries with audit committees, only one ministry consisted of independent members as well as an independent chairperson, while 3 ministries are chaired by members within their organisations. There was clear evidence of lack of accounting / financial /auditing competence among the committee members. This trend is contrary to the best practice which requires that the chairperson of the audit committees be independent of the ministry as well as the members of the audit committee. The finding indicates possibility of lack of capacity to carry out the functions of audit committees; weak internal control systems; chances of conflict of interest and complacency due to the lack of independence. There is avenue for further research as more ministries in Namibia are now establishing their audit committees, especially as the Namibian Code of Corporate Governance (the NamCode gains more popularity among the public sector.

  10. Governance of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: principles, regulation, and renegotiating the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, George A

    2009-01-01

    Good governance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials is predicated on principles of general good governance. This paper discusses on what lessons we can learn from the oversight of past emerging technologies in formulating these principles. Nanotechnology provides us a valuable opportunity to apply these lessons and a duty to avoid repeating past mistakes. To do that will require mandatory regulation, grounded in precaution, that takes into account the uniqueness of nanomaterials. Moreover, this policy dialogue is not taking place in a vacuum. In applying the lessons of the past, nanotechnology provides a window to renegotiate our public's social contract on chemicals, health, the environment, and risks. Emerging technologies illuminate structural weaknesses, providing a crucial chance to ameliorate lingering regulatory inadequacies and provide much needed updates of existing laws.

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  12. Ras activation by SOS: Allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M.; Abel, Steven M.; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S.; Hansen, Scott D.; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. PMID:24994643

  13. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity and Children's Behavioral Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Pendry, Patricia; Mize, Jacquelyn; Gwynn, Eugenia Parrett

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of children's academic success. Physiological reactivity may relate to brain activity governing attention and behavioral regulation. Saliva samples collected from 186 preschool children (101 boys, mean age = 53 months, 34% minority) before and after a series of mildly challenging games and again 30…

  14. The Government Incentive Regulation Model and Pricing Mechanism in Power Transmission and Distribution Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power transmission and distribution (T&D market’s natural monopoly and individual information have been the impediment to improving the energy efficiency in the whole T&D market. In order to improve the whole social welfare, T&D market should be controlled by government. An incentive regulation model with the target of maximizing social welfare has been studied. A list of contracts with transferring payment and quantity of T&D are given to motivate the corporation to reveal the true technical parameter and input the optimal investment. The corporate revenue, optimal investment, and effort are proved to depend on its own technical parameter. The part of incentive regulation model ends with the optimal pricing mechanism of T&D market. At the end of this paper, we give a numerical example to explain our research and confirm its function graphically.

  15. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies.

  16. 75 FR 54527 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...-AG50 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels.... Section 825 clarifies the Government's rights in technical data in the designs of a DoD vessel, boat... cite DFARS Case 2008-D039. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background This final rule implements section...

  17. Risk regulation, GMOs, and the challenges to deliberation in EU governance: politicisation and scientification as co-producing trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Joerges, C.; Glinski, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to

  18. Risk regulation, GMOs, and the challenges to deliberation in EU governance - politicization and scientification as co-producing trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to

  19. [Changes in the regulation and government of the health system. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo, José R

    2014-06-01

    The economic and fiscal crisis of 2008 has erupted into the debate on the sustainability of health systems; some countries, such as Spain, have implemented strong policies of fiscal consolidation and austerity. The institutional framework and governance model of the national health system (NHS) after its devolution to regions in 2002 had significant weaknesses, which were not apparent in the rapid growth stage but which have been clearly visible since 2010. In this article, we describe the changes in government regulation from the national and NHS perspective: both general changes (clearly prompted by the economic authorities), and those more specifically addressed to healthcare. The Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 represents the centerpiece of austerity policies in healthcare but also implies a rupture with existing political consensus and a return to social security models. Our characterization of austerity in healthcare explores impacts on savings, services, and on the healthcare model itself, although the available information only allows some indications. The conclusions highlight the need to change the path of linear, rapid and radical budget cuts, providing a time-frame for implementing key reforms in terms of internal sustainability; to do so, it is appropriate to restore political and institutional consensus, to emphasize "clinical management" and divestment of inappropriate services (approach to the medical profession and its role as micro-manager), and to create frameworks of good governance and organizational innovations that support these structural reforms. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent development in safety regulation of nuclear fuel cycle activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.

    2001-01-01

    Through the effort of deliberation and legislation over five years, Japanese government structure was reformed this January, with the aim of realizing simple, efficient and transparent administration. Under the reform, the Agency for Nuclear and Industrial Safety (ANIS) was founded in the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) to be responsible for safety regulation of energy-related nuclear activities, including nuclear fuel cycle activities, and industrial activities, including explosives, high-pressure gasses and mining. As one of the lessons learned from the JCO criticality accident of September 1999, it was pointed out that the government's inspection function was not enough for fuel fabrication facilities. Accordingly, new statutory regulatory activities were introduced, namely, inspection of observance of safety rules and procedures for all kinds of nuclear operators and periodic inspection of fuel fabrication facilities. In addition, in order to cope with insufficient safety education and training of workers in nuclear facilities, licensees of nuclear facilities are required by law to specify safety education and training for their workers. ANIS is committed to enforce these new regulatory activities effectively and efficiently. In addition, it is going to be prepared, in its capacity as safety regulatory authority, for future development of Japanese fuel cycle activities, including commissioning of JNFL Rokkasho reprocessing plant and possible application for licenses for JNFL MOX fabrication plant and for spent fuel interim storage facilities. (author)

  1. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active conformation by the direct binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–loaded Rho. In recent years, a number of ROCK isoform-specific binding partners have been found to modulate the kinase activity through direct interactions with the catalytic domain or via altered cellular localization of the kinases. Thus, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23204112

  2. Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrens, Carl E

    2006-01-01

    Launching satellites into orbit, once the exclusive domain of the U.S. and Soviet governments, today is an industry in which companies in the United States, Europe, China, Russia, Ukraine, Japan, and India compete...

  3. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of 3 H 2 O formed during the conversion of [1 beta- 3 H]androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats

  4. Gene regulation is governed by a core network in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zuguang; Zhang, Chenyu; Wang, Jin

    2012-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, and the mechanisms that lead to the disease are still relatively unclear. However, with the development of high-throughput technologies it is possible to gain a systematic view of biological systems to enhance the understanding of the roles of genes associated with HCC. Thus, analysis of the mechanism of molecule interactions in the context of gene regulatory networks can reveal specific sub-networks that lead to the development of HCC. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important gene regulations that are dysfunctional in HCC generation. Our method for constructing gene regulatory network is based on predicted target interactions, experimentally-supported interactions, and co-expression model. Regulators in the network included both transcription factors and microRNAs to provide a complete view of gene regulation. Analysis of gene regulatory network revealed that gene regulation in HCC is highly modular, in which different sets of regulators take charge of specific biological processes. We found that microRNAs mainly control biological functions related to mitochondria and oxidative reduction, while transcription factors control immune responses, extracellular activity and the cell cycle. On the higher level of gene regulation, there exists a core network that organizes regulations between different modules and maintains the robustness of the whole network. There is direct experimental evidence for most of the regulators in the core gene regulatory network relating to HCC. We infer it is the central controller of gene regulation. Finally, we explored the influence of the core gene regulatory network on biological pathways. Our analysis provides insights into the mechanism of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control in HCC. In particular, we highlight the importance of the core gene regulatory network; we propose that it is highly related to HCC and we believe further

  5. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  6. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aantjes, J.C.

    2007-05-01

    To explain the unforeseen ascendancy of biofuels in the transport sector, a thorough understanding of the biofuel industry (i.e. the value chain) is crucial. Next to the industry structure, it seems that the regulatory framework surrounding the chain also contributes to the formation and structure of the biofuel industry in Europe. This assumption rests on the 2003 European Union (EU) biofuel directives for the promotion of biofuels in EU member states. With tax exemptions and reference values, the European Commission (EC) achieves to raise the amount of biofuels in transportation. The hypothesis in this thesis is that the European biofuel industry reflects a correlation between external regulation and value chain structure. More specifically, it is expected to be a mutual relation. The proposition is that value chain actors not only anticipate to the regulatory environment, they are also likely to influence decision-making on regulations in their advantage. Simply stated, value chain actors are concerned with the regulatory framework in order to enhance their position in the chain. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, this is an interesting proposition since the interaction between regulations and value chain governance receive little attention in theory. For the food industry, this approach contributes to understand the development in biofuel regulations and the European biofuel industry. Chapter Two reports the theoretical foundation of this study. The research framework rests on two rather independent streams of literature. The first part discusses 'value chain theory' and enables to examine how the biofuel value chains in Europe looks like. Among the analytical instruments of this research tradition, the role of powerful actors in controlling the value chain is elaborated in depth. The second stream is rooted in political theory and is characterized as 'political decision-making theory'. Its focus is on the formulation of governmental regulation. A

  7. From Hippocrates to Commodities: three models of NHS governance: NHS governance, regulation, Mid Staffordshire inquiry, health care as a commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A series of inquiries and reports suggest considerable failings in the care provided to some patients in the NHS. Although the Bristol Inquiry report of 2001 led to the creation of many new regulatory bodies to supervise the NHS, they have never enjoyed consistent support from government and the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry in 2013 suggests they made little difference. Why do some parts of the NHS disregard patients' interests and how we should we respond to the challenge? The following discusses the evolution of approaches to NHS governance through the Hippocratic, Managerial and Commercial models, and assesses their risks and benefits. Apart from the ethical imperative, the need for effective governance is driven both by the growth in information available to the public and the resources wasted by ineffective systems of care. Appropriate solutions depend on an understanding of the perverse incentives inherent in each model and the need for greater sensitivity to the voices of patients and the public. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. permissions@oup.com.

  8. Governance and regulation of the tourism industry: An internet marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebambo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to establish governance and regulation issues pertaining to Internet marketing approaches within the South African tourism sector. The study focuses on the norms and practices of Internet marketing among small-scale lodging establishments in Bushbuckridge – a small tourist town in northeast South Africa. In-depth interviews were collected from eight participating bed and breakfast (B&B owners. Findings revealed that, while Internet awareness was quite high, only a few B&Bs utilised the Internet for marketing. Participants cited lack of clear industry guidelines on Internet marketing approaches as well as limited Internet experience, among others, as barriers to adoption. Implications and recommendations of the study are presented within the ambit of the existing literature

  9. EFFECTS OF THE NEW REGULATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF THE AUDIT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Timea FÜLÖP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility, firm performance and their part in fraud and error detection. The audit firms play an important role in the capital markets by verifying that auditors provide reliable information to the decision makers. The characteristic elements of the new economy require economic entities new performance standards that go beyond economics. These works’ aim is to explore the implication of the new regulation and corporate governance on the audit profession and audit quality. This study contributes to the literature as it provides a better understanding on how the auditor and audit firms react toward the additional requirements.

  10. National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research? On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves? On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP? Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP

  11. Mast cell activators as novel immune regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Weaver, Brandi; Choi, Hae Woong; Abraham, Soman N; Staats, Herman F

    2018-05-26

    Mast cells are an important cell type of the innate immune system that when activated, play a crucial role in generating protective innate host responses after bacterial and viral infection. Additionally, activated mast cells influence lymph node composition to regulate the induction of adaptive immune responses. The recognition that mast cells play a beneficial role in host responses to microbial infection and induction of adaptive immunity has provided the rationale to evaluate mast cell activators for use as antimicrobials or vaccine adjuvants. This review summarizes the role of mast cell activators in antimicrobial responses while also discussing the use of different classes of mast cell activators as potent vaccine adjuvants that enhance the induction of protective immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Src regulates the activity of SIRT2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, You Hee; Kim, Hangun; Lee, Sung Ho; Jin, Yun-Hye; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Src decreases the protein levels of Sirt2. • Src inhibitor and knockdown of Src increase the protein levels of Sirt2. • Src interacts with and phosphorylates Sirt2. • Src regulate the activity of Sirt2. - Abstract: SIRT2 is a mammalian member of the Sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent protein deacetylases. The tyrosine kinase Src is involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, leading to the induction of DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. The function of SIRT2 is modulated by post-translational modifications; however, the precise molecular signaling mechanism of SIRT2 through interactions with c-Src has not yet been established. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of SIRT2 function by c-Src. We found that the protein levels of SIRT2 were decreased by c-Src, and subsequently rescued by the addition of a Src specific inhibitor, SU6656, or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src. The c-Src interacts with and phosphorylates SIRT2 at Tyr104. c-Src also showed the ability to regulate the deacetylation activity of SIRT2. Investigation on the phosphorylation of SIRT2 suggested that this was the method of c-Src-mediated SIRT2 regulation

  13. Markets, prices and regulation in energetic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The author first outlines some fundamental characteristics of the different energy world markets (oil, natural gas, coal, electricity). He outlines their availability, locations, and different main geographical areas. Then, he discusses the relationships between costs and prices in which intervene external costs, taxes, feed-in tariffs, national regulations, incentives for consumers. He discusses the issue of regulation of some energy activities, i.e. how State may or may not intervene on the markets, how competition may influence the market, how activities can thus be divided (production, transport, distribution) with implications and consequences for prices. He finally outlines concerns about the future financing of investments required to face tomorrow's needs

  14. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  15. 77 FR 30998 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., Government Property, DFARS section 211.274, Reporting of Government-Furnished Equipment in the DoD Item... surplus Government property. Under paragraph (b), a contractor may be directed by the plant clearance... plant clearance officer to purchase or retain Government property at less than cost if the plant...

  16. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  17. Oil on the water: Government regulation of a carcinogen in the twentieth-century Lancashire cotton spinning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, mule spinners were prone to a chronic and sometimes fatal skin cancer (often affecting the groin). The disease had reached epidemic proportions by the 1920s, which necessitated action by the government, employers, and trade unions. In contrast to previous accounts, this article focuses on the government's reaction to mule spinners' cancer. Using official records in the National Archives, the slow introduction of health and safety measures by the government is explored in detail. Although obstructionism by the employers played a key role, one of the reasons for government inaction was the ambiguity of scientific research on engineering oils. On the other hand, prolonged scientific research suited a government policy that was framed around self regulation - a policy that had proved largely ineffective by the 1950s.

  18. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  19. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  20. Comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective within the German and united states legal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remmer Sassen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the main corporate governance components or management tasks. This paper details a comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective of listed stock corporations in Germany and the United States (U.S.. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between the national legal norms and the regulatory levels of risk management in both countries. The comparison helps to understand different traditions and practices in terms of how significant corporate governance rules are for risk management. Therefore, this article intends to inspire future research on the regulation of risk management across different regions and explore the relevance of national interests in the regulation of risk management. A principal finding of the comparison is that the U.S. corporate governance system seems to be more strongly regulated than the German system. This results from the powerful and coordinating role of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Thus, the seemingly more liberal system of non-binding standards in the U.S. has a higher impact on the regulation of risk management than in Germany.

  1. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  2. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets, Natural gas

  3. Regulation of pokemon 1 activity by sumoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee-Eun; Lee, Min-Nyung; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Yu, Mi-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2007-01-01

    Pokemon 1 is a proto-oncogenic transcriptional regulator that contains a POZ domain at the N-terminus and four Kruppel-like zinc fingers at the C-terminus. Pokemon 1 plays an important role in adipogenesis, osteogenesis, oncogenesis, and transcription of NF-kB responsive genes. Recent reports have shown that biological activities of transcription factors are regulated by sumolylation. We investigated whether Pokemon 1 is post-translationally modified by sumoylation and whether the modification affects Pokemon 1's transcriptional properties. We found that Pokemon 1 is sumoylated in vitro and in vivo. Upon careful analysis of the amino acid sequence of Pokemon 1, we found ten potential sumoylation sites located at lysines 61, 354, 371, 379, 383, 396, 486, 487, 536 and 539. We mutated each of these amino acids into arginine and tested whether the mutation could affect the transcriptional properties of Pokemon 1 on the Pokemon 1 responsive genes, such as ADH5/FDH and pG5-FRE-Luc. Wild-type Pokemon 1 potently represses transcription of ADH5/FDH. Most of the mutants, however, were weaker transcription repressors and repressed transcription 1.3-3.3 fold less effective. Although potential sumoylation sites were located close to the DNA binding domain or the nuclear localization sequence, the mutations did not alter nuclear localization or DNA binding activity. In addition, on the pG5-FRE-Luc test promoter construct, ectopic SUMO-1 repressed transcription in the presence of Pokemon 1. The sumoylation target lysine residue at amino acid 61, which is located in the middle of the POZ-domain, is important because K61R mutation resulted in a much weaker molecular interaction with corepressors. Our data suggest that Pokemon 1's activity as a transcription factor may involve sumoylation, and that sumoylation might be important in the regulation of transcription by Pokemon 1.

  4. NEA activities in safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadie, K.B.

    1983-01-01

    The NEA programme on Safety and Regulations is briefly reviewed. It encompasses four main areas - nuclear safety technology; nuclear licensing; radiation protection; and waste management - with three principal objectives: to promote exchanges of technical information in order to enlarge the data base for national decision making; to improve co-ordination of national R and D activities with emphasis on international standard problem exercises, and to promote international projects; to develop common technical, administrative and legal approaches to improve compatibility of safety and regulatory practices

  5. Activism of Institutional Investors, Corporate Governance Alerts and Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Sebastien Lantz; Sophie Montandrau; Jean-Michel Sahut

    2014-01-01

    Institutional investors are predominant on the financial markets and are becoming more active in their portfolio management. This article attempts to enhance our understanding of the incidence of shareholder activism on market reaction in the wake of seve

  6. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property. Government property includes both Government... to the Plant Clearance Officer. (l) FAR 52.245-9(d) requires a contractor to identify the property...; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  7. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  8. Preliminary study for understanding the moderating role of government regulations in telecom sector of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Beenish; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik

    2017-10-01

    Telecommunication sector of Pakistan is a significant contributor toward the economic development of Pakistan. However, telecommunication sector of Pakistan underwent a lot of changes from regulatory and marketing perspective in 2015, resulting in decreased cellular penetration, dropped down the cellular subscribers and decreased telecommunication revenue. Hence, this research paper is designed to validate the constructs used in addressing the moderating role of government regulations based on Oliver's four-stage loyalty model in telecom sector of Pakistan. This preliminary study has mainly employed the quantitative method (i.e. survey questionnaire), consisting of a total of 72 items related to eight constructs under study and used 7 points Likert scale. The main analysis method used is the reliability test of the constructs. The results reveal that the Cronbach alpha readings were between 0.756 and 0.932, indicating internally consistent and reliable measures of the constructs used. This result enables the constructs to be included in the actual data collection without change.

  9. ADAMTS9-Regulated Pericellular Matrix Dynamics Governs Focal Adhesion-Dependent Smooth Muscle Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Mead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Focal adhesions anchor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM and direct assembly of a pre-stressed actin cytoskeleton. They act as a cellular sensor and regulator, linking ECM to the nucleus. Here, we identify proteolytic turnover of the anti-adhesive proteoglycan versican as a requirement for maintenance of smooth muscle cell (SMC focal adhesions. Using conditional deletion in mice, we show that ADAMTS9, a secreted metalloprotease, is required for myometrial activation during late gestation and for parturition. Through knockdown of ADAMTS9 in uterine SMC, and manipulation of pericellular versican via knockdown or proteolysis, we demonstrate that regulated pericellular matrix dynamics is essential for focal adhesion maintenance. By influencing focal adhesion formation, pericellular versican acts upstream of cytoskeletal assembly and SMC differentiation. Thus, pericellular versican proteolysis by ADAMTS9 balances pro- and anti-adhesive forces to maintain an SMC phenotype, providing a concrete example of the dynamic reciprocity of cells and their ECM. : Mead et al. identify a proteolytic mechanism that actively maintains a pericellular microenvironment conducive to uterine smooth muscle activation prior to parturition. They show that pericellular matrix proteolysis by the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is crucial for maintenance of focal adhesions in uterine smooth muscle cells, and its absence impairs parturition. Keywords: metalloprotease, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, proteoglycan, myometrium, parturition, uterus, focal adhesion, proteolysis, interference reflection microscopy

  10. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific research include: analysis and generalization for studying the main kinds and characteristics of the government support of the small and medium-sized enterprises; dynamic and comparative analysis for studying the problems and factors influencing the development of small and medium enterprises and innovative activity, peculiarities of tax incentives for business development; systemanalytical method for studying the conditions of the innovative development of the small and medium-sized entrepreneurship. Results. The government's financial support priorities should be: optimal application of the fiscal regulation instruments (reduction of the amount of taxes, determination of the criteria for the maximum taxation amount, tax incentives etc., maintenance of the self-investment of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as investment, financial means of the public influence over the development of the enterprises, effective combination of both direct and indirect forms of the innovative development support. Practical implications. The obtained results can be used in the process of formation and implementation of the small and medium enterprise sector development strategy and innovative activity in the long-term perspective. Value/originality. The obtained data can provide a better understanding of the direction of innovative business development in Ukraine.

  11. Regulation of dopamine transporter activity by carboxypeptidase E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopamine transporter (DAT plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT can directly interact with other cellular proteins and regulate DAT function and trafficking. Results Here, we have identified that carboxypeptidase E (CPE, a prohormone processing exopeptidase and sorting receptor for the regulated secretory pathway, interacts with the DAT-CT and affects DAT function. Mammalian cell lines coexpressing CPE and DAT exhibited increased DAT-mediated dopamine uptake activity compared to cells expressing DAT alone. Moreover, coexpression of an interfering DAT-CT minigene inhibited the effects of CPE on DAT. Functional changes caused by CPE could be attributed to enhanced DAT expression and subsequent increase in DAT cell surface localization, due to decreased DAT degradation. In addition, CPE association could reduce the phosphorylation state of DAT on serine residues, potentially leading to reduced internalization, thus stabilizing plasmalemmal DAT localization. Conclusion Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for CPE in the regulation of DAT trafficking and DAT-mediated DA uptake, which may provide a novel target in the treatment of dopamine-governed diseases such as drug addiction and obesity.

  12. Linear Modeling and Regulation Quality Analysis for Hydro-Turbine Governing System with an Open Tailrace Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the state–space method (SSM, a novel linear mathematical model of the unsteady flow for the tailrace system with an open channel is proposed. This novel model is an elastic linearized model of water hammer. The validity of the model has been verified by several examples of numerical simulation, which are based on a finite difference technique. Then, the complete mathematical model for the hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with an open tailrace channel, which is used for simulating the transient process of the hydro-turbine governing system under load disturbance, is established by combining the models of hydro-turbine, generator, governor and open tailrace channel. Finally, according to the complete model, the regulation quality for hydro-turbine governing system with an open tailrace channel under load disturbance is studied, and the effects of open tailrace channel and tailrace surge tank on regulation quality are analyzed. The results indicate that: The open tailrace channel has a strong influence on the regulation quality by observing the water level fluctuations in tailrace surge tank. The surge shows a piecewise periodical change along with the variation in the length of an open channel. The open tailrace channel can be used to improve the regulation quality of hydro-turbine governing system.

  13. Health and social care regulation in Wales: an integrated system of political, corporate and professional governance for improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane

    2008-11-01

    Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.

  14. Basic principles for regulating nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The AECB has developed as its mission statement: `To ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment`. This report proposes eleven qualitative principles for regulating nuclear activities whose achievement would satisfy the broad policy enunciated in the statement. They would further provide a basis for the specific regulatory requirements expressed by the AECB in its Regulations and other documents. They would thus represent a connecting link between the policy enunciated in the mission statement and the requirements. The proposed principles are largely concerned with how the allowable risk should be set for members of the public, for industry workers, for society as a whole, and for the environment. In making these recommendations the risks from normal operation of the licensed facility and those from a possible serious accident are considered separately. The distribution of risk between geographic communities and between generations is also addressed in the proposed principles. These are listed in the final section of the report. 23 refs.

  15. Basic principles for regulating nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The AECB has developed as its mission statement: 'To ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment'. This report proposes eleven qualitative principles for regulating nuclear activities whose achievement would satisfy the broad policy enunciated in the statement. They would further provide a basis for the specific regulatory requirements expressed by the AECB in its Regulations and other documents. They would thus represent a connecting link between the policy enunciated in the mission statement and the requirements. The proposed principles are largely concerned with how the allowable risk should be set for members of the public, for industry workers, for society as a whole, and for the environment. In making these recommendations the risks from normal operation of the licensed facility and those from a possible serious accident are considered separately. The distribution of risk between geographic communities and between generations is also addressed in the proposed principles. These are listed in the final section of the report. 23 refs

  16. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    González, Laura; Echevarría, Andrés; Morales, Dahiana; Ruggia, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have ...

  17. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  18. THE APPLICABILITY OF THE PRINCIPLES THAT GOVERN THE BUDGETARY ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bobes Florina

    2013-01-01

    When applying the financial and budgetary rules, or in other words, when applying the budgetary process (the preparation, approval, execution and completion procedure of the public budget) certain principles that consistently and accurately conduct activities that this procedure involves need to be considered. These principles are the following: the universality principle, the unity principle, annuality of the public budget, the monetary unit, publicity and budgetary specialization. Through t...

  19. 75 FR 75444 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.245-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b... Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property. As prescribed in 245.107(a), use the following...

  20. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  1. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  2. 76 FR 11363 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... the recipient to decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the software, or use software decompiled... engineer the software, or use software decompiled, disassembled, or reverse engineered by the Government... Government shall not permit the recipient to decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the software, or use...

  3. 76 FR 6006 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... rarely occurs. Similarly, a respondent stated the need to address the materiality of the loss and that... pertaining to Government property losses. It does not require reporting of the estimated harm or materiality... assigned by the Government and identified in the contract; and adds the method for determining the...

  4. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  5. Encouraging Maternal Sacrifice: How Regulations Governing the Consumption of Pharmaceuticals During Pregnancy Prioritize Fetal Safety over Maternal Health and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Greer

    Pregnant women are routinely faced with the stressful decision of whether to consume needed medications during their pregnancies. Because the risks associated with pharmaceutical drug consumption during pregnancy are largely unknown, pregnant women both inadvertently consume dangerous medications and avoid needed drugs. Both outcomes are harmful to pregnant women and their fetuses. This unparalleled lack of drug safety information is a result of ill-conceived, paternalistic regulations in two areas of the law: regulations governing ethical research in human subjects and regulations that dictate the required labels on drugs. The former categorizes pregnant women as "vulnerable" and thus precludes them from most medical research. The result is that ninety-one percent of drugs lack any reliable safety information for pregnant consumers. The latter currently requires all drug labels to encourage drug avoidance during pregnancy, despite ample evidence that avoiding needed medications can harm pregnant women. On June 30, 2015, new pregnancy labeling regulations took effect. Though these regulations make important improvements, they continue to treat pregnant women unlike any population, including other unique subpopulations, such as children. As a result, the new regulations do not fix the problem of over-warning pregnant women about the risks of drug consumption. This article questions the legitimacy of both regulations and suggests three reforms for how to improve access to vital safety information: (1) amend the regulations governing ethical research in human subjects to reclassify pregnant women as non-vulnerable adults; (2) create incentives to generate safety data in pregnant women by granting a period of market exclusivity for drug companies that invest in this research; and (3) make the FDA pregnancy labeling regulations consistent with the routine FDA practice of requiring the display of balanced, human data on risk.

  6. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The Influence of Institutional Shareholder Activism as a Corporate Governance Monitoring Mechanism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Maizatul A. Musa

    2012-01-01

    Not many studies have been undertaken on shareholder activism in emerging economies, including Malaysia. Shareholder activism in emerging economies is on the rise. This paper seeks to comprehend the elements of this activism that are unique to Malaysia, specifically with respect to how the agency problem is controlled through shareholder activism in improving corporate governance practices within target companies. Through shareholder activism, shareholders make contact with a target company t...

  8. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Doyle Brackley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR, those that target the delta class (DOR also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP. protein kinase C (PKC-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state.

  9. Review of the bases for regulations governing the transport of fissile and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The outstanding record of transport of radioactive materials prompted this brief review of the history of the regulations. IAEA as well as DOT regulations are discussed, as are all classes of shipments and materials (Class I, II, III)

  10. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How does...

  11. [Radiation protection in orthopaedics: implications for clinical practice of the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-05-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effects of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  12. 76 FR 12666 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security number for each person.../dars/government_furnished_property.html and submit the following information: (1) Company or...

  13. 76 FR 6003 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b) Use the clause at 252.245-7001, Tagging...

  14. Regulation of Metabolic Activity by p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flöter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells is controlled by the activation of multiple oncogenic signalling pathways in order to promote macromolecule biosynthesis during rapid proliferation. Cancer cells also need to adapt their metabolism to survive and multiply under the metabolically compromised conditions provided by the tumour microenvironment. The tumour suppressor p53 interacts with the metabolic network at multiple nodes, mostly to reduce anabolic metabolism and promote preservation of cellular energy under conditions of nutrient restriction. Inactivation of this tumour suppressor by deletion or mutation is a frequent event in human cancer. While loss of p53 function lifts an important barrier to cancer development by deleting cell cycle and apoptosis checkpoints, it also removes a crucial regulatory mechanism and can render cancer cells highly sensitive to metabolic perturbation. In this review, we will summarise the major concepts of metabolic regulation by p53 and explore how this knowledge can be used to selectively target p53 deficient cancer cells in the context of the tumour microenvironment.

  15. Legislation on and regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This work is a compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the Atomic Energy Commission's Legal Affairs Department (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy law. Legislative texts published over the last forty years, are collected and analytically indexed. The publication covers both French regulations and regulations of international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom. It is divided into eight different chapters, dealing with regulations relevant to international and national institutions, nuclear installations, third party liability, protection of persons and the environment, etc. A chronological table of the texts of international and national laws is also included in this work. (NEA) [fr

  16. Transport mechanisms and their pathology-induced regulation govern tyrosine kinase inhibitor delivery in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt-Lauber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are effective in treating malignant disorders and were lately suggested to have an impact on non-malignant diseases. However, in some inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA the in vivo effect seemed to be moderate. As most TKIs are taken up actively into cells by cell membrane transporters, this study aimed to evaluate the role of such transporters for the accumulation of the TKI Imatinib mesylates in RA synovial fibroblasts as well as their regulation under inflammatory conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transport and accumulation of Imatinib was investigated in transporter-transfected HEK293 cells and human RA synovial fibroblasts (hRASF. Transporter expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. In transfection experiments, hMATE1 showed the highest apparent affinity for Imatinib among all known Imatinib transporters. Experiments quantifying the Imatinib uptake in the presence of specific transporter inhibitors and after siRNA knockdown of hMATE1 indeed identified hMATE1 to mediate Imatinib transport in hRASF. The anti-proliferative effect of Imatinib on PDGF stimulated hRASF was quantified by cell counting and directly correlated with the uptake activity of hMATE1. Expression of hMATE1 was investigated by Western blot and immuno-fluorescence. Imatinib transport under disease-relevant conditions, such as an altered pH and following stimulation with different cytokines, was also investigated by HPLC. The uptake was significantly reduced by an acidic extracellular pH as well as by the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, which all decreased the expression of hMATE1-mRNA and protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The regulation of Imatinib uptake via hMATE1 in hRASF and resulting effects on their proliferation may explain moderate in vivo effects on RA. Moreover, our results suggest that investigating transporter mediated drug processing under normal and pathological conditions is important

  17. The case for foreign exchange intervention: the government as an active reserve manager

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Neely

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that major governments should actively manage their foreign exchange portfolios to maximize the risk-adjusted return to the taxpayer by exploiting long-term, fundamental based predictability in floating exchange rates. Such transactions—equivalent to foreign exchange intervention—would improve welfare by transferring risk from private agents to the risk-tolerant government. Interventions explicitly designed to profit the reserve management authority would be more likely to b...

  18. Glycolysis is governed by growth regime and simple enzyme regulation in adherent MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Markus; Ritter, Joachim B; Reichl, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Due to its vital importance in the supply of cellular pathways with energy and precursors, glycolysis has been studied for several decades regarding its capacity and regulation. For a systems-level understanding of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell metabolism, we couple a segregated cell growth model published earlier with a structured model of glycolysis, which is based on relatively simple kinetics for enzymatic reactions of glycolysis, to explain the pathway dynamics under various cultivation conditions. The structured model takes into account in vitro enzyme activities, and links glycolysis with pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Using a single parameterization, metabolite pool dynamics during cell cultivation, glucose limitation and glucose pulse experiments can be consistently reproduced by considering the cultivation history of the cells. Growth phase-dependent glucose uptake together with cell-specific volume changes generate high intracellular metabolite pools and flux rates to satisfy the cellular demand during growth. Under glucose limitation, the coordinated control of glycolytic enzymes re-adjusts the glycolytic flux to prevent the depletion of glycolytic intermediates. Finally, the model's predictive power supports the design of more efficient bioprocesses.

  19. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have developed some sort of legislation focusing on data protection. This paper proposes solutions for monitoring and enforcing data protection laws within an E-government Interoperability Platform. In particular, the proposal addresses requirements posed by the Uruguayan Data Protection Law and the Uruguayan E-government Platform, although it can also be applied in similar scenarios. The solutions are based on well-known integration mechanisms (e.g. Enterprise Service Bus as well as recognized security standards (e.g. eXtensible Access Control Markup Language and were completely prototyped leveraging the SwitchYard ESB product.

  20. Setting the scene: Human activities, environmental impacts and governance arrangements in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin, T.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Maher, P.T.; Hughes, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope and intensity of human activity in the Antarctic region has changed considerably over the past 100 years, resulting in significant modifications to the Antarctic environment and its ecosystems, and to the institutional arrangements governing human activities. Since the nineteenth century,

  1. Decentralization and centralization: governing the activation of social assistance recipients in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minas, R.; Wright, S.; van Berkel, H.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine the governance of activation in relation to the decentralization and centralization of activation for social assistance recipients in Sweden, The Netherlands and the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper outlines broad trends in the

  2. Towards inclusive governance of hazardous activities, synthesis of the conclusions of the 2001-2003 Trustnet activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.

    2004-01-01

    TRUSTNET is a European pluralistic think tank network on the governance of hazardous activities since 1997. It is involving the participation of some 150 key decision makers, stakeholders and experts at European, national and local levels in activities having impact on health and the environment. The participants of TRUSTNET are representatives of public authorities at national and European levels, industry, trade unions, local governments, NGOs. They are also consumers or lay citizens, together with a multidisciplinary group of experts in risk management, public health, political sciences, sociology, psychology, economics, law and ethics. TRUSTNET is supported by the European Commission (DG- Research - Radiation protection) as a Concerted Action. The work programme of TRUSTNET is based on a participatory methodology and a co-expertise of actual case studies involving experts and non-experts. From 1997 to 1999, TRUSTNET has identified the severe difficulties and multiple social blockages affecting the credibility, effectiveness and legitimacy of traditional regulatory framework of hazardous activities. It has also identified emerging features of inclusive risk governance as a major opportunity for overcoming the observed difficulties. The conclusions of the 1997-1999 exercise have been reported in 2000 in the 'TRUSTNET Framework: a New Perspective on Risk Governance'. From 2001 to 2003, TRUSTNET has carried on the reflection and more specifically investigated the possible strategies for implementing in Europe inclusive governance in the various activities entailing risks for health and the environment. The presentation ('Towards Inclusive Governance') will outline presenting the main conclusions of this 2001-2003 exercise. (author)

  3. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  4. Activation and Regulation of Cellular Eicosanoid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Brock

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the wide variety of physiological responses that are regulated by lipid messengers. One particular group of lipid messengers, the eicosanoids, plays a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses in a receptor-mediated fashion. These mediators are related in that they are all derived from one polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. However, the various eicosanoids are synthesized by a wide variety of cell types by distinct enzymatic pathways, and have diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. In this review, the major pathways involved in the synthesis of eicosanoids, as well as key points of regulation, are presented.

  5. Internet governance and global self regulation: theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vey Mestdagh, C.; Rijgersberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The following exposition sets out to identify the basic theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self-regulation. It uses the Internet as an empirical basis since its global reach and technical characteristics create interdependencies between actors that transcend national

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  7. 76 FR 81362 - Regulations Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES 20 CFR Part 901 [TD 9517] RIN 1545-BC82 Regulations...; Correction AGENCY: Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. ACTION: Correction to final regulations... Federal Register on Thursday, March 31, 2011 (76 FR 17762) relating to the enrollment of actuaries. DATES...

  8. Regulando o regulador: a proposta do governo e a Anatel Regulating the regulator: the government's proposal and Anatel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Costa Alves de Mattos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a proposta do governo Lula para a reformulação do marco regulatório no Brasil e em particular o caso da Anatel. A proposta é detalhada e analisada com relação aos seus prováveis efeitos sobre o processo regulatório. Estes efeitos são analisados à luz de um modelo espacial que ressalta o papel do risco regulatório e custo de credibilidade. Dado este modelo, o trabalho analisa quais preferências, percepções e motivações por parte do novo governo seriam compatíveis com a proposta apresentada. A análise enfatiza o papel central das instituições políticas na compreensão das escolhas de políticas econômicas e sua performance.This paper analyzes the proposal of the new Lula government for changing the Brazilian regulatory system and the case of Anatel in particular. The proposal is described and analyzed regarding its probable effects on the functioning of the regulatory process. These effects are analyzed using a spatial model that focuses on regulatory risk and credibility costs. Taking the model as given, the paper then analyzes which preferences, perceptions and motivations by the government are compatible with the proposal. The analysis emphasizes the importance of considering political institutions when assessing policy choices and their performance.

  9. 26 CFR 1.892-3T - Income of foreign governments (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... traded partnerships within the meaning of section 7704) or trust interests. The term also does not... similar instrument in a functional or nonfunctional currency (see section 985(b) for the definition of functional currency) or in precious metals when held by a foreign government or central bank of issue (as...

  10. Towards sustainability. Major challenges for corporate law, corporate governance and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten-Boddin, C.; de Hoo, S.C.; Renssen, S.; Schwarz, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the presentations held at the launching event of the Institute for Corporate Law, Governance and Innovation Policies (ICGI) at Maastricht University. Contributions are provided by Willem Lageweg (Director of MVO Nederland), Prof. Dr. Jacqueline Cramer (Director of the Utrecht

  11. CSR as value attunement within governance processes : stakeholder dialogue, corporate principles and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2016-01-01

    I argue that a governance perspective on corporate social responsibility (CSR) makes it possible to explain why the concept will always be under-defined, is normative and thus political by nature, and is and should be difficult to measure. The perspective also makes it possible to understand the

  12. 75 FR 52459 - Regulations Governing Agencies for Issue of United States Savings Bonds; Offering of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... eliminate the option to purchase paper savings bonds through payroll deductions for United States government... savings bonds purchased through payroll sales; individuals will still be able to purchase paper savings bonds at financial institutions for themselves and as gifts. Payroll savers will be encouraged to...

  13. 75 FR 35684 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership or Control by a Foreign Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence. Additionally, subparagraph (a)(4) of DFARS 252.209-7002, Disclosure... Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., because it only impacts companies that are owned or controlled by a... or controlled by a foreign government. DoD invites comments from small business concerns and other...

  14. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR part 230... to applicable cost principles for grants and cooperative agreements with State and Local Governments...

  15. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... materials. The Office of the Federal Register's official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:45 a... government officials to easily download the Manual for storage on their computers in an easy-to-use format... opportunity to order copies before printing at the rider rate. A rider rate is available before the start of...

  16. 75 FR 80426 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... data base for capturing records of Government-furnished property sent on a non-reimbursable basis to a... number. (vii) Medium code; how the data is recorded, e.g., barcode, contact memory button. (viii) Value... January 1, 2004, for unique item identifier pedigree data established at delivery, as defined by DFARS 252...

  17. 76 FR 49650 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... governing of practice before the IRS and the standards with respect to tax returns. DATES: This correction... Part 10 Accountants, Administrative practice and procedure, Lawyers, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Taxes. Correction of Publication Accordingly, 31 CFR part 10 is corrected by making the following...

  18. Royalty rules : Alberta producers are now beholden to formal regulations for reporting royalty payments to government levy collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Regulation was established by the Alberta Department of Energy in July 2005 in order to clarify the rules governing conventional crude oil royalties. The regulation provides an incentive for industry to comply with the long-existing oil royalty reporting requirements through the addition of non-compliance penalties. An initial shadow billing system has been implemented to give industry the opportunity to understand their responsibilities and implement procedures to correct reporting and delivery inaccuracies. Battery operators in Alberta must now submit a royalty report to the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission on a monthly basis. The regulation provides provisions for interest charges on outstanding invoiced amounts, and formalizes existing eligibility requirements for the reimbursement of trucking costs associated with transporting the Crown's share. Penalties will be incurred if royalty reports contain erroneous information, or if the actual deliveries made are less than the prescribed royalty quantity. All penalties levied by the commission will now be sent to the battery operator in a monthly statement. Battery operators who wish to appeal their penalties may do so within 2 months after the date of the monthly statement. It was concluded that industry is not expected to experience any significant problems when the regulation comes into effect, as the 6 month shadow billing period will allow companies to make a smooth transition to the requirements of the new regulation. Details of information sessions for the new regulation were provided, as well as details of various non-compliance penalties. 1 fig

  19. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 74-Rules and Regulations Governing Conduct on Federal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from— (a) Being under the influence, using or possessing any narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines. Alcoholic... the GSA Regional Administrator, which will have the same force and effect as these regulations; (e...

  20. Birthrate, Sovereignty and Development: The Restrictive Regulations to Family Planning in the Third Peronist Government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the “population bomb” became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  1. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  2. The legal regime governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. II. International Regulations. Pt.1. Regulations on peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The first volume on atomic energy law published by CNEN reproduced national laws and regulations in that field. This book constitutes part one of the second volume and deals with international nuclear conventions and cooperation as at 30 June 1978. It reproduces the instruments and conventions which set up the international nuclear agencies, recommendations in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety, the nuclear third party liability conventions, the international instruments concerning technical and scientific cooperation and finally, the bilateral cooperation agreements between Italy and other nations and its agreements with international organizations (NEA) [fr

  3. 'No, the government doesn't need to, it's already self-regulated': a qualitative study among vape shop operators on perceptions of electronic vapor product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pratibha; Barker, Dianne C; Huang, Jidong; Kemp, Catherine B; Wagener, Theodore L; Chaloupka, Frank

    2018-03-26

    While the market share of electronic vapor products (EVPs), sold primarily through vape shops and other outlets, has increased rapidly, these products remained largely unregulated until 2016. This study, conducted prior to announcement of the deeming regulations, provides insights into vape shop operator attitudes toward potential government regulations of EVPs. In 2015, we conducted 37 in-person interviews of vape shop operators across nine US cities. Shops were identified through extensive web-searches. We used QSR International's NVivo 11 qualitative data analysis software to analyze the transcripts. Many vape shop operators viewed regulations requiring safe production of e-liquids, child-resistant bottles and listing e-juice ingredients as acceptable. They disagreed with the elimination of free samples and bans on flavored e-liquid sales, which generate significant revenue for their stores. Many held negative perceptions of pre-market review of new product lines and EVP-specific taxes. All agreed that EVPs should not be sold to minors, but most felt that owners should not be fined if minors visited vape shops. Findings from this study offer insights into the acceptability of proposed regulations, as well as barriers to effective regulation implementation.

  4. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  5. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  6. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  7. Governance, violence and the struggle for economic regulation in South Sudan: the case of Budi County (Eastern Equatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walraet

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Budi County in Eastern Equatoria State (South Sudan was governed during the 1990s and up to mid-2007. Because its capital Chukudum was the SPLM/A headquarters almost throughout that period, it provides us with an interesting case from which to explore how the SPLM/A governed during the war and how this impacts on the post-war peace. One observation is that the war, besides a period of devastation and human suffering, was also a time of economic opportunities and social differentiation. For that reason this article will also explore livestock trade as a new mode of wealth appropriation and the changing nature of cattle raiding, and how this interferes with the struggle for regulatory power and governable “spaces”. This means that we comprehend the economy as a political terrain. At the same time we leave room for sociological perspectives, to complement the more restricted “competition for resources and gains” approach to conflict and violence. The article is written in three sections. In the first section we briefly clarify why in 1999 there was an uprising in Budi County against SPLM/A rule and why it engendered massive local support. In the second section we examine one of the most destructive manifestations of violence that affect Budi county: cattle raiding. We look at it from a perspective that has been under-researched in the eld: that of trans-border trade. In the last section we look at how, after the peace of 2005, newly appointed local government authorities are (reclaiming do- mains of state regulation that previously lay rmly in the hands of the military. Particular attention is given to the capacity of the local authorities to guarantee security and provide protection. Key words: governance, violent conflict, regulatory power, trans-border trade, South Sudan Eastern Equatoria

  8. Embedding the logic of the Paris Agreement into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss-Stemping, Judith; Sartor, Oliver; Colombier, Michel

    2017-10-01

    To safeguard the climate and to keep the temperatures targets of the Paris Agreement within reach, determined climate action of global players, such as the European Union (EU) and its Member States, is needed more than ever. The Paris Agreement sets out a clear process to review and raise ambition embarking on a long-term transformation of the global economy. To ensure that this process and the logic of the Paris Agreement is adequately embedded in the into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union, IDDRI identifies the long-term strategies, iterative process and inherent time-line of the Paris Agreement as points of vigilance

  9. Regulation of higher-activity NARM wastes by EPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing standards for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). As part of this Standard, EPA is including regulations for the disposal of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NARM) wastes not covered under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The regulations will cover only higher-activity NARM wastes, defined as NARM waste with specific activity exceeding two nanocuries per gram. The proposed regulations will specify that NARM wastes exceeding the above limits, except for specific exempted items, must be disposed of in regulated radioactive waste disposal facilities. The proposed EPA regulations for NARM wastes will be discussed, as well as the costs and benefits of the regulation, how it will be implemented by EPA, and the rationale for covering only higher-activity NARM wastes exceeding two nanocuries per gram

  10. Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne Kristin; Bünemann, E.K.; Cooper, J.

    2017-01-01

    -farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal. The recent proposed revision of EU regulations for organic production (2014) puts less emphasis on closing nutrient cycles...... as means are taken to ensure the quality and safety of these inputs. Awareness of the need to close nutrient cycles may contribute to adapting regulations and private standards to support recycling of nutrients from society to organic agriculture. A better definition of the term “natural substance...

  11. 76 FR 52139 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government; Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... responsibility for compliance with export control law and regulations a ``due diligence responsibility.'' DoD... clearance officer suspects data integrity issues; however, 245.602-1(2) has been clarified to specify... that the supplier name and part number be required for all items in Federal condition code A1 being...

  12. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...

  13. From networks to hybrids : Strategic behaviour and crisis-driven change in the regulation and governance of the European financial and economic system,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; Mijs, A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.; Meeuwen, B.; Van der Puil, J.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge that European decision-makers struggle with today is regulating and governing the European financial and economic system in a way that is both effective and legitimate. To help address this challenge, this paper asks why regulatory gaps occurred and European governance has been weak,

  14. How do government regulations influence the ability to practice Chinese herbal medicine in western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Tom; Su, Yi-Chang; Lin, Sunny Jui-Shan

    2017-01-20

    The regulation policies of substances used in Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), have a direct influence on the ability of health providers to practice in the clinic. We set out to assess the truth behind the assumption that practice of CHM in the west is constrained by the regulations imposed by authorities in western countries. For the first part of our study we surveyed and compiled lists of banned and restricted Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) from six countries: USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Canada and Australia. Afterwards, we estimated the relevant importance of the 300 CMM most-commonly-prescribed to the practice of CHM according to prescriptions from 2,000,000 randomly selected patients, from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We then compared both lists and determined the clinical importance of the banned and restricted CMM. Except for regulations from Canada, most of the information of banned CMM proved to be difficult to organize. The USA was found to have the least amount of banned herbs, with 9 substances. Canada had the highest amount, with 98. In Germany, Australia, the UK, and Israel 10, 29, 36, 68 banned CMM were found, respectively. Apart from aristolochic acid containing substances, ma huang (, Ephedra sinica) was the only CMM banned in all countries. Most of the banned CMM were not found to be among the most-commonly-prescribed according to the NHIRD. Authorities should make this information more accessible. No clear relation exists between CHM regulations and any 'Western' common denominator, and the amount of banned CMM varied greatly among the surveyed countries. However, even among countries with a larger amount of banned CMM, the majority of these were in the bottom two-thirds in respect to the frequency of their use. Thus, regulations in some western countries surely influence the practice of CHM, however, the variability of CMM have been influenced by regulations only to a limited extent. Copyright © 2016 The

  15. Modern aspects of tax regulation of investment activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Podakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the tax regulation of investment activity in modern conditions. Scientists studied different views about the impact of tax regulations on the investment activity in the country. The author determines that the tax regulation of investment activity involves the use of state mechanisms taxation of certain measures to improve investment conditions. The subject is the state tax regulations, and the object is the investment activity of individual and institutional investors of any form of ownership including organizational and legal forms. Such regulation is performed by using complex special tools. The possible methods of tax stimulation of investment processes are described. The article deals with the current results of tax reform in Ukraine and predicts its possible consequences for agricultural producers. The rating positions of Ukraine according to international organizations are showed. The systematic analysis has been carried out and the impact of differential tax rates, tax exemption for a specified period, reducing the tax base, elimination of double taxation on investment activity in certain areas have been researched. The special instruments of investment activity tax regulation are considered. The options for improving investment activity by introducing effective tax regulation are determined.

  16. 78 FR 21861 - Tribal Consultation on the Draft Regulations Governing the Tribal Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Welcome and Introductions. 9:15 a.m.-9:30 a.m Brief history of 25 CFR part 170 and process for updating... following dates, at the following locations: Meeting date Location Time May 14, 2013 Anchorage, AK 9 a.m.-4... result of the enactment of SAFETEA-LU but the regulation was not revised at that time. MAP-21 effectively...

  17. Commission for energy regulation - 2012 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    After a presentation of the organisation, role and missions of the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and of its relationship with other institutional actors, this report describes and comments the action of the CRE in the fields of dialogue and transparency. It presents and comments key figures regarding the electricity and gas retail markets. It reports and comments the European reaction to the cold peak of February 2012 (historical peak for consumption and prices, inquiry on the causes of these price peaks, need of a European market). The next part addresses the relationship between electricity grids and territories (solidarity between electricity grids as the basis of the Europe of energy, evolution of French grids to face new needs and to take regional and local dimensions into account). Another part addresses gas infrastructures which are considered as the cornerstone of a good operation for the French market and for the integration of the European energy market (gas world market in 2012, definition of a target model for the gas market by European regulators, evolution of the French market in compliance with the European target model, new tariffs for the use of natural gas transport networks). The report then addresses the development of renewable energies: actions of CRE (bidding, opinion of tariffs), influence of renewable energy development on electricity prices on gross markets, needed evolution of electricity grids. A last part addresses the issues of energy cost, demand management, and struggle against energy poverty

  18. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  19. How is AMPK activity regulated in skeletal muscles during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2008-01-01

    AMPK is a metabolic "master" controller activated in skeletal muscle by exercise in a time and intensity dependent manner, and has been implicated in regulating metabolic pathways in muscle during physical exercise. AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle is regulated by several systemic...... and intracellular factors and the regulation of skeletal muscle AMPK in response to exercise is the focus of this review. Specifically, the role of LKB1 and phosphatase PP2C in nucleotide-dependent activation of AMPK, and ionized calcium in CaMKK-dependent activation of AMPK in working muscle is discussed. We also...

  20. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  1. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  2. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  3. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  4. Liberalising Dutch Energy Markets. Champions and governance, rules and regulations. The 1995-2005 stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.

    2006-09-01

    Liberalisation of Dutch energy markets was not a sudden change of policy direction, but rather the result of policy evaluations and discussions which had already been going on for quite some time when the Minister of Economic Affairs issued an Energy White Paper in early 1996, and the EU Directives for the electricity market (1996) and the gas market (1998) were introduced. The Dutch followed a two-way track, aiming at a phased market liberalisation for gas and electricity with full legal electricity network unbundling and a merger of the four large power generators into a national champion. For gas, the Dutch position as a major natural gas producer led to the proposition of a structure that was much more careful, following the EU Directive to the millimetre. Some ten years since the White Paper was issued, Dutch decision-making, legislation and regulation of the energy market has gone through a fascinating, burdensome and complex, and sometimes chaotic and frustrating process. This study highlights the importance of market dynamics and the almost unbearable and unsolvable balance between policy, legislation and regulation. Further attention is given to the role of Dte ( Office of Energy Regulation) and its evolution into a full merger with the NMa (Netherlands Competition Authority), and ownership and privatisation discussions against the backdrop of the developments in the wider European energy markets. Overall, the study concludes that it appears to be too early to tell whether energy market policies of the last decade have delivered the expected results in either quantitative or monetary terms. What the process did deliver, however, was a lot of turbulence and dynamics, a boost for innovation in marketing and technology drives, and increased awareness about consumer power in which the threat to switch in itself produces results of improved service, more transparency and increased accountability

  5. Corporate governance and firm characteristics as explanatory factors of shareholder activism: Validation through the French context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siala Bouaziz Souha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the major determinants of company shareholder activism investigated with according to a set of SBF 120 listed firms. Based on a sample of 77 companies, observed over the period 2008–2012, we are led to conclude that some firm governance characteristics do appear to affect shareholding activism. In addition, it has been revealed that the presence of institutional investors, ownership concentration, leaders’ presence in the capital, control structure, leadership change, firm growth as well as leverage level appear to have a significant influence on the probability of activism to take place.

  6. Opportunism Motivation of Environmental Protection Activism and Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study of environmental protection issues for more than forty years, research on the impact of financial performance on environmental protection has been one of the important branches. In the framework of principal-agent theory, this paper explores the opportunism motives in a company’s environmental protection activism and the moderating role of corporate governance using the data of Chinese listed companies from 2005 to 2016. The study finds that: (1 the company’s environmental protection activism is driven by the opportunist motives of policymakers who want to mask their inability; and (2 environmental protection activism does not enhance the company’s future performance and value creation capability. Further studies find that corporate governance mechanisms play different moderating roles. Fund Shareholders play a positive governance role and reduce the correlation between financial performance and environmental protection activism. However, independence of the board of directors intensifies the opportunist motives. This paper provides new theoretical explanations for environmental protection decision-making, provides novel enlightenment for the protection of environmental protection policies in developing countries and regions.

  7. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  8. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  9. The Influence of Some Romanian Interest Groups Upon the Activity of Government and Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on two specific interest groups, NGOs and trade unions, and on their influence upon the government and parliament. Our paper is based on an analyze of the activity of several interest groups during the period 2002-2004 and on the results of several researches and reports published on the last years. The analyze identifies petitioning for rule making, public meetings and debates, monitoring the activity of the public institutions and participating in advisory or regulatory committees as being the most common used mechanisms to influence the government and the parliament in Romania. Also, the analyze shows that administrative procedures affect the degree of bureaucratic autonomy. Overall, the results of this brief research show some pluralist forms of the interaction between the interest groups and the public institutions.

  10. Regulation of MDM2 Activity by Nucleolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    plicated in the binding of HIV particles to CD4 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 273:21988–21997. 8. Carty, M. P., M. Zernik -Kobak, S. McGrath, and K. Dixon. 1994...replication products and not due to repair synthesis (Fig. 3D ). RPARPA2D is therefore functionally active in supporting DNA replication in vitro...Further intermediate RPA2 mutants were designed to roughly follow the phosphor- ylation pathway, as suggested by the data of Zernik -Kobak and colleagues

  11. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alexandra; Shill, Jane; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Lawrence, Mark; Loff, Bebe; Crammond, Bradley; Sacks, Gary; Allender, Steven; Peeters, Anna

    2012-12-28

    In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children should ideally occur under the direction

  12. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22 were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of

  13. ANTI-CRISIS REGULATION OF AN INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX AS A MEAN TO INCREASE GOVERNMENT DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Игоревна Ометова

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The article contains analysis of the procedure of income tax assessment using flat and progressive tax rate that is directed to accomplish stable economic growth. Periodical press and statistical data of salary in the Ulyanovsk region have been used as the information source. It is shown that modern income tax assessment in Russia fails to deal with the pressing problem of national economics – excess income inequality. The main ways to regulate the process of individual income tax collection are offered in order to find means to maintain economic growth and improve the welfare of Russian citizens.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-10

  14. Bifurcation Regulations Governed by Delay Self-Control Feedback in a Stochastic Birhythmic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhidan; Ning, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    We aim to investigate bifurcation behaviors in a stochastic birhythmic van der Pol (BVDP) system subjected to delay self-control feedback. First, the harmonic approximation is adopted to drive the delay self-control feedback to state variables without delay. Then, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation and stationary probability density function (SPDF) for amplitude are obtained by applying stochastic averaging method. Finally, dynamical scenarios of the change of delay self-control feedback as well as noise that markedly influence bifurcation performance are observed. It is found that: the big feedback strength and delay will suppress the large amplitude limit cycle (LC) while the relatively big noise strength facilitates the large amplitude LC, which imply the proposed regulation strategies are feasible. Interestingly enough, the inner LC is never destroyed due to noise. Furthermore, the validity of analytical results was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics.

  15. The importance of disclosure in corporate governance self-regulation across Europe: A review of the Winter Report and the EU Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough self-regulation has proven to be effective for the development of voluntary corporate-governance codes, the results of this study indicate that leading European companies are not yet too concerned about compliance with these codes. While self-regulation appears to be ineffective

  16. Meeting at the Edges: Spaces, Places and Grassroots Governance Activism in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Through ethnography of activist organisations promoting transparency, accountability and active citizenship, and comprising coalitions of the city’s middle classes and urban poor, this article explores the spaces in which activists from different social backgrounds meet and carry out their work. By locating the positions of meeting rooms, offices and activists’ homes in urban space, I open up a view of the everyday practices of grassroots governance initiatives aimed at producing shared citiz...

  17. China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities: Scale, Content, Destinations, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    this document Browse Reports & Bookstore Make a charitable contribution Limited Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s...sponsors. Support RAND—make a tax-deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute.html R® is a registered trademark © Copyright 2013...cooperation organizations such as the xvi China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities Shanghai Cooperation Organisation have

  18. 78 FR 73704 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... birds, specifically raptors, are especially vulnerable to colliding with wind turbines (Barrios and... to an otherwise lawful activity, such as mortalities caused by collisions with wind turbines... interactions with power lines, wind turbines, or other infrastructure. APPs are developed by companies...

  19. Why do private governance organizations not converge? A political-institutional analysis of transnational labor standards regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary governance arrangements focusing on responsible business behavior have proliferated over the past decades, and in many sectors of industry, different governance organizations now compete for business participation. This private governance competition has negative consequences for the

  20. The Microbiological Memory, an Epigenetic Regulator Governing the Balance Between Good Health and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Devaux

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available If the transmission of biological information from one generation to the next is based on DNA, most heritable phenotypic traits such as chronic metabolic diseases, are not linked to genetic variation in DNA sequences. Non-genetic heritability might have several causes including epigenetic, parental effect, adaptive social learning, and influence of the ecological environment. Distinguishing among these causes is crucial to resolve major phenotypic enigmas. Strong evidence indicates that changes in DNA expression through various epigenetic mechanisms can be linked to parent-offspring resemblance in terms of sensitivity to metabolic diseases. Among non-genetic heritable traits, early nutrition could account for a long term deviant programming of genes expression responsible for metabolic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition could shape an inadequate gut microbiota (dysbiosis, triggering epigenetic deregulation of transcription which can be observed in chronic metabolic diseases. We review herein the evidence that dysbiosis might be a major cause of heritable epigenetic patterns found to be associated with metabolic diseases. By taking into account the recent advances on the gut microbiome, we have aggregated together different observations supporting the hypothesis that the gut microbiota could promote the molecular crosstalk between bacteria and surrounding host cells which controls the pathological epigenetic signature. We introduce for the first time the concept of “microbiological memory” as the main regulator of the epigenetic signatures, thereby indicating that different causes of non-genetic heritability can interact in complex pathways to produce inheritance.

  1. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  2. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  3. Legitimidade e governabilidade na regulação do sistema financeiro Legitimacy and governability in financial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Pereira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre direito e economia pode resultar numa oposição entre governabilidade e legitimidade legal-racional, uma vez que se baseiam em diferentes racionalidades. A revisão judicial da regulação do sistema financeiro evidencia esse conflito, observado neste trabalho sob a perspectiva da jurisprudência constitucional do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF. O objetivo deste trabalho resume-se então em identificar o conflito entre governabilidade e a exigência de legitimidade legal das decisões analisadas pela corte no que concerne à regulação financeira. O estudo de casos evidencia que o STF tem rejeitado argumentos econômicos, entretanto, tem preservado a lógica da governabilidade com decisões contraditórias e incoerentes pautadas em argumentos formais. Dessa forma, possível identificar o papel institucional conferido pelo STF à Constituição Federal de 1988, considerando o contexto das crises econômicas vividas pelo Brasil a partir da metade da década de 1980 e sua nova conformação a partir da Emenda Constitucional n. 40.The relation between law and economics might result in an opposition between governability and legal-rational legitimacy, since they are based in different rationalities. Judicial review of financial regulation shows that coflict, which is here analysed from the viewpoint of the constitutional jurisprudence of the Brazilian Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF. In brief, the purpose of this article is to identify the oppostion between governability and the need for legal-legitimacy in the cases analysed by the court concerning financial regulation. The case studies show that the judicial review by STF has rejected economic aspects of the case, however it has preserved governability rationality with incoherent and contradictory decisions based on formal arguments. Thereby, it is possible to identify the institutional role granted by stf to the Brazilian Constitution dated from 1988, considering

  4. Active Power Regulation based on Droop for AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane A. A.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed...... to successfully follow the active power command. The limitation of each method is discussed in term of small signal stability and light load sharing, respectively. Discussion on the effects of power command is also given. The simulation is carried out for both the strategies to verify the active power control...

  5. A Common Ca2+-Driven Interdomain Module Governs Eukaryotic NCX Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, Moshe; Sasson, Yehezkel; Fang, Xianyang; Hiller, Reuben; Buki, Tal; Wang, Yun-Xing; Hirsch, Joel A.; Khananshvili, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) proteins mediate Ca2+-fluxes across the cell membrane to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in many cell types. Eukaryotic NCX contains Ca2+-binding regulatory domains, CBD1 and CBD2. Ca2+ binding to a primary sensor (Ca3-Ca4 sites) on CBD1 activates mammalian NCXs, whereas CALX, a Drosophila NCX ortholog, displays an inhibitory response to regulatory Ca2+. To further elucidate the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we determined the 2.7 Å crystal structure of mammalian CBD12-E454K, a two-domain construct that retains wild-type properties. In conjunction with stopped-flow kinetics and SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) analyses of CBD12 mutants, we show that Ca2+ binding to Ca3-Ca4 sites tethers the domains via a network of interdomain salt-bridges. This Ca2+-driven interdomain switch controls slow dissociation of “occluded” Ca2+ from the primary sensor and thus dictates Ca2+ sensing dynamics. In the Ca2+-bound conformation, the interdomain angle of CBD12 is very similar in NCX and CALX, meaning that the interdomain distances cannot account for regulatory diversity in NCX and CALX. Since the two-domain interface is nearly identical among eukaryotic NCXs, including CALX, we suggest that the Ca2+-driven interdomain switch described here represents a general mechanism for initial conduction of regulatory signals in NCX variants. PMID:22768191

  6. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the 3 H 2 O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways

  7. Activity-regulated genes as mediators of neural circuit plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Jennifer H; Nedivi, Elly

    2011-08-01

    Modifications of neuronal circuits allow the brain to adapt and change with experience. This plasticity manifests during development and throughout life, and can be remarkably long lasting. Evidence has linked activity-regulated gene expression to the long-term structural and electrophysiological adaptations that take place during developmental critical periods, learning and memory, and alterations to sensory map representations in the adult. In all these cases, the cellular response to neuronal activity integrates multiple tightly coordinated mechanisms to precisely orchestrate long-lasting, functional and structural changes in brain circuits. Experience-dependent plasticity is triggered when neuronal excitation activates cellular signaling pathways from the synapse to the nucleus that initiate new programs of gene expression. The protein products of activity-regulated genes then work via a diverse array of cellular mechanisms to modify neuronal functional properties. Synaptic strengthening or weakening can reweight existing circuit connections, while structural changes including synapse addition and elimination create new connections. Posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, often also dependent on activity, further modulate activity-regulated gene transcript and protein function. Thus, activity-regulated genes implement varied forms of structural and functional plasticity to fine-tune brain circuit wiring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular kinetics. Ras activation by SOS: allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M; Abel, Steven M; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S; Hansen, Scott D; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T

    2014-07-04

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Post-translational regulation of Oct4 transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Saxe

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a key component of the molecular circuitry which regulates embryonic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. It is essential for maintenance of undifferentiated, pluripotent cell populations, and accomplishes these tasks by binding DNA in multiple heterodimer and homodimer configurations. Very little is known about how formation of these complexes is regulated, or the mechanisms through which Oct4 proteins respond to complex extracellular stimuli which regulate pluripotency. Here, we provide evidence for a phosphorylation-based mechanism which regulates specific Oct4 homodimer conformations. Point mutations of a putative phosphorylation site can specifically abrogate transcriptional activity of a specific homodimer assembly, with little effect on other configurations. Moreover, we performed bioinformatic predictions to identify a subset of Oct4 target genes which may be regulated by this specific assembly, and show that altering Oct4 protein levels affects transcription of Oct4 target genes which are regulated by this assembly but not others. Finally, we identified several signaling pathways which may mediate this phosphorylation and act in combination to regulate Oct4 transcriptional activity and protein stability. These results provide a mechanism for rapid and reversible alteration of Oct4 transactivation potential in response to extracellular signals.

  10. Regulations, guidelines, standards, and policies pertaining to decontamination and decommissioning activities: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    A literature review has been conducted of the existing rules, regulations, and guidelines pertaining to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Included in the survey are US Government documents, national (industrial) standards, international standards and guidelines, and the regulations issued by various national governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany

  11. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xuezhi; Wu Yong; Di Yanqiang; Li Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  12. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Xuezhi [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China)], E-mail: daixz9999@126.com; Wu Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Di Yanqiang [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Li Qiaoyan [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  13. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xuezhi; Di, Yanqiang [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Wu, Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Li, Qiaoyan [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system. (author)

  14. DOE Technical Standards List. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This is a periodic report on the level of agency participation in non-Government standards activities. This technical standards list is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) management and other personnel involved in the DOE technical Standards Program by identifying those participating individuals. The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted a Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. Appendices to this document are provided to list the information by parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees.

  15. ZAKAT MANAGEMENT IN MEDAN: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION NO. 23/2011 ON MANAGEMENT OF ZAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the transformation of the spirit of Islamic law into the National Legal System which can be seen with the birth of the Law on the Development Badan Amil Zakat and Sadaqah Infaq Given the institutional team of zakat, namely Badan Amil Zakat (BAZ and the Institute Amil Zakat (LAZ then by itself have been of a wide space to the public, outside the participating government agencies to develop resources zakat Medan municipality, as one of the biggest cities in Indonesia is one of the parameters of how the regulation of zakat as stated by the law of zakat can run effectively or not. The qualitative research was conducted in Medan City, adopting normative, sociological and anthropological jurisdiction approaches, The source of data included field data as a primary source and documents as a secondary one. Data were collected with non participant observations, a series of struktured interviews with selectedinformants, and document analysis as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1992 which include data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. In responding to the issue of guardian, I applied the theories analysis deskriptif with use methods of analysis. This study concludes Management of Zakat city of Medan after the enactment of Law Number 23 of 2011 has not been significant. problem that is taking place in the city of Medan is a data base that is still weak both within the community and the institution, Management, Human resources zakat manager unprofessional attitude of a lack of public trust in zakat management institutions, lack of exemplary government officials and village leaders, strict sanctions is not yet clear who is responsible for carrying out or take action against violations set forth in Law Number 23 of 2011 For the deficiencies of this institution also led to public institutions is not tithe but they tithe directly to recipients.

  16. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  17. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  18. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  19. Energy Regulation Commission. Activity report. 1 July - 31 December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a description of the scope of activities, organisation and operation of the CRE (Commission de Regulation de l'Energie, Energy regulation commission) and of the CorDIS (Comite de reglement des differents et des sanctions de la CRE, CRE's Committee for settlements of controversies and sanctions), this report outlines the importance of the grid manager independence and of the regulation reinforcement for the building up of a domestic energy market. It discusses the role of the regulation authority in the interconnection of European grids, their operation security and supply security, but also in pricing and in investments. It highlights the relationship between the reduction of carbon emission, energy demand management, strengthening of electric grids, financial incentives, and advanced metering systems. It describes how the CRE ensures a good operation of electricity and natural gas markets

  20. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. THE EUROPEAN MODEL OF STATE REGULATION OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Davydova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the existing model of state regulation of the development of tourism. Expediency of the European model of state regulation of tourism development in Ukraine. It is noted that the European model of state regulation of tourism activities based on the coordination of marketing activities and the development of cooperation between the public and private sectors. The basic forms of public-private partnerships and the advantages of using cluster model of development of tourism, namely, contracts, production sharing agreement, lease, joint venture. Promising areas of application of the PPP identified the transport sector, housing and utilities, energy and tourism sector. The features of cluster formations in the country and the prospects for tourism clusters.

  2. Accelerometer-determined physical activity level among government employees in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazizi, A S; Aina, Mardiah B; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zaitun, Y; Hamid, Jan J M; Tabata, I

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate accelerometer-determined physical activity level of 233 Malay government employees (104 men, 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building Penang, Malaysia. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured for each respondent. All the respondents were asked to wear an accelerometer for 3 days. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated using a standard formulas. Fasting blood sample was obtained to determine the lipid profile and glucose levels of the respondents. Based on the accelerometer-determined physical activity level, almost 65% of the respondents were categorised as sedentary. Approximately 50.2% of the respondents were overweight or obese. There were negative but significant relationships between body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.353, p obesity in this study. The high prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity found among respondents of this study indicate a need for implementing intervention programmes among this population.

  3. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2004 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the gas and electricity markets for professional customers on 1 July 2004; B - Regulation of the gas market: Gas markets and players (The European environment, The French gas market); Regulation of the gas market (Implementing regulation, Works planned for the coming year; C - Regulation of the electricity market: The electricity markets and players (The European electricity markets, The French electricity market, Monitoring the electricity market); Regulation of the French electricity market (Access to public grid, Cross-border exchanges, Un-bundled accounting principles); The public electricity service in the regulated market (Content of the public service, Public service charges, Electricity production public service financing, Electricity sales tariffs) D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction, Tools; E - Appendices: Glossary, Units and conversions, Council of European Energy Regulators, Index of tables and figures

  4. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2004 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the gas and electricity markets for professional customers on 1 July 2004; B - Regulation of the gas market: Gas markets and players (The European environment, The French gas market); Regulation of the gas market (Implementing regulation, Works planned for the coming year; C - Regulation of the electricity market: The electricity markets and players (The European electricity markets, The French electricity market, Monitoring the electricity market); Regulation of the French electricity market (Access to public grid, Cross-border exchanges, Un-bundled accounting principles); The public electricity service in the regulated market (Content of the public service, Public service charges, Electricity production public service financing, Electricity sales tariffs) D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction, Tools; E - Appendices: Glossary, Units and conversions, Council of European Energy Regulators, Index of tables and figures.

  5. [Immune regulation activity and mechanism of Tibetan Kefir exopolysaccharide fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Zhang, Lanwei

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanism on immune regulation activity in mice of two Tibetan Kefir exoploysaccharides (EPS) with different molecular weight of 0.1 x 10(5) - 3 x 10(5) (fraction 1) and 1.8 x 10(3) (fraction 2). The immune regulation activity experiment was carried out in vitro based on the Functional Assessment Procedure and Test Methods of Health Food, which was issued by Ministry of Health of China. First, we treated mice subjects with EPS at doses of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg through ig. Then we detected the index of immune organs, the ability of antibody production (tested by HC50), activity of NK cell, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and phagocytosis of macrophage in mice. Finally, we examined the expression of Erk protein in Macrophages by Western Blot assay. Fraction 1 could promote HC50, activity of NK cell and DTH in mice which low dose showed better. Fraction 2 could promote DTH, phagocytosis of macrophage which high dose showed better. The expression of Erk and COX-2 had the same trend with Phagocytic index. We verified the two fractions of Tibetan Kefir EPS could enhance immune functions in mice. Fraction 1 regulated immune function through NK cell and B cell while fraction 2 through macrophage cell and T cell. The effects to macrophage of Tibetan Kefir EPS in mice may realize through extra cellular signal-regulated kinase Erk pathway.

  6. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this technical standards list are those recorded as of May 1, 1999.

  7. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document and to DOE Order 1300.2A. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this TSL are those recorded as of July 1, 1996.

  8. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate Package, Infringement

  9. REGULATION AND SUPERVISION OF BANKING ACTIVITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Niculina APETRI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges currently faced by most central banks are generated by the effects of the economic and financial crisis. Thus, at the national, European and international level there is a trend of changing the economic governance structures and improving the regulatory and supervisory policies, focusing on macro-prudential oversight. In the context of changes at the European Union level, the central banks of the Member States become also subject to changes in their carried out actions. The objectives of this research aim mainly at: highlighting the role of the National Bank of Romania in regulating and supervising the banking system in Romania and analyzing the measures implemented by the National Bank of Romania after the crisis so far; identifying the challenges of the National Bank of Romania on the basis of changes operated by European Union at the supervisory framework level.

  10. Tetraspanin CD9 regulates osteoclastogenesis via regulation of p44/42 MAPK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, TacGhee; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Je-Yoel; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Tetraspanin CD9 has been shown to regulate cell-cell fusion in sperm-egg fusion and myotube formation. However, the role of CD9 in osteoclast, another multinucleated cell type, is not still clear. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD9 in osteoclast differentiation. CD9 was expressed in osteoclast lineage cells and its expression level increased during the progression of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. KMC8, a neutralizing antibody specific to CD9, significantly suppressed RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation and the mRNA expression of osteoclast differentiation marker genes. To define CD9-regulated osteoclastogenic signaling pathway, MAPK pathways were examined. KMC8 induced long-term phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, but not of p38 MAPK. Constitutive activation of p44/42 MAPK by overexpressing constitutive-active mutant of MEK1 almost completely blocked osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that CD9 expressed on osteoclast lineage cells might positively regulate osteoclastogenesis via the regulation of p44/42 MAPK activity

  11. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2017-12-01

    Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Security Cooperation Activities: Strengthening a Partner Military and its Governing Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    governments suffered from economic instability , corruption, poor rule of law, and low administration of justice. Government and economic stability ...types of programs applied. Conditions defining allied state characteristics are military structure, government polity rating, and economic stability ...regional instability . Dr. Michael Mihalka and Mr. Mark Wilcox covered the trends in liberal democracy in the South Caucasus in light of economic

  13. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2005 activity report of CRE. Content: A - The opening of the markets in France and in Europe: The opening of the markets one year after 1 July 2004 (An especially important step, Electricity and gas: a common framework with structural differences, The coexistence of market prices and regulated tariffs); The European texts of 26 June 2003 (Texts to give new impetus, Texts to harmonize the role and powers of national regulators, Texts to guarantee the independence of system operators, Texts to ensure transparent and non-discriminatory access to networks, Texts providing for strengthening of interconnections); The outlook for 2007, a fully open market (1 July 2007: a date set by the directives, Priority given to informing and protecting consumers); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Europe's dependency on imports is increasing, Gas prices increased considerably across the whole of Europe in 2004, The European gas scene continues to be dominated by a small number of players, Gas infrastructures need to be developed in Europe, The new European

  14. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  15. Summary of regulation applicable to the gamma-graphy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The regulations relative to the gamma radiography activities concerns in one hand the radioactive sources, and on the other hand the radiation protection of the workers. The necessity of having a person competent in radiation protection and the tasks he or she has to do are described. The training of operators, the medical surveillance, the dosimetry are such obligations. The maintenance of equipment is an other obligation. The last point concerns the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  16. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firhan A Malik

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK, establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P's inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds, transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737 phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019 and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA attenuate S1P-stimluated (i AMPK phosphorylation, (ii CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508, the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure. S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking.

  17. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands—where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001—may shed...

  18. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  19. Cooperative activation of transcription by autoimmune regulator AIRE and CBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Rebane, A.; Rowell, J.; Murumaegi, A.; Stroebel, P.; Moell, K.; Saare, M.; Heikkilae, J.; Doucas, V.; Marx, A.; Peterson, P.

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcriptional regulator that is believed to control the expression of tissue-specific genes in the thymus. Mutated AIRE is responsible for onset of the hereditary autoimmune disease APECED. AIRE is able to form nuclear bodies (NBs) and interacts with the ubiquitous transcriptional coactivator CBP. In this paper, we show that CBP and AIRE synergistically activate transcription on different promoter reporters whereas AIRE gene mutation R257X, found in APECED patients, interferes with this coactivation effect. Furthermore, the overexpression of AIRE and CBP collaboratively enhance endogenous IFNβ mRNA expression. The immunohistochemical studies suggest that CBP, depending on the balance of nuclear proteins, is a component of AIRE NBs. We also show that AIRE NBs are devoid of active chromatin and, therefore, not sites of transcription. In addition, we demonstrate by 3D analyses that AIRE and CBP, when colocalizing, are located spatially differently within AIRE NBs. In conclusion, our data suggest that AIRE activates transcription of the target genes, i.e., autoantigens in collaboration with CBP and that this activation occurs outside of AIRE NBs

  20. Protein Kinases C-Mediated Regulations of Drug Transporter Activity, Localization and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug transporters are now recognized as major actors in pharmacokinetics, involved notably in drug–drug interactions and drug adverse effects. Factors that govern their activity, localization and expression are therefore important to consider. In the present review, the implications of protein kinases C (PKCs in transporter regulations are summarized and discussed. Both solute carrier (SLC and ATP-binding cassette (ABC drug transporters can be regulated by PKCs-related signaling pathways. PKCs thus target activity, membrane localization and/or expression level of major influx and efflux drug transporters, in various normal and pathological types of cells and tissues, often in a PKC isoform-specific manner. PKCs are notably implicated in membrane insertion of bile acid transporters in liver and, in this way, are thought to contribute to cholestatic or choleretic effects of endogenous compounds or drugs. The exact clinical relevance of PKCs-related regulation of drug transporters in terms of drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, drug–drug interactions and drug toxicity remains however to be precisely determined. This issue is likely important to consider in the context of the development of new drugs targeting PKCs-mediated signaling pathways, for treating notably cancers, diabetes or psychiatric disorders.

  1. Digital Environmental Governance in China: Information Disclosure, Pollution Control, and Environmental Activism in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese water bureaucracy increasingly utilises information and communications technology (ICT in order to strengthen interaction with the population, which is severely affected by industrial pollution. Government webpages, mailboxes, and online interviews with officers have become prevalent tools for environmental governance, including information disclosure, and a virtual communication forum between the state and its citizens. The present study employs a mixed methods approach with a qualitative emphasis to explore the process of communication and interaction between government agencies and local residents in Dongying, Shandong Province. The results show that information disclosure of pollution data remains far from being transparent, despite the fact that the local government has implemented digital environmental governance, as encouraged by the central Chinese state. Internet technologies empower resource-poor environmental activists in Dongying to strengthen their social network and build communication with the authorities. The application of bureaucratic techniques, however, is key for them to enter the communication interface with government agencies in order to influence political decisions. Results suggest that local cadres tend to send mixed signals to activists and display wariness towards them. They also tend to take preventive measures to keep the situation under control when environmental disputes arise. The proposed communication interface approach sheds a clearer light on the complexity among the emergent ICTs, environmental activism, and digital governance.

  2. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2006 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the electricity and natural gas markets to household consumers on 1 July 2007: CRE at the service of eligible customers (Information for eligible customers, Improved knowledge of non-household customers); Monitoring of the non-discrimination, transparency and independence of system operators (Drafting and distribution of codes of good conduct for system operators, The necessary improvement of system operator independence); Preparing the practical methods of opening: GTE 2007 and GTG 2007 (The necessary simplification of relations between operators and customers, Achieving a greater level of consumer information and protection, The clearly defined stages of the 'customer pathway', Profiling and settlement mechanisms: turning experience feedback from 2004 to good account); Persisting uncertainties and hurdles (The need for a suitable regulatory and legislative platform, Hurdles to the opening of the household market); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Increasing weight of imports in gas

  3. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2006 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the electricity and natural gas markets to household consumers on 1 July 2007: CRE at the service of eligible customers (Information for eligible customers, Improved knowledge of non-household customers); Monitoring of the non-discrimination, transparency and independence of system operators (Drafting and distribution of codes of good conduct for system operators, The necessary improvement of system operator independence); Preparing the practical methods of opening: GTE 2007 and GTG 2007 (The necessary simplification of relations between operators and customers, Achieving a greater level of consumer information and protection, The clearly defined stages of the 'customer pathway', Profiling and settlement mechanisms: turning experience feedback from 2004 to good account); Persisting uncertainties and hurdles (The need for a suitable regulatory and legislative platform, Hurdles to the opening of the household market); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Increasing weight of

  4. Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.

  5. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, James R.; Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  6. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Cohen, Stephen Michael

    2017-01-01

    /TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family...... deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor...

  7. Rac1 governs exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ida L.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Møller, Lisbeth L. V.; Ploug, Thorkil; Schjerling, Peter; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    Key point Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood.The GTPase Rac1 can be activated by muscle contraction and has been found to be necessary for insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake, although its role in exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake is unknown.We show that Rac1 regulates the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle during exercise.We find that Rac1 knockout mice display significantly reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle during exercise. Abstract Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signalling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood, although the GTPase Rac1 is a candidate molecule. The present study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise‐induced uptake of radiolabelled 2‐deoxyglucose at 65% of maximum running capacity was blocked in soleus muscle and decreased by 80% and 60% in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle‐specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wild‐type littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 mKO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. PMID:27061726

  8. Sigma E regulators control hemolytic activity and virulence in a shrimp pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonsri Rattanama

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. vulnificus. We have used transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in the hemolytic activity of shrimp-pathogenic V. harveyi strain PSU3316. Out of 1,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited virulence attenuation in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Mutants were identified by comparing transposon junction sequences to a draft of assembly of the PSU3316 genome. Surprisingly none of the disrupted open reading frames or gene neighborhoods contained genes annotated as hemolysins. The gene encoding RseB, a negative regulator of the sigma factor (σ(E, was interrupted in 2 out of 5 transposon mutants, in addition, the transcription factor CytR, a threonine synthetase, and an efflux-associated cytoplasmic protein were also identified. Knockout mutations introduced into the rpoE operon at the rseB gene exhibited low hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison of whole cell extracted proteins in the rseB mutant (PSU4030 to the wild-type by 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed 6 differentially expressed proteins, including two down-regulated porins (OmpC-like and OmpN and an upregulated protease (DegQ which have been associated with σ(E in other organisms. Our study is the first report linking hemolytic activity to the σ(E regulators in pathogenic Vibrio species and suggests expression of this virulence-linked phenotype is governed by multiple regulatory pathways within the V. harveyi.

  9. PTSD Psychotherapy Outcome Predicted by Brain Activation During Emotional Reactivity and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzo, Gregory A; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Oathes, Desmond J; Zaiko, Yevgeniya V; Harvey, Meredith; Peng, Kathy K; Weiss, M Elizabeth; Thompson, Allison L; Zack, Sanno E; Lindley, Steven E; Arnow, Bruce A; Jo, Booil; Gross, James J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Etkin, Amit

    2017-12-01

    Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but many patients do not respond. Brain functions governing treatment outcome are not well characterized. The authors examined brain systems relevant to emotional reactivity and regulation, constructs that are thought to be central to PTSD and exposure therapy effects, to identify the functional traits of individuals most likely to benefit from treatment. Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation. Participants were then randomly assigned to immediate prolonged exposure treatment (N=36) or a waiting list condition (N=30). A random subset of the prolonged exposure group (N=17) underwent single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) concurrent with fMRI to examine whether predictive activation patterns reflect causal influence within circuits. Linear mixed-effects modeling in line with the intent-to-treat principle was used to examine how baseline brain function moderated the effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms. At baseline, individuals with larger treatment-related symptom reductions (compared with the waiting list condition) demonstrated 1) greater dorsal prefrontal activation and 2) less left amygdala activation, both during emotion reactivity; 3) better inhibition of the left amygdala induced by single TMS pulses to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and 4) greater ventromedial prefrontal/ventral striatal activation during emotional conflict regulation. Reappraisal-related activation was not a significant moderator of the treatment effect. Capacity to benefit from prolonged exposure in PTSD is gated by the degree to which prefrontal resources are spontaneously engaged when superficially processing threat and adaptively mitigating emotional interference, but not when deliberately reducing negative emotionality.

  10. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity report june 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  11. Regulation by magnesium of potato tuber mitochondrial respiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquim A F; Madeira, Vítor M C; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2004-12-01

    Dehydrogenase activities of potato tuber mitochondria and corresponding phosphorylation rates were measured for the dependence on external and mitochondrial matrix Mg2+. Magnesium stimulated state 3 and state 4 respiration, with significantly different concentrations of matrix Mg2+ required for optimal activities of the several substrates. Maximal stimulation of respiration with all substrates was obtained at 2-mM external Mg2+. However, respiration of malate, citrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate requires at least 4-mM Mg2+ inside mitochondria for maximization of dehydrogenase activities. The phosphorylation system, requires a low level of internal Mg2+ (0.25 mM) to reach high activity, as judged by succinate-dependent respiration. However, mitochondria respiring on citrate or alpha-ketoglutarate only sustain high levels of phosphorylation with at least 4-mM matrix Mg2+. Respiration of succinate is active without external and matrix Mg2+, although stimulated by the cation. Respiration of alpha-ketoglutarate was strictly dependent on external Mg2+ required for substrate transport into mitochondria, and internal Mg2+ is required for dehydrogenase activity. Respiration of citrate and malate also depend on internal Mg2+ but, unlike alpha-ketoglutarate, some activity still remains without external Mg2+. All the substrates revealed insensitive to external and internal mitochondrial Ca2+, except the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase, which requires either external Ca2+ or Mg2+ for detectable activity. Calcium is more efficient than Mg2+, both having cumulative stimulation. Unlike Ca2+, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+, before and after addition of A23, showing its ability to regulate phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activities, with almost the same efficiency as Mg2+.

  12. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  13. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Laura; Necakov, Aleksandar S; Sampson, Heidi M; Ni, Ruoyu; Hu, Chun; Thummel, Carl S; Krause, Henry M

    2006-09-01

    Nuclear receptors are a large family of transcription factors that play major roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism and disease. To determine how, where and when nuclear receptors are regulated by small chemical ligands and/or protein partners, we have used a 'ligand sensor' system to visualize spatial activity patterns for each of the 18 Drosophila nuclear receptors in live developing animals. Transgenic lines were established that express the ligand binding domain of each nuclear receptor fused to the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4. When combined with a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, the fusion proteins show tissue- and stage-specific patterns of activation. We show that these responses accurately reflect the presence of endogenous and exogenously added hormone, and that they can be modulated by nuclear receptor partner proteins. The amnioserosa, yolk, midgut and fat body, which play major roles in lipid storage, metabolism and developmental timing, were identified as frequent sites of nuclear receptor activity. We also see dynamic changes in activation that are indicative of sweeping changes in ligand and/or co-factor production. The screening of a small compound library using this system identified the angular psoralen angelicin and the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb as activators of the Ultraspiracle (USP) ligand-binding domain. These results demonstrate the utility of this system for the functional dissection of nuclear receptor pathways and for the development of new receptor agonists and antagonists that can be used to modulate metabolism and disease and to develop more effective means of insect control.

  14. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigen Chen

    Full Text Available Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October. The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females. Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h. The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1 temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2 temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise; 3 barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise; and 4 temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM

  15. Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng He

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2 are widely-expressed and they modulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and protein synthesis in multiple cell lineages. Altered ERK1/2 signaling is found in several genetic diseases with skeletal phenotypes, including Noonan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, and Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, suggesting that MEK-ERK signals regulate human skeletal development. Here, we examine the consequence of Erk1 and Erk2 disruption in multiple functions of osteoclasts, specialized macrophage/monocyte lineage-derived cells that resorb bone. We demonstrate that Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast development and bone resorptive activity, as genetic disruption of Erk1 reduced osteoclast progenitor cell numbers, compromised pit formation, and diminished M-CSF-mediated adhesion and migration. Moreover, WT mice reconstituted long-term with Erk1(-/- bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs demonstrated increased bone mineral density as compared to recipients transplanted with WT and Erk2(-/- BMMNCs, implicating marrow autonomous, Erk1-dependent osteoclast function. These data demonstrate Erk1 plays an important role in osteoclast functions while providing rationale for the development of Erk1-specific inhibitors for experimental investigation and/or therapeutic modulation of aberrant osteoclast function.

  16. Pacing and awareness: brain regulation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A M; Polman, R C J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that fatigue does not occur without brain involvement and that all voluntary activity is likely to be paced at some level by the brain according to individualised priorities and knowledge of personal capabilities. This article examines the role of pacing in managing and distributing effort to successfully accomplish physical tasks, while extending existing theories on the role of the brain as a central controller of performance. The opinion proposed in this article is that a central regulator operates to control exercise performance but achieves this without the requirement of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, while larger metabolic disturbances attract conscious awareness and evoke a behavioural response. This supports the view that the brain regulates exercise performance but that the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying this effect have not yet been fully elucidated.

  17. The regulation of ant colony foraging activity without spatial information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Prabhakar

    Full Text Available Many dynamical networks, such as the ones that produce the collective behavior of social insects, operate without any central control, instead arising from local interactions among individuals. A well-studied example is the formation of recruitment trails in ant colonies, but many ant species do not use pheromone trails. We present a model of the regulation of foraging by harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus colonies. This species forages for scattered seeds that one ant can retrieve on its own, so there is no need for spatial information such as pheromone trails that lead ants to specific locations. Previous work shows that colony foraging activity, the rate at which ants go out to search individually for seeds, is regulated in response to current food availability throughout the colony's foraging area. Ants use the rate of brief antennal contacts inside the nest between foragers returning with food and outgoing foragers available to leave the nest on the next foraging trip. Here we present a feedback-based algorithm that captures the main features of data from field experiments in which the rate of returning foragers was manipulated. The algorithm draws on our finding that the distribution of intervals between successive ants returning to the nest is a Poisson process. We fitted the parameter that estimates the effect of each returning forager on the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest. We found that correlations between observed rates of returning foragers and simulated rates of outgoing foragers, using our model, were similar to those in the data. Our simple stochastic model shows how the regulation of ant colony foraging can operate without spatial information, describing a process at the level of individual ants that predicts the overall foraging activity of the colony.

  18. A comparative analysis between France and Japan on local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu; Shiroyama, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows a comparative analysis between France and Japan on the way of the local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance through some interviews. In France, a law came into force that requires related local governments to establish 'Commision Locale d'Information' (CLI), which means the local governments officially involve in nuclear regulatory activity. Meanwhile, in Japan, related local governments substantially involve in the operation of nuclear facilities through the 'safety agreements' in spite of the lack of legal authority. As a result of comparative analysis, we can point out some institutional input from French cases as follows: to clarify the local governments' roles in the nuclear regulation system, to establish the official channels of communication among nuclear utilities, national regulatory authorities and local governments, and to stipulate explicitly the transparency as a purpose of safety regulation. (author)

  19. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  20. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 48 CFR 8.406-5 - Termination for the Government's convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government's convenience. 8.406-5 Section 8.406-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Termination for the Government's convenience. (a) An ordering activity contracting officer may terminate individual orders for the Government's convenience. Terminations for the Government's convenience shall...

  2. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from outside the quarantined area that are being moved in accordance with the protocols described in a... movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas. Any regulated article may be moved interstate from a quarantined area 3 only if moved under the following conditions: 3 Requirements under all other applicable...

  3. Rac1 activity regulates proliferation of aggressive metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Natalie N.; Chen Yihwen; Samant, Rajeev S.; Shevde, Lalita A.; Fodstad, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the different capacity of two in vivo selected human melanoma cell variants to form experimental metastases were studied. The doubling times of the FEMX-I and FEMX-V cell sublines in vitro were 15 and 25 h, respectively. The invasive capacity of FEMX-I cells was 8-fold higher than FEMX-V cells, and the time to form approximately 10 mm s.c. tumors in nude mice was 21 versus 35 days. FEMX-I displayed a spindle-like formation in vitro, whereas FEMX-V cells had a rounded shape. Hence, we examined known determinants of cell shape and proliferation, the small GTPases. The four studied showed equal expression in both cell types, but Rac1 activity was significantly decreased in FEMX-V cells. Rac1 stimulates NFκB, and we found that endogenous NFκB activity of FEMX-V cells was 2% of that of FEMX-I cells. Inhibition of Rac1 resulted in blocked NFκB activity. Specific inhibition of either Rac1 or NFκB significantly reduced proliferation and invasion of FEMX-I cells, the more pronounced effects observed with Rac1 inhibition. These data indicate that Rac1 activity in FEMX cells regulates cell proliferation and invasion, in part via its effect on NFκB, signifying Rac1 as a key molecule in melanoma progression and metastasis

  4. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  5. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Königl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R S (R S = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THAT GOVERN LARGE SOLAR FLARES AND ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toriumi, Shin [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Schrijver, Carolus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Harra, Louise K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Hudson, Hugh [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Nagashima, Kaori, E-mail: shin.toriumi@nao.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), especially the larger ones, emanate from active regions (ARs). With the aim of understanding the magnetic properties that govern such flares and eruptions, we systematically survey all flare events with Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite levels of ≥M5.0 within 45° from disk center between 2010 May and 2016 April. These criteria lead to a total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, for which we analyze the observational data obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory . More than 80% of the 29 ARs are found to exhibit δ -sunspots, and at least three ARs violate Hale’s polarity rule. The flare durations are approximately proportional to the distance between the two flare ribbons, to the total magnetic flux inside the ribbons, and to the ribbon area. From our study, one of the parameters that clearly determine whether a given flare event is CME-eruptive or not is the ribbon area normalized by the sunspot area, which may indicate that the structural relationship between the flaring region and the entire AR controls CME productivity. AR characterization shows that even X-class events do not require δ -sunspots or strong-field, high-gradient polarity inversion lines. An investigation of historical observational data suggests the possibility that the largest solar ARs, with magnetic flux of 2 × 10{sup 23} Mx, might be able to produce “superflares” with energies of the order of 10{sup 34} erg. The proportionality between the flare durations and magnetic energies is consistent with stellar flare observations, suggesting a common physical background for solar and stellar flares.

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES OF PHARMACISTS’ WORKING IN THE GOVERNMENT SECTOR IN GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurukrushna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Pharmacist also known as chemist or drugist is the health care professional who practice in pharmacy , the field of health science focusing on safe and effective medication use. Every day millions of people across the world visit community pharmacists for their health care needs. The aim of the present study was t o ass ess the working of pharmacists in the government sector of Ganjam District in the state of Odisha and difficulties arising out of their diverse role play. METHODS AND MATERIAL : It was a cross - sectional study carried out in the drug depot centre in the offi ce of Chief District Medical Officer (CDMO, Ganjam, Odisha between November 2013 to April 2014.A pretested scientifically designed questionnaire was used for collection of data. Data was collected in first ten days of every month at CDMO office drug depot . The data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics data in SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: Data were collected from 114 pharmacists among them 85 pharmacists were only from PHC (n. It was found that 49% had experience > 20yrs followed by experience 10 - 20yrs (32% and less than 10yrs was 19%. 48% had taken training for various programmes among them majority (23% had taken training on RNTCP followed by NVBDCP . Only 17% had any training on supply chain management during the last 3 years . Regarding drug disposal 44% opined that they burned the expiry drugs and 22% returned them to suppliers. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist has significant impact on public health and improving patients quality of life in rural area , but in current sce nario the activities of pharmacists need improvement.

  8. Government regulation versus market orientation in social housing management : Limitations and opportunities of European and Australian landlords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Gruis, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten to twenty years, governments in various countries have introduced or reinforced market principles in their housing systems. As a consequence, social landlords have increased opportunities to adopt a more market-oriented approach towards the management of their housing stock.

  9. To put an end to the oil blue. For a better regulation of offshore oil and gas activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, Julien; Chabason, Lucien; Callet, Sarah; Wemaere, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    After having outlined the context of an endless race to offshore oil and gas, and the increased associated risks for the environment, this report discusses the relevance of the international regulation framework for offshore activities. While addressing the issues of responsibility and compensation, the authors analyse existing international and regional regulations, outline legal loopholes, and identify ways to address them. The objective is to propose a comprehensive analysis of the current international framework, to make some propositions to strengthen it. After an analysis of rules which now govern offshore activities, and of the framework regarding responsibility and compensation in case of accidents, the authors highlight the main loopholes of the international regulatory framework, and identify some perspectives to correct them. They discuss the main existing challenges and present some options for a better supervision of offshore activities

  10. AWARENESS AS A FACTOR OF INFLUENCE ON THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern period of the development of statehood in Russia the significant increase of attention is attributed to the issue of effectiveness of state power and government not only on the federal and regional levels, but on the local level as well. In 2009 there was developed and implemented the system of indicators of the effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government. The system of effectiveness’ estimates included sociological indices of satisfaction of population. Implementation of sociological indices in the system of effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government brought positive responses from academic community, politicians, managers, and the public. In the article the analysis of influence of cognitive factor (being kept informed on the level of social contentment of the activity of local self-government’ bodies is done. We do this, based on the results of sociological studies of the major Russian research organizations and data from the aggregate reports, which deal with the monitoring of effectiveness of local self-government of some subjects in the Central federal district of Russia.

  11. Financing of sports clubs from the budget of local self-government units – ways to support and the study the interpretation of regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Rzeszowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises alternative methods of financing sports clubs. The text also presents the concept of a sports club as well as legal and organizational forms. The possibilities of raising funds were also discussed. The article highlights an importance of resources obtained by sports clubs from budgets of local self-government units. The summary concludes that sports clubs play a significant role and that without an appropriate financial support from local government units, the activities of these clubs would be constricted.

  12. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  13. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  14. Thyroid states regulate subcellular glucose phosphorylation activity in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid hormones (THs, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, are very important in organism metabolism and regulate glucose utilization. Hexokinase (HK is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate. HK has been found in different cellular compartments, and new functions have been attributed to this enzyme. The effects of hyperthyroidism on subcellular glucose phosphorylation in mouse tissues were examined. Tissues were removed, subcellular fractions were isolated from eu- and hyperthyroid (T3, 0.25 μg/g, i.p. during 21 days mice and HK activity was assayed. Glucose phosphorylation was increased in the particulate fraction in soleus (312.4% ± 67.1, n = 10, gastrocnemius (369.2% ± 112.4, n = 10 and heart (142.2% ± 13.6, n = 10 muscle in the hyperthyroid group compared to the control group. Hexokinase activity was not affected in brain or liver. No relevant changes were observed in HK activity in the soluble fraction for all tissues investigated. Acute T3 administration (single dose of T3, 1.25 μg/g, i.p. did not modulate HK activity. Interestingly, HK mRNA levels remained unchanged and HK bound to mitochondria was increased by T3 treatment, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism. Analysis of the AKT pathway showed a 2.5-fold increase in AKT and GSK3B phosphorylation in the gastrocnemius muscle in the hyperthyroid group compared to the euthyroid group. Taken together, we show for the first time that THs modulate HK activity specifically in particulate fractions and that this action seems to be under the control of the AKT and GSK3B pathways.

  15. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  16. Experimenting with International Collaborative Governance for Climate Change Mitigation by Private Actors: Scaling up Dutch Co-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    TELESETSKY, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    For the past two decades, international climate policy has been handled as a matter for State to State deliberation. Non-state actors have played at best marginal roles in making and implementing international policy. This paper argues that climate change remains an intractable transnational problem because State to State deliberations failed to acknowledge that both climate mitigation and adaptation require ongoing collaborative governance with non-State actors to shift normative behavior. T...

  17. Linear Modeling and Regulation Quality Analysis for Hydro-Turbine Governing System with an Open Tailrace Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandong Yang; Mingjiang Wang; Chao Wang; Wencheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the state–space method (SSM), a novel linear mathematical model of the unsteady flow for the tailrace system with an open channel is proposed. This novel model is an elastic linearized model of water hammer. The validity of the model has been verified by several examples of numerical simulation, which are based on a finite difference technique. Then, the complete mathematical model for the hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with an open tailrace channel, whi...

  18. Rural health prepayment schemes in China: towards a more active role for government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, G; Shenglan, T

    1999-04-01

    A large majority of China's rural population were members of health prepayment schemes in the 1970's. Most of these schemes collapsed during the transition to a market economy. Some localities subsequently reestablished schemes. In early 1997 a new government policy identified health prepayment as a major potential source of rural health finance. This paper draws on the experience of existing schemes to explore how government can support implementation of this policy. The decision to support the establishment of health prepayment schemes is part of the government's effort to establish new sources of finance for social services. It believes that individuals are more likely to accept voluntary contributions to a prepayment scheme than tax increases. The voluntary nature of the contributions limits the possibilities for risk-sharing and redistribution between rich and poor. This underlines the need for the government to fund a substantial share of health expenditure out of general revenues, particularly in poor localities. The paper notes that many successful prepayment schemes depend on close supervision by local political leaders. It argues that the national programme will have to translate these measures into a regulatory system which defines the responsibilities of scheme management bodies and local governments. A number of prepayment schemes have collapsed because members did not feel they got value for money. Local health bureaux will have to cooperate with prepayment schemes to ensure that health facilities provide good quality services at a reasonable cost. Users' representatives can also monitor performance. The paper concludes that government needs to clarify the relationship between health prepayment schemes and other actors in rural localities in order to increase the chance that schemes will become a major source rural health finance.

  19. Regulation of ALF promoter activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.

  20. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  1. 75 FR 75573 - Standards Governing the Release of a Suspicious Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Part III Department of the Treasury Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Parts 4 and 21 Office of Thrift Supervision 12 CFR Parts 510 and 563 31 CFR Part 103 Standards Governing the Release of a... THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 4 [Docket ID OCC-2010-0018] RIN...

  2. Commission de regulation de l'energie. activity report 2015 - Reference document, 15 years of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the June 2015 activity report of CRE. The report comes in two volumes. The first provides comprehensive details of the CRE's activities in 2015, while the second highlights just how far the CRE has come since it was established in 2000. Content: A - Message from the Board; B - The Energy Regulatory Commission: The organisation and missions of CRE (organisation of CRE, missions of CRE, CRE and other institutional actors, CRE consultation and transparency, Human resources and budgetary means; CRE playing a role at the heart of Europe (CRE within ACER and CEER, Cooperation with other regulators; C - CRE and the markets: As part of its monitoring task, CRE assesses the wholesale market (The wholesale energy market has been affected by the significant fall in prices, The European regulation (REMIT) is a legal tool for monitoring the markets at European level, The capacity mechanism has been defined to promote the security of supply at national level); The retail market was growing fast in 2015 (The implementation of the NOME law provides a new legal framework for regulated tariffs

  3. Enforceability of institutional investors responsibilities in corporate governance through the Dutch Corporate Governance Code : Are regulators and practitioners on the same page (and to who are institutional investors accountable)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, D.A.M.; Paape, L.; Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2011-01-01

    Corporate governance codes have been drafted to guide listed companies to improve corporate governance. Shareholders, in particular institutional investors, are being asked to play a critical role in safeguarding good corporate governance. However, addressing shareholders of Dutch listed companies

  4. After the slippery slope: Dutch experiences on regulating active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Theo A

    2003-01-01

    "When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward." If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands--where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001--may shed light on the strengths as well as the weaknesses of the slippery slope argument in the context of the euthanasia debate. This paper consists of three parts. First, it clarifies the Dutch legislation on euthanasia and explains the cultural context in which it originated. Second, it looks at the argument of the slippery slope. A logical and an empirical version are distinguished, and the latter, though philosophically less interesting, proves to be most relevant in the discussion on euthanasia. Thirdly, it addresses the question whether Dutch experiences in the process of legalizing euthanasia justify the fear of the slippery slope. The conclusion is that Dutch experiences justify some caution.

  5. Regulation of invadopodia formation and activity by CD147

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, G. Daniel; Bratoeva, Momka; Toole, Bryan P.

    2012-01-01

    A defining feature of malignant tumor progression is cellular penetration through the basement membrane and interstitial matrices that separate various cellular compartments. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that invasive cells employ specialized structures termed invadopodia to breach these structural barriers. Invadopodia are actin-based, lipid-raft-enriched membrane protrusions containing membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; also known as matrix metalloproteinase 14; MMP14) and several signaling proteins. CD147 (emmprin, basigin), an immunoglobulin superfamily protein that is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis, induces the synthesis of various matrix metalloproteinases in many systems. In this study we show that upregulation of CD147 is sufficient to induce MT1-MMP expression, invasiveness and formation of invadopodia-like structures in non-transformed, non-invasive, breast epithelial cells. We also demonstrate that CD147 and MT1-MMP are in close proximity within these invadopodia-like structures and co-fractionate in membrane compartments with the properties of lipid rafts. Moreover, manipulation of CD147 levels in invasive breast carcinoma cells causes corresponding changes in MT1-MMP expression, invasiveness and invadopodia formation and activity. These findings indicate that CD147 regulates invadopodia formation and activity, probably through assembly of MT1-MMP-containing complexes within lipid-raft domains of the invadopodia. PMID:22389410

  6. Sirtuin1-regulated lysine acetylation of p66Shc governs diabetes-induced vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santosh; Kim, Young-Rae; Vikram, Ajit; Naqvi, Asma; Li, Qiuxia; Kassan, Modar; Kumar, Vikas; Bachschmid, Markus M.; Jacobs, Julia S.; Kumar, Ajay; Irani, Kaikobad

    2017-01-01

    Many oxidative stimuli engage the 66-kDa Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (p66Shc) to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS regulated by p66Shc promotes aging and contributes to cancer, diabetes, obesity, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis. Here we identify a fundamental mechanism that controls p66Shc and p66Shc-regulated ROS. We show that p66Shc is lysine acetylated when cells are faced with an oxidative stimulus (diabetes), and lysine acetylation of p66Shc is obligatory for p66...

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Hyejin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA, which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system. Methods In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles. Results The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 1/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.

  8. Gonadotropin Regulation of Retinoic Acid Activity in the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of spermatogenesis in primates is triggered at puberty by an increase in gonadotropins; i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Prior to puberty, testis of the monkey contains only undifferentiated germ cells. However, sermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis may be initiated prior to puberty after stimulation with exogenous LH and FSH. Retinoic acid (RA signaling is considered to be a major component that drives spermatogonial differentiation. We were interested in evaluating the relative role of LH and FSH, either alone or in combination, in regulating the retinoic acid signaling in monkey testis. Sixteen juvenile male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were infused with intermittent recombinant single chain human LH (schLH or recombinant human FSH (rhFSH or a combination of both for 11 days. We then analyzed the expression of the several putative RA signaling pathway related genes; i.e. RDH10, RDH11, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, CYP26B1, CRABP1, CRABP2, STRA6, STRA8 in the testis after 11 days of stimulation with vehicle, LH, FSH and combination LH/FSH using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. The qPCR results analysis showed that administration of gonadotropins affected a significant change in expression of some RA signaling related genes in the monkey testis. The gonadotropins, either alone or in combination dramatically increased expression of CRABP2 (p≤0.001, whereas there was a decrease in ALDH1A2 expression (p≤0.001. Moreover, combined gonadotropin treatment led to the significant decrease in CRABP1 expression (p≤0.05. These findings are the first evidence that the activity of retinoic acid signaling in the monkey testis is regulated through gonadotropins (LH/FSH levels.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 603 - Applicable Federal Statutes, Executive Orders, and Government-wide Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. A Appendix A to Part 603—Applicable Federal.... Prohibitions on discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in Title VI of the Civil Rights... origin. 2. If the RD&D involves human subjects or animals, it is subject to the requirements codified by...

  10. The centralization of territorial governance of active labor market policies in Spain during the Great Recession (2011-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Hernández-Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spain is among the West European countries that has achieved higher levels of decentralization in its Welfare State. The 1990s and 2000s witnessed an acceleration of this process, which has been accompanied by an expansion of social spending at the subnational level, especially by the Autonomous Communities (Autonomous Communities. This article aims to contribute to several debates regarding changes in the territorial dimension of governance in social policies and their explanatory factors. Specifically, it focuses on active labor market policies (ALMPs and addresses the question of whether the reforms introduced in the field of activation in the context of the economic crisis have affected the exercise of political, financial and administrative authority by the different levels of government.

  11. 'Demand pull' government policies to support Product-Service System activity: The case of Energy Service Companies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, MJ; Foxon, TJ; Gale, WF

    2015-01-01

    Product-Service Systems (PSSs) constitute a family of service-based business models designed to satisfy our societal needs in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. To date however PSS application has remained niche due to a variety of critical barriers. This paper explores how ‘demand pull’ national government policies could support PSS activity by addressing these barriers and cultivating market demand. Lessons are drawn from a case study of how regulatory, economic incenti...

  12. Estuarine morphometry governs optically active substances, Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Nielsen, J. M.; Blüthgen, J.

    2013-01-01

    estuaries using OACs as input parameters. It is concluded that there are no large differences in OAC concentrations between the two estuaries. The spatial distributions of OACs and optical properties were significantly different and governed by the estuary morphometry, i.e. a power distribution......°N) at high discharges. The major difference was the spatial distribution of the optical properties against distance, best described by significant power functions in the ria, compared to significant linear functions in the coastal plain. It was hypothesized that estuarine morphometry could explain...... this spatial distribution. Partition and multiple regression analyses showed that Chl-a governed Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficient in both estuaries. Significant, high correlations were obtained by multiple regression analyses in the estimation of Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficients in the two...

  13. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by natural and synthetic activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grahame Hardie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a sensor of cellular energy status that is almost universally expressed in eukaryotic cells. While it appears to have evolved in single-celled eukaryotes to regulate energy balance in a cell-autonomous manner, during the evolution of multicellular animals its role has become adapted so that it also regulates energy balance at the whole body level, by responding to hormones that act primarily on the hypothalamus. AMPK monitors energy balance at the cellular level by sensing the ratios of AMP/ATP and ADP/ATP, and recent structural analyses of the AMPK heterotrimer that have provided insight into the complex mechanisms for these effects will be discussed. Given the central importance of energy balance in diseases that are major causes of morbidity or death in humans, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders, there has been a major drive to develop pharmacological activators of AMPK. Many such activators have been described, and the various mechanisms by which these activate AMPK will be discussed. A particularly large class of AMPK activators are natural products of plants derived from traditional herbal medicines. While the mechanism by which most of these activate AMPK has not yet been addressed, I will argue that many of them may be defensive compounds produced by plants to deter infection by pathogens or grazing by insects or herbivores, and that many of them will turn out to be inhibitors of mitochondrial function.

  14. Legal provisions governing technical installations, especially regulations of the Building Law, Trade-and-Industry Law, and Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    The author first shows the various legal regulation patterns of the German law system with regard to technical installations and in this context discusses the comprehensive clause method which refers to scientific-technical standards. This method is said to be an adequate means of achieving suitable results in the relationship between law and technology. However, three weak points can be seen: (1) The law system uses many different standards. (2) Due to uncertainty about the real meaning and content of these standards, it is not clear how these standards are defined. (3) This in practice puts up the question to what extent statutory works of technology are a suitable tool of making legal regulations more concrete, and whether they are to be given binding force. (HSCH) [de

  15. Recent government regulations in the United States seek to ensure the effectiveness of antibiotics by limiting their agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    The development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is viewed as a medical health threat. Because thousands of people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, efforts are underway to reduce antibiotic usage which in turn will reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the United States, the use of antibiotics in the production of food animals to enhance animal growth has been identified as contributing to resistance. In 2015, a veterinary feed directive was adopted by the U.S. federal government prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals that should reduce usage. The continued usage of antibiotics by producers for preventing disease may mean the directive is insufficient to reduce nontherapeutic antibiotic administration. This may lead some consumers to seek meat products from animals raised without antibiotics. A governmentally-sponsored labeling program could encourage reduction in antibiotic usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quorum-sensing regulation governs bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and host colonization in Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoudis, Maria D; Tsaltas, Dimitrios; Minogue, Timothy D; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2006-04-11

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii synthesizes stewartan exo/capsular polysaccharide (EPS) in a cell density-dependent manner governed by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing (QS) system. This study analyzes biofilm development and host colonization of the WT and QS regulatory mutant strains of P. stewartii. First, we show that the cell density-dependent synthesis of stewartan EPS, governed by the EsaI/EsaR QS system, is required for proper bacterial adhesion and development of spatially defined, 3D biofilms. Second, a nonvirulent mutant lacking the esaI gene adheres strongly to surfaces and develops densely packed, less structurally defined biofilms in vitro. This strain appears to be arrested in a low cell density developmental mode. Exposure of this strain to exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactone counteracts this adhesion phenotype. Third, QS mutants lacking the EsaR repressor attach poorly to surfaces and form amorphous biofilms heavily enmeshed in excess EPS. Fourth, the WT strain disseminates efficiently within the xylem, primarily in a basipetal direction. In contrast, the two QS mutant strains remain largely localized at the site of infection. Fifth, and most significantly, epifluorescence microscopic imaging of infected leaf tissue and excised xylem vessels reveals that the bacteria colonize the xylem with unexpected specificity, particularly toward the annular rings and spiral secondary wall thickenings of protoxylem, as opposed to indiscriminate growth to fill the xylem lumen. These observations are significant to bacterial plant pathogenesis in general and may reveal targets for disease control.

  17. Harmonisation of regulations on back-end activities - WENRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, B.; Theis, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) was established in 1999. The main objectives at that time were to develop a common approach to nuclear safety in Europe and to provide an independent capability to examine nuclear safety in applicant countries. Two working groups were launched to harmonise safety approaches between countries in Europe, the Reactor Harmonisation Working Group (RHWG) and the Working Group on Waste and Decommissioning (WGWD). In response to the events in Japanese reactors following the tsunami in 2011 WENRA established the contents of the 'NPP stress test'. Recent WENRA activities are concerned with inspection practices and research reactors. The WGWD has to date developed Safety Reference Levels (SRL) reports for decommissioning and storage according to its original mandate (WENRA, 2011, 2012a). WENRA members have experienced a benchmarking process and established national action plans for the modification of their national legal systems and practices according to benchmarking results. WGWD is currently working on developing a SRL report for disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A first draft version with SRLs for disposal was published in November 2012 on WENRA's web page, for comments from stakeholders. This paper presents the current status of development and elaborates on the role of WENRA WGWD work in harmonising approaches in Europe regarding development of the safety case for disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste. (authors)

  18. Distinct mechanisms regulate Lck spatial organization in activated T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha eKapoor-Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of the T cell receptor (TCR by the kinase Lck is the first detectable signaling event upon antigen engagement. The distribution of Lck within the plasma membrane, its conformational state, kinase activity and protein interactions all contribute to determine how efficiently Lck phosphorylates the engaged TCR. Here we used cross-correlation raster image spectroscopy (ccRICS and photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM to identify two mechanisms of Lck clustering: an intrinsic mechanism of Lck clustering induced by locking Lck in its open conformation, and an extrinsic mechanism of clustering controlled by the phosphorylation of tyrosine 192, which regulates the affinity of Lck SH2 domain. Both mechanisms of clustering were differently affected by the absence of the kinase Zap70 or the adaptor Lat. We further observed that the adaptor TSAd bound to and promoted the diffusion of Lck when it is phosphorylated on tyrosine 192. Our data suggest that while Lck open conformation drives aggregation and clustering, the spatial organization of Lck is further controlled by signaling events downstream of TCR phosphorylation.

  19. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min [National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Soon; Kang, Gum-Yong; Bang, Joo Young [Center for Biomedical Mass Spectrometry, Diatech Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Jung [National Research Laboratory for Chromatin Dynamics, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hong-Duk, E-mail: hdyoun@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  1. A Rewriting Framework and Logic for Activities Subject to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Regulations may be imposed by multiple governmental agencies as well as by institutional policies and protocols. Due to the complexity of both regulations and...positive number and decrements it; (3) A 0-test ri instruction is a branching instruction leading to one state if ri contains zero and to another state... insurance scenario discussed in (LMS09). De Young et al. describe in (DGJ+10) the challenges of formally specifying the temporal properties of regulations

  2. The Government's role in regulating, coordinating, and standardizing the response to Alzheimer's disease: Anticipated international cooperation in the area of intractable and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized that aging of the population is inextricably linked to many other global public health issues, such as universal health coverage, non-communicable diseases, and disability. However, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) estimates that 46.8 million elderly people worldwide were living with dementia in 2015. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is the main cause of cognitive impairment. AD will affect 5-7 out of every 100 older adults who are age 60 years or over. In response to the serious challenge posed by AD, governments are expected to play an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. As specific examples, i ) the Japanese Government has instituted and supported regulations to encourage the development of AD drugs in order to accelerate research and development of innovative drugs; ii ) the United States Government has cooperated with multiple partners such as non-governmental organizations in the response to AD; iii ) Chinese governmental measures have standardized clinical diagnosis and treatment as part of the response to AD, including eligible patients, diagnostic criteria, therapeutic schedules, drug selection, and required inspections; iv ) with political support from member governments, the European Union has issued guidelines and conducted clinical studies on medicines for the treatment of AD in order to ascertain the various stages of the disease and the relevance of biomarkers. AD is an intractable disease, so different countries need to share clinic trial information and cooperate in the conduct of those trials. International cooperation will play a key role in the response to other intractable and rare diseases.

  3. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-02-07

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid substitutions of R-X-X-S/T sites to Ala suppressed transactivation activity, and multiple substitution of these sites resulted in almost complete suppression of transactivation activity in transient assays. In contrast, substitution of the Ser/Thr residues to Asp resulted in high transactivation activity without exogenous ABA application. A phosphorylated, transcriptionally active form was achieved by substitution of Ser/Thr in all conserved R-X-X-S/T sites to Asp. Transgenic plants overexpressing the phosphorylated active form of AREB1 expressed many ABA-inducible genes, such as RD29B, without ABA treatment. These results indicate that the ABA-dependent multisite phosphorylation of AREB1 regulates its own activation in plants.

  4. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. [ 3 H]PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 μM. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRPγS and GDPβS, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)

  5. Regulations, guidelines, standards, and policies pertaining to decontamination and decommissioning activities: A literature review. Informal report, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1994-09-01

    A literature review of the existing rules, regulations, and guidelines pertaining to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been updated. Included in the survey are US Government documents, national (industrial) standards, international standards and guidelines, and the regulations issued by various national governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany. The Department of Energy (DOE) complex contains within it almost 1,000 nuclear facilities which will require decommissioning in the coming years. This action will entail activities in many different areas, one of which will involve the development of the basic safety principles to be applied to the process as a whole. These principles will be used to guide personnel in the development of safety assessment procedures for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities and in conducting safety assessments of such activities at the facilities themselves. The present report represents an updating of the original report. It retains all the information that appeared in the original report with the new material integrated into the applicable sections. Future revisions will be made as additional information becomes available

  6. Development and implementation of a local government survey to measure community supports for healthy eating and active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latetia V Moore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to capture local level policy supports for healthy eating and active living and findings and lessons learned from a 2012 pilot in two states, Minnesota and California, including respondent burden, survey sampling and administration methods, and survey item feasibility issues. A 38-item, web-based, self-administered survey and sampling frame were developed to assess the prevalence of 22 types of healthy eating and active living policies in a representative sample of local governments in the two states. The majority of respondents indicated the survey required minimal effort to complete with half taking <20 min to complete the survey. A non-response follow-up plan including emails and phone calls was required to achieve a 68% response rate (versus a 37% response rate for email only reminders. Local governments with larger residential populations reported having healthy eating and active living policies and standards more often than smaller governments. Policies that support active living were more common than those that support healthy eating and varied within the two states. The methods we developed are a feasible data collection tool for estimating the prevalence of municipal healthy eating and active living policies and standards at the state and national level.

  7. 30 CFR 285.1000 - What activities does this subpart regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does this subpart regulate? 285.1000 Section 285.1000 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Activities § 285.1000 What activities does this subpart regulate? (a) This subpart provides the general...

  8. Vinculin contributes to Cell Invasion by Regulating Contractile Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2008-07-01

    Vinculin is a component of the focal adhesion complex and is described as a mechano-coupling protein connecting the integrin receptor and the actin cytoskeleton. Vinculin knock-out (k.o.) cells (vin-/-) displayed increased migration on a 2-D collagen- or fibronectin-coated substrate compared to wildtype cells, but the role of vinculin in cell migration through a 3-D connective tissue is unknown. We determined the invasiveness of established tumor cell lines using a 3-D collagen invasion assay. Gene expression analysis of 4 invasive and 4 non-invasive tumor cell lines revealed that vinculin expression was significantly increased in invasive tumor cell lines. To analyze the mechanisms by which vinculin increased cell invasion in a 3-D gel, we studied mouse embryonic fibroblasts wildtype and vin-/- cells. Wildtype cells were 3-fold more invasive compared vin-/- cells. We hypothesized that the ability to generate sufficient traction forces is a prerequisite for tumor cell migration in a 3-D connective tissue matrix. Using traction microscopy, we found that wildtype exerted 3-fold higher tractions on fibronectin-coated polyacrylamide gels compared to vin-/- cells. These results show that vinculin controls two fundamental functions that lead to opposite effects on cell migration in a 2-D vs. a 3-D environment: On the one hand, vinculin stabilizes the focal adhesions (mechano-coupling function) and thereby reduces motility in 2-D. On the other hand, vinculin is also a potent activator of traction generation (mechano-regulating function) that is important for cell invasion in a 3-D environment.

  9. Health promotion activities in annual reports of local governments: 'Health for All' targets as a tool for content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Camilla M; Bjärås, Gunilla E M; Tillgren, Per; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2003-09-01

    This article presents an instrument to study the annual reporting of health promotion activities in local governments within the three intervention municipalities of the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP). The content of health promotion activities are described and the strengths, weaknesses and relevance of the method to health promotion discussed. A content analysis of local governmental reports from 1995-2000 in three Swedish municipalities. A matrix with WHO's 38 'Health for All' (HFA) targets from 1991 was used when coding the local health promotion activities. There are many public health initiatives within the local governmental structure even if they are not always addressed as health promotion. The main focuses in the local governmental reports were environmental issues, unemployment, social care and welfare. Local governmental reports were found to be a useful source of information that could provide knowledge about the priorities and organizational capacities for health promotion within local authorities. Additionally the HFA targets were an effective tool to identify and categorize systematically local health promotion activities in the annual reports of local governments. Identifying local health promotion initiatives by local authorities may ease the development of a health perspective and joint actions within the existing political and administrative structure. This paper provides a complementary method of attaining and structuring information about the local community for developments in health promotion.

  10. Cognitive emotion regulation enhances aversive prediction error activity while reducing emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates p300/CBP co-activation function. Possible role in the regulation of NF-AT1 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gonzalo, Marta; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carretero, Marta; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Alejandra; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Lai, Michael M.C.; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanisms of core-mediated transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. Oncogenic virus proteins often target p300/CBP, a known co-activator of a wide variety of transcription factors, to regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that HCV core protein interacts with p300/CBP and enhances both its acetyl-transferase and transcriptional activities. In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear core protein activates the NH 2 -terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) of NF-AT1 in a p300/CBP-dependent manner. We propose a model in which core protein regulates the co-activation function of p300/CBP and activates NF-AT1, and probably other p300/CBP-regulated transcription factors, by a novel mechanism involving the regulation of the acetylation state of histones and/or components of the transcriptional machinery

  12. Flipped Classroom with Problem Based Activities: Exploring Self-Regulated Learning in a Programming Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öztürk, Mücahit

    2017-01-01

    This study intended to explore the development of self-regulation in a flipped classroom setting. Problem based learning activities were carried out in flipped classrooms to promote self-regulation. A total of 30 undergraduate students from Mechatronic department participated in the study. Self-regulation skills were discussed through students'…

  13. 15 CFR 922.72 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-Sanctuary-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities-Sanctuary-wide. 922.72 Section 922.72 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary § 922.72 Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities—Sanctuary-wide. (a) Except...

  14. Systemic insulin sensitivity is regulated by GPS2 inhibition of AKT ubiquitination and activation in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederquist, Carly T; Lentucci, Claudia; Martinez-Calejman, Camila; Hayashi, Vanessa; Orofino, Joseph; Guertin, David; Fried, Susan K; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Insulin signaling plays a unique role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and the impairment of insulin action is associated with altered lipid metabolism, obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes. The main aim of this study was to provide further insight into the regulatory mechanisms governing the insulin signaling pathway by investigating the role of non-proteolytic ubiquitination in insulin-mediated activation of AKT. The molecular mechanism of AKT regulation through ubiquitination is first dissected in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and then validated in vivo using mice with adipo-specific deletion of GPS2, an endogenous inhibitor of Ubc13 activity (GPS2-AKO mice). Our results indicate that K63 ubiquitination is a critical component of AKT activation in the insulin signaling pathway and that counter-regulation of this step is provided by GPS2 preventing AKT ubiquitination through inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Removal of this negative checkpoint, through GPS2 downregulation or genetic deletion, results in sustained activation of insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo . As a result, the balance between lipid accumulation and utilization is shifted toward storage in the adipose tissue and GPS2-AKO mice become obese under normal laboratory chow diet. However, the adipose tissue of GPS2-AKO mice is not inflamed, the levels of circulating adiponectin are elevated, and systemic insulin sensitivity is overall improved. Our findings characterize a novel layer of regulation of the insulin signaling pathway based on non-proteolytic ubiquitination of AKT and define GPS2 as a previously unrecognized component of the insulin signaling cascade. In accordance with this role, we have shown that GPS2 presence in adipocytes modulates systemic metabolism by restricting the activation of insulin signaling during the fasted state, whereas in absence of GPS2, the adipose tissue is more efficient at lipid storage, and obesity becomes uncoupled from inflammation and insulin

  15. Adapting to extreme events related to natural variability and climate change: the imperative of coupling technology with strong regulation and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kythreotis, A P; Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2013-09-03

    In recent years there has been an increase in extreme events related to natural variability (such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes) and climate change (such as flooding and more extreme weather). Developing innovative technologies is crucial in making society more resilient to such events. However, little emphasis has been placed on the role of human decision-making in maximizing the positive impacts of technological developments. This is exacerbated by the lack of appropriate adaptation options and the privatization of existing infrastructure, which can leave people exposed to increasing risk. This work examines the need for more robust government regulation and legislation to complement developments and innovations in technology in order to protect communities against such extreme events.

  16. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2009-01-01

    with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P exposures was available. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel allergy decreased among young female patients with dermatitis between 1985 and 2007 whereas it increased among older patients, probably......BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...

  17. Democracy to Come: Active Forums as Indicator Suites for e-Participation and e-Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Debbie; Balnaves, Mark

    There is in modern industrial societies a ‘civic deficit’ Civic engagement in the traditional sense of community values and civic participation is declining (Putman 2000). What has not been examined is the ways in which various media including new media may provide real options for participatory cultures and participatory democracy now and in the future. Undoubtedly there are differences between participatory cultures that are considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy and those that are not. This paper, based on initial research into Internet activism, will examine GetUp! as a specific example of an active forum that the authors argue enable participatory citizenship through media participation. While there are very few examples of active forums that might be considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy there are clear signals that activism through active forums is maturing into a potent democratic force.

  18. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  19. 42 CFR 137.205 - Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources, hardware, software, and technical assistance to the Self-Governance Tribes to facilitate data... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes entering into a compact with the IHS under Title V? 137...

  20. Regulation of nuclear and radiological activities; Reglementarea activitatilor nucleare si radiologice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorencu, Angela; Vasilieva, Natalia; Buzdugan, Artur; Balan, Ionel [Agentia Nationala de Reglementare a Activitatilor Nucleare si Radiologice, Alecu Russo, 1, MD 2068, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The paper presents a review of the Moldovan regulatory framework regarding nuclear and radiological activities and of the competence of state regulatory authority - the National Agency for the Regulation of Nuclear and Radiological Activities.

  1. The transcriptional activator GAL4-VP16 regulates the intra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activator also reduced the TBP dimer levels both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the dimer may be a direct target of transcriptional activators. The transcriptional activator facilitated the dimer to monomer transition and activated monomers further to help TBP bind even the weaker TATA boxes stably. The overall stimulatory ...

  2. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Huei Phing

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  4. The State Regulation of Innovation Activity at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qoqiauri Lamara G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.

  5. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  6. 78 FR 19632 - Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...

  7. DMPD: Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14726496 Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. Cor...osine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. PubmedID 14726496 Title Receptor tyrosine...rell PH, Morrison AC, Lutz MA. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 May;75(5):731-7. Epub 2004 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Receptor tyr

  8. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  9. Active Learning and Self-Regulation Enhance Student Teachers' Professional Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Päivi; Niemi, Hannele M.; Nevgi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The study identifies the relationships between active learning, student teachers' self-regulated learning and professional competences. Further, the aim is to investigate how active learning promotes professional competences of student teachers with different self-regulation profiles. Responses from 422 student teachers to an electronic survey…

  10. Soil Gas Dynamics and Microbial Activity in the Unsaturated Zone of a Regulated River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H.; Ferencz, S. B.; Cardenas, M. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Bennett, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Over 60% of the world's rivers are dammed, and are therefore regulated. In some river systems, river regulation is the dominant factor governing fluid exchange and soil gas dynamics in the hyporheic region and overlying unsaturated zone of the river banks. Where this is the case, it is important to understand the effects that an artificially-induced change in river stage can have on the chemical, plant, and microbial components of the unsaturated zone. Daily releases from an upstream dam cause rapid stage fluctuations in the Lower Colorado River east of Austin, Texas. For this study, we utilized an array of water and gas wells along a transect perpendicular to the river to investigate the biogeochemical process occurring in this mixing zone. The gas wells were installed at several depths up to 1.5 meters, and facilitated the continuous monitoring of soil gases as the pulse percolated through the river bank. Water samples collected from the screened wells penetrated to depths below the water table and were analyzed for nutrients, carbon, and major ions. Additionally, two soil cores were taken at different distances from the river and analyzed for soil moisture and grain size. These cores were also analyzed for microbial activity using the total heterotroph count method and the acetylene inhibition technique, a sensitive method of measuring denitrifying activity. The results provide a detailed picture of soil gas flux and biogeochemical processes in the bank environment in a regulated river. Findings indicate that a river pulse that causes a meter-scale change in river stage causes small, centimeter-scale pulses in the water table. We propose that these conditions create an area of elevated microbial respiration at the base of the unsaturated zone that appears to be decoupled from normal diurnal fluctuations. Along the transect, CO2 concentrations increased with increasing depth down to the water table. CO2 concentrations were highest in the time following a pulse

  11. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  12. Algoritmos, regulação e governança: uma revisão de literatura / Algorithms, regulation, and governance: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Felix de Souza Machado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To offer a curated mapping of the recent academic production on the topic of algorithmic governance and regulation to understand its connection to the theoretical traditions of regulation and governance. Methodology/approach/design – Exploratory literature review focusing on the detection of themes and theoretical approaches in publications that define their field of investigation through expressions such as “algorithmic regulation”, “algorithmic governance”, “algorithmic governmentality”, and “govern by algorithm”. Findings – Despite their appearance from 2013 onwards, surveyed papers tend to carry on older research traditions that also appear in governance and regulation studies. Research topics and theoretical approaches vary, with Foucauldian, regulatory and actor-network approaches being the most common. Possibility due to the novelty of the field, there is a stronger presence of theoretical endeavors. Originality/value – This is the first organized survey with this scope and it maps a host of foreign studies to the Portuguese language, serving as a starting point for those interested in the field. Resumo Propósito – Oferecer um mapeamento selecionado da recente produção acadêmica sobre o tema de governança e regulação algorítmica, de modo a compreender como ela se conecta com as tradições teóricas de governança e regulação. Metodologia/abordagem/design – Revisão exploratória de literatura focada na detecção de temas e marcos teóricos das publicações que definem seu campo de investigação por meio de expressões como “regulação algorítmica”, “governança algorítmica”, “governamentalidade algorítmica” e “governo por algoritmo”. Resultados – Apesar de surgirem de 2013 em diante, os artigos mapeados tendem a continuar tradições de pesquisa mais antigas que também figuram nos estudos de regulação e governança. Os temas e abordagens teóricas são variados

  13. Incoherent feedforward control governs adaptation of activated ras in a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kosuke; Shao, Danying; Adler, Micha; Charest, Pascale G; Loomis, William F; Levine, Herbert; Groisman, Alex; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Firtel, Richard A

    2012-01-03

    Adaptation in signaling systems, during which the output returns to a fixed baseline after a change in the input, often involves negative feedback loops and plays a crucial role in eukaryotic chemotaxis. We determined the dynamical response to a uniform change in chemoattractant concentration of a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway immediately downstream from G protein-coupled receptors. The response of an activated Ras showed near-perfect adaptation, leading us to attempt to fit the results using mathematical models for the two possible simple network topologies that can provide perfect adaptation. Only the incoherent feedforward network accurately described the experimental results. This analysis revealed that adaptation in this Ras pathway is achieved through the proportional activation of upstream components and not through negative feedback loops. Furthermore, these results are consistent with a local excitation, global inhibition mechanism for gradient sensing, possibly with a Ras guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein acting as a global inhibitor.

  14. In vitro production of growth regulators and phosphatase activity by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that the population levels of phosphobacteria were higher in the rhizosphere soil of groundnut plant. Further, all the strains of phosphobacteria were able to produce phytohormones and phosphatase enzyme under in vitro conditions. Keywords: In vitro, phosphobacteria, growth regulators ...

  15. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  16. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-04-23

    Students' self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students' self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities. A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students' study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity. Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  17. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  18. Has the civil society a real place in the governance of the nuclear and chemical activities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium, organized in three sessions discusses the following topics: the historical aspects of the transparency in the nuclear domain, the AZF accident, the nuclear wastes specific case, the access of the society to the knowledge, the democratic participation to the management of the risk activities and the conditions of this sustainable participation, the international situation and the public trust. (A.L.B.)

  19. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  20. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific...

  1. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report; Commission de regulation de l'energie. Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  2. Activity-Dependent Regulation of Surface Glucose Transporter-3

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jainne M.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Rameau, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) is the main facilitative glucose transporter in neurons. Glucose provides neurons with a critical energy source for neuronal activity. However, the mechanism by which neuronal activity controls glucose influx via GLUT3 is unknown. We investigated the influence of synaptic stimulation on GLUT3 surface expression and glucose import in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Synaptic activity increased surface expression of GLUT3 leading to an elevation o...

  3. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Active Learning and Self-Regulation Enhance Student Teachers’ Professional Competences

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Päivi; Niemi, Hannele M.; Nevgi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The study identifies the relationships between active learning, student teachers’ self-regulated learning and professional competences. Further, the aim is to investigate how active learning promotes professional competences of student teachers with different self-regulation profiles. Responses from 422 student teachers to an electronic survey were analysed using statistical methods. It was found that the use of active learning methods, such as goal-oriented and intentional learning as well a...

  5. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  6. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  7. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ulucanlar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardised packaging (SP of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP.We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach.The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better

  8. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J; Hatchard, Jenny L; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-03-01

    Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better Regulation

  9. Insulin signaling regulates fatty acid catabolism at the level of CoA activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS. We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis.

  10. Regulation of calcium homeostasis in activated human neutrophils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The objectives of the current study were to: (i) present an integrated model for the restoration of calcium homeostasis in activated human neutrophils based on current knowledge and recent research; and (ii) identify potential targets for the modulation of calcium fluxes in activated neutrophils based on this model ...

  11. Examining "Active" Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the notion that active procrastinators are a positive type of procrastinators who possess desirable characteristics similar to non-procrastinators, but different from the traditional passive procrastinators. A two-step procedure was followed to categorise university students (N = 125) as active procrastinators, passive…

  12. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  13. Recent achievements in regulating nuclear power activities in taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The energy resources in Taiwan are very scarce with more than 98% of the fuel sources imported from foreign countries. The nuclear power became essential because of its stability and economy in price. There are six operating nuclear power units in Taiwan, and two more advanced boiling water reactor units under construction. As the country's nuclear power still plays an important role, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) devotes its great efforts working on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, nuclear security, nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear waste management and environmental monitoring. Recent achievements of AEC on the above mentioned topics will be covered in this presentation

  14. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  15. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Steven A.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation. PMID:24829282

  16. Structure-function relationships governing activity and stability of a DNA alkylation damage repair thermostable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Miggiano, Riccardo; Serpe, Mario; Vettone, Antonella; Valenti, Anna; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rossi, Franca; Rossi, Mosè; Rizzi, Menico; Ciaramella, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferases repair alkylated DNA bases, which are among the most common DNA lesions, and are evolutionary conserved, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. The human ortholog, hAGT, is involved in resistance to alkylating chemotherapy drugs. We report here on the alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferase, SsOGT, from an archaeal species living at high temperature, a condition that enhances the harmful effect of DNA alkylation. The exceptionally high stability of SsOGT gave us the unique opportunity to perform structural and biochemical analysis of a protein of this class in its post-reaction form. This analysis, along with those performed on SsOGT in its ligand-free and DNA-bound forms, provides insights in the structure-function relationships of the protein before, during and after DNA repair, suggesting a molecular basis for DNA recognition, catalytic activity and protein post-reaction fate, and giving hints on the mechanism of alkylation-induced inactivation of this class of proteins. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Governance of the research activities in higher educational institutions: factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musawenkosi Ngibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available South African higher education institutions, specifically, universities of technology have been faced with an arduous battle of increasing postgraduate students enrolment (masters and doctoral and improve their completion rate. However, the situation is exacerbated by inadequate number and inexperience of supervisors to supervise these postgraduate students. The Durban University of Technology has formulated research structures to administer and co-ordinate research activities in order to improve the number of staff members with doctoral qualifications in order to aid the current challenges. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the circumstances and factors hindering the academic staff throughput rates and the impact it has on the university. The use of qualitative and quantitative approach was used for this study, with closed and open-ended questionnaires used to collect data from 278 academic staff members using a probability sampling. The respondents 9 (4.9% indicated that lack of external funding and project management skills proved to be major contributory factors hindering academics staff to complete their postgraduate degrees within the required time. The study recommends that funding should be made easily available to academics pursuing doctoral studies, while project management workshops should be organised regularly to help academics appropriately management their studies. This can have a positive impact which will benefit the university and aid to the current crisis of lack of supervisor for masters and doctoral studies

  18. Magnetic Properties of Solar Active Regions that Govern Large Solar Flares and Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Shin; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Harra, Louise; Hudson, Hugh S.; Nagashima, Kaori

    2017-08-01

    Strong flares and CMEs are often produced from active regions (ARs). In order to better understand the magnetic properties and evolutions of such ARs, we conducted statistical investigations on the SDO/HMI and AIA data of all flare events with GOES levels >M5.0 within 45 deg from the disk center for 6 years from May 2010 (from the beginning to the declining phase of solar cycle 24). Out of the total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, more than 80% have delta-sunspots and about 15% violate Hale’s polarity rule. We obtained several key findings including (1) the flare duration is linearly proportional to the separation of the flare ribbons (i.e., scale of reconnecting magnetic fields) and (2) CME-eruptive events have smaller sunspot areas. Depending on the magnetic properties, flaring ARs can be categorized into several groups, such as spot-spot, in which a highly-sheared polarity inversion line is formed between two large sunspots, and spot-satellite, where a newly-emerging flux next to a mature sunspot triggers a compact flare event. These results point to the possibility that magnetic structures of the ARs determine the characteristics of flares and CMEs. In the presentation, we will also show new results from the systematic flux emergence simulations of delta-sunspot formation and discuss the evolution processes of flaring ARs.

  19. Light-regulation of enzyme activity in anacystis nidulans (Richt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, J X; Anderson, L E

    1975-01-01

    The effect of light on the levels of activity of six enzymes which are light-modulated in higher plants was examined in the photosynthetic procaryot Anacystis nidulans. Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (EC 2.7.1.19) was found to be light-activated in vivo and dithiothreitol-activated in vitro while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) was light-inactivated and dithiothreitol-inactivated. The enzymes fructose-1,6-diphosphate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11), sedoheptulose-1,7-diphosphate phosphatase, NAD- and NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12; EC 1.2.1.13) were not affected by light treatment of the intact algae, but sedoheptulose-diphosphate phosphatase and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases were dithiothreitol-activated in crude extracts. Light apparently controls the activity of the reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in this photosynthetic procaryot as in higher plants, through a process which probably involves reductive modulation of enzyme activity.

  20. Emotion regulation strategies: procedure modeling of J. Gross and cultural activity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Pervichko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper argued the desirability of structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation in the theoretical and methodological framework of cultural activity paradigm with the construction of a psychologically-based typology of emotion regulation strategies in norm and pathology, and also psychological mechanisms enabling the regulation of emotions. This conclusion was based on the analysis of the basic concepts and paradigms in which the issue of emotion regulation is studied: cognitive and psychoanalytic approaches, concept and emotional development of emotional intelligence, cultural activity approach. The paper considers the procedure model of emotion regulation by J. Gross, identifies emotion regulation strategies and evaluates their effectiveness. The possibilities and limitations of the model. Based on the review of the today research the conclusion is arrived at that the existing labels on a wide range of regulatory strategies remain an open issue.The author’s definition of emotion regulation is drawn. Emotion regulation is deemed as a set of mental processes, psychological mechanisms and regulatory strategies that people use to preserve the capacity for productive activities in a situation of emotional stress; to ensure optimal impulse control and emotions; to maintain the excitement at the optimum level. The second part of this paper provides the general description of emotion regulation strategies, the approach to their typology, the psychological mechanisms of emotion regulation that lie in the basis of this typology, i.e. the main elements of the structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation. The work shows theoretical and methodological efficacy of empirical significance of signs and symbols and also personal reflection. The diagnostic system to allow empirically identify a wide range of emotion regulation strategies is suggested. The psychological mechanisms used by the subject to solve the problem of emotional

  1. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  2. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    for regulation of nuclear import that is necessary for proper localization of the repair proteins. This review summarizes the current knowledge on nuclear import mechanisms of DNA excision repair proteins and provides a model that categorizes the import by different mechanisms, including classical nuclear import......DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA......, it is evident that proteins from the different DNA repair pathways interact [Y. Wang, D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, J. Qin, BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures, Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 927-939; M. Christmann, M...

  3. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  4. Assessing brain activations associated with emotional regulation during virtual reality mood induction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, A.; Rey, B.; Clemente, M.; Wrzesien, M.; Alcañiz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional regulation strategies are used by people to influence their emotional responses to external or internal emotional stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the brain activations that are associated with the application of two different emotional regulation strategies (cognitive

  5. Design for mood : Twenty activity-based opportunities to design for mood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory-based approach to design for mood regulation. The main proposition is that design can best influence mood by enabling and stimulating people to engage in a broad range of mood-regulating activities. The first part of the manuscript reviews state-of-the art mood-focused

  6. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  7. USP21 regulates Hippo pathway activity by mediating MARK protein turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Loya, Anand Chainsukh

    2017-01-01

    observed in cancer and often correlates with worse survival. The activity and stability of Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, AMOT and LATS1/2, are regulated by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin ligase complexes that regulate the turnover of Hippo components...

  8. Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Balance-Confidence in Active and Inactive Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study confirms that lack of self-regulation in the elderly can lead to decreased physical activity and restrictions. It is suggested that self-regulation should be emphasized in the elderly so that they can overcome their environmental issues and enhance their balance confidence.

  9. Interaction Analysis for Supporting Students' Self-Regulation during Blog-Based CSCL Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Nikolaos; Kapravelos, Efstathios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2018-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important means of supporting students' self-awareness and self-regulation level so as to enhance their motivation and engagement. Interaction Analysis (IA) contributes to this end, and its use in studying learning dynamics involved in asynchronous Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) activities has…

  10. 75 FR 67094 - Agency Information Collection Activities: CBP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Activities: CBP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the: CBP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers (19 CFR Part 111). This... Pertaining to Customs Brokers (19 CFR Part 111). OMB Number: 1651-0034. Form Numbers: CBP Forms 3124 and...

  11. Proposal for regulation of logging activities in oil wells using ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrowoh, Jacob R.

    2000-01-01

    It covers general aspects of nuclear energy and the suitable legal frame for its application related to oil industry. Besides, a regulation proposal to control logging activities in Ecuador using ionizing radiation sources in oil wells. It was prepared taking into account the Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission criteria and international regulations

  12. Gene program-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren F; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) activation coordinates induction of the hepatic fasting response through coactivation of numerous transcription factors and gene programs. In the June 15, 2011, issue of Genes & Development, Lustig and colleagues (pp....... 1232-1244) demonstrated that phosphorylation of PGC-1α by the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) specifically interfered with the interaction between PGC-1α and HNF4α in liver and blocked the coactivation of the gluconeogenic target genes. This demonstrates how independent fine-tuning of gene...

  13. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  14. Young Children's Interest-Oriented Activity and Later Academic Self-Regulation Strategies in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Carin; Alexander, Joyce M.; Johnson, Kathy E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated children's interest-based activities in the home during the preschool years and their subsequent academic self-regulation behaviors in school. Children's home activities were tracked for 1 year prior to kindergarten entry. Based on their profiles of activities, children (109) were assigned to one of four interest groups:…

  15. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...

  16. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by

  17. Regulation of the branchial ciliary activity in the mussel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dral, A.D.G.

    1977-01-01

    In mussels the movement of the cilia on the gill are basically autonomous and influenced by environmental factors. The branchial nerve has an inhibitory as well as a stimulating effect on the activity of the lateral cilia. The reactions of these cilia to changing temperature and chlorinity in

  18. Active Compound of Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb. Down-Regulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMPs activities in the culture media were analyzed by zymographic techniques. Dexamethasone was used as the positive control. It was found that compound D at the concentration of 10 - 100 µM significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13 which was induced by IL-1ß (P<0.05) concomitantly ...

  19. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-25

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad ( B CL-2 a gonist of cell d eath) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on K ATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal K ATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal K ATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of K ATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a 'dentate gate' function that is reinforced by increased K ATP channel activity. © 2018, Martínez-François et al.

  20. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Redox regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death.The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC.Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation.In BAEC, Berberine caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC at Ser79, a well characterized downstream target of AMPK. Concomitantly, Berberine increased peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant formed by simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide. Pre-incubation of BAEC with anti-oxidants markedly attenuated Berberine-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK and ACC. Consistently, adenoviral expression of superoxide dismutase and pretreatment of L-N(G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a non-selective NOS inhibitor blunted Berberine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, mitochondria-targeted tempol (mito-tempol pretreatment or expression of uncoupling protein attenuated AMPK activation caused by Berberine. Depletion of mitochondria abolished the effects of Berberine on AMPK in EC. Finally, Berberine significantly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser307 and gene silencing of LKB1 attenuated Berberine-enhanced AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation in BAEC.Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived superoxide anions and peroxynitrite are required for Berberine-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells.

  2. Network governance and capacity of local governments to deliver LED in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose B Namara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses network governance and its contribution to the capacity of local governments (LGs to deliver local economic development (LED in Uganda. Although a formal LED policy was only established in Uganda in February 2014, there have been LED-inspired practices in the past decade. Various scholars and practitioners have observed that the autonomy and capacity of LGs to deliver LED is limited, but have been hopeful that new governance strategies like network governance would increase the capacities of LGs. However, neither network governance arrangements among LGs, nor their potential to improve governance capacity, have been documented. In a case study of Kyenjojo District, this paper finds that existing network governance arrangements have been fundamental in improving financial autonomy at this LG, delivering some income to invest in LED activities, although no evidence was found of reduced transaction costs in transforming local economies. The study further reveals that network governance arrangements have not led to the development of specialised skills in regulation or law enforcement, and capacity gaps are evident amongst staff and members in understanding the private sector and how it works. On a positive note, there is clear evidence of attempts by the LG to be innovative. Based on these findings, this study recommends that LGs need to consider a multi-pronged or multi-network governance approach to LED, which in turn will require a refocusing of governance mechanisms to become more dynamic and responsive, and offer incentives to the various actors in the development sector.

  3. Molecular chaperone complexes with antagonizing activities regulate stability and activity of the tumor suppressor LKB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaude, H; Aznar, N; Delay, A; Bres, A; Buchet-Poyau, K; Caillat, C; Vigouroux, A; Rogon, C; Woods, A; Vanacker, J-M; Höhfeld, J; Perret, C; Meyer, P; Billaud, M; Forcet, C

    2012-03-22

    LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is constitutionally mutated in a cancer-prone condition, called Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, as well as somatically inactivated in a sizeable fraction of lung and cervical neoplasms. The LKB1 gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that associates with the pseudokinase STRAD (STE-20-related pseudokinase) and the scaffolding protein MO25, the formation of this heterotrimeric complex promotes allosteric activation of LKB1. We have previously reported that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binds to and stabilizes LKB1. Combining pharmacological studies and RNA interference approaches, we now provide evidence that the co-chaperone Cdc37 participates to the regulation of LKB1 stability. It is known that the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex recognizes a surface within the N-terminal catalytic lobe of client protein kinases. In agreement with this finding, we found that the chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 interact with an LKB1 isoform that differs in the C-terminal region, but not with a novel LKB1 variant that lacks a portion of the kinase N-terminal lobe domain. Reconstitution of the two complexes LKB1-STRAD and LKB1-Hsp90-Cdc37 with recombinant proteins revealed that the former is catalytically active whereas the latter is inactive. Furthermore, consistent with a documented repressor function of Hsp90, LKB1 kinase activity was transiently stimulated upon dissociation of Hsp90. Finally, disruption of the LKB1-Hsp90 complex favors the recruitment of both Hsp/Hsc70 and the U-box dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) that triggers LKB1 degradation. Taken together, our results establish that the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex controls both the stability and activity of the LKB1 kinase. This study further shows that two chaperone complexes with antagonizing activities, Hsp90-Cdc37 and Hsp/Hsc70-CHIP, finely control the cellular level of LKB1 protein.

  4. 77 FR 42305 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regulations.gov...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... appropriate automated electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of... rulemaking activities. The `feedback exchange' serves as a learning laboratory for open government, enabling... to download and review the contents of a rulemaking docket as well as mix and match such information...

  5. Institutional investor activism : Hedge funds and private equity, economics and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  6. Niacin and its metabolites as master regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J Garcia; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies. Niacin, NAM and 2-Pyr significantly decreased ROS, NO and NOS2 expression in LPS-treated human mature macrophages. Niacin and NAM skewed macrophage polarization toward antiinflammatory M2 macrophage whereas a trend toward proinflammatory M1 macrophage was noted following treatment with NUA. Niacin and NAM also reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human mature macrophages and promoted bias toward antiinflammatory CD14 + CD16 ++ nonclassical human primary monocytes. This study reveals for the first time that niacin and its metabolites possess antioxidant, reprogramming and antiinflammatory properties on human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our findings imply a new understanding of the mechanisms by which niacin and its metabolites favor a continuous and gradual plasticity process in the human monocyte/macrophage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Substrate Specificity, Membrane Topology, and Activity Regulation of Human Alkaline Ceramidase 2 (ACER2)*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wei; Jin, Junfei; Xu, Ruijuan; Hu, Wei; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2010-01-01

    Human alkaline ceramidase 2 (ACER2) plays an important role in cellular responses by regulating the hydrolysis of ceramides in cells. Here we report its biochemical characterization, membrane topology, and activity regulation. Recombinant ACER2 was expressed in yeast mutant cells (Δypc1Δydc1) that lack endogenous ceramidase activity, and microsomes from ACER2-expressiong yeast cells were used to biochemically characterize ACER2. ACER2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of various ceramides and followed...

  8. Regulation of drugs affecting striatal cholinergic activity by corticostriatal projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladinsky, H.

    1986-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the chronic degeneration of the corticostriatal excitatory pathway makes the cholinergic neurons of the striatum insensitive to the neuropharmacological action of a number of different drugs. Female rats were used; they were killed and after the i.v. infusion of tritium-choline precursor, choline acetyltransferase activity was measured. Striatal noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin content was measured by electrochemical detection coupled with high pressure liquid chromatography. Uptake of tritium-glutamic acid was estimated. The data were analyzed statistically. It is shown that there is evidence that the effects of a number of drugs capable of depressing cholinergic activity through receptor-mediated responses are operative only if the corticostriatal pathway is integral. Neuropharmacological responses in the brain appear to be the result of an interaction between several major neurotransmitter systems

  9. Cis-regulatory RNA elements that regulate specialized ribosome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the ribosome itself can play a highly regulatory role in the specialized translation of specific subpools of mRNAs, in particular at the level of ribosomal proteins (RP). However, the mechanism(s) by which this selection takes place has remained poorly understood. In our recent study, we discovered a combination of unique RNA elements in the 5'UTRs of mRNAs that allows for such control by the ribosome. These mRNAs contain a Translation Inhibitory Element (TIE) that inhibits general cap-dependent translation, and an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that relies on a specific RP for activation. The unique combination of an inhibitor of general translation and an activator of specialized translation is key to ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. Here we discuss how these RNA regulatory elements provide a new level of control to protein expression and their implications for gene expression, organismal development and evolution.

  10. DMPD: Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17349209 Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. Carmody...uclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. Authors Carmody

  11. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  12. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  13. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  14. Self-regulation resources and physical activity participation among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Miquelon, Paule; Boudreau, François

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity plays a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to understand why so few adults with type 2 diabetes regularly engage in physical activity. The role of self-regulation in the context of health-related behavior adherence, especially in terms of physical activity engagement and adherence, has largely been reviewed based on the strength energy model. Building on this line of research, the aim of this theoretical work was to highlight how self-regulation and ego depletion can influence the lower rate of physical activity participation among adults with type 2 diabetes, compared to adults from the general population.

  15. Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation: A Review of Tobacco Industry Submissions to the UK Government Consultation on Standardised Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Hatchard, Jenny L.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for ‘more evidence’, but four months later a second ‘independent review’ was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. Methods and Findings We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, ‘mimicked scientific critique’ was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in ‘evidential landscaping’, promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. Conclusions The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely

  16. Uruguay - Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementa...

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementation including: Improving corporate information, particularly ownership disclosure, related party transac...

  18. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  19. Genomewide analyses define different modes of transcriptional regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Adhikary

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are nuclear receptors with essential functions in lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis, cell differentiation, inflammation and metabolic disorders, and represent important drug targets. PPARs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs and can form transcriptional activator or repressor complexes at specific DNA elements (PPREs. It is believed that the decision between repression and activation is generally governed by a ligand-mediated switch. We have performed genomewide analyses of agonist-treated and PPARβ/δ-depleted human myofibroblasts to test this hypothesis and to identify global principles of PPARβ/δ-mediated gene regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq of PPARβ/δ, H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II enrichment sites combined with transcriptional profiling enabled the definition of 112 bona fide PPARβ/δ target genes showing either of three distinct types of transcriptional response: (I ligand-independent repression by PPARβ/δ; (II ligand-induced activation and/or derepression by PPARβ/δ; and (III ligand-independent activation by PPARβ/δ. These data identify PPRE-mediated repression as a major mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PPARβ/δ, but, unexpectedly, also show that only a subset of repressed genes are activated by a ligand-mediated switch. Our results also suggest that the type of transcriptional response by a given target gene is connected to the structure of its associated PPRE(s and the biological function of its encoded protein. These observations have important implications for understanding the regulatory PPAR network and PPARβ/δ ligand-based drugs.

  20. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  1. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity Report June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the June 2003 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Energy markets regulation: a new step; B - Gas market regulation: gas markets and actors, gas market regulation (legal and institutional framework, networks access, methane terminals and modulation services, freedom spaces, European market regulation, gas utility, CRE gas activities and priorities in 2003); C - Electricity market regulation: electricity markets (European markets, operators activity on the French market), French electricity market regulation (public networks access, trans-border power exchanges, EDF's un-bundled accounts audit, market operation), electric utility in the regulated market (public utility content, public utility charges, power generation public utility financing, electricity pre-tax sale tariffs for non-eligible customers); D - CRE operation (means and resources, exercise of its implementing powers, European and international activities); E - Appendixes: Glossary; Units and conversions; Council of European Energy Regulators, Index of figures and tables

  2. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  3. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  4. Glutathionylation regulates cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Oh, Chang Joo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is susceptible to inactivation by numerous thiol-modifying reagents. This study now reports that Cys269 of IDPc is a target for S-glutathionylation and that this modification is reversed by dithiothreitol as well as enzymatically by cytosolic glutaredoxin in the presence of GSH. Glutathionylated IDPc was significantly less susceptible than native protein to peptide fragmentation by reactive oxygen species and proteolytic digestion. Glutathionylation may play a protective role in the degradation of protein through the structural alterations of IDPc. HEK293 cells treated with diamide displayed decreased IDPc activity and accumulated glutathionylated enzyme. Using immunoprecipitation with an anti-IDPc IgG and immunoblotting with an anti-GSH IgG, we purified and positively identified glutathionylated IDPc from the kidneys of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury and from the livers of ethanol-administered rats. These results suggest that IDPc activity is modulated through enzymatic glutathionylation and deglutathionylation during oxidative stress.

  5. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  6. New Elements in Corporate Governance of the Credit Institutions from the Perspective of National Bank of Romania Regulation no. 5/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Ioana MOISE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has stretched its harmful effects including banking activity, this being one of the severely affected economic domains where the greatest efforts of resuscitation were done, sometimes with serious consequences over public money. In this context, restoring the credit institutions’ activity on actual basis, through a more efficient organizational system and re-editing the attributions of the management organs, so that to be able to guarantee for an effective and fast risk management framework, represented a globally assumed goal. Romanian law cannot remain outside this framework especially considering the obligation to join the model imposed by the European legislator by taking over the domestic law of the European directive CRD IV. This paper proposes a comparative study between the current and the previous legislation in order to highlight the main elements of novelty brought by Basel III, CRD IV and GL Guide 44/2011 on the internal governance of credit institutions elaborated by the European Banking Authority.

  7. DMPD: Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gene story. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1757110 Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gene story. Bl... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gene story. Pubmed...ID 1757110 Title Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gen

  8. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  9. Legal Instruments of Regulation of Development of Banking Activity in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyshch Pavlo M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main approaches to identification of essence of legal instruments of regulation of development of the banking activity, identifies the mechanism of legal regulation of the banking activity and its elements and justifies the system and form of legal regulation of the banking activity in Ukraine. It describes subjects of legal regulation of the banking activity at the international level, which are the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, European Central Bank, IMF, International Financial Reporting Standards Foundation and others. The article considers specific features of the regulatory requirements of Basel II and Basel III and specific features of their introduction into the banking activity. It describes anti-cyclic measures offered by the Basel Committee, which should facilitate formation of such conditions, under which the banking sector could have a lower level of leverage and stability with respect to influence of system risks. Significant attention is paid to international instruments of regulation of the banking activity, which include the following legal acts: Uniform Rules for Collections, Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, and Unified Rules for Loan Guarantees. The article shows that the share of subordinate legal acts is significant in the Ukrainian system of banking regulatory and legal acts since the state cannot operatively react to the changing processes in banking at the legislative level and, that is why, basic provisions on carrying out banking activity should be fixed in law.

  10. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2012-10-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins.

  11. Therapeutic potential of carbohydrates as regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Mimmi L E; Scanlan, Eoin M; Lavelle, Ed C

    2017-12-15

    It is well established for a broad range of disease states, including cancer and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, that pathogenesis is bolstered by polarisation of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, known as M2. As these innate immune cells are relatively long-lived, their re-polarisation to pro-inflammatory, phagocytic and bactericidal "classically activated" M1 macrophages is an attractive therapeutic approach. On the other hand, there are scenarios where the resolving inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodelling properties of M2 macrophages are beneficial - for example the successful introduction of biomedical implants. Although there are numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that have an impact on the macrophage polarisation spectrum, this review will focus specifically on prominent macrophage-modulating carbohydrate motifs with a view towards highlighting structure-function relationships and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reciprocal regulation of LXRα activity by ASXL1 and ASXL2 in lipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ui-Hyun; Seong, Mi-ran [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, BK21 Graduate Program, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Joo; Hur, Wonhee; Kim, Sung Woo [Department of Molecular Biology, BK21 Graduate Program, Dankook University, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Kew [The Catholic University Liver Research Center and WHO Collaborating Center of Viral Hepatitis, The Catholic University, College of Medicine, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Um, Soo-Jong, E-mail: umsj@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, BK21 Graduate Program, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •ASXL1 and ASXL2 directly interact with ligand-bound LXRα. •Ligand-induced LXRα activity is repressed by ASXL1 and activated by ASXL2. •ASXL1 and ASXL2 bind to the LXRE of the LXRα target promoter. •ASXL1 and ASXL2 reciprocally regulate lipogenesis in liver cells. -- Abstract: Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays a pivotal role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism, regulating the expression of genes associated with hepatic lipogenesis. The additional sex comb-like (ASXL) family was postulated to regulate chromatin function. Here, we investigate the roles of ASXL1 and ASXL2 in regulating LXRα activity. We found that ASXL1 suppressed ligand-induced LXRα transcriptional activity, whereas ASXL2 increased LXRα activity through direct interaction in the presence of the ligand. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed ligand-dependent recruitment of ASXLs to ABCA1 promoters, like LXRα. Knockdown studies indicated that ASXL1 inhibits, while ASXL2 increases, lipid accumulation in H4IIE cells, similar to their roles in transcriptional regulation. We also found that ASXL1 expression increases under fasting conditions, and decreases in insulin-treated H4IIE cells and the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice. Overall, these results support the reciprocal role of the ASXL family in lipid homeostasis through the opposite regulation of LXRα.

  13. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  14. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  15. Transposable element activity, genome regulation and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Jordan, I King

    2018-03-02

    A convergence of novel genome analysis technologies is enabling population genomic studies of human transposable elements (TEs). Population surveys of human genome sequences have uncovered thousands of individual TE insertions that segregate as common genetic variants, i.e. TE polymorphisms. These recent TE insertions provide an important source of naturally occurring human genetic variation. Investigators are beginning to leverage population genomic data sets to execute genome-scale association studies for assessing the phenotypic impact of human TE polymorphisms. For example, the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analytical paradigm has recently been used to uncover hundreds of associations between human TE insertion variants and gene expression levels. These include population-specific gene regulatory effects as well as coordinated changes to gene regulatory networks. In addition, analyses of linkage disequilibrium patterns with previously characterized genome-wide association study (GWAS) trait variants have uncovered TE insertion polymorphisms that are likely causal variants for a variety of common complex diseases. Gene regulatory mechanisms that underlie specific disease phenotypes have been proposed for a number of these trait associated TE polymorphisms. These new population genomic approaches hold great promise for understanding how ongoing TE activity contributes to functionally relevant genetic variation within and between human populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritive, Post-ingestive Signals Are the Primary Regulators of AgRP Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The brain regulates food intake by processing sensory cues and peripheral physiological signals, but the neural basis of this integration remains unclear. Hypothalamic, agouti-related protein (AgRP-expressing neurons are critical regulators of food intake. AgRP neuron activity is high during hunger and is rapidly reduced by the sight and smell of food. Here, we reveal two distinct components of AgRP neuron activity regulation: a rapid but transient sensory-driven signal and a slower, sustained calorie-dependent signal. We discovered that nutrients are necessary and sufficient for sustained reductions in AgRP neuron activity and that activity reductions are proportional to the calories obtained. This change in activity is recapitulated by exogenous administration of gut-derived satiation signals. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritive value of food trains sensory systems—in a single trial—to drive rapid, anticipatory AgRP neuron activity inhibition. Together, these data demonstrate that nutrients are the primary regulators of AgRP neuron activity. : Su et al. demonstrate that nutrient content in the GI tract is rapidly signaled to hypothalamic neurons activated by hunger. This rapid effect is mediated by three satiation signals that synergistically reduce the activity of AgRP neurons. These findings uncover how hunger circuits in the brain are regulated and raise the possibility that hunger can be pharmacologically controlled. Keywords: calcium imaging, AgRP neurons, calories, satiation signals, sensory regulation, single trial learning, cholecystokinin, CCK, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, PYY, amylin, homeostasis

  17. Analyzing the Impact of Using Optional Activities in Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruipérez-Valiente, Jose A.; Muñoz-Merino, Pedro J.; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Niemann, Katja; Scheffel, Maren; Wolpers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) environments provide students with activities to improve their learning (e.g., by solving exercises), but they might also provide optional activities (e.g., changing an avatar image or setting goals) where students can decide whether they would like to use or do them and how. Few works have dealt with the use of…

  18. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  19. Successful emotion regulation is predicted by amygdala activity and aspects of personality: A latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Carmen; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2017-04-01

    The experience of emotions and their cognitive control are based upon neural responses in prefrontal and subcortical regions and could be affected by personality and temperamental traits. Previous studies established an association between activity in reappraisal-related brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus and amygdala) and emotion regulation success. Given these relationships, we aimed to further elucidate how individual differences in emotion regulation skills relate to brain activity within the emotion regulation network on the one hand, and personality/temperamental traits on the other. We directly examined the relationship between personality and temperamental traits, emotion regulation success and its underlying neuronal network in a large sample (N = 82) using an explicit emotion regulation task and functional MRI (fMRI). We applied a multimethodological analysis approach, combing standard activation-based analyses with structural equation modeling. First, we found that successful downregulation is predicted by activity in key regions related to emotion processing. Second, the individual ability to successfully upregulate emotions is strongly associated with the ability to identify feelings, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Third, the successful downregulation of emotion is modulated by openness to experience and habitual use of reappraisal. Fourth, the ability to regulate emotions is best predicted by a combination of brain activity and personality as well temperamental traits. Using a multimethodological analysis approach, we provide a first step toward a causal model of individual differences in emotion regulation ability by linking biological systems underlying emotion regulation with descriptive constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Neuronal activity rapidly induces transcription of the CREB-regulated microRNA-132, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nudelman, Aaron Samuel; DiRocco, Derek P; Lambert, Talley J

    2010-01-01

    Activity-dependent changes in gene-expression are believed to underlie the molecular representation of memory. In this study, we report that in vivo activation of neurons rapidly induces the CREB-regulated microRNA miR-132. To determine if production of miR-132 is regulated by neuronal activity its......, olfactory bulb, and striatum by contextual fear conditioning, odor-exposure, and cocaine-injection, respectively, also increased pri-miR-132. Induction kinetics of pri-miR-132 were monitored and found to parallel those of immediate early genes, peaking at 45 min and returning to basal levels within 2 h...

  1. RhoGDI: multiple functions in the regulation of Rho family GTPase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dovas, Athanassios; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    necessary for the correct targeting and regulation of Rho activities by conferring cues for spatial restriction, guidance and availability to effectors. These potential functions are discussed in the context of RhoGDI-associated multimolecular complexes, the newly emerged shuttling capability...... insight as to how RhoGDI exerts its effects on nucleotide binding, the membrane association-dissociation cycling of the GTPase and how these activities are controlled. Despite the initial negative roles attributed to RhoGDI, recent evidence has come to suggest that it may also act as a positive regulator...... of activities....

  2. Resveratrol inhibits Cdk5 activity through regulation of p35 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Ashok B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 participates in the regulation of nociceptive signaling. Through activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α induces expression of Egr-1. This results in the sustained and robust expression of p35, a coactivator of Cdk5, in PC12 cells, thereby increasing Cdk5 kinase activity. The aim of our present study was to test whether resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound with known analgesic activity, can regulate Cdk5/p35 activity. Results Here we used a cell-based assay in which a p35 promoter-luciferase construct was stably transfected in PC12 cells. Our studies demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits p35 promoter activity and also blocks the TNF-α mediated increase in Cdk5 activity in PC12 cells. Resveratrol also inhibits p35 expression and blocks the TNF-α mediated increase in Cdk5 activity in DRG neurons. In the presence of resveratrol, the MEK inhibitor decreased p35 promoter activity, whereas the inhibitors of p38 MAPK, JNK and NF-κB increased p35 promoter activity, indicating that these pathways regulate p35 expression differently. The TNF-α-mediated increase in Egr-1 expression was decreased by resveratrol treatment with a concomitant reduction in p35 expression and protein levels, resulting in reduced Cdk5 kinase activity. Conclusions We demonstrate here that resveratrol regulates p35 promoter activity in PC12 cells and DRG neurons. Most importantly, resveratrol blocks the TNF-α-mediated increase in p35 promoter activity, thereby reducing p35 expression and subsequent Cdk5 kinase activity. This new molecular mechanism adds to the known analgesic effects of resveratrol and confirms the need for identifying new analgesics based on their ability to inhibit Cdk5 activity for effective treatment of pain.

  3. Improving Corporate Governance Practices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Huse; J. Gabrielsson; A. Minichilli

    2009-01-01

    Peak performing organizations may benefit from active value creating boards. Suggestions to improve board behaviour and corporate governance practices are presented in this article. The suggestions result from findings in the “Valued Creating Board” research programme. However, active boards working in a shareholder activism framework may destroy rather than support value creation processes within firms. In peak performing organizations corporate governance practices should be designed and de...

  4. The metabolic regulator CodY links L. monocytogenes metabolism to virulence by directly activating the virulence regulatory gene, prfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Lior; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Belitsky, Boris R.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metabolic adaptations are critical to the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow within host cells and are normally preceded by sensing of host-specific metabolic signals, which in turn can influence the pathogen's virulence state. Previously, we reported that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes responds to low availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) within mammalian cells by up-regulating both BCAA biosynthesis and virulence genes. The induction of virulence genes required the BCAA-responsive transcription regulator, CodY, but the molecular mechanism governing this mode of regulation was unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that CodY directly binds the coding sequence of the L. monocytogenes master virulence activator gene, prfA, 15 nt downstream of its start codon, and that this binding results in up-regulation of prfA transcription specifically under low concentrations of BCAA. Mutating this site abolished CodY binding and reduced prfA transcription in macrophages, and attenuated bacterial virulence in mice. Notably, the mutated binding site did not alter prfA transcription or PrfA activity under other conditions that are known to activate PrfA, such as during growth in the presence of glucose-1-phosphate. This study highlights the tight crosstalk between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence' while revealing novel features of CodY-mediated regulation. PMID:25430920

  5. BREADFRUIT (Treculia africana MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND RETURNS IN AHIAZU MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Christopher EMEROLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on marketing of breadfruits (Treculia africana and returns was done in Ahiazu Mbaise local Government area of Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of respondents (sellers and buyers of African breadfruit; identify value-chain activities available in processing and its storage in compliance with consumers’ order and preferences; determine factors influencing decision to supply African breadfruit; and constraints with its post-harvest management in the study area. Three-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting locations and respondents through which eighty (80 farm households who gather/harvest, process and sell breadfruits were selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and probit regression model. Result revealed that 65.80% of the respondents were females and 81.20% of them were married with mean household size of 9 members. Their literacy level was high as 97.6% of them had at least primary education. Predominant marketing activities were fruit gathering/harvesting, processing, storage and packaging, transportation, and sales. Socio-economic factors of gender, household size, income, level of education, years of farming experience and labour significantly influenced supply of breadfruits to consumers with challenges of seasonal scarcity, and tedious methods of processing deterring the enterprise in the area. We recommended provision of credit support to enable fruit gatherers purchase and use shelling machines and good storage facilities to smooth any fluctuations in supplies during off-seasons and help fight overdependence of households on roots and tubers.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Ping; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Tang, Lei-Han

    2010-09-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ping, Xiong; Yu-Qiang, Ma; Lei-Han, Tang

    2010-01-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology

  8. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lv

    Full Text Available MHC class I (MHC-I molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade.

  9. The Brakeless co-regulator can directly activate and repress transcription in early Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Filip; Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Tang, Min; Singla, Bhumica; Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Fantur, Katrin; Mannervik, Mattias

    2015-11-01

    The Brakeless protein performs many important functions during Drosophila development, but how it controls gene expression is poorly understood. We previously showed that Brakeless can function as a transcriptional co-repressor. In this work, we perform transcriptional profiling of brakeless mutant embryos. Unexpectedly, the majority of affected genes are down-regulated in brakeless mutants. We demonstrate that genomic regions in close proximity to some of these genes are occupied by Brakeless, that over-expression of Brakeless causes a reciprocal effect on expression of these genes, and that Brakeless remains an activator of the genes upon fusion to an activation domain. Together, our results show that Brakeless can both repress and activate gene expression. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified the Mediator complex subunit Med19 as interacting with an evolutionarily conserved part of Brakeless. Both down- and up-regulated Brakeless target genes are also affected in Med19-depleted embryos, but only down-regulated targets are influenced in embryos depleted of both Brakeless and Med19. Our data provide support for a Brakeless activator function that regulates transcription by interacting with Med19. We conclude that the transcriptional co-regulator Brakeless can either activate or repress transcription depending on context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Student Participation in Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The success of student government activities on any campus is significantly affected by the amount of student participation permitted in the institution's decision-making processes. The traditional" model of government--characterized by tokenism--often results in the separate jurisdictions" model-- characterized by fragmentation and interest…

  11. Correlation set analysis: detecting active regulators in disease populations using prior causal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chia-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of active causal regulators is a crucial problem in understanding mechanism of diseases or finding drug targets. Methods that infer causal regulators directly from primary data have been proposed and successfully validated in some cases. These methods necessarily require very large sample sizes or a mix of different data types. Recent studies have shown that prior biological knowledge can successfully boost a method's ability to find regulators. Results We present a simple data-driven method, Correlation Set Analysis (CSA, for comprehensively detecting active regulators in disease populations by integrating co-expression analysis and a specific type of literature-derived causal relationships. Instead of investigating the co-expression level between regulators and their regulatees, we focus on coherence of regulatees of a regulator. Using simulated datasets we show that our method performs very well at recovering even weak regulatory relationships with a low false discovery rate. Using three separate real biological datasets we were able to recover well known and as yet undescribed, active regulators for each disease population. The results are represented as a rank-ordered list of regulators, and reveals both single and higher-order regulatory relationships. Conclusions CSA is an intuitive data-driven way of selecting directed perturbation experiments that are relevant to a disease population of interest and represent a starting point for further investigation. Our findings demonstrate that combining co-expression analysis on regulatee sets with a literature-derived network can successfully identify causal regulators and help develop possible hypothesis to explain disease progression.

  12. Characterization of DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and regulated nuclear association of recombinant human NFATp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seto Anita G

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators whose nuclear accumulation and hence transcriptional activity is regulated in mammalian cells. Human NFATp exists as a phosphoprotein in the cytoplasm of naive T cells. Upon antigen stimulation, NFATp is dephosphorylated, accumulates in nuclei, and functions to regulate transcription of genes including those encoding cytokines. While the properties of the DNA binding domain of NFATp have been investigated in detail, biochemical studies of the transcriptional activation and regulated association with nuclei have remained unexplored because of a lack of full length, purified recombinant NFATp. Results We developed methods for expressing and purifying full length recombinant human NFATp that has all of the properties known to be associated with native NFATp. The recombinant NFATp binds DNA on its own and cooperatively with AP-1 proteins, activates transcription in vitro, is phosphorylated, can be dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and exhibits regulated association with nuclei in vitro. Importantly, activation by recombinant NFATp in a reconstituted transcription system required regions of the protein outside of the central DNA binding domain. Conclusions We conclude that NFATp is a bona fide transcriptional activator. Moreover, the reagents and methods that we developed will facilitate future studies on the mechanisms of transcriptional activation and nuclear accumulation by NFATp, a member of an important family of transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  13. Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) regulates proinflammatory activation of monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Hiranmoy; Kumar, Ajay; Lin, Zhiyong; Patino, Willmar D.; Hwang, Paul M.; Feinberg, Mark W.; Majumder, Pradip K.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating activation of monocytes remain incompletely understood. Herein we provide evidence that Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) inhibits proinflammatory activation of monocytes. In vitro, KLF2 expression in monocytes is reduced by cytokine activation or differentiation. Consistent with this observation, KLF2 expression in circulating monocytes is reduced in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions such as coronary artery disease. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the LPS-mediated induction of proinflammatory factors, cytokines, and chemokines and reduces phagocytosis. Conversely, short interfering RNA-mediated reduction in KLF2 increased inflammatory gene expression. Reconstitution of immunodeficient mice with KLF2-overexpressing monocytes significantly reduced carrageenan-induced acute paw edema formation. Mechanistically, KLF2 inhibits the transcriptional activity of both NF-κB and activator protein 1, in part by means of recruitment of transcriptional coactivator p300/CBP-associated factor. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel negative regulator of monocytic activation. PMID:16617118

  14. Activity-dependent self-regulation of viscous length scales in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The cellular cortex, which is a highly viscous thin cytoplasmic layer just below the cell membrane, controls the cell's mechanical properties, which can be characterized by a hydrodynamic length scale ℓ . Cells actively regulate ℓ via the activity of force-generating molecules, such as myosin II. Here we develop a general theory for such systems through a coarse-grained hydrodynamic approach including activity in the static description of the system providing an experimentally accessible parameter and elucidate the detailed mechanism of how a living system can actively self-regulate its hydrodynamic length scale, controlling the rigidity of the system. Remarkably, we find that ℓ , as a function of activity, behaves universally and roughly inversely proportional to the activity of the system. Our theory rationalizes a number of experimental findings on diverse systems, and comparison of our theory with existing experimental data shows good agreement.

  15. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma

    KAUST Repository

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan

    2016-03-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2E824*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57KIP2). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  16. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan; Shi, Yanxia; Rai, Kunal; Nezi, Luigi; Amin, Samir B; Wu, Chia-Chin; Akdemir, Kadir C; Mahdavi, Mozhdeh; Peng, Qian; Chang, Qing Edward; Hornigold, Kirsti; Arold, Stefan T; Welch, Heidi C E; Garraway, Levi A; Chin, Lynda

    2016-03-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2(E824)*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57(KIP2)). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  17. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma

    KAUST Repository

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan; Shi, Yanxia; Rai, Kunal; Nezi, Luigi; Amin, Samir B.; Wu, Chia-Chin; Akdemir, Kadir C.; Mahdavi, Mozhdeh; Peng, Qian; Chang, Qing Edward; Hornigold, Kirsti; Arold, Stefan T.; Welch, Heidi C. E.; Garraway, Levi A.; Chin, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2E824*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57KIP2). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  18. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  19. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  20. Relationship between child care centers' compliance with physical activity regulations and children's physical activity, New York City, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Lesesne, Catherine A; Dunn, Lillian; Kakietek, Jakub; Jernigan, Jan; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2014-10-16

    Physical activity may protect against overweight and obesity among preschoolers, and the policies and characteristics of group child care centers influence the physical activity levels of children who attend them. We examined whether children in New York City group child care centers that are compliant with the city's regulations on child physical activity engage in more activity than children in centers who do not comply. A sample of 1,352 children (mean age, 3.39 years) served by 110 group child care centers in low-income neighborhoods participated. Children's anthropometric data were collected and accelerometers were used to measure duration and intensity of physical activity. Multilevel generalized linear regression modeling techniques were used to assess the effect of center- and child-level factors on child-level physical activity. Centers' compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 60 minutes of total physical activity per day was positively associated with children's levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 30 minutes of structured activity was not associated with increased levels of MVPA. Children in centers with a dedicated outdoor play space available also spent more time in MVPA. Boys spent more time in MVPA than girls, and non-Hispanic black children spent more time in MVPA than Hispanic children. To increase children's level of MVPA in child care, both time and type of activity should be considered. Further examination of the role of play space availability and its effect on opportunities for engaging in physical activity is needed.

  1. Activated H-Ras regulates hematopoietic cell survival by modulating Survivin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Seiji; Pelus, Louis M.

    2004-01-01

    Survivin expression and Ras activation are regulated by hematopoietic growth factors. We investigated whether activated Ras could circumvent growth factor-regulated Survivin expression and if a Ras/Survivin axis mediates growth factor independent survival and proliferation in hematopoietic cells. Survivin expression is up-regulated by IL-3 in Ba/F3 and CD34 + cells and inhibited by the Ras inhibitor, farnesylthiosalicylic acid. Over-expression of constitutively activated H-Ras (CA-Ras) in Ba/F3 cells blocked down-modulation of Survivin expression, G 0 /G 1 arrest, and apoptosis induced by IL-3 withdrawal, while dominant-negative (DN) H-Ras down-regulated Survivin. Survivin disruption by DN T34A Survivin blocked CA-Ras-induced IL-3-independent cell survival and proliferation; however, it did not affect CA-Ras-mediated enhancement of S-phase, indicating that the anti-apoptotic activity of CA-Ras is Survivin dependent while its S-phase enhancing effect is not. These results indicate that CA-Ras modulates Survivin expression independent of hematopoietic growth factors and that a CA-Ras/Survivin axis regulates survival and proliferation of transformed hematopoietic cells

  2. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Darborg, Barbara Vasek; Rentsch, Maria Louise

    2006-01-01

    activity is regulated by a three-tiered phosphorelay system, which is in turn regulated by a complex network of signaling events and scaffolding proteins. The ubiquitous plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 is activated by, and implicated in, the physiological/pathophysiological responses to many...... of the same stimuli that modulate MAPK activity. While under some conditions, NHE1 is regulated by MAPKs, a number of studies have, conversely, implicated NHE1 in the regulation of MAPK activity. Here, we discuss the current evidence indicating the involvement of NHE1 in MAPK regulation, the mechanisms...

  3. 17 CFR 240.3a43-1 - Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. 240.3a43-1 Section 240.3a43-1 Commodity and Securities...

  4. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  5. A systematic study on activating the employee concerns' system for the improvement of governance in utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Morimoto, Toshio; Iida, Nobuharu; Nishimura, Takeshi; Itoh, Kunio; Tanaka, Hiroji

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a systematic methodology that can externalize potential concerns of employee and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations and other organizations. By implementing this methodology into corporate/organization governance regime, we can expect to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate/organization governance through enhancing internal autonomic purification compatibility. (author)

  6. Dialectical behavior therapy alters emotion regulation and amygdala activity in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Carpenter, David; Tang, Cheuk Y; Goldstein, Kim E; Avedon, Jennifer; Fernandez, Nicolas; Mascitelli, Kathryn A; Blair, Nicholas J; New, Antonia S; Triebwasser, Joseph; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2014-10-01

    Siever and Davis' (1991) psychobiological framework of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identifies affective instability (AI) as a core dimension characterized by prolonged and intense emotional reactivity. Recently, deficient amygdala habituation, defined as a change in response to repeated relative to novel unpleasant pictures within a session, has emerged as a biological correlate of AI in BPD. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an evidence-based treatment, targets AI by teaching emotion-regulation skills. This study tested the hypothesis that BPD patients would exhibit decreased amygdala activation and improved habituation, as well as improved emotion regulation with standard 12-month DBT. Event-related fMRI was obtained pre- and post-12-months of standard-DBT in unmedicated BPD patients. Healthy controls (HCs) were studied as a benchmark for normal amygdala activity and change over time (n = 11 per diagnostic-group). During each scan, participants viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral and pleasant pictures presented twice (novel, repeat). Change in emotion regulation was measured with the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation (DERS) scale. fMRI results showed the predicted Group × Time interaction: compared with HCs, BPD patients exhibited decreased amygdala activation with treatment. This post-treatment amygdala reduction in BPD was observed for all three pictures types, but particularly marked in the left hemisphere and during repeated-emotional pictures. Emotion regulation measured with the DERS significantly improved with DBT in BPD patients. Improved amygdala habituation to repeated-unpleasant pictures in patients was associated with improved overall emotional regulation measured by the DERS (total score and emotion regulation strategy use subscale). These findings have promising treatment implications and support the notion that DBT targets amygdala hyperactivity-part of the disturbed neural circuitry underlying emotional dysregulation

  7. Regulation of hepatitis B virus ENI enhancer activity by hepatocyte-enriched transcription factor HNF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Hieng, S; Qian, X; Costa, R; Ou, J H

    1994-11-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ENI enhancer can activate the expression of HBV and non-HBV genes in a liver-specific manner. By performing the electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, we demonstrated that the three related, liver-enriched, transcription factors, HNF3 alpha, HNF3 beta, and HNF3 gamma could all bind to the 2c site of HBV ENI enhancer. Mutations introduced in the 2c site to abolish the binding by HNF3 reduced the enhancer activity approximately 15-fold. Moreover, expression of HNF3 antisense sequences to suppress the expression of HNF3 in Huh-7 hepatoma cells led to reduction of the ENI enhancer activity. These results indicate that HNF3 positively regulates the ENI enhancer activity and this regulation is most likely mediated through the 2c site. The requirement of HNF3 for the ENI enhancer activity could explain the liver specificity of this enhancer element.

  8. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with δ-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol

  9. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    -transport) and describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....... resonance technique to exercise experiments including blood sampling and muscle biopsies. The present review characterizes the cellular buffering system as well as the most important membrane transport systems involved (Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na-bicarbonate co-transport and lactate/H(+) co...

  10. Motivation and Behavioral Regulation of Physical Activity in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine whether intrinsic motivation and behavioral self-regulation are related to physical activity during middle school. Structural equation modeling was applied in cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of self-determination theory. Consistent with theory, hypothesized relations among variables were supported. Integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation were most strongly correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity measured by an accelerometer. Results were independent of a measure of biological maturity. Construct validity and equivalence of measures were confirmed longitudinally between the sixth and seventh grades and between boys and girls, non-Hispanic Black and White children and overweight and normal-weight students. Measures of autonomous motivation (identified, integrated, and intrinsic) were more strongly related to physical activity in the seventh grade than measures of controlled motivation (external and introjected), implying that physical activity became more intrinsically motivating for some girls and boys as they moved through middle school. Nonetheless, change in introjected regulation was related to change in physical activity in the seventh grade, suggesting that internalized social pressures, which can be detrimental to sustained activity and well-being, also became motivating. These results encourage longer prospective studies during childhood and adolescence to clarify how controlled and autonomous motivations for physical activity develop and whether they respond to interventions designed to increase physical activity.

  11. Motivation and Behavioral Regulation of Physical Activity in Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether intrinsic motivation and behavioral self-regulation are related to physical activity during middle school. Method Structural equation modeling was applied in cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of self-determination theory. Results Consistent with theory, hypothesized relationships among variables were supported. Integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation were most strongly correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity measured by an accelerometer. Results were independent of a measure of biological maturity. Construct validity and equivalence of measures was confirmed longitudinally between 6th and 7th grades and between boys and girls, non-Hispanic black and white children and overweight and normal weight students. Conclusions Measures of autonomous motivation (identified, integrated, and intrinsic) were more strongly related to physical activity in the 7th grade than measures of controlled motivation (external and introjected), implying that physical activity became more intrinsically motivating for some girls and boys as they moved through middle school. Nonetheless, introjected regulation was related to physical activity in 7th grade, suggesting that internalized social pressures, which can be detrimental to sustained activity and well-being, also became motivating. These results encourage longer prospective studies during childhood and adolescence to clarify how controlled and autonomous motivations for physical activity develop and whether they respond to interventions designed to increase physical activity. PMID:25628178

  12. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  13. Activities of the Federal Government, Laender and municipalities and fields of activity relating to building modernisation; Aktivitaeten des Bundes, der Laender und der Kommunen und Handlungsfelder zur Gebaeudesanierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Thomas; Schuele, Ralf; Pietzner, Katja [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    The present report inquires into how the programmes and activities undertaken by the German Federal Government and the Lnder to increase the potential for building modernisation should be designed so that municipalities, including those with poor financial means, can utilise and create incentives and also take on a role as local multiplicator for building modernisation to improve energy efficiency. The goal is to maximise synergy effects between building modernisation programmes of the Federation and Laender and activities at the municipal level. The second part of the report explains the legal framework for promotion by the Federation and Laender which has been set up on the basis of European and global goals for climate protection and in particular building modernisation. The third part clarifies the importance and significance of building modernisation for climate protection and pinpoints general impediments affecting the area of building modernisation. The last part of the report offers suggestions to municipalities for setting up, designing and supplementing building modernisation programmes dedicated to improving energy efficiency.

  14. All-trans retinoic acid negatively regulates cytotoxic activities of nature killer cell line 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ang; He Meilan; Wang Hui; Qiao Bin; Chen Ping; Gu Hua; Zhang Mengjie; He Shengxiang

    2007-01-01

    NK cells are key components of innate immune systems and their activities are regulated by cytokines and hormones. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), as a metabolite of vitamin A and an immunomodulatory hormone, plays an important role in regulating immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ATRA on human NK cell line NK92. We found that ATRA dose-dependently suppressed cytotoxic activities of NK92 cells without affecting their proliferation. To explore the mechanisms underlying the ATRA influence on NK92 cells, we examined the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ), gene expression of cytotoxic-associated molecules (perforin, granzyme B, nature killer receptors (NCRs), and NKG2D), and the activation of NF-κB pathways related with immune response. Our results demonstrated that ATRA suppressed NF-κB activity and prevented IκBα degradation in a dose-dependent way, inhibited IFN-γ production and gene expression of granzyme B and NKp46. Our findings suggest that ATRA is a negative regulator of NK92 cell activation and may act as a potential regulator of anti-inflammatory functions in vivo

  15. Neural activity to a partner's facial expression predicts self-regulation after conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Gyurak, Anett; Verosky, Sara; Miyakawa, Asako; Ayduk, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Failure to self-regulate after an interpersonal conflict can result in persistent negative mood and maladaptive behaviors. Research indicates that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activity is related to the regulation of emotional experience in response to lab-based affective challenges, such as viewing emotional pictures. This suggests that compromised LPFC function may be a risk-factor for mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. However, it remains unclear whether LPFC activity to a lab-based affective challenge predicts self-regulation in real-life. Method We investigated whether LPFC activity to a lab-based affective challenge (negative facial expressions of a partner) predicts self-regulation after a real-life affective challenge (interpersonal conflict). During an fMRI scan, healthy, adult participants in committed, dating relationships (N = 27) viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions of their partners. In an online daily-diary, participants reported conflict occurrence, level of negative mood, rumination, and substance-use. Results LPFC activity in response to the lab-based affective challenge predicted self-regulation after an interpersonal conflict in daily life. When there was no interpersonal conflict, LPFC activity was not related to the change in mood or behavior the next day. However, when an interpersonal conflict did occur, ventral LPFC (VLPFC) activity predicted the change in mood and behavior the next day, such that lower VLPFC activity was related to higher levels of negative mood, rumination, and substance-use. Conclusions Low LPFC function may be a vulnerability and high LPFC function may be a protective factor for the development of mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. PMID:20004365

  16. Neural activity to a partner's facial expression predicts self-regulation after conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Gyurak, Anett; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2010-03-01

    Failure to self-regulate after an interpersonal conflict can result in persistent negative mood and maladaptive behaviors. Research indicates that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activity is related to emotion regulation in response to laboratory-based affective challenges, such as viewing emotional pictures. This suggests that compromised LPFC function may be a risk factor for mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal conflict. However, it remains unclear whether LPFC activity to a laboratory-based affective challenge predicts self-regulation in real life. We investigated whether LPFC activity to a laboratory-based affective challenge (negative facial expressions of a partner) predicts self-regulation after a real-life affective challenge (interpersonal conflict). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, healthy, adult participants in committed relationships (n = 27) viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions of their partners. In a three-week online daily diary, participants reported conflict occurrence, level of negative mood, rumination, and substance use. LPFC activity in response to the laboratory-based affective challenge predicted self-regulation after an interpersonal conflict in daily life. When there was no interpersonal conflict, LPFC activity was not related to mood or behavior the next day. However, when an interpersonal conflict did occur, ventral LPFC (VLPFC) activity predicted mood and behavior the next day, such that lower VLPFC activity was related to higher levels of negative mood, rumination, and substance use. Low LPFC function may be a vulnerability and high LPFC function may be a protective factor for the development of mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Institutional preconditions of socio-ecological-economic regulation of environmental management activities

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    T. A. Plaksunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to regulate environmental management activities of institutional entities arises when it affects the interests of third-party entities or threatened by the ongoing entity manufacturing practices its own resilience, to achieve the main goal. The complexity and diversity of the forms of socio-ecological and ecological-economic issues at different levels of the economic system leads to the development of many directions and views on the expansion of the management process of these levels (global, national, regional, local and techniques from rigid-deklorative state before combination with the market. In this respect, the neoclassical economic theory actively generated new analytical ideas and concept that enables to respond adequately to emerging economic realities. So we can distinguish the following approaches to regulate environmental management activities: T. Malthus and D. Ricardo, revealing issues of social, ecological and economic implications of limited natural resources in the context of the law of diminishing effectiveness and the need to regulate environmental management activities. John. St. Mill and George proved to be ineffective in addressing environmental problems in the industrial economy of the type of the imperfection of the institutions of society, justifying the occurrence of crises protohistoric speculation nature's benefits. A. Pigou developed the theory of externalities, which revealed the need for state regulation of the environmental management activities of economic entities, harmonization of individual and social interests. Research I. Kula, F. Khan and P. Samuelson identified a pattern about the formation of the system of regulation nature-safety activities, not only within individual States but also on a global level. R. Crows have shown that the methods of direct state regulation of nature economic activity is not as good as it seems at first glance and so you should not underestimate the role and potential

  18. Mechanisms and pathways of innate immune activation and regulation in health and cancer.

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    Cui, Jun; Chen, Yongjun; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Research on innate immune signaling and regulation has recently focused on pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signaling pathways. Members of PRRs sense diverse microbial invasions or danger signals, and initiate innate immune signaling pathways, leading to proinflammatory cytokines production, which, in turn, instructs adaptive immune response development. Despite the diverse functions employed by innate immune signaling to respond to a variety of different pathogens, the innate immune response must be tightly regulated. Otherwise, aberrant, uncontrolled immune responses will lead to harmful, or even fatal, consequences. Therefore, it is essential to better discern innate immune signaling and many regulators, controlling various signaling pathways, have been identified. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the activation and regulation of innate immune signaling in the host response to pathogens and cancer.

  19. Activization of the Industrial Development on the Platform of Partnership: Measures of State Regulation

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    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of partnership and interaction of economic actors play an important role in activization of an industrial development, achieving a critical mass, necessary for generation of essential positive results, due to special measures of state regulation. According to this, the factors influencing the choice of measures of state regulation of partner interactions and formation of their complex structure are defined and analysed. On the example of clusters possible roles of the state in formation and development of partner associations of the appropriate type are presented. The potential risks arising in the course of development and implementation of measures of state regulation of integration structures are shown. The sequence of steps for determination of measures of state regulation of development of partnership in the industrial sphere taking into account local specifics is offered in the paper.

  20. Modeling post-transcriptional regulation activity of small non-coding RNAs in Escherichia coli.

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    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Jin, Guangxu; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2009-04-29

    Transcriptional regulation is a fundamental process in biological systems, where transcription factors (TFs) have been revealed to play crucial roles. In recent years, in addition to TFs, an increasing number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to mediate post-transcriptional processes and regulate many critical pathways in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. On the other hand, with more and more high-throughput biological data becoming available, it is possible and imperative to quantitatively study gene regulation in a systematic and detailed manner. Most existing studies for inferring transcriptional regulatory interactions and the activity of TFs ignore the possible post-transcriptional effects of ncRNAs. In this work, we propose a novel framework to infer the activity of regulators including both TFs and ncRNAs by exploring the expression profiles of target genes and (post)transcriptional regulatory relationships. We model the integrated regulatory system by a set of biochemical reactions which lead to a log-bilinear problem. The inference process is achieved by an iterative algorithm, in which two linear programming models are efficiently solved. In contrast to available related studies, the effects of ncRNAs on transcription process are considered in this work, and thus more reasonable and accurate reconstruction can be expected. In addition, the approach is suitable for large-scale problems from the viewpoint of computation. Experiments on two synthesized data sets and a model system of Escherichia coli (E. coli) carbon source transition from glucose to acetate illustrate the effectiveness of our model and algorithm. Our results show that incorporating the post-transcriptional regulation of ncRNAs into system model can mine the hidden effects from the regulation activity of TFs in transcription processes and thus can uncover the biological mechanisms in gene regulation in a more accurate manner. The software for the algorithm in this paper is available