WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulations economic instruments

  1. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  2. Economic instruments for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaman, R.

    1991-01-01

    Economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies distinguish themselves from traditional tools (the 'command and control' type) for the reason that: they influence the costs and the benefits of the economic agents in question; they change the behaviour of the subjects in question in a way that they guarantee behaviour trends less harmful to the environment; they guarantee the assignment of adequate prices to the natural resources that traditionally don't have a price and therefore are consumed excessively by the economic subjects; normally they impose the transfer of economic resources to the disadvantage of the subjects responsible for the phenomena of pollution; certain objective pollution reduction data guarantee the minimization of the social costs of pollution abatement, that is, of the total costs on the economic system in general (economists define this characteristic as the 'static efficiency'); they guarantee what is called in economical jargon, the dynamic efficiency, i.e., in practice, they determine a continuous incentive for the reduction of the emission of the various pollutants and for the realization of the technological innovations that are able to control the pollution; they are more flexible than the instruments of direct regulation, because they leave the subjects a freedom of choice under different price conditions than in the past; they are flexible as well for the reason that the public operator can intervene rapidly to change the way of application

  3. Comparative study of conditions and instruments of economic regulation of networked public services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Claude; Curien, Nicolas; Gassner, Katharina; Krom, Hans de

    1999-11-01

    In order to provide a comparative view on implemented regulations regarding networked public services like electric power distribution, train transport, telecommunications, or mail services, this collective publication gathers six studies which respectively address the cases of Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. For each of them, the authors report, analyse and discuss the evolution and implementation of regulation or deregulation processes, the content of the relevant laws which can be specific to a sector, the role and the importance of public and private actors, and the market status and operation

  4. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  5. Economic instruments and the environmental accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Viveka; Larsson, Maja

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries have now had experience with environmental taxes and subsidies as a major component of their environmental policy over an extensive period of time. The Swedish System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA) include environmental taxes and subsidies as part of the official statistics. This article presents the accounts for taxes and subsidies, linked to the accounts for emissions data by industry. It demonstrates disparities between emissions and environmental taxes, as well as where industries or environmental problems are not regulated. The data show that in Sweden economic instruments are always aimed at particular actors or areas, and are never quite as comprehensive as recommended by economic theory. The environmental taxes are primarily aimed at fossil fuel use and related emissions, and have been mostly applied to the household sector and services sector, while industry often has been given exemptions due to concerns about international competition. The environmentally motivated subsidies are mainly directed to agriculture, fishing and research on renewable resources. A fully developed international data set on taxes and subsidies would provide a sound base for comparing the impact on international competitiveness. Eurostat is promoting the use of environmental accounts data for its member countries by harmonizing methods and engaging in publication of international comparisons. (author)

  6. Market-based Economic Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Grundkategorien her er markedet som den optimale allokeringsmekanisme for de belastninger, som de økonomiske instrumenter / miljøskatterne påfører. Det mest omfattende og spektakulære eksempel på markedet som allokatorer af skatter er EU's børs for forureningstilladelser, dvs reelt CO-2 beskatnin...

  7. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  8. Economic instruments and marine litter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Papyrakis, E.; Boteler, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature on the economic instruments that can reduce marine litter. We assess their cost of implementation, level of effectiveness as well as indirect environmental and socio-economic effects (externalities) that may arise as a result of

  9. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  10. Economic instruments in environmental protection in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date status on the current use of economic instruments in Danish environmental protection. The report focuses on the implementation and enforcement aspects of the Danish experience. Thereby, the report is intended to provide a contribution to the international efforts to collate and disseminate such experience, and to provide a means of experience sharing and example sharing. It is envisaged that the report may be of use also to countries in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States where the emerging market economies offer an opportunity for an enhanced use of economic instruments. Lastly, the report's emphasis on actual implementation and enforcement aspects renders it highly applicable also to undergraduate and postgraduate students in environmental and/or economic disciplines. (au)

  11. Economic instruments for environmental protection: Can we trust the 'magic carpet'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Huitema, D.

    1999-01-01

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  12. Economic instruments for environmental protection : Can we trust the "magic carpet"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans Th A.; Huitema, Dave

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  13. Instrument choice when regulators are concerned about resource extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Russell, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we undertake a systematic investigation of instrument choice when preventing a population collapse rather than maximizing industry profit is the overriding concern. Contrary to what seems to be the general consensus we find that landing fees do provide more effective insurance again...... the regulators total catch goals are set according to economic or precautionary principles....

  14. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  15. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  16. Economic instruments for environmental policy making in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barg, S.; Duraiappah, A.; Van Exan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The conditions and approaches required for a successful implementation of economic instruments in Ontario are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of economic instruments are discussed, as are some design issues. Some best practices and practical experiences from Canada, the United States, and Europe are examined through the use of nine specific case studies. Each one highlights a different environmental challenge, such as energy efficiency, air pollution, water pollution, waste management along with the solutions that were implemented. The situations described were not all successful, but there is much to be learned from unsuccessful episodes. Lessons learned from the review of the case studies were presented. The points to ponder when using economic instruments in Ontario were highlighted. The command and control policy instrument must be kept in context when considering economic instruments. The reasons that underline the preference of the economic theory for economic instruments are discussed. The different types of economic instruments are described, and the considerations related to the design and comparison of economic instruments is briefly discussed. The authors concluded with several points to ponder: there are a number of options available, details must not be neglected, consultation with the interested parties is important, there is a need for frequent reassessment, and using a number of instruments is helpful. 55 refs., tabs., figs

  17. The use of economic instruments for environmental policy: a half-hearted affair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1995-01-01

    their use of economic instruments, but with a few exceptions it has been a somewhat half-hearted affair. Economic imstruments have often been applied on the basis of the principle of the least political resistance. Using Wilson's regulation theory (1980), this paper analyses how the costs and benefits......As a key to a more sustainable development the use of economic instruments for environmental policy has been on the agenda for about eight years. Despite of that, a recent OECD survey recorded only a modest increase in their use since the mid-1980s. In particular the Nordic counries have increased...... of regulations and particular policy-instruments affect the use and design of economic instruments. The outcome has been green taxes that are often fiscally biased , which are too low compared with the externalities they should price and which address the smaller rather than the larger polluters, granting...

  18. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opschoor, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Mechanism of economic regulation of land relations

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Stupen'; Svitlana Rogach; Ivan Riy

    2015-01-01

    In the article the mechanism of economic regulation of land relations is revealed. The main functions of the economic evaluation of land resources are: registration of land resources and environment; choices of resources and conditions usage. The author proves that the proper economic regulation needs governmental support which is to preserve the land as a natural resource.

  20. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  1. Economical and organizational aspects of radiopulmonology instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Astrakhantsev, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the introduction of X-ray endoscopic rooms (radiology treatment rooms) equipped with appropriate installations into pulmonologic departments provides more valid diagnosis of carcinoma of the lungs, the cost of examinations being increased only by 15.7%. The latter can be compensated for with improved instrumentation of both preventive and general X-ray rooms

  2. RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORINA-GEANINA MĂRGĂRIT (STĂNESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

  3. Economic instruments in the service of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buba, Johanne; Ben-Jelloul, Mahdi; Schaff, Clement

    2011-11-01

    Within the perspective of new international agreements after those signed in Kyoto (1997), in Cancun (2010) and in Durban (2011), this document recalls the frameworks defined during these summits, outline the challenges regarding climate change and makes five propositions. The first one is to prepare the conditions for and experimentation of a CO 2 emission trading scheme between the European market and the one of other countries. The second one is to re-establish competitive neutrality in the most emitting industrial sectors which are the most exposed to international competition and more easily subjected to off-shoring practices. The third one is the possibility for a country to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions while financing reductions in other countries. The fourth one is to harmonise emission measurement and accounting standards. The last one is to create a European institute for research and education on economic mechanisms of struggle against global warming

  4. The Financial Regulation of the Country’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Irina I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence of the system of financial regulation of economic development of the country, defining institutional foundations in the process of development of financial mechanism. Approaches to strengthening the efficiency of financial policy as an important economic institution, which should significantly influence economic growth, have been developed. The directions of increase of efficiency of budget policy in conditions of institutional changes have been defined. Currently, financial regulation of the country is being formed in the context of socio-economic policy, which is resulting from the need for the State participation in the world economic and financial relations, for improving the quality of public services on the part of the State, which requires the implementation of a strategy of economic growth at a qualitatively new institutional level. The State financial policy should ultimately focus on the appropriate endogenous factors of economic growth. In modern conditions it is expedient to strengthen the role of financial policy as a significant macro-economic instrument, which provides an effective influence on achievement of financial and economic balance, efficiency of economic transformations.

  5. Review of economic theories of regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/21319161X

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic theories of regulation. It discusses the public and private interest theories of regulation, as the criticisms that have been leveled at them. The extent to which these theories are also able to account for privatization and deregulation is evaluated and policies

  6. The State Financial Policy as Instrument of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostitskaya Natalya А.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and defining the role of the State financial policy as instrument of economic growth in the conditions of economic transformation. The main functions of the country’s financial policy were analyzed. The necessity of formation of institutional and methodological bases of the State financial mechanism with the purpose of strengthening of efficiency of structural changes of economy and social sphere has been substantiated. Directions of formation and implementation of the State financial policy on maintenance of socio-economic development of the country have been proposed.

  7. Guide on Economic Instruments & Non-market Valuation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Bartczak, Anna; Czajkowski, Mikołaj

    The aim of this guidance document is to provide forest practitioners, decision makers and forest owners insights into the various economic instruments available to enhance the non-market ecosystem provision of forests such as a high quality biodiversity; enhanced carbon sequestration; improved...... with ecosystem degradation and iii) by recognising the substantial economic and welfare benefits of better management of ecosystems in forests. Ecosystem services contribute to economic welfare in two ways: • by contributing to the generation of income and wellbeing; and • by preventing damages that inflict...... initiatives it is therefore essential to consider trade offs and synergies between the complex interplay between ecosystem goods and services within an ecosystem,...

  8. Economic regulation of ambulance services in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narad, R A

    1997-01-01

    This study was intended to identify economic regulatory programs used by California counties (including ambulance franchising and rate setting), to inventory their foci and application, and to identify differences around the state. By studying the variety of programs used in one state, this study establishes a framework for evaluation of state and local regulatory programs elsewhere. This study surveyed all California local EMS agencies (LEMSAs); these are California's equivalent of regional EMS organizations. The survey achieved a 100% response rate, and all data involve population parameters obviating the need for inferential statistics. Seventy-three percent of California counties use economic regulations. Large-population counties and those that operate their own LEMSAs are more likely to use economic regulations than are small counties and those that participate in multicounty EMS agencies. Despite a preference for competition in the authorizing statute, most franchises were granted without competition to existing providers. The majority of franchises in the state were granted to public services. Most ambulance rate setting occurs outside of a competitive process. Economic regulations that were intended to provide a structured marketplace are often being used to protect existing providers, particularly public services, from competition. The growing interest by fire departments in entering the market for emergency ambulance service, along with the existing bias toward them in granting of franchises, does not bode well for use of the competitive process. The growth of managed care may change or eliminate the need for economic regulations but, if they are to continue, more state oversight should be considered.

  9. International economic association on production of nuclear instrumentation - ''INTERINSTRUMENT''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardon, Z.

    1979-01-01

    History of establishment and development of the International economic association ''Interinstrument'' is stated. Structure of the Association is given and directions of its activity, as well as structure of its budget. List is given of organizations, performing works according to the agreements with the Association. Main directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of specialization of production of items of nuclear equipment; co-ordination of activity in the sphere of foreign trade; information about new instruments. Activity is stated of the branch offices of the Association, engaged in maintenance of instruments and nuclear equipment [ru

  10. Wind power in Argentina: Policy instruments and economic feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its great wind endowment, Argentina has not still succeeded in increasing wind power share in its wholesale market. However, the energy supply problem that this country is facing from 2004 on seems to open an opportunity for wind energy projects. A wide range of legislation has recently emerged. In this context, this paper discusses whether policy instruments in the Argentinean regulatory frame contribute to economic feasibility for wind power projects or not. To this purpose, we study wind installed capacity, Argentinean wind potential, the different promotion tools used worldwide and those employed in Argentina. Finally, we realize a feasibility study for a typical project. We found, that in spite of its high wind potential, economic feature, related to policy instruments, have been a boundary to the development of wind energy into the energy mix. (author)

  11. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ...

  12. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  13. Economic impact of potential NORM regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.; Fitzgibbon, T.; Karp, S.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and gas field wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have quickly become a focus of substantial attention by regulators both at the state and federal level. Although currently regulated in a number of states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated a desire to develop federal regulations to address management and disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes. This paper provides a brief overview of current state NORM regulations, currently available technologies for managing and disposing NORM wastes, and the cost of employing these techniques. Based on these characterizations and alternative assumptions about the volume of NORM wastes, four alternative scenarios have been developed to bracket potential future NORM requirements. These scenarios have been used is the basis for an analysis of the potential economic and supply impacts of NORM requirements on the U.S. oil and gas industry. The results illustrate that a reasonable approach to regulation that focuses only on those NORM wastes that pose a risk and allows producers to use safe, low cost disposal methods (downhole or other) would have minimal economic impacts on the oil and gas industry. A very stringent regulatory approach that covered large volumes of wastes, required the use of higher cost disposal techniques, and required extensive site clean-up activities could have a substantial economic impact, resulting in a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil production and 8 percent of U.S. gas production by 2000. The costs of compliance with these alternative approaches could range from $71 million to over $14 billion annually. Between these two cases lies the opportunity for regulators to develop requirements for management and disposal of NORM wastes that will address any environmental and human health risks posed at industry sites without imposing unnecessarily costly regulations on the U.S. oil and gas E ampersand P industry

  14. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  15. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  16. Development and action plan for the alternative regulation instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Yul; Hagm, Yo Sang

    2004-02-01

    The goal of this study to provide highly practical model, needed for regulation if nuclear power safety to regulation agency. Since nuclear power safety regulation has different characteristics, compared to general regulation, it is important to have new point of view and approach. But application possibility for regulation that guarantees the 'perfect safety' is very low. Therefore, it is important establish nuclear power safety regulation that is realistic as well as safety securing. In order to establish high quality regulation, evaluation of existing regulation must be done first. Thus in this study, 6 standards to evaluate existing regulation are suggested. They are clearness, efficiency, flexibility, reliability, responsibility and political consideration. Also, strategies to complement the weak points of regulatory governance, regulatory sunset, regulatory map, regulatory negotiation, regulatory benefit-cost analysis, etc. These strategies can be applied all in one regulation, and can strategically be selected for application. After analyzing the result if case analysis on nuclear furnace regulation for research study, agreement was made that it is most efficient to consider in the order if clearness reliability, flexibility, confidence, political consideration, administrative efficiency and economic efficiency

  17. Development and action plan for the alternative regulation instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Yul [Daegu Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Hagm, Yo Sang [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The goal of this study to provide highly practical model, needed for regulation if nuclear power safety to regulation agency. Since nuclear power safety regulation has different characteristics, compared to general regulation, it is important to have new point of view and approach. But application possibility for regulation that guarantees the 'perfect safety' is very low. Therefore, it is important establish nuclear power safety regulation that is realistic as well as safety securing. In order to establish high quality regulation, evaluation of existing regulation must be done first. Thus in this study, 6 standards to evaluate existing regulation are suggested. They are clearness, efficiency, flexibility, reliability, responsibility and political consideration. Also, strategies to complement the weak points of regulatory governance, regulatory sunset, regulatory map, regulatory negotiation, regulatory benefit-cost analysis, etc. These strategies can be applied all in one regulation, and can strategically be selected for application. After analyzing the result if case analysis on nuclear furnace regulation for research study, agreement was made that it is most efficient to consider in the order if clearness reliability, flexibility, confidence, political consideration, administrative efficiency and economic efficiency.

  18. THE ACCOUNTING REGULATION PROCESS IN THE FIELD OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper develops an analysis on the accounting regulation process by considering the field of financial instruments as one of the most controversial areas of financial reporting. After a brief introduction, comprising aspects related to the accounting regulation process, we first stop upon the historical evolution of the two main accounting referential that currently collaborate through the convergence process. Our analysis focuses both on standards first issuance and on their amendment process. A special emphasize is given to the international accounting referential. The obtained results enhance the complexity of the approached field and indicate significant steps still needed to be taken.

  19. Frame, methods and instruments for energy planning in the new economic order of electricity economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigler, H.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of the new economic order of the electricity economy causes new focal tasks for the individual market participants and therefore new requirements for planning. As a precondition for energy planning, the Internal Market Electricity Directive and the ElWOG are examined and the tasks for the market participants are derived. Liberalization raises the risks for the enterprises. Increasing competition sets up higher requirements for planning. The planning instruments have no longer the destination of minimum costs but have to maximize the results of the enterprise. Price fixing requires a raised alignment to marginal costs considerations. Increasing electricity trade requires the introduction of new planning instruments. Further new tasks refer to electricity transfer via other networks and especially to congestion management. New chances but also new risks arise for the renewable energy sources. From the market result new requirements for the planning instruments. The basics in this respect are prepared and concrete examples from practice are submitted. Models of enterprises are developed, which consist of a technical and a business part. Central importance has the modeling of competition in the liberalized market. A model of competition between enterprises in the electricity market is developed. (author)

  20. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Ch.

    1998-12-01

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  1. An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio); R.J. van den Bergh (Roger)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This chapter provides a general framework to analyze regulation with a law and economics approach. It introduces the volume “Regulation and Economics” of the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. This study intends to provide a state-of-the-art overview of

  2. Social economic zones as an instrument of regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Lizińska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of the main aspects o f Special Economic Zones (SEZ activity. It refers especially to the goals for establishment, operational models of these zones, SEZ based on examples of selected countries and Poland in the context o f integration with the European Union. The Special Economic Zones to create more attractive conditions for business operations, to contribute mainly to the development of small and medium enterprises and variety of services, consequently to improve employment. However, the consequences of the zones existence can be negative for economy of the region. The Special Economic Zones that are functioning worldwide are different. In Poland, they were first designed by the Irish and based on the example of the zone in Shannon. The existence and principles of the Special Economic Zones operations in Poland are one of the contradiction points in the negotiations with the European Union.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA SIMINA POPESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of structural and cohesion funds for the period 2007-2013 was relatively low, several reasons were identified by the European Union and the European Commission and had several gaps in legislative terms and in terms of management. Financial and economic crisis that started in 2008, dramatically altered the socio-economic context for cohesion policy programs. The economic downturn also triggered a sharp deterioration in the business climate and consumer confidence, investment (gross fixed capital formation decreased from 21% of GDP in 2008 to 18% in 2012, exports of goods and services and investment direct foreign having the same negative trend. Absorption capacity non-reimbursable financial resources is a variable with a direct and very strong link in ensuring economic and social cohesition with resources available from European funds.

  4. Nuclear energy as an instrument of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter is a review of how nuclear power can help achieve energy policy objectives, illustrated with examples based on experience in France. It is preceded by a preliminary consideration of the global economic background for the development of nuclear power today. Headings are: introduction; world-wide economic environment; nuclear energy and inflation; nuclear energy and external constraints; nuclear energy, foreign currency and employment in the French context. (U.K.)

  5. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Astrid

    2012-08-16

    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  6. Monitoring the Implementation of State Regulation of National Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubarieva Iryna O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological tools for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. The approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “national economic security” are generalized. Assessment of the level of national economic security is a key element in monitoring the implementation of state regulation in this area. Recommendations for improving the methodology for assessing national economic security, the calculation algorithm of which includes four interrelated components (economic, political, social, spiritual one, suggests using analysis methods (correlation and cluster analysis, and taxonomy, which allows to determine the level and disproportion of development, can serve as a basis for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. Such an approach to assessing national economic security makes it possible to determine the place (rank that a country occupies in a totality of countries, the dynamics of changing ranks over a certain period of time, to identify problem components, and monitor the effectiveness of state regulation of the national economic security. It the course of the research it was determined that the economic sphere is the main problem component of ensuring the security of Ukraine’s economy. The analysis made it possible to identify the most problematic partial indicators in the economic sphere of Ukraine: economic globalization, uneven economic development, level of infrastructure, level of financial market development, level of economic instability, macroeconomic stability. These indicators have a stable negative dynamics and a downward trend, which requires an immediate intervention of state bodies to ensure the national economic security.

  7. Business regulation and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjell PERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Actually economic policies in many countries aimed to stimulate their economic growth, particularly after negative impact of the global economic crisis. In this regards, fiscal regulation are an important aspect of those policies, that can promote or obstacle the economic growth in general. In this point of view this paper aims to analyze the system of administration rules in different Western Balkans Countries, (which includes Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Moreover, a special attention is given investigation of the regulation and administrative facilitation aspects of doing business in the above-mentioned countries, whether this system stimulates, or not, the development of private business and economic growth.The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part provides a retrospective of economic growth in the Western Balkan countries and the dependence of this growth on global economic development. The second part proceeds with the investigations of the impact of administrative regulation on economic growth. The third part, based on an econometric model, will analyze the correlation between economic growth and elaborated indicators which present the level of business administrative regulation system. Furthermore, this last section discusses the results and concludes. In this analysis, the paper is based substantially on the data base of "Doing Business 2013" (World Bank.

  8. European Funds – Instrument for Economic Stability/Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of European Union has finally brought a growth of public resources designed for regional policy, but also visible disparities between the member states. The objective of a stronger social and economic cohesion, of reduction of differences of social and economic development between the member states and EU regions, as well as the promotion of sustainable development of EU are reached through structural funds, the European financing being designed to serve as lever regarding public investments in associated countries. This work analyses the elements which assure economic stability in Romania, in the last year of programming period 2007-2013, following the crisis which disturbed global economy. The emphasis is laid on non-refundable EU funds allotted for Romania, which were analyzed both from the point of view of approved projects (but whose implementation did not start yet and regarding the contracted projects under way.

  9. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  10. Economic regulation of TSOs in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvertsen, S. C.; Steinnes, S. H. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway); Robles, H. B.; Ek, G. [Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Ilonen, M; Nurmi, S. [Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Thomsen, H. [Sekretariatet for Energitilsynet, Valby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The main topic of this report is the economic regulation of the transmission system operators (To) in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the design of the economic regulation and compare the main elements of the regulation between the countries. There is one To in each country. For all countries, the revenues of the Tos are regulated by yearly decisions. In Finland, Norway and Sweden the regulators set an annual revenue cap. In Denmark, the To sets the tariffs according to budget, while the regulator approves the annual report and thereby also approves the tariffs ex post. The economic regulation of TSOs includes both regulation of system operations and the regulation of network operations. Chapter 3 describes in brief the main responsibilities of the system operator in each country and how the costs related to these tasks are regulated. Norway regulates the system operation costs, where 60 percent of the costs are based on a cost-norm which is evaluated periodically. In Finland and Sweden these costs are considered as non-controllable and are passed through directly in the revenue cap. In Denmark only costs considered as necessary at efficient operation shall be included in the tariffs, and the regulators have the opportunity to exclude costs based on this. There are no benchmark or efficiency requirements in the Danish regulation. In chapter 4 the main elements of the economic regulation of network operations are described and compared in tables. All countries regulate the network operations of the TSO. In Denmark there are no explicit efficiency requirements, and the regulation is based on a non-profit principle. The TSO only gets a return based on a price adjustment on its capital base as of 2005. In Finland, Norway and Sweden the regulation include efficiency requirements or benchmarking of costs. In Norway this regards 60 percent of total costs related to the network operations

  11. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  12. An Economic Theory of Islamic Finance Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jarhi, Mabid

    2015-01-01

    We argue that regulation can improve the performance of conventional banks up to a limit, but cannot eliminate the deficiencies resulting from the use of the conventional loan contract. Islamic finance requires complicated and costly procedures compared to conventional finance. Yet, it has significant macroeconomic benefits, which cannot be internalized by individual banks. Therefore, Islamic bankers tend to mimic conventional finance in order to cut costs and maximize short-term profits....

  13. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry, part of the series of OXERA Guides to Regulation, is designed as an essential work of reference for those who work in regulation and for practitioners who need to understand the needs and mechanics of regulation. The 154-page document provides: comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the electricity industry; an examination of current regulatory issues and developments in the industry; explanations of the roles of the key players; a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents; coverage of the industry in Scotland and Northern Ireland. (Author)

  14. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-01-01

    Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB). The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of fin...

  15. Economic impacts of the BC recycling regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-31

    Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is an environmental approach used in British Columbia (BC) to consider the entire life cycle of a product from the selection and materials and design to the post-consumer stage. This paper discussed EPR strategies that are currently being used to help the BC government remove toxins from its waste stream and develop recycling programs that contribute to the sustainable use of BC's resources. BC's recycling regulation was designed to ensure that producers of designated materials take responsibility for managing products at end-of-life under approved product stewardship plans. The stewardship management recycling program has provided an estimated 1600 full-time equivalent jobs in the province. Overall employment rates are expected to reach over 2100. A waste reduction model (WARM) analysis showed that BC stewardships provide an estimated reduction of 73,000 metric tonnes of carbon equivalent (MTCE). Aluminum can and tire recycling programs account for 82 per cent of the reductions. Diverting the wastes from landfill has helped to avoid the costs of remedial clean-ups as well as avoid the costs of handling hazardous materials. It was concluded that total revenues of $109 million were earned in 2007 from fees, deposits, and the sale of recovered materials. Separate data were provided for stewardship programs for beverage containers; beer containers; tires; used oil; electronics; paint, flammables, and pesticides; tree paint; and pharmaceuticals. 28 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. The Prospects of Modernization of the Mechanism for Budgetary Regulation of the Socio-Economic Development of Lviv City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidkhomnyi Oleg M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic development of country and its individual territories depends on the efficiency of both accumulation and allocation of financial resources, which is determined by the effectiveness of budget process. Therefore the purpose of the article is theoretical and practical substantiation of prospects for modernization of the mechanism for budgetary regulation of the socio-economic development on the example of Lviv. Features and the main instruments of budgetary regulation of the socio-economic development of the city were researched. The efficiency of allocation and accumulation of budgetary funds, including through tax policy and the inter-budget transfers, was analyzed. Tendencies of changes of indicators of the socio-economic condition of Lviv and influence on them of three main elements of the budget regulation mechanism have been determined. Shortcomings of the existing mechanism for budgetary regulation of socio-economic development of the city have been defined, prospective directions of its modernization have been suggested.

  17. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  18. Systematization of Instruments of Social and Economic Responsibility of Enterprises: Theoretical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dielini Maryna M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is systematization of instruments for implementation of social and economic responsibility of enterprises in Ukraine and theoretical consideration of the presented instruments. The article studies basic views on instruments of social responsibility of business. It is determined which of them are more traditional, and which ones are the latest, that is up to date. Thus, the traditional ones include: philanthropy, charity, sponsorship, volunteering, patronship, monetary grants, equivalent financing. Based on the understanding of the nature of social and economic responsibility of business proposed by the author, to its instruments there can be attributed all traditional instruments, except for volunteering that does not imply obtaining funds for its activities and has only a social effect. There studied modern instruments of business social responsibility, such as social investments, socially responsible investments, social marketing, charity marketing, social programs, social entrepreneurship, social reporting and social expertise, fundraising, socially responsible approaches to doing business and supply chain management. All of them can be regarded as instruments of social and economic responsibility of business.

  19. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. The Economic Sovereignty of the State as the Defining Instrument of Economic Policy in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is characterized by rapid integration and globalization processes, which have both a positive and a negative impact on the development of each country. National economies operate in the midst of global uncertainty, which is becoming the platform for the formation and implementation of the State economic policy, which should not only describe the conditions for strategic development of country but also adequately respond to the risks emerging out of the complex integration processes. The failure of the State to respond in a timely and adequate manner to the risks will result in lesser benefits and positive effects of integration processes than the impact of destabilizing factors. In such circumstances, economic sovereignty becomes the most important instrument of the State through which it can defend its national economic interests and form an effective economic policy.

  1. Consistent Regulation of Infrastructure Businesses: Some Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio M. Menezes

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some important economic aspects associated with the notion that consistency in the regulation of infrastructure businesses is a desirable feature. It makes two important points. First, it is not easy to measure consistency. In particular, one cannot simply point to different regulatory parameters as evidence of inconsistent regulatory policy. Second, even if one does observe consistency emerging from decisions made by different regulators, it does not necessarily mean that...

  2. Consumer preferences for reduced packaging under economic instruments and recycling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB. The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of financial sector on economic growth, focuses on 67 countries. The second data set, 2000-2013 determine the role of institution on financial sector and economic growth by applying 2SLS estimation method. We define institutional variables as set of indicators: Control of Corruption, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability provide declining impact of FDI to economic growth.

  4. Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko Iryna P.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financ...

  5. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  6. Comparison of economic instruments to reduce PM_2_._5 from industrial and residential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardones, Cristian; Saavedra, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the literature, it is possible to find different studies that compare economic instruments performance applied to the industrial sources regulation; however, evidence about pollution from residential sources is scarce. For this reason, the present study simulates and compares an emission permit system (EPS) and an ambient permit system (APS) when fine particulate matter pollution (PM_2_._5) is generated from industrial and residential sources. Thus, this research contributes to the spatial, economic and environmental assessment of industrial and residential emissions. The options to reduce pollution include replacement of heating devices in residential sources and installing end-of-pipe technologies in industrial sources. The results in terms of total cost and technological chosen options are similar under an APS and EPS for targets lesser to 80%. This is explained because it is more cost-effective to reduce emissions in residential sources than in industrial sources, and additionally, residential pollution has only local impact. However, some industrial sources should install abatement technologies for more demanding targets; in this case as industrial pollution are scattered in different areas, the total cost of an APS are lower than the total cost of an EPS. - Highlights: • The impact of wood burning on air quality can be significant in urban areas. • Residential and industrial sources in regulatory schemes to PM_2_._5 are analyzed. • Wood smoke pollution can be reduced by changing to more efficient heating devices. • Wood heater replacement is more cost-effective than abatement technologies. • The results are similar under APS and EPS for targets lesser to 80%.

  7. ECONOMIC NATURE OF THE FINANCIAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shirinyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.

  8. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Economic Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Astor, Philipp J.

    2013-01-01

    By employing the methodology of experimental economics, the thesis examines the influence of emotions on decision making in electronic auction markets. Subjects' emotional processes are measured by psychophysiological indicators, helping to decipher the coherence of information, emotion (regulation) and decision making. Four chapters build the main body of the thesis and all are constructed similarly: introduction, design, method, results, limitations, theoretical and managerial implications.

  9. Economical regulation power through load shifting with smart energy appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlot, M.C.; Knigge, J.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the technical and economical feasibility of the introduction of automated demand response from domestic smart appliances in a European setting as a means to create a significant amount of regulating power. Simplified power-time flexibility models for appliances are introduced on

  10. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health.To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change.We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research.We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity.The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of generating reliable causal inferences regarding intervention

  11. Safety regulations concerning instrumentation and control systems for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    A brief study on the safety and reliability issues related to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear reactor plants is performed. In response, technical and strategic issues are used to accomplish instrumentation and control systems safety. For technical issues there are ; systems aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software, failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, and human factors and human machine interfaces. The strategic issues are the case-by-case licensing process and the adequacy of the technical infrastructure. The purpose of this work was to review the reliability of the safety systems related to these technical issues for research reactors

  12. Instrument choice when regulators are concerned about resource extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Russell, Clifford

    In this paper we undertake a systematic investigation of instrument choice when preventing a population collapse rather than maximizing industry profit is the overriding concern. Contrary to what seems to be the general consensus we find that landing fees do provide more effective insurance against...... extinction than quotas under more or less the same conditions as those implying that landing fees are better at maximising industry profit. Thus, the efficiency of the regulatory instrument mainly depends on the basic information asymmetries characterizing the fishery, and is not sensitive to whether...

  13. "Economic microscope": The agent-based model set as an instrument in an economic system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Akenov, Serik

    2017-07-01

    To create a valid model of a social or economic system one must consider a lot of parameters, conditions and restrictions. Systems and, consequently, the corresponding models are proved to be very complicated. The problem of such system model engineering can't be solved only with mathematical methods usage. The decision could be found in computer simulation. Simulation does not reject mathematical methods, mathematical expressions could become the foundation for a computer model. In these materials the set of agent-based computer models is under discussion. All the set models simulate productive agents communications, but every model is geared towards the specific goal, and, thus, has its own algorithm and its own peculiarities. It is shown that computer simulation can discover new features of the agents' behavior that can not be obtained by analytical solvation of mathematical equations and thus plays the role of some kind of economic microscope.

  14. 76 FR 39234 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unique Procurement Instrument Identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., therefore, was not subject to review under section 6(b) of E.O. 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, dated... for procurement actions, such as delivery and task orders or basic ordering agreements, the order or... Instrument Identifier (PIID). Agencies shall have in place a process that ensures that each PIID reported to...

  15. Economics of oil regulation and the Brazilian reform. Some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Perez, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic fundamentals for regulation in the oil industry, with a focus on the current regulatory proposal for the Brazilian oil industry. The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of the optimal contract, with a remuneration structure that combines upfront with future payments to mitigate uncertainty and incentivize exploratory efforts. In Brazil, despite slow market deconcentration since 1997's liberalization, the current oil regulation is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. From an economic standpoint, the 2009's new regulatory proposal prompted by the major oil discoveries offshore in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts while the changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities are not so clear. (author)

  16. Economics of oil regulation and the Brazilian reform. Some issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, Adriana [Center for Economics and Oil Studies, IBRE/Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    This paper reviews the economic fundamentals for regulation in the oil industry, with a focus on the current regulatory proposal for the Brazilian oil industry. The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of the optimal contract, with a remuneration structure that combines upfront with future payments to mitigate uncertainty and incentivize exploratory efforts. In Brazil, despite slow market deconcentration since 1997's liberalization, the current oil regulation is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. From an economic standpoint, the 2009's new regulatory proposal prompted by the major oil discoveries offshore in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts while the changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities are not so clear. (author)

  17. Economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank is analyzing the role of economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland, in cooperation with Polish and international experts. The first stage, covering Poland as a whole, was recently completed, jointly financed with the U.S. E.P.A. and the Government of the Netherlands. The second stage, now under way, will extend the analysis into a specific regional framework. Stage 2 is financed by the World Bank, the Polish Government, and the U.K. Environment Know-How Fund. Air Pollution in Poland is overwhelmingly caused by energy production and uses, due to the fact that the Polish economy depends heavily on coal and lignite. At present, vehicles contribute less to total emissions than do coal burning and industrial processes, although they account for 25-35% of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead; and the concentrated in areas of high population density. The paper shows how economic, technical and meteorological modelling can be used, to reach conclusions about cost-effective strategies for the control of emissions and the improvement of ambient air quality. A simulation approach is presented, to compare alternative policy instruments, in terms of their impact on emissions and control costs for Poland as a whole. The main instruments considered are open-quotes command-and-controlclose quotes regimes (C ampersand C) and economic incentives, namely fuel taxes, emissions taxes and emissions trading. Next, the paper describes how the analysis is being extended, to link emissions with ambient air quality, using air dispersion modelling, based on a case study for Krakow. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the importance of sound economic policies for air quality management, the costs of alternative standards, C ampersand C approaches versus economic incentives, a practical strategy to develop an effective role for emissions taxes and trading, and the regional differentiation of policy instruments

  18. A socio-cultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation: Culture and the regulation of positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoming; Tamir, Maya; Miyamoto, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    We propose a sociocultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation. According to this approach, cultural differences in the tendency to savor rather than dampen positive emotions should be more pronounced when people are actively pursuing goals (i.e., contexts requiring higher cognitive effort) than when they are not (i.e., contexts requiring lower cognitive efforts), because cultural beliefs about the utility of positive emotions should become most relevant when people are engaging in active goal pursuit. Four studies provided support for our theory. First, European Americans perceived more utility and less harm of positive emotions than Japanese did (Study 1). Second, European Americans reported a stronger relative preference for positive emotions than Asians, but this cultural difference was larger in high cognitive effort contexts than in moderate or low cognitive effort contexts (Study 2). Third, European Americans reported trying to savor rather than dampen positive emotions more than Asians did when preparing to take an exam, a typical high cognitive effort context (Studies 3-4), but these cultural differences were attenuated when an exam was not expected (Study 3) and disappeared when participants expected to interact with a stranger (Study 4). These findings suggest that cultural backgrounds and situational demands interact to shape how people regulate positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Socio-economic characteristics and the effect of taxation as a health policy instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Denver, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the quantitative effects of using economic instruments in health policy on the basis of price elasticities calculated from estimated demand systems. The nutritional effects of various taxation schemes are compared for households in different age groups and social classes...... of the instruments and the targeting of vulnerable groups with special needs should be done with care. It should be noted that a tax on a single nutrient or food may have undesired effects on the demand for other food components, though this may be avoided by introducing taxes/subsidies on several food products...

  20. State regulation as a tool for improving the economic security of the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing economic security for the development of regions, increasing their competitiveness, risk-free and sustainable activities are the main tasks of the regional program of social and economic development, which occupies a special place in the system of instruments for public management of these processes. The program of social and economic development is a unique strategy of the region aimed at security and optimization of the spatial structure and relations between the center and the regions in order to ensure economic security and growth by maximizing the effective use of existing internal and external factors. The institutional influence of the state in order to improve the economic security of regions and enterprises occurs palliatively when the business of the region is supported in direct – subsidies, and more often indirectly – compliance with the laws and regulations of the Russian Federation and the region, on the principles of institutional and market synergies. Adaptation of enterprises in the region to the market is difficult, when specific socio-organizational, economic, technical and technological, scientific, information activities in their interrelations function in the field of Russian laws. The search for ways to improve the economic security of the Russian Federation, regions and enterprises takes place in the context of global integration through the improvement of the mechanism of state regulation. An important task of the current stage of economic security of the country and regions is the construction of a system of its institutional organization that would be able to balance the levers of government with the opportunities of private enterprises, provide a quality level of providing the business with protection from terrorism, predation, financial risks, legal competition etc.

  1. Positive Impact of Art as a Communication Instrument on Economical Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Cereci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect economical productivity like climate, or like raw materials or like international relationships or like physchology of employers. Professional organisations or companies use different instruments to increase producticity on economy. Spiritual conditions of employers and employees are especially regarded for economical productivity recently. Though economy is mostly a concrete area, main component of economy is human and human need spiritual support and impacts in his life. It is known that spiritual support always feed human and provide him much energy. Employers or companies who are interested in art and who participate in artistic activities become more productive than others and attract people to their productions.

  2. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the most common strategies and policy instruments (that is, regulatory and economic) used in developed and developing countries to achieve pollution control and waste management objectives. Although this topic has been at the center of theoretical controversy both within and outside the World Bank, the paper is not intended to contribute to this debate. Rather, its purpose is to explore how regulatory and economic instruments are used to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous wastes. The paper is directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, as well as to other parties responsible for pollution control and waste management programs

  3. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  4. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  5. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  6. Instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life: Frequency, consistency, and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Tamir, Maya; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-06-01

    People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outside the laboratory, it is necessary to examine them in response to real and personally relevant stimuli in ecologically valid contexts. In this research, we assessed the frequency, consistency, and predictors of instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life. Participants (N = 114) recalled the most negative event of their day each evening for 7 days and reported their instrumental motives and negative emotion goals in that event. Participants endorsed performance motives in approximately 1 in 3 events and social, eudaimonic, and epistemic motives in approximately 1 in 10 events. Instrumental motives had substantially higher within- than between-person variance, indicating that they were context-dependent. Indeed, although we found few associations between instrumental motives and personality traits, relationships between instrumental motives and contextual variables were more extensive. Performance, social, and epistemic motives were each predicted by a unique pattern of contextual appraisals. Our data demonstrate that instrumental motives play a role in daily negative emotion regulation as people encounter situations that pose unique regulatory demands. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    of global trade relations. Whereas forty years ago, 90 percent of international trade consisted of mercantilist goods; today , 90 percent of... GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER BY MAJOR JOSH WATKINS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...bachelor of business administration degree from Old Dominion University in 2001. He was commissioned through Officer Training School in 2002 and his

  8. Economic expenditures associated with instrumental caregiving roles of adult siblings of persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Steven P; Lukens, Ellen P; Thorning, Helle

    2007-04-01

    Siblings of persons with mental illness who assume primary caregiving roles experience substantial and tangible economic impacts associated with this responsibility. This study investigated mailed survey responses collected from 156 adult siblings of persons with mental illness from New York State to examine instrumental costs associated with providing support to siblings with illness. Genders of both siblings, severity of the relatives' mental illness, and number of surviving parents in the family distinguished those occupying primary caregiving responsibility from those not in primary roles. Current caregivers incurred greater instrumental costs in the form of financial expenses, time spent in care activities, and crisis involvement than did those who were not primary care providers. Additional demographic and behavioral factors related to siblings with and without illness were associated with specific dimensions of instrumental expenditure. As siblings become increasingly engaged in caregiving, social service professionals must assume leadership in promoting programs and policies that meaningfully support family involvement for relatives with mental illness.

  9. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  10. Economics of oil regulation and the Brazilian reform: Some issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.perez@fgv.b [Center for Economics and Oil Studies, IBRE/Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    This paper reviews the economic fundamentals for regulation in the oil industry, with a focus on the current regulatory proposal for the Brazilian oil industry. The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of the optimal contract, with a remuneration structure that combines upfront with future payments to mitigate uncertainty and incentivize exploratory efforts. In Brazil, despite slow market deconcentration since 1997's liberalization, the current oil regulation is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. From an economic standpoint, the 2009's new regulatory proposal prompted by the major oil discoveries offshore in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts while the changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities are not so clear. - Research Highlights: {yields} The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of an optimal contract. {yields} The current oil regulation in Brazil is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. {yields} The changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities in Brazil are not so clear. {yields} The 2009's new regulatory proposal in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts.

  11. A study on the relationship of environmental regulations and economic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Jia; Chen, Shen

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism transmission of environmental regulation affecting on economic performance from a new perspective. It shows that environmental regulations affect country’s economic performance through direct transmission and indirect transmission. Direct transmission means that environmental regulations affect economic performance from influencing corporation’s cost and revenue, and indirect transmission is that environmental regulations affect economic performance through leading to the increased effort of corporations in improving the quality of environment and building the image of fulfilling environmental responsibility.

  12. ER-E3 regulation. Minimal instrumentation that must operate nuclear medicine in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is to define the instrumentation that must exist in any institution conducting the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba. This regulation emphasizes two aspects: The minimum equipment necessary to operate a nuclear medicine laboratory for use 'in vitro' and the minimum equipment required to operate a Nuclear Medicine use 'in vivo'

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  14. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  16. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  18. The retributive rates, economic instrument, effective for the water decontamination in the Oriente Antioqueno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Hernandez, Luis Fernando

    1999-01-01

    The article contains the antecedents of the collection of the recompensing rates in Colombia at the beginning of the decade of the eighty it not insinuates as a mechanism for the atmospheric contamination. Later on the law 99 of 1993 defines it as the most important mechanism to not achieve the contamination of sources of water in the country. It establishes this way it the ordinance 901 of April of 1997 by means of which the process of implementation of the recompensing rates begins in the Oriente Antioqueno where at the moment is carried out the collection in eight basins. The article also registers the results that leave the economic instrument in what refers at levels of non-contamination of basins and in money collected after having billed five semesters. Likewise it reports a series of benefits that leaves the instrument after two years of implementation in the Oriente Antioqueno

  19. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, M.; Lobban, S.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the fist edition of OXERA's Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry in the UK. It is primarily intended as a work of reference, summarising the key statutory controls of the industry and the most important features of the companies' licences. The main features of the guide are as follows. It provides comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the industry. The roles of the key players are explained and a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents is given. It aims to bring the reader up to date with current regulatory issues and possible developments in the industry. It presents the information in a clear and concise form. The emphasis is on identifying and highlighting the key points in each area so that readers can rapidly familiarise themselves with the subject matter. It does not examine the process by which businesses are valued and the various price caps are set. These are issues which are best approached within the context of utility regulation in general. (author)

  20. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez Londono, Ana Maria

    1998-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  1. Fair value accounting for financial instruments: some implications for bank regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Landsman

    2006-01-01

    I identify issues that bank regulators need to consider if fair value accounting is used for determining bank regulatory capital and when making regulatory decisions. In financial reporting, US and international accounting standard setters have issued several disclosure and measurement and recognition standards for financial instruments and all indications are that both standard setters will mandate recognition of all financial instruments at fair value. To help identify important issues for ...

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  4. Quality of life instruments for economic evaluations in health and social care for older people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Peter; Brouwer, Werner B F; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Stolk, Elly A; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-02-01

    Gaining health may not be the main goal of healthcare services aimed at older people, which may (also) seek to improve wellbeing. This emphasizes the need of finding appropriate outcome measures for economic evaluation of such services, particularly in long-term care, capturing more than only health-related quality of life (HrQol). This review assesses the usefulness of HrQol and wellbeing instruments for economic evaluations specifically aimed at older people, focusing on generic and preference-based questionnaires measuring wellbeing in particular. We systematically searched six databases and extracted instruments used to assess HrQol and wellbeing outcomes. Instruments were compared based on their usefulness for economic evaluation of services aimed at older people (dimensions measured, availability of utility scores, extent of validation). We identified 487 articles using 34 generic instruments: 22 wellbeing (two of which were preference-based) and 11 HrQol instruments. While standard HrQol instruments measure physical, social and psychological dimensions, wellbeing instruments contain additional dimensions such as purpose in life and achievement, security, and freedom. We found four promising wellbeing instruments for inclusion in economic evaluation: Ferrans and Powers QLI and the WHO-Qol OLD, ICECAP-O and the ASCOT. Ferrans and Powers QLI and the WHO-Qol OLD are widely validated but lack preference-weights while for ICECAP-O and the ASCOT preference-weights are available, but are less widely validated. Until preference-weights are available for the first two instruments, the ICECAP-O and the ASCOT currently appear to be the most useful instruments for economic evaluations in services aimed at older people. Their limitations are that (1) health dimensions may be captured only partially and (2) the instruments require further validation. Therefore, we currently recommend using the ICECAP-O or the ASCOT alongside the EQ-5D or SF-6D when evaluating interventions

  5. Biomass power generation in competitive markets - The impact of instruments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation as well as the impact of market regulations on the development of biomass power generation. The evaluation of the existing instruments focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. Feed-in tariffs and net metering are important instruments to get the different technologies 'off the ground', however, they can only be considered an interim solution as they do not necessarily lead to cost reduction. A bidding process is one way to achieve these cost reductions, but high transaction costs will support the development of large renewable energy projects, which is not always the desired effect. Fixed quotas combined with green certificate trading or a power exchange in combination with Green Pricing seem to lead to similar costs reduction, however, so far there is only limited experience with such instruments. The analysis of the impact of market regulations focuses on international electricity markets with a power exchange. Such markets exist, for example, in Scandinavia, England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand and California. The analysis showed that new distributed generation, for example based on biomass, faces significant market barriers. Furthermore, distributed generation is not treated equally within the market regulations compared to large-scale power generation

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  7. Using economic instruments to develop effective management of invasive species: insights from a bioeconomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shana M; Irwin, Rebecca E; Taylor, Brad W

    2013-07-01

    critical. To accomplish the management and enforcement of these economic policies, we discuss modification of existing agencies and infrastructure. Finally, a sensitivity analysis revealed that lowering the economic cost of invader removal would strongly increase the probability of invader eradication. Taken together, our results provide quantitative insight into management decisions and economic policy instruments that can encourage invasive species removal across a social landscape.

  8. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    the market power of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries), a cartel of nations which is the single largest oil exporting entity in the world, and is an entity considered unreliable. On the other hand, it reduces the demand for domestic farm subsidies. At the same crops comprise a small share of the retail price of food. As a result, the expected negative impact of biofuel was at worst a small increase in the retail price of food. However, the food price inflation in the year 2008 suggests that the negative impact on food consumers was significantly higher than expected and also outweighed the impact fuel consumers. I estimate the effect on biofuels on food and oil prices and compare them to other estimates in the literature and also relate these to prices observed in the real world. The third topic is the economics of greenhouse gas regulations of transportation fuels. Climate change policies such as United Nations' Kyoto protocol, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US north-east mandate an aggregate emission target, called a cap and allow regulated entities to trade responsibilities for abatement. Furthermore, these policies have generally and sometimes exclusively targeted the electricity and industrial sector for emission reduction. However, the Low carbon fuel standard and Renewable fuel standard are two policies about to be implemented by the State of California and the US federal government, which exclusively target the transportation sector for emission reduction. Furthermore, these regulations mandate emission intensity target for fuels rather than aggregate emission reduction. I compare the cost-effectiveness of these two types of regulations, namely, aggregate emission caps versus emission intensity standards and discuss how prices, output and emissions vary between these two types of policies.

  9. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  10. 77 FR 69442 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...; Information Collection; Economic Price Adjustment AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... economic price adjustment. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of..., Economic Price Adjustment by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov...

  11. Economic instruments for obesity prevention: results of a scoping review and modified delphi survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFrance Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity, and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005 methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1 a structured literature search and review, and 2 consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1 consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2 very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy

  12. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  13. Extended benefit cost analysis as an instrument of economic valuated in Petungkriyono forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Irma; Nur Bambang, Azis; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri

    2018-05-01

    Petungkriyono is the last tropical forest in Java and provides biodiversity including rare flora and fauna that must be maintained, managed and utilized in order to give meaning for humanity and sustainability. Services of Forest Ecosystem in Petungkriyono are included such as goods supply, soil-water conservation, climate regulation, purification environment and flora fauna habitats. The approach of this study is the literature review from various studies before perceiving the influenced of economic valuation in determining the measurement conservation strategies of Petungkriyono Natural Forest Ecosystem in Pekalongan Regency. The aims of this study are to analyzing an extended benefit cost of natural forest ecosystems and internalizing them in decision making. The method of quantification and valuation of forest ecosystem is Cost and Benefit Analysis (CBA) which is a standard economic appraisal tools government in development economics. CBA offers the possibility capturing impact of the project. By using productivity subtitution value and extended benefit cost analysis any comodity such as Backwoods,Pine Woods, Puspa woods and Pine Gum. Water value, preventive buildings of landslide and carbon sequestration have total economic value of IDR.163.065.858.080, and the value of Extended Benefit Cost Ratio in Petungkriyono is 281.35 %. However, from the result is expected the local government of Pekalongan to have high motivation in preserve the existence of Petungkriyono forest.

  14. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  16. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  17. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  18. Franchising contract – a modern juridical and economic instrument for business expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florina POPA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of trade, as well as its dynamics in the context of globalization, have created the premises of acceleration in the commercial distribution networks expansion, with immediate effects in the sphere of law. Transgression, moreover, was predictable and any legal implication in economics, as well that of the judiciary system in the economy can't be ruled out. Among the commercial agreements, franchising has experienced one of the most spectacular developments of all kinds of business, due to the favorable context in which it developed. In this paper we aim to analyze the essential elements of franchising, based on the legal phenomenon rather than on the economic one. This article also examines the behavior of existing and future entrepreneurs regarding the possibility of implementing this legal instrument. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, even if, according to the statistics, the franchise contract has successfully imposed itself in the business world, there is enough reticence in adopting it as a development measure.

  19. Climate Informed Economic Instruments to Enhance Urban Water Supply Resilience to Hydroclimatological Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Carriquiry, M.; Souza Filho, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroclimatological variability presents acute challenges to urban water supply providers. The impact is often most severe in developing nations where hydrologic and climate variability can be very high, water demand is unmet and increasing, and the financial resources to mitigate the social effects of that variability are limited. Furthermore, existing urban water systems face a reduced solution space, constrained by competing and conflicting interests, such as irrigation demand, recreation and hydropower production, and new (relative to system design) demands to satisfy environmental flow requirements. These constraints magnify the impacts of hydroclimatic variability and increase the vulnerability of urban areas to climate change. The high economic and social costs of structural responses to hydrologic variability, such as groundwater utilization and the construction or expansion of dams, create a need for innovative alternatives. Advances in hydrologic and climate forecasting, and the increasing sophistication and acceptance of incentive-based mechanisms for achieving economically efficient water allocation offer potential for improving the resilience of existing water systems to the challenge of variable supply. This presentation will explore the performance of a system of climate informed economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on water-sensitive stakeholders. The system is comprised of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Contract and insurance parameters are linked to forecasts and the evolution of seasonal precipitation and streamflow and designed for financial and political viability. A simulation of system performance is presented based on ongoing work in Metro Manila, Philippines. The

  20. Alternative development and action plan for the atomic safety regulation instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Ahn, S. K.; Ham, Y. S.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study to provide highly practical model to regulation agency. Since nuclear power safety regulation has different characteristics, compared to general regulation, it is important to have new point of view and approach. But application possibility for regulation that guarantees the 'perfect safety' is very low. Therefore, it is important establish nuclear power safety regulation that is realistic as well as safety securing. In order to establish high quality regulation, evaluation of existing regulation must be done first. Thus in this study, 6 standards to evaluate existing regulation are suggested. They are clearness, efficiency, flexibility, reliability, responsibility and political consideration. Also, strategies to complement the weak points of regulatory governance, regulatory sunset, regulatory map, regulatory negotiation, regulatory benefit cost analysis, etc. These strategies can be applied all in one regulation, and can strategically be selected for application. After analyzing the result if case analysis on nuclear furnace regulation for research study, agreement was made that it is most efficient to consider in the order if clearness reliability, flexibility, confidence, political consideration, administrative efficiency and economic efficiency

  1. Legal Instruments of Regulation of Development of Banking Activity in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyshch Pavlo M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main approaches to identification of essence of legal instruments of regulation of development of the banking activity, identifies the mechanism of legal regulation of the banking activity and its elements and justifies the system and form of legal regulation of the banking activity in Ukraine. It describes subjects of legal regulation of the banking activity at the international level, which are the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, European Central Bank, IMF, International Financial Reporting Standards Foundation and others. The article considers specific features of the regulatory requirements of Basel II and Basel III and specific features of their introduction into the banking activity. It describes anti-cyclic measures offered by the Basel Committee, which should facilitate formation of such conditions, under which the banking sector could have a lower level of leverage and stability with respect to influence of system risks. Significant attention is paid to international instruments of regulation of the banking activity, which include the following legal acts: Uniform Rules for Collections, Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, and Unified Rules for Loan Guarantees. The article shows that the share of subordinate legal acts is significant in the Ukrainian system of banking regulatory and legal acts since the state cannot operatively react to the changing processes in banking at the legislative level and, that is why, basic provisions on carrying out banking activity should be fixed in law.

  2. Self-Regulation and Economic Stress in Children of Hispanic Immigrants and Their Peers: Better Regulation at a Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa Schlueter; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Stiles, Allison A.; Mendoza, Marina M.; Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Although there is a well-established relationship between economic stress and children's self-regulation, few studies have examined this relationship in children of Hispanic immigrants (COHIs), a rapidly growing population. In a sample of preschool children (N = 165), we examined whether economic stress predicted teacher…

  3. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an…

  4. Restoration of stormwater retention capacity at the allotment-scale through a novel economic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Tim D; Walsh, Chistopher J; Bos, Darren; Nemes, Veronika; RossRakesh, Sharyn; Prosser, Toby; Hatt, Belinda; Birch, Rhiannon

    2011-01-01

    Urbanisation results in changes to runoff behaviour which, if not addressed, inevitably degrade receiving waters. To date, most stormwater management has focussed on the streetscape and public open space. Given that much of the catchment imperviousness is located on private land, we developed and tested a novel economic instrument (a uniform price auction) for encouraging allotment-scale stormwater retention. We evaluated bids using an integrated environmental benefit index (EBI), based on the ability of the proposed works to reduce runoff frequency, pollutant loads and to reduce potable water demand. The uniform price auction resulted in 1.4 ha of impervious areas being effectively 'disconnected' from the stormwater system. The EBI provided an objective and transparent method of comparing bids, which varied in the type of works proposed (e.g. rainwater tank, rain-garden), the cost and the resulting environmental benefit. Whilst the pilot auction was a success, the public subsidy of works undertaken was around 85%, meaning that property owners a relatively small private benefit in the works. Future auction rounds will be revised to (i) test an EBI which is more focussed on the protection of streams (assessing changes to runoff frequency, baseflow volumes and water quality) and (ii) provide an auction process which is simpler to understand, and provides greater practical support for landholders who wish to undertake works.

  5. How Marketing Instruments Affect Consumer Behavior in Times of Economic Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naďa Birčiaková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the behavioural changes in groups of consumers and households on the market with individual commodities, based on the classification of individual reasonable consumption. Consumers expressed the degree of influence in their decision-making on satisfying their needs through selected key marketing factors such as price, brand, quality, habits and experience, advertising, recommendation from friends and relatives, packaging, discounts, new items, and so on. The analysis sought to determine whether the changes in the economic situation in the Czech Republic have an impact on the degree of marketing instrument influence on consumer behavior and decision-making. To express the degree of influence 10 point opinion scale is used. Thanks to the investigation taking place in 2007 with 609 respondents and in 2013 with 516 respondents, it was possible, it was possible to deal with the search for evidence of differences in the importance of individual factors using the Wilcoxon test. In 2013, attention was also paid to the degree of influence of some marketing tools such as price, quality and discount events on consumer behavior and decision-making in selected groups of households created by different income levels and different level of education achieved by the head of the household. The influence is expressed by radial graphs.

  6. Why do Economic Instruments Fail? The role of Water trading and Pricing at a River Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Blanco, C. D.; Gomez, C.; Loch, A. J.; Adamson, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water management problems stem from the mismatch between a multitude of individual decisions, on the one hand, and the current and projected status of water resources, on the other. Economics provides valuable information on the incentives that drive individual decisions and can be used to design instruments that address the problem. Yet, proposals from economists regarding instruments like water pricing or trading are mostly based upon basic and general principles of welfare economics that are not straightaway applicable to assets as complex as water. For example, while water markets clearly serve to the parts directly involved in the transaction, the unique characteristics of water often leads to Pareto inefficient allocations that affect the environment and related economic uses. The flaw in this approach lies in the understanding that water prices and water trading schemes may be good or bad on their own (e.g. finding the "right" price). This vision changes radically when we focus on the problem, instead of the instrument. In this case addressing water management challenges is equivalent to making the multitude of decisions people do about water compatible with collective water governance goals such as curbing degradation trends or building water security for the future. These ideas provide both the basis for assessing existing incentives such as pricing and trading schemes and reshaping economic instruments to serve the objectives of an integrated water resources management.

  7. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  8. Route optimization as an instrument to improve animal welfare and economics in pre-slaughter logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning. To simulate the effects of various planning time windows and transportation time regulations and number of pick-up stops along each route, we have used data that represent one year of cattle transport. Our optimization model is a development of a model used in forestry transport that solves a general pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize transportation costs. We have shown that the length of the planning time window has a significant impact on the animal transport time, the total driving time and the total distance driven; these parameters that will not only affect animal welfare but also affect the economy and environment in the pre-slaughter logistic chain. In addition, we have shown that changes in animal transportation regulations, such as minimizing the number of allowed pick-up stops on each route or minimizing animal transportation time, will have positive effects on animal welfare measured in transportation hours and number of pick-up stops. However, this leads to an increase in working time and driven distances, leading to higher transportation costs for the transport and negative environmental impact. PMID:29513704

  9. Route optimization as an instrument to improve animal welfare and economics in pre-slaughter logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Mikael; Jonsson, Annie; Sellman, Stefan; Flisberg, Patrik; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Wennergren, Uno

    2018-01-01

    Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning. To simulate the effects of various planning time windows and transportation time regulations and number of pick-up stops along each route, we have used data that represent one year of cattle transport. Our optimization model is a development of a model used in forestry transport that solves a general pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize transportation costs. We have shown that the length of the planning time window has a significant impact on the animal transport time, the total driving time and the total distance driven; these parameters that will not only affect animal welfare but also affect the economy and environment in the pre-slaughter logistic chain. In addition, we have shown that changes in animal transportation regulations, such as minimizing the number of allowed pick-up stops on each route or minimizing animal transportation time, will have positive effects on animal welfare measured in transportation hours and number of pick-up stops. However, this leads to an increase in working time and driven distances, leading to higher transportation costs for the transport and negative environmental impact.

  10. Economics of Philanthropic Institutions, Regulation and Governance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Babacan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper merges the literature on regulation, specifically private provision of public goods, and governance with the literature on philanthropic institutions (awqaf) in Turkey. Traditionally, awqaf (plural for the waqf) have been very functional regarding the socioeconomic realms in Muslim societies. On the other hand, the provision of public goods is one of the core discussions under the literature on regulation and governance, particularly the property rights. This paper analyzes the rol...

  11. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Regulating the Relationship between State and Religion: An Economic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.I.B. Vandenberghe (Ann-Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In defining its relationship towards religion, the Dutch government is committed to the values of freedom of religion and neutrality. This article uses the economic approach to freedom of religion and state neutrality as a tool for looking at the existing Dutch policy

  13. Round table on economic instruments for environmental protection. A brief to the Senate Standing Committee on Energy and the Environment and Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-10-20

    The Canadian Nuclear Association is presenting a brief to the Senate Standing Committee on energy and the environment and natural resources. When looking at the techniques to reduce pollution from energy activity, a preference is towards the economic instruments, away from the command and control techniques. Economic instruments provide incentives to all the participants in the marketplace.

  14. Round table on economic instruments for environmental protection. A brief to the Senate Standing Committee on Energy and the Environment and Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association is presenting a brief to the Senate Standing Committee on energy and the environment and natural resources. When looking at the techniques to reduce pollution from energy activity, a preference is towards the economic instruments, away from the command and control techniques. Economic instruments provide incentives to all the participants in the marketplace

  15. Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional

  16. An instrument measuring prospective mathematics teacher self-regulated learning: validity and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, A. A.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-03-01

    Self Regulated Learning (SRL) is an individual's ability to achieve academic goals by controlling behavior, motivate yourself and use cognitive in learning, so it is important for a teacher especially teachers of mathematics related to the ability of management, design, implementation of learning and evaluation of learning outcomes. The purpose of the research is to develop an instrument to describe the SRL of a prospective mathematics teacher. Data were collected by (1) the study of the theory of SRL produced the indicator SRL used to design the questionnaire SRL; (2) analysis of the questionnaire SRL obtained from several References; and (3) development stage of the SRL questionnaire through validity test of content and empirical validation. The study involved 2 content experts in mathematics, 1 linguist, and 92 prospective mathematics teachers. The results of the research on content validity test based on Indonesian expert and 2 content experts indicate that the content can assess the indicator of the SRL and feasible to be used, in the test of legibility of two prospective mathematics teacher concluded that the instrument has a language that can be understood by the prospective teacher of mathematics and on empirical validation involving 92 prospective mathematics teacher generate data that of 65 statements there are 3 invalid statements. Reliability calculation shows high category that values 0,93. The conclusion is the SRL instrument developed for the prospective mathematics teacher.

  17. jurisprudence precedent on the instruments of environmental regulation of the electrical colombian sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcila R, Jaime Leon; Velasquez A, Hector I

    2009-01-01

    What the authors of the Law of the Environment have named the green Constitution or the ecological Constitution of 1991, necessarily it has consequences in the legal practice of the instruments of environmental management in all the levels and sectors of the economy, especially if the previous thing is analyzed in the frame of the Social State of Law in the Constitution of 1991, under this perspective, it is possible to understand the emptiness and inconsistencies of the environmental management in the electrical Colombian sector (SEC), from the critical analysis of the instruments of environmental regulation established in the in the Law in addition it is possible to check these instruments in his role of tools for the environmental management, to identify a constitutional and legal conceptualization adapted for the development of the same ones and to determine the necessary adjustments to realize in his environmental role of management tools in the SEC. The attainment of the previous aims carries an own methodology of the social qualitative research in his juridical political levels. The content of this article realizes the first advances in order to study from a juriprudential and not merely legal optics, since up to the moment the topic has been approached.

  18. Nuclear safety: economic analysis of American, French and Japanese regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-05-01

    While discussing and comparing the American, Japanese and French approaches and practices, and identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, the author discusses why self-regulation and civil responsibility cannot guarantee a sufficient nuclear safety level, why the safety regulation authority must be independent from industry and government, whether a figure must be put to the safety objective (for example with a risk threshold), whether it is better to define detailed standards to be applied by manufacturers and operators or to define general performance criteria to be reached

  19. Municipal Risk Atlases in Mexico as policy instruments for territorial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxhelli Ruiz Rivera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH, which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry of Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as ‘vulnerability’, ‘affected systems’, ‘disturbances’ but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices.

  20. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  1. Economic and legal aspects of introducing novel ICT instruments: integrating sound into social media marketing - from audio branding to soundscaping

    OpenAIRE

    Daj, A.

    2013-01-01

    The pervasive expansion and implementation of ICT based marketing instruments imposes a new economic investigation of business models and regulatory solutions. Moreover, the current status of Social Media research indicates that the use of social networking and collaboration technologies is deeply changing the way people communicate, consume and cooperate with each other. Against the backdrop of widespread availability of digital audio-video content and the growing number of “smart” mobile de...

  2. Influence of soil and climate heterogeneity on the performance of economic instruments for reducing nitrate leaching from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; García-Prats, Alberto; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-11-15

    Economic instruments can be used to control groundwater nitrate pollution due to the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture. In order to test their efficiency on the reduction of nitrate leaching, we propose an approach based on the combined use of production and pollution functions to derive the impacts on the expected farmer response of these instruments. Some of the most important factors influencing nitrate leaching and crop yield are the type of soil and the climatic conditions. Crop yield and nitrate leaching responses to different soil and climatic conditions were classified by means of a cluster analysis, and crops located in different areas but with similar response were grouped for the analysis. We use a spatial economic optimization model to evaluate the potential of taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water prices, and taxes on nitrate emissions to reduce nitrate pollution, as well as their economic impact in terms of social welfare and farmers' net benefits. The method was applied to the Mancha Oriental System (MOS) in Spain, a large area with different soil types and climatic conditions. We divided the study area into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Results show spatially different responses of crop growth and nitrate leaching, proving how the cost-effectiveness of pollution control instruments is contingent upon the spatial heterogeneities of the problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tobacco regulations and policies in the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Konstantinovich Demin

    2017-05-01

    Differences between tobacco regulations and policies in the EAEU, EU and other supranational organizations should be further researched in order to promote exchange of best practices in WHO FCTC comprehensive compliance. Implementation of WHO FCTC Article 5.3. and involvement of civil society are among priorities. The practical prospects for the supranational EAEU to become a party to the WHO FCTC should be considered in detail.

  4. Regulating clinical trials in India: the economics of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gerard

    2017-07-09

    The relationship between the ethical standards for the governance of clinical trials and market forces can be complex and problematic. This article uses India as a case study to explore this nexus. From the mid-2000s, India became a popular destination for foreign-sponsored clinical trials. The Indian government had sought to both attract clinical trials and ensure these would be run in line with internationally accepted ethical norms. Reports of controversial medical research, however, triggered debate about the robustness and suitability of India's regulatory system. In response to civil society pressure and interventions by the Supreme Court, the Indian government proposed additional measures aimed at strengthening protections for clinical trial participants. Whilst the reforms can be seen as a victory for human rights activists, they have also been criticised as being overly burdensome for sponsors. Indeed, their announcement prompted an exodus of clinical trials from India. Fearful of losing business to 'rival' countries, the Indian government is revisiting some of its proposals. The Indian example suggests that research ethics frameworks and national policies for economic development are increasingly intertwined. Host countries are in theory free to improve the lot of research participants, but doing so may make them appear less attractive to foreign sponsors, who can simply shift their activities to more industry-friendly jurisdictions. Although these economic pressures are unlikely to lead to a regulatory 'race to the bottom', they may limit host countries' ability to enact socially desirable reforms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Use Of Instruments For Environmental Marketing In Economic Activity Of Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Shkuratov; Irina Voronetska

    2012-01-01

    Improved marketing mechanism of agricultural enterprise through the introduction of environmental marketing. Grounded place, tasks and functions of environmental marketing in integrated environmental and economic management.

  6. The economics of electric energy storage and its interaction with market regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to expose the interaction between the economics of EES and market regulation. An exhaustive investigation of relevant market regulations for the business of storage is conducted by examining (a) spot and futures markets, (b) ancillary services' procurement and (c) possible capacity enhancement. It is concluded that market regulation can be and should be improved in a number of ways to better recognize the value of EES. (author)

  7. State environmental regulation and economic development: Are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1992-01-01

    An underlying assumption of the partial preemption approach is the belief that minimum federal standards contribute to the prospective decentralization of environmental protection programs by removing or reducing industry incentives to shop around for states with a more lenient regulatory stance. This assumption was examined through a survey of chiev executive officers of pollution-generating firms. The data suggest that corporate officials see regulatory climate as an important component of overhead costs. The author concludes that the desire to retain industries within state boundaries does inhibit the promulgation of strict environment regulations by public officials. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Addressing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Pan-Japan Sea Region. An Overview of Economic Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.; Kambu, A.

    2005-11-01

    The health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption are of increasing concern to countries in the Pan-Japan Sea region, where economic growth has led to increased energy consumption in recent years. Economic instruments like green taxes and emissions-trading schemes represent important tools to help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, Japan, South Korea and Russia. Over the past several years, OECD countries have made progress in the use of economic instruments to reduce atmospheric air pollution. In Europe, new environmental taxes have been used most extensively, while in the United States market creation and emissions-trading schemes are more common. In the Pan-Japan Sea region, there has been considerable experience with pollution charge and levy systems, including the longstanding Japanese sulfur levy and the Russian and Chinese pollution charge systems. Generally, tax and emissions-trading systems are only beginning to emerge in the region although China has been experimenting with SOx emissions-trading schemes for several years now and South Korea and Japan have already begun experimenting with CO2 emissions-trading schemes. Only Japan has seriously looked at a carbon tax to curb GHG emissions among the four countries while direct subsidies for cleaner technologies have been adopted in the different Pan-Japan Sea countries. The costs and benefits of different economic instruments like taxes, charges, emissions-trading schemes and subsidies vary from case to case because they all have to be financially feasible, rest on informed and competent public institutions and perform effectively in local market and economic conditions. On top of all these is the fact that their overall success depends on their political acceptability. Given the experience of Pan-Japan Sea countries with economic instruments so far vis-a-vis the lessons learned in OECD countries and the nature of current and emerging pollution problems in Pan

  9. Royal Military College of Canada SLOWPOKE-2 facility. Integrated regulating and instrumentation system (SIRCIS) upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.P.; Nielsen, K.S.; Kelly, D.G.; Weir, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada has operated the only digitally controlled SLOWPOKE reactor since 2001 (Version 1.0). The present work describes ongoing project development to provide a robust digital reactor control system that is consistent with Aging Management as summarized in the Facility's Life Cycle Management and Maintenance Plan. The project has transitioned from a post-graduate research activity to a comprehensively managed project supported by a team of RMCC professional and technical staff who have delivered an update of the V1.1 system software and hardware implementation that is consistent with best Canadian nuclear industry practice. The challenges associated with the implementation of Version 2.0 in February 2012, the lessons learned from this implementation, and the applications of these lessons to a redesign and rewrite of the RMCC SLOWPOKE-2 digital instrumentation and regulating system (Version 3) are discussed. (author)

  10. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS – POSSIBLE INSTRUMENTS FOR ECONOMIC INTEGRATION WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Ovidiu TOFAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership includes, in addition to bilateral components (Association Agreements, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas/DCFTA, also a multilateral dimension as "economic integration and convergence with EU policies". This stated purpose of the partnership involves the need for adaptability to regional conditions and a differentiated approach to economies in the region in order to establish common objectives. Partner countries have aspirations that vary by geographic location, state of relations with the European Union and Russia, foreign policy objectives in medium and long term, real prospects of joining the European Union, or internal stability in economic and social aspects. Macroeconomic indicators specific to each country must undergo a dynamic analysis aimed on current situations and also on evolution of economic life. Thus, it requires processing a huge volume of historical data, creating possible scenarios based on policies implemented or being implemented to reach comprehensive information to provide a realistic picture of the economic growth at the macro level. Successfully implemented in enterprises, Business Intelligence (BI applications can be used to analyze large volume of data required to be processed to reach full and useful reports for the process of negotiation between the partners involved in the agreements referred and, very importantly, to establish a common language for all bodies and institutions co-opted into negotiations. Differences between the EU and other Eastern Partnership countries are obvious but economic common terms and methods or techniques of similar work can help plan positive developments in the negotiations and the desired convergence of economic policies. Business Intelligence tools simplify the presentation of needed information for discussions and provide a foundation in starting up joint analysis of economic dynamics in the area to reach complete and actual lines of future possible

  11. Template-Directed Instrumentation Reduces Cost and Improves Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Economic Decision Analysis and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Blevins, Jason L; DeNegre, Scott T; Mayman, David J; Jerabek, Seth A

    2015-10-01

    Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may streamline operating room (OR) workflow and reduce costs by preselecting implants and minimizing instrument tray burden. A decision model simulated the economics of TDI. Sensitivity analyses determined thresholds for model variables to ensure TDI success. A clinical pilot was reviewed. The accuracy of preoperative templates was validated, and 20 consecutive primary TKAs were performed using TDI. The model determined that preoperative component size estimation should be accurate to ±1 implant size for 50% of TKAs to implement TDI. The pilot showed that preoperative template accuracy exceeded 97%. There were statistically significant improvements in OR turnover time and in-room time for TDI compared to an historical cohort of TKAs. TDI reduces costs and improves OR efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic and legal aspects of introducing novel ICT instruments: integrating sound into social media marketing - from audio branding to soundscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daj, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive expansion and implementation of ICT based marketing instruments imposes a new economic investigation of business models and regulatory solutions. Moreover, the current status of Social Media research indicates that the use of social networking and collaboration technologies is deeply changing the way people communicate, consume and cooperate with each other. Against the backdrop of widespread availability of digital audio-video content and the growing number of “smart” mobile devices, business professionals have developed new strategies for achieving customer involvement and retention through digitally linking audio stimuli to the powerful networking environment of Social Media.

  13. Economic benefits of less restrictive regulation of advanced practice nurses in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Chris; Richards, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With looming provider shortages and increased demand for health care, many states are looking for low-cost ways to alleviate the shortages. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of less restrictive regulations for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in North Carolina. We use economic impact analysis to demonstrate the economic impacts of making state scope-of-practice regulations on APRNs less restrictive in North Carolina. Outcomes include economic output, value-added, payroll compensation, employment, and tax revenue for North Carolina and for various subregions. If North Carolina adopted the same approach to APRN regulation as the least restrictive states, its economy will benefit from substantial increases in economic output and employment. The state will also see increases in tax revenue. In addition to substantially shrinking the size of projected physician shortages, allowing full scope-of-practice for APRNs will bring significant economic benefits to the state of North Carolina. Our analysis should be helpful to policy makers considering ways to deal with provider shortages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On-line infrared heavy-water instruments: status, economics and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1978-06-01

    An intensive program to rehabilitate and establish the reliability of on-line heavy-water monitors is now showing tangible results. After determining the operating specifications and characteristics of the infrared D 2 O analyzers manufactured by Barringer Research Limited, monitoring systems based on these instruments were installed and commissioned at reactors and heavy-water plants. Ten such systems are currently operating reliably in the field. Laboratory tests and field experience have identified design features which would make the analyzers more convenient to use and less sensitive to environmental conditions. The conceptual design of a new instrument which is less dependent on station services and more tolerant of plant conditions has been completed

  15. The economic impact of strengthening fuel quality regulation-reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.J.; Cho, G.L.; Kim, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of strengthening vehicle emission regulation on economic activities. The government attempts to use three regulation measures to protect air quality from transportation emission. The measures include the aggregate limit (bubbles), the vehicle emission standard, and the fuel quality standard. Especially, we focus on the economic impact of reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel quality standard. Sulfur content in diesel fuel is one of the main factors in worsening local air quality. The emission from diesel vehicle accounts for 51.8% of total vehicle emission in Korea. If sulfur content reduction regulation is implemented, then the petroleum industry should build more facility to produce low sulfur content diesel, leading to additional production costs and increasing prices and decreasing outputs. We use computable general equilibrium model to analyze how the sulfur reduction regulation affects economic activities and trace out local emission reduction cost and GDP loss. And we suggest the tax-recycling mechanism to mitigate the negative economic costs due to the sulfur reduction regulation

  16. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  17. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  18. Lobbying in the European union – regulation and public sector economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying has become an inseparable companion of the decision-making process and firms but also other social actors (non-governmental organizations, individuals, private and civil sector are forced to reflect this fact, if they want to promote their interests effectively and if they want to avoid regulation that would harm their interests. The paper analyses the regulation of lobbying in European institutions and focuses on two major institutions which are under pressure of the lobbyists, the European Commission and the European Parliament. The paper discusses and presents the both ways of regulation which occur in the European institutions- the concept of self-regulation and the binding Code of Conduct under the Rules of Procedure in the European Parliament.The paper contains also possible economic consequences of lobbying based on the Public Sector Economics perspective and the methodology of the principal-agent relationship.

  19. The Economics and Sociology of Religious Giving: Instrumental Rationality or Communal Bonding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Jared L.

    2010-01-01

    Religious individuals commonly make sizable monetary sacrifices by contributing to their congregations. This social action resides in the overlap of religious and economic realms of behavior, creating a certain tension. Following a Weberian approach to social inquiry, I treat religious giving as social action whereby individuals direct their…

  20. Economic Valuation as an Instrument to Determine The Management Strategy of Baros Mangrove Forest, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo Jati, Irawan; Pribadi, Rudhi

    2018-02-01

    The Baros mangrove forest in Bantul Regency is now beginning to develop. Many government and private sectors programs are rolled out to support its development. The development of the Baros mangrove forest must be in accordance with the rules of conservation so that it will not damage the mangrove ecosystem. Mangrove forest has high economical and ecological value but is very vulnerable if lack of wisdom in maintaining, preserving and managing them. The involvement of government and other stakeholders are essential in determining management policies. Unawareness of society and the government to the importance of mangrove ecosystem can cause development of it becomes uncontrolled, consequently can destroy it. Mangrove forests are an important natural resource in coastal environments, and have three main functions: physical, biological, and economic functions. To quantify the functions of mangrove forests as the basis to determine the policy is required a research instrument called economic valuation. The approach of this study is the literature review from various studies before to perceive the influence of economic valuation in determining the management strategy of Baros mangrove forest in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  1. 不客忽视的衡器监管%Weighing instrument regulation can not be ignored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜

    2012-01-01

    衡器作为经济贸易中重要的计量手段之一,在我国经济飞速发展的今天起着越来越重要的作用。本文对我国衡器发展的现状和存在的问题进行分析,提出在衡器监管措施方面的建议。%Weighing instrument is as one of the important economic and trade measurement instruments, and plays a more and more role nowadays. This article analyzes current situation and existing problems of the weighing instrument development in China, and suggests on the weighing instrument regulatory measures.

  2. Dialectics of public and market regulation of a region and municipality socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motives of improving public regulation influence to socio-economic and social processes, increasing quality and effectiveness of public (PR and market (MR regulators, their optimal and flexible cooperation were examined in the article. The essence and content of public-legal regulators (PLR in the sustainable and balanced development of territories, regions and country as a whole was reviewed. The PLR was classified by criteria of the “scale” of their regulation influence, regulation methods and consequences. Special attention was paid to the quality of PLR of federal and intergovernmental relations at the regional and municipal levels. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of public and market regulators in regional and territorial development were suggested.

  3. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  4. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  5. Do economic instruments matter? Wind turbine investments in the EU(15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Arjen

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how governments in the EU(15) countries have succeeded in stimulating investments in wind turbines between 1985 and 2005. I use four different evaluation criteria (Tobin's Q, Euler equation estimation, investment accelerator model, and the effective marginal tax rate) to describe the observed investment patterns. After a period of rapid growth in capital stock (1985-2000), a period of modest growth (2001-2005) can be observed even though the economic attractiveness of investing increases modestly. This pattern cannot be explained by the evaluation criteria unless we accept economic attractiveness is a necessary condition and not a necessary and sufficient condition. When analysing which policy has worked best, the policies of Germany, Denmark and Spain stand out. Their early and consistent support has been based on feed-in tariffs combined with subsidies

  6. Franchising contract – a modern juridical and economic instrument for business expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Florina Popa; Andreea Gabriela Ponorîca

    2012-01-01

    Development of trade, as well as its dynamics in the context of globalization, have created the premises of acceleration in the commercial distribution networks expansion, with immediate effects in the sphere of law. Transgression, moreover, was predictable and any legal implication in economics, as well that of the judiciary system in the economy can't be ruled out. Among the commercial agreements, franchising has experienced one of the most spectacular developments of all kinds of business,...

  7. Economic Instruments and the Environment: Can Natural Resources be Maneged Exclusively by the Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Júlio Vitral Amaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of industrial economies coincides with the emergence of the economy as an autonomous discipline and with the question, not hitherto placed on the “value of nature”. As the basis of any theory of the first economists was the statement that every "value" is the work of man, was a fragile theoretical nature of the classics, since this is not the result of human labor. So, to circumvent the problem of fixing the "values​​" intrinsic to nature, environmental economics, in its most widespread version, part of the statement that assigns what is "value" is not exactly the environment or environmental resources but people's preferences in relation to changes in quality or quantity supplied of natural resource. The idea of ​​transaction rights on the environment (in fact, the right to pollute found resonance in the United States with "certified environmental" measures to better control pollution. They are traded for several polluting companies that can, in turn, trade them in the market for environmental permits. Remember that in any arrangement in which disputing parties settle in reaction conditions supposedly equal, makes a big difference the presence of those more able to lobby and power to influence public opinion. It is seen, even with the refinement that achieves economic analysis by incorporating as legitimate rights of non pollution, yet there is no guarantee the order of environmental damage if the whole issue be restricted to the context of the economic approach simply.

  8. Review of changes in the regulation of derivatives in compliance with the directive No. 2014/65/ЕС “The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika M. Kriger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and analyze the changes in the legal regulation of financial markets in the EU which occurred as a result of continuous reforms one of the key steps of which was the adoption of Directive 201465EC ldquoOn financial tools marketsrdquo. This document defines the framework for transactions with derivative financial instruments. Methods formallegal comparative historical analytical methods of scientific cognition. Results it was found that Regulation No. 6002014EU of the European Parliament and of the EU Council ldquoOn the financial tools marketsrdquo introduced the trading obligation to transactions with derivative financial instruments that is the rules on signing contracts on a certain type of regulated platforms. These platforms include regulated markets multilateral and organized trading platforms as well as similar platforms registered in the third states. The delegated regulations of the European Commission define the criteria for the diffusion of trading obligations onto various types of financial derivatives. At the moment it is impossible to fully evaluate the innovations results as most of the provisions and secondary legal acts have not yet come into force or have not been adopted. However it is clear that the reform of 2014 will not leave the derivatives market in its previous state. Directive No. 201465EU and Regulation No. 6002014EU ldquoOn financial tools marketsrdquo produced a revolution for them. The trading obligation imposed by these documents has forced the parties involved into transactions with derivative financial instruments to adopt a new perspective on their activities. As a result of the innovation a huge part of transactions with them has to be transferred onto regulated platforms and the OTC contracts for many will become illegal. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyses and studies the reform of the derivatives market in the European Union as well as peculiarities of

  9. Theories of estimation of differentiation for regulation of social-economic development of the city agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Anikina, Yu; Litovchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of estimation of differentiation of social-economic development of territorial units in city agglomeration are discussed in the article. Approbation of the given methods helped find out successfulness of the regulation of municipal development of administrative-territorial units in Krasnoyarsk agglomeration, set the goals of regional policy on peculiarities of development of the phenomenon of differentiation.

  10. IDENTIFICATOIN AS A SOCIO-ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF REGULATION OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Gubnelova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of basic types and factors of identification as a result of socialization and social relations. Identified criteria and specific identification of consumer behavior as regulator of material well-being and socio-economic development of the region.

  11. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  12. Institutional preconditions of socio-ecological-economic regulation of environmental management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Plaksunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to regulate environmental management activities of institutional entities arises when it affects the interests of third-party entities or threatened by the ongoing entity manufacturing practices its own resilience, to achieve the main goal. The complexity and diversity of the forms of socio-ecological and ecological-economic issues at different levels of the economic system leads to the development of many directions and views on the expansion of the management process of these levels (global, national, regional, local and techniques from rigid-deklorative state before combination with the market. In this respect, the neoclassical economic theory actively generated new analytical ideas and concept that enables to respond adequately to emerging economic realities. So we can distinguish the following approaches to regulate environmental management activities: T. Malthus and D. Ricardo, revealing issues of social, ecological and economic implications of limited natural resources in the context of the law of diminishing effectiveness and the need to regulate environmental management activities. John. St. Mill and George proved to be ineffective in addressing environmental problems in the industrial economy of the type of the imperfection of the institutions of society, justifying the occurrence of crises protohistoric speculation nature's benefits. A. Pigou developed the theory of externalities, which revealed the need for state regulation of the environmental management activities of economic entities, harmonization of individual and social interests. Research I. Kula, F. Khan and P. Samuelson identified a pattern about the formation of the system of regulation nature-safety activities, not only within individual States but also on a global level. R. Crows have shown that the methods of direct state regulation of nature economic activity is not as good as it seems at first glance and so you should not underestimate the role and potential

  13. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  14. CHARITY INSTITUTION AS RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY FORMATION INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Goryatcheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly supported and actively functioning charity institution may essentially influence development of both the country economics and its civil society. Theoretical aspects of the impact of charity on the economy are discussed in detail. Brought about in the article is information that reflects activities of non-commercial organizations (NCO in Russia and abroad, global charity experience, ways of raising funds for NCO, methods of assessing feasibility of investment into non-commercial projects. Social entrepreneurship experience including that of running social projects is discussed.

  15. Economic instruments of environmental policy - USA and Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, A.

    1983-01-01

    The basic orientation of American practice should induce us to develop constructive ideas. The principle is simple: Companies profit directly by emission reductions, and thus air-pollution abatement is enhanced. Even after a short period, an emmission relief and cost reduction are perceptible which is encouraging. Further options under the current licensing procedures must be carefully examined, and even though they may not, at first glance, appear to be equally rational and systematic which fact fascinates many because the suggestions on an environmental levy are so obviously aiming at specific targets. We should, therefore, not turn a deaf ear to a step-by-step approach with instruments of environmental policy which gains by experiments and errors.

  16. Economic analysis of the CLC/FC regime as an oil pollution prevention instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, J.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this research is to discuss the effectiveness of CLC/IOPC (Civil Liability Convention) liability regime in the field of oil pollution prevention. This study is mainly carried out from a law and economics perspective, although reference is also made to the economic analysis of international environmental agreements. The first two chapters explore the deterrent potential of the international regime in terms of oil spill prevention, from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The analysis of the effectiveness of the regime as such consists in, on the one hand, considering the ability of the international regime to compensate the entire social costs of oil spills (chapter 3) and, on the other hand, to examine the incentives given to operators in maritime oil transport to prevent accidental pollution (chapters 4 and 5). Sixth chapter considers the impacts of the voluntary nature of the international regime on its deterrent potential. The results obtained from this analysis enable to identify several mechanisms by which the deterrent effect of the existing regime could be increased. However, the overall effectiveness of the international regime appears to be limited by several factors that can not be corrected by means of a modification of the CLC and IOPC conventions. (author)

  17. Forests - Possible economic and political instrument for countering the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnehard, Jerome; Peyron, Jean-Luc

    2000-01-01

    What role do forests play in storing carbon? How can the latter be analysed? What conclusions can be drawn with respect to greenhouse effect mitigation? An attempt to answer these questions is provided through a quantitative forest model that incorporates economic factors (management costs, prices and uses of timber, value per ton of carbon, discounting rate) and biological features (growth, mortality, decomposition). In the case studied - the common spruce in north-eastern France-it shows that the advantages in relation to carbon are in the same order of magnitude as those derived from wood and could be materialised without excessive disruption of forest systems. Furthermore, the planting of between one and two hectares of trees may offset emission of one hundred tons of carbon. (authors)

  18. Economic instruments for the control of acid rain in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pototschnig, A.

    1994-01-01

    UK environmental policy has traditionally focused on administrative controls. The paper considers the introduction of market-based instruments in the context of the control of SO 2 emissions from large combustion plants. These are responsible for more than 80% of total emissions in the UK. The analysis focuses on England and Wales, and considers three separate sectors: the electricity supply industry (ESI), refineries and other industry. It looks at the options for achieving the emission quotas for large combustion plants set by the Large Combustion Plant Directive. Electricity generators are already allowed some discretion, subject to agreement by the enforcing authorities, to allocate pollution control responsibilities among power stations within each company. Given the similarity in the power station mix between National Power and PowerGen, the advantages of extending the mechanism to include power stations of both companies would be limited. More substantial savings can be obtained when refineries and other large industrial plants, which have much higher abatement costs, are included in the scheme. An emission permit scheme which includes the ESI, refineries and other industry is therefore proposed, and is preferred to a mechanism based on emission charges. Some features of this scheme are then discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. [Occupational health services as the insurance product and insurance economic instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.

  20. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mishchenko; S. Naumenkova

    2013-01-01

    In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  1. Challenges of the banking regulation systems in the climate of the world economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlarević Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, banking systems of the developed countries have undergone multiple changes, where the basic dimensions of those changes were integration, deregulation and globalisation of activities. The resultant of these factors' actions was the creation of highly risky banking environment, which acted as a catalyst of the world economic crisis effects. These effects brought to the forefront weaknesses of the banking sector and of the banking regulation system, while emphasizing the need for their redefining. Hence this work examines in detail concrete models of the banking regulation systems in the European Union area and in the United States of America. In addition, directions of redefining regulation system were highlighted, and also the relevant differences between banking business regulation in the European Union and in the United States of America.

  2. Types of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to the impact of subjects of tax regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohorelov Yurii S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the authors’ approach to identification of types of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to negative influence of subjects of tax regulation. It determines composition of these subjects and, separately, regulation subjects that form fundamental grounds of the tax sphere and subjects of effective influence, which directly interact with entrepreneurial structures and realise tax regulation of their activity in practice. As regards direct adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security, the article offers to mark out its individual types with respect to the set goal, essence of changes in the system of economic security, degree of its manageability and nature of accumulated changes. Moreover, the article offers a list of catalysts and inhibitors of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to impact of subjects of tax regulation. It also marks out adaptation parameters of the system of enterprise economic security to the impact of subjects of tax regulation and provides their gradations.

  3. Implementing of multilateral environmental agreements: which economic instruments for the countries of the PSZ?; Mise en oeuvre des accords multilateraux sur l'environnement: quels instruments economiques pour les pays de la zsp?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) have been concluded since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Some of them have created economic instruments designed to arrest the rapid degradation of the planet environment. Until now and for a variety of reasons, the countries in the Priority Solidarity Zone (PSZ) have not been able to stand as very active partners in negotiating these instruments. This study seeks to respond to the question of whether the PSZ countries are in a position to derive benefit from these new instruments and what the potential impact of these instruments will be on their medium and long-term development. This question often has to be put in more basic terms: ''do the conditions required to apply these instruments exist in the PSZ countries?''.

  4. Implementing of multilateral environmental agreements: which economic instruments for the countries of the PSZ?; Mise en oeuvre des accords multilateraux sur l'environnement: quels instruments economiques pour les pays de la zsp?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) have been concluded since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Some of them have created economic instruments designed to arrest the rapid degradation of the planet environment. Until now and for a variety of reasons, the countries in the Priority Solidarity Zone (PSZ) have not been able to stand as very active partners in negotiating these instruments. This study seeks to respond to the question of whether the PSZ countries are in a position to derive benefit from these new instruments and what the potential impact of these instruments will be on their medium and long-term development. This question often has to be put in more basic terms: ''do the conditions required to apply these instruments exist in the PSZ countries?''.

  5. Cognitive radio policy and regulation techno-economic studies to facilitate dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely reflection on how the proliferation of advanced wireless communications technologies, particularly cognitive radio (CR) can be enabled by thoroughly-considered policy and appropriate regulation. It looks at the prospects of CR from the divergent standpoints of technological development and economic market reality. The book provides a broad survey of various techno-economic and policy aspects of CR development, and provides the reader with an understanding of the complexities involved as well as a toolbox of possible solutions to enable the evolutionary leap towards successful implementation of disruptive CR technology or indeed any other novel wireless technologies. Cognitive Radio Policy and Regulation showcases the original ideas and concepts introduced into the field of CR and dynamic spectrum access policy over nearly four years of work within COST Action IC0905 TERRA, a think-tank with participants from more than 20 countries. The book’s subject matter includes: • deploymen...

  6. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2004-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  7. Liberalisation and regulation in the financial crisis – is behavioural economics a solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-George MAHA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The causes of economic crisis are a subject of intense debate, most opinions of economists ranging from the liberalization of the market to its regulation. We believe that usually there is “sufficient state” and that a change in its level does not have the expected effects. Although on the long term the reduction of the state presence would be preferable, on the medium and short term this would have negative effects, such as the reduction of the number of employees. One solution would be abandoning the simplistic neoclassical economic models, and replacing them with models developed in behavioural economics that would allow state and companies to develop more effective strategies.

  8. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  9. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill; Fraser, Barry

    2011-10-01

    Students' motivational beliefs and self-regulatory practices have been identified as instrumental in influencing the engagement of students in the learning process. An important aim of science education is to empower students by nurturing the belief that they can succeed in science learning and to cultivate the adaptive learning strategies required to help to bring about that success. This article reports the development and validation of an instrument to measure salient factors related to the motivation and self-regulation of students in lower secondary science classrooms. The development of the instrument involved identifying key determinants of students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning based on theoretical and research underpinnings. Once the instrument was developed, a pilot study involving 52 students from two Grade 8 science classes was undertaken. Quantitative data were collected from 1,360 students in 78 classes across Grades 8, 9, and 10, in addition to in-depth qualitative information gathered from 10 experienced science teachers and 12 Grade 8 students. Analyses of the data suggest that the survey has strong construct validity when used with lower secondary students. This survey could be practically valuable as a tool for gathering information that may guide classroom teachers in refocusing their teaching practices and help to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programmes.

  10. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  11. Statutory Instrument No. 2056, The Nuclear Installations Act 1965 etc. (Repeals and Modifications) Regulations 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    These Regulations contain repeals and modifications of provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 and a modification of the Nuclear Installations (Dangerous Occurrences) Regulations 1965. They are made in consequence of the establishment on 1st January 1975 of the Health and Safety Executive and the coming into operation on that date of provisions of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which supersede or affect provisions of the 1965 Act and the 1965 Regulations. (NEA) [fr

  12. The Nuclear Installations (Excepted Matter) Regulations 1978 (Statutory Instrument No. 1779, 4 December 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These Regulations prescribe, for the purposes of the definition of 'excepted matter' in the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, certain specified quantities and forms of nuclear matter, and supersede the Nuclear Installations (excepted Matter) Regulations 1965. They bring the definition of excepted matter in those Regulations into line with the decisions of 27 October 1977 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Steering Committee excluding certain kinds and quantities of nuclear substances from the scope of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. Compared with the 1965 Regulations, the principal changes in relation to consignments are that activity limits and packing requirements now take account of the most recent IAEA Regulations. (NEA) [fr

  13. New pesticides regulation: potential economic impacts of the withdrawal of Pendimethalin in horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-German, S.; Bardaji, I.; Garrido, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides moves forward towards the sustainability of agriculture fostering the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices in the European Union (EU). EC Regulation 1107/2009 was adopted in this framework leading to the eventual drop in the Vademecum of authorized substances of some important pesticides which are presently used in EU agriculture. Herbicide Pendimethalin will have to renew its registration in 2016 under the new regulation and there is a high probability that it will be removed. In this study we analyze the potential impact of the prohibition of Pendimethalin in two export driven horticultural crops grown in Southeastern Spain lettuce and celery to provide an illustration of possible consequences of the loss of certain active substances due to the new regulation. To do so, gross margin stochastic models are developed and used to generate Monte-Carlo simulations to look at farms’ economic results and their production risks. Econometric models are used to examine consumers’ and producers’ surplus in export markets of lettuce and celery. The results show that the Pendimethalin ban might modify the economic risk profile that the farm faces, affecting the crops’ profitability in the short-term. These changes would pass on to markets through shifts in supply and price and finally to European consumers, who would be the major losers. (Author)

  14. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  15. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  16. Cariri pluviosity and aquifers: regulating agent of the social and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Maria Marlucia Freitas; Frischkorn, Horst; Serejo, Alfredo Nelson Cabral; Studart, Ticiana; Mendes Filho, Josue

    1992-01-01

    Hydraulic measures and tracing techniques shows a reply time from the Chapada do Araripe aquifer, to the pluvial water infiltration, in six months, coinciding with the dry season. Tritium and 14 C natural tracing measures and the conductivity at the Cariri basin indicate a quick reply to the direct infiltration by the recent water presence and old water contribution originated from the Chapada. It concludes that the economy and the social welfare are dependents of the underground water reserves and the climate through the precipitation regime, regulates and promote the social and economic development of the region

  17. ER-E2 regulation. Implementation of the national protocol for quality control of instrumentation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is the adoption and enforcement of the 'Protocol National Quality Control Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine'; as well as the establishment of an annual program of external audits, which take place on CCEEM, in order to verify compliance with the established considerations into protocols. It is applicable to all entities within the NHS who perform the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba, both for use 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

  18. The economic value of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil Costa, Marcos; Pires, Gabrielle; Fontes, Vitor; Brumatti, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The rainy Amazon climate allowed important activities to develop in the region as large rainfed agricultural lands and hydropower plants. The Amazon rainforest is an important source of moisture to the regional atmosphere and helps regulate the local climate. The replacement of forest by agricultural lands decreases the flux of water vapor into the atmosphere and changes the precipitation patterns, which may severely affect such economic activities. Assign an economic value to this ecosystem service may emphasize the significance to preserve the Amazon rainforest. In this work, we provide a first approximation of the quantification of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest using the marginal production method. We use climate scenarios derived from Amazon deforestation scenarios as input to crop and runoff models to assess how land use change would affect agriculture and hydropower generation. The effects of forest removal on soybean production and on cattle beef production can both be as high as US 16 per year per ha deforested, and the effects on hydropower generation can be as high as US 8 per year per ha deforested. We consider this as a conservative estimate of a permanent service provided by the rainforest. Policy makers and other Amazon agriculture and energy businesses must be aware of these numbers, and consider them while planning their activities.

  19. Measures to ensure economic safety of the system of state regulation of social and economic development by the example of the Voronezh region and AO concern "Constellation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of competitiveness and socio-economic development of Russia and its regions are impossible without ensuring economic security of enterprises of all sectors of the economy and forms of ownership, which is especially important in the face of economic sanctions and the negative impact of global economic crises. The program of social and economic development is a unique strategy of the region, focused on security and optimization of the spatial structure and relations between the center and the regions in order to ensure economic security, growth through the most effective use of existing internal and external factors. The institutional influence of the state in order to improve the economic security of regions and enterprises occurs palliatively when the business of the region is supported in direct (subsidies, and more often indirectly (compliance with the laws and regulations of the Russian Federation and the region on the principles of institutional and market synergies. Adaptation of enterprises in the region to the market is difficult, when specific socio-organizational, economic, technical and technological, scientific, information activities in their interrelations function in the field of Russian laws. The search for ways to improve the economic security of the Russian Federation, regions and enterprises takes place in the context of global integration through the improvement of the mechanism of state regulation. An important task of the current stage of economic security of the country and regions is the construction of a system of its institutional organization that would be able to balance the levers of government with the opportunities of private enterprises, provide a quality level of providing the business with protection from terrorism, predation, financial risks, legal competition and.

  20. Policy Instruments for Irigation Water Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, António C.; Saraiva, João Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Co...

  1. Incentivizing wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel through financial policy instruments: An economic assessment for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a select set of financial incentive instruments that can be employed by the Norwegian government for encouraging early investment and production experience in wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) technologies as a means to accelerate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) stemming from road-based transport. We start by performing an economic analysis of FTD produced from Norwegian forest biomass at a pioneer commercial plant in Norway, followed with a cost growth analysis to estimate production costs after uncertainty in early plant performance and capital cost estimates are considered. Results after the cost growth analysis imply that the initial production cost estimates for a pioneer producer may be underestimated by up to 30%. Using the revised estimate we then assess, through scenarios, how various financial support mechanisms designed to encourage near-term investment would affect production costs over a range of uncertain future oil prices. For all policy scenarios considered, we evaluate trade-offs between the levels of public expenditure, or subsidy, and private investor profitability. When considering the net present value of the subsidy required to incentivize commercial investment during a future of low oil prices, we find that GHG mitigation via wood-FTD is likely to be considered cost-ineffective. However, should the government expect that mean oil prices in the coming two decades will hover between $97 and 127/bbl, all the incentive policies considered would likely spur investment at net present values ≤$-100/tonne-fossil-CO 2 -equivalent avoided.

  2. Validation of the FEEL-KJ: An Instrument to Measure Emotion Regulation Strategies in Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Cracco

    Full Text Available Although the field of emotion regulation in children and adolescents is growing, there is need for age-adjusted measures that assess a large variety of strategies. An interesting instrument in this respect is the FEEL-KJ because it measures 7 adaptive and 5 maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to three different emotions. However, the FEEL-KJ has not yet been validated extensively. Therefore, the current study aims to test the internal structure and validity of the FEEL-KJ in a large sample of Dutch-speaking Belgian children and adolescents (N = 1102, 8-18 years old. The investigation of the internal structure confirms earlier reports of a two-factor structure with Adaptive and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation as overarching categories. However, it also suggests that the two-factor model is more complex than what was previously assumed. The evaluation of the FEEL-KJ validity furthermore provides evidence for its construct and external validity. In sum, the current study confirms that the FEEL-KJ is a valuable and reliable measure of emotion regulation strategies in children and adolescents.

  3. SEEKING AND EVALUATING THE REGULATIONS OF INDONESIA’S EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Kurnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation is the cornerstone for utilizing marine fisheries resources, and thus Indonesian Government had implemented its Constitution as basic laws and rules. Those regulations need further elaboration. Therefore, Indonesian Government established sets of laws related to the utilization of marine fisheries resources, and in its implementation, those laws and regulations should never deviate from the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. The utilization of marine fisheries resources in Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone enables the possibility of cooperation and colaboration with other countries. Therefore, Indonesia is required to seek by evaluating and complementing the laws in accordance with its Constitution. Pengaturan merupakan landasan utama pemanfaatan sumber daya perikanan, Indonesia telah menyiapkan aturan dasar yaitu Landasan Konstitusional. Pengaturan tersebut perlu penjabaran lebih lanjut. Oleh karena itu Indonesia membentuk aturan-aturan yang terkait dengan pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan dan dalam implementasinya aturan tersebut tidak boleh menyimpang dari aturan yang paling dasar. Pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan di Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif adalah pemanfaatan yang memungkinkan adanya pemanfaatan berbagi dengan negara lain maka Indonesia dituntut untuk segera dapat mencari dengan cara mengevaluasi dan melengkapi aturan sesuai dengan Landasan Konstitusional.

  4. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  5. Paradigm change in automotive powertrain engineering. A techno-economic analysis taking into account environment-political instruments; Paradigmawandel automobiler Antriebstechnologien. Eine techno-oekonomische Analyse unter Beruecksichtigung umweltpolitischer Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The automobile industry is faced with the challenge to introduce concepts for sustainable mobility in terms of low pollutant and CO2 emissions. The author discusses the preconditions and procedures of technological change in the powertrain markets. The effects of techno-economic trends and environment-political instruments are discussed in an international context and illustrated by the example of the market success of diesel engines in Europe. Using innovation-economic theories, he draws conclusions as to the future electrification of powertrains resp. the introduction of electromobility. Not least because of its highly topical content with regard to economic and environmental policy, this publication has high relevance for decision makers in science, industry and politics. By outlining options and chances of future developments, it will help to reduce present concerns about the future. (orig.)

  6. The economic value of the flow regulation environmental service in a Brazilian urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.

    2017-11-01

    Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non

  7. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  8. The Role of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Instrumentality, Goal Commitment, and Motivation in Their Self-Regulation Strategies for Learning in Teacher Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jumi; Turner, Jeannine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of pre-service teachers' (n = 142) perceived endogenous/exogenous instrumentality, goal commitment, and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on their use of self-regulation strategies (effort regulation, management of time and study environment) for their teacher-education courses. Data were drawn from a customised…

  9. Economic benefits, external costs and the regulation of unconventional gas in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, Ian; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    We review the economic benefits and external costs of unconventional gas production (UCG) in the United States from a policy perspective. Based on an overview of state regulation in Pennsylvania, a state that has witnessed very rapid growth of gas production over the past 5 years, and global experiences we present 10 key principles that are proposed to reduce the risks and to increase the net rewards of UCG. Application of these principles has the potential to reduce the risks of UCG, especially at a local level, while maximizing the benefits of gas developments. - Highlights: • SWOT summary of unconventional gas developments. • Risks and returns of unconventional gas highlighted. • 10 principles given to reduce risks and increase rewards of gas extraction.

  10. Development of mechanisms and instruments of increasing economic safety with regard to the peculiarities of the present stage of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of theoretical provisions of economic security, their mechanisms and instruments is determined by the laws of the economy that reveal the management of production, the market processes of distribution, exchange, consumption, taking into account the features of industries, regions, the level of globalization, etc. Each sphere, region or branch of the economy is characterized by peculiar economic processes justified by a specific approach to their disclosure. Economic security, its emergence, development and adaptation to changing market conditions, is based on the information economy or on the knowledge economy. Economic security is determined by the costs of information, its confidentiality, taking into account the interaction, on the one hand, and the competition of various enterprises, regions and countries, on the other. In the process of economic development, knowledge in general and any specialists are needed, but only those that are necessary in the economy. Communication and interaction of science, knowledge, information with production provides not only economic security, but also their successful development. To develop certain principles or laws for the interaction of technological and economic factors, their degree and level of interaction, a study of economic activity was conducted. In the present study, a civilizational approach was used that is based on the determining role of man in the economy and society and the importance of knowledge and information, when the important mechanisms remain: the development of technology and technology, the role of knowledge and information, and communication. The implementation of the civilized approach takes into account the new methodological level of increasing economic security, when the main factor in the development of the economy is the scientific and technological progress that justifies the information path of economic development.

  11. The behavioral regulation in sport questionnaire (BRSQ): instrument development and initial validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.

  12. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  13. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (author)

  14. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  15. Economic Incentives, Perceptions and Compliance with Marine Turtle Egg Harvesting Regulation in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Madrigal-Ballestero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Flor Wildlife Refuge and nearby beaches on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua are important nesting sites for various species of endangered marine turtles. However, illegal harvesting of turtle eggs threatens the survival of marine turtles. In this study, we analysed the different motivations of local villagers for complying with a ban on harvesting marine turtle eggs in a context, in which government authorities do not have the means to fully enforce existing regulations. We also analysed the effectiveness and the participation of locals in an incipient performance-based nest conservation payment programme to protect turtle eggs. The analysis of survey-based data from 180 households living in Ostional, the largest village near La Flor Wildlife Refuge, indicates remarkable socio-economic differences between harvesters and non-harvesters. Our findings suggest that harvesters are associated mainly with a lack of income from other activities and the absence of productive assets, such as land for cattle and/or agriculture. In addition, the lack of legitimacy of prevailing institutions (i.e., actual regulations also seems to perpetuate illegal harvesting. The performance-based payments programme is an effective option for protecting nests on isolated beaches, however, it is not clear if it changes harvesting behaviour overall. Normative motivations to protect the turtles are important determinants of participation in this programme, although the financial reward is also an important incentive, particularly since most participants who are egg harvesters depend on this activity as their main source of income.

  16. Economic analysis of photovoltaic systems for the residential market under China's new regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Sandy; Chen, Xiaoju; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    China has recently changed its regulation for producing energy from photovoltaic solar panels in order to encourage the use of the solar resource. This new regulation started with offering subsidies at a national level and this was later followed by local subsidies in addition to the national one. Being a large country, China has regions with good solar exposure and others with poor exposure. Each region has a different electricity price and the energy is purchased based on the Grid Coal Power electricity price that also varies throughout the country. In this work we analyze the economic profitability of different regions considering the solar radiation levels, savings in self-consumption, cash flows from injecting power into the grid and local prices for installations to show that the best return is obtained in the places with better solar radiation or where the electricity price is higher. The regional Feed-In tariffs help to compensate for lower radiation levels but do not make these regions very attractive from an investment perspective. - Highlights: • Summarizes national and local feed in tariffs for China for the residential market. • Provides average local prices for 1 kW, 3 kW and 5 kW photovoltaic installations. • Selects city with best IRR, NPV and DPBP based on prices, subsidies and radiation. • Performs sensitivity analysis to check which parameter has more effect on results.

  17. INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF STATE REGULATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EXPERIENCE FOR UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Batchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is the socio-economic aspects of the social responsibility of business (CSR in 4 countries. The purpose of the article is to study the experience in regulating the socio-economic responsibility of entrepreneurship in the United States, Sweden, India, and China to determine the direction of formation of the state mechanism of socio-economic responsibility of entrepreneurship (SERE in Ukraine. The methodology of the article became theoretical researches of foreign scientists, their synthesis, systematization, and analysis for the development of the application of experience in Ukrainian realities. The analysis showed how different states of CSR policy differ in each of these countries and made it possible to draw conclusions about the application in Ukraine. So, the experience of Sweden is useful in reviewing the social reporting obligation, as well as the experience of China. In the case of the USA, the role of the state in regulating CSRs in enterprises should be noted but, at the same time, the significant social consciousness of American entrepreneurs as recognized philanthropists, who are actively introducing ethical codes and key stewards from the implementation of CSR, are seen by society and aimed at improving the well-being of society. In China, the government plays an important role in the implementation of CSR for state-owned enterprises. In addition, laws are adopted to improve the rights of employees, to equalize gender differences, to increase the level of production, quality of products, which leads to an improvement in the quality of life of the country’s population. All this becomes relevant for Ukraine and can be used in our country as well. Indian experience draws attention through the adoption of a unique decision on the indifference of charity activities by Indian companies with a certain level of profit and the adoption of them by the rules of corporate social responsibility. In entrepreneurship

  18. Management Innovation for Environmental Sustainability in Seaports: Managerial Accounting Instruments and Training for Competitive Green Ports beyond the Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Di Vaio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, environmental sustainability has been receiving increasing attention by scholars and operators. All the seaport stakeholders, including port authorities (PAs, policy-makers, port users, any port stakeholders, and local communities, must invest substantial resources to achieve high competitiveness with respect of the environment. Drawing from the extant regulations system and conducting a deep review of the main contributions on the phenomenon, this conceptual study suggests managerial accounting instruments and training, which are still under-researched, as effective measures for enforcing and encouraging green port development. This three-step study consists of a systematic review of the regulatory frameworks and literature on the phenomenon, and an outline of the gap of the legislative framework and research, from a management innovation perspective, where effective managerial practices for environmental sustainability are not successfully suggested and implemented within seaports. On the one hand, the Balanced Scorecard and Tableau de Bord are identified and proposed as managerial accounting instruments for assessing, monitoring, measuring, controlling, and reporting the organizational processes of port players, mainly PAs, for developing competitive green ports. On the other hand, training has been suggested to educate and guide the human resources at all organizational levels within seaports, for supporting and developing awareness and behavioral attitudes in the direction of environmental sustainability.

  19. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean; Lopez-Garcia, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  20. Management of gas releases with greenhouse effect: which economical tools?; Maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quels instruments economiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Serge [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-06-09

    The climatic change represents the most severe danger to the durable world development, public health and future prosperity. This document concerning the gas releases with greenhouse effect is a report of the Senate Planning delegation regarding the economic and fiscal tools envisaging abatement of releases of gases with greenhouse effect. These issues are presented in four chapters titled as follows: 1. Since the scientific evidencing, requirement of managing the releases of gas with greenhouse effect has been unanimously recognized at the summits of Rio (1992) and Kyoto (1997); 2. The economic theory suggests instruments for reducing the gas releases with greenhouse effect at a minimum cost; 3. Challenges and ways of international cooperation in the field of climatic change; 4. Joining the political will with the pragmatic use of the economic instruments at national scale. The document contains a synthesis of proposals directed towards the following goals: international negotiations relating to climatic change; creating the community framework of managing the gas releases resulting in greenhouse effect; establishing national measures for managing the gas releases leading to greenhouse effect; actions to be undertaken by the territorial collectivities.

  1. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  2. Economic regulation of Canada's natural gas delivery industry : policy and regulatory principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormley, B.

    2006-03-01

    This policy paper demonstrated how restoring balance and clarity to Canada's regulatory environment will ensure the continued strength of the economy, environment, and communities. It was noted that regulatory outcomes that reflect the broad public interest can be achieved if 4 basic principles for economic regulation are pursued. These principles include strength, balance, efficiency, and clarity. In particular, this paper addressed the challenge facing Canada's natural gas delivery industry in terms of increased energy demand, tight supply, ageing infrastructure and increasing cost pressures on the energy system. It emphasized that transparent, efficient energy policy developed through informed debate can provide the foundation for a reliable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable energy future. It was suggested that immediate attention be given to rebalancing the regulatory processes that have placed short term considerations above the longer term strength of the natural gas system; improving the support for new natural gas supply development; reconsidering pricing in some energy markets where information has been distorted; and revisiting the regulatory processes that have become inefficient

  3. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  4. Effects of regulation and economic environment on the electricity industry's competitiveness: A study based on OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chulwoo; Jung, Euy-Young; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a competitiveness index for the electricity industry based on efficiency, stability, and growth factors identified from previous studies subject to data accessibility. These are then weighted appropriately through the application of the analytical hierarchy process. This index is an alternative tool to capture the diverse characteristics of the electricity industry in order to analyze performance after deregulation. Using the competitiveness index, we analyze the effect of regulation change in specific economic environments represented by the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share, for example. According to the results, deregulation generally increases competitiveness, but the effect depends on the economic environment and the type of regulation. Deregulating entry and vertical integration to increase competitiveness is more effective in countries where the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share are low. The manner in which the privatization effect is related to the economic environment is, however, unclear. - Highlights: • This study proposes a competitiveness index for the electricity industry. • It examines the effects of electricity industry deregulation in OECD countries. • It suggests an economic environment in which deregulation can contribute to competitiveness

  5. Policies and instruments for the promotion of the export sector in Japan: Key elements for the economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Francisco Torres García

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ravaged by war and submitted during the first years by the Supreme Commander Allied Powers, led by General McArthur of the U.S., Japan in 1950 implemented a policy of economic recovery. Over the years, this economy has been considered a peculiar case of economic growth and development. The diversification of international relations under the pillar of economic restructuring has enabled a more favorable insertion in international markets to an economy that even in a deep recession, remains high competitiveness. Thus, the promotion of Japanese exports was made possible by the combination of state intervention and private sector efficiency, which showed a great ability to tune their industrial development.

  6. 78 FR 12318 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Price Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... economic price adjustment. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 69442, on November 19...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0068, Economic Price Adjustment by any of the...

  7. The Break - Even Point and the Leverage Effect – Instruments for Assessing the Economic and Financial Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Constandache

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishing by any company, depending on the domain of activity, of anminimumobjective to be attained, so that the business should become profitable, is the aim principle of thisarticle. In order to attain this goal, the assumed risk is considered, which implies the use of certainassessing instruments, as the break-evenpoint and the leverage effect. This approach stands for asignificant step in making strategic decisions, being a way to evaluating company security in case inwhich market conditions become unfavourable.

  8. Applicability of economic instruments for protecting ecosystem services from cultural agrarian landscapes in Doñana, SW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel; Palomo, Ignacio; Baraibar Molina, Sergio; Groot, De Rudolf; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment and conversion of cultural agrarian landscapes are major drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in Europe. One incentive for land-use conversion is the higher (private) economic return from industrial mono-functional crops relative to traditional multi-functional ones. However,

  9. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and

  10. The Relationships among Students' Future-Oriented Goals and Subgoals, Perceived Task Instrumentality, and Task-Oriented Self-Regulation Strategies in an Academic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Sharon E.; Miller, Raymond B.; Relyea, George E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed path analysis, followed by a bootstrap procedure, to test the predictions of a model explaining the relationships among students' distal future goals (both extrinsic and intrinsic), their adoption of a middle-range subgoal, their perceptions of task instrumentality, and their proximal task-oriented self-regulation strategies.…

  11. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Economical instruments for the battle against the greenhouse effect; Les instruments de politique de lutte contre l'effet de serre: efficacite environnementale et economique, effets sur la competitivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armand, R. [Entreprises pour l' Environnement (France)

    2005-12-15

    Green house effect prevention may be carried out by the usual economical instruments, given that it is independent of time and geography. Taxes and exchangeable emission permits are able to find out the best solutions to limit the CO{sub 2} emissions for a given value. However, their impact on the productivity may vary widely: taxes increase the production costs, as well as the permits should they require to be bought. This aspect is so important for industries competing internationally, such as aluminium, steel, cement, etc., that the European Union set up a market of 'emission quota' starting on January 1, 2005. The paper describes the difficulties that arose to enforce this European directive and the solutions that have been considered. Other problems will probably occur, and they will have to be solved pragmatically. Green house effect prevention necessitates lucidity, modesty and flexibility. (author)

  13. The consumption of electric power on the tertiary sector - an instrument for economical and social analysis and market studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The main subjective of this thesis is to analyse the effects of the growth of the tertiary sector on the electric power demand. In order to accomplish this goal an economical and social, analysis of the tertiary sector is made to identify its dynamic, its relations with the other sectors of the economy and to describe the methodologies for measuring the overall tertiary production. Afterwards it is made an analysis of the electric power consumption evolution in the tertiary sector, in order to identify the consumption per region of the country, per consumers and tertiary subsectors. It is also analysed the product power intensify and, finally its described the present tariff system. (author)

  14. Complexity theory and financial regulation: economic policy needs interdisciplinary network analysis and behavioral modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battiston, S.; Farmer, J.D.; Flache, A.; Garlaschelli, D.; Haldane, A.G.; Heesterbeek, H.; Hommes, C.; Jaeger, C.; May, R.; Scheffer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional economic theory could not explain, much less predict, the near collapse of the financial system and its long-lasting effects on the global economy. Since the 2008 crisis, there has been increasing interest in using ideas from complexity theory to make sense of economic and financial

  15. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  16. Legal Guarantees of Economic Competition in the European Union Public Procurement Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kosiński

    2017-01-01

    that new 2014 EU public procurement directives, viz. Directive 2014/23/ EU, Directive 2014/24/EU and Directive 2014/25/EU, are not really aimed at fostering the competition as the main goal. Nevertheless, a specific and deep analysis of regulation of mentioned directives leads to the conclusion that those directives provide for bigger and broader economic competition. This is achieved generally thanks to opening of the public procurement market for micro, small and medium enterprises (SMBs’ sector. 

  17. General Equilibrium Analysis of Economic Instruments in Materials-Product Chains with Materials Balance, Recycling and Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandelaars, P.A.A.H.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Optimal environmental taxation and subsidies in a materials-product (M-P) chain are examined. This incorporates the main economic activities extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste treatment. A static general equilibrium model of this M-P chain is constructed, with environmental impacts represented as negative externalities generated by natural resource extraction and final dumping of waste. The model includes various environmental taxes and subsidies on products and materials to pay for these externalities. The originality of this analytical exercise is twofold: in all stages of the M-P chain materials balance conditions are satisfied; furthermore, recycling is explicitly included as a separate activity with inputs, outputs and objectives. Thus, the paper combines physical-environmental and welfare economic perspectives on materials flows. The results show that the externalities generated by extraction and harmful waste can only be optimized by imposing a direct tax on the new materials. In a second-best world the externalities may be sub-optimized by taxing the generation of harmful waste or by subsidizing the use of recycled materials. Changes in some variables causes a shift between the optimal taxes on new materials at the beginning and harmful waste at the end of the M-P chain. This linkage is interesting because it shows that the whole M-P chain needs to be considered instead of parts of this chain. 16 refs.

  18. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  19. Inclusion and Implementation of Socio-Economic Considerations in GMO Regulations: Needs and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Binimelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic considerations are included in the regulatory frameworks on genetically modified organisms (GMOs of many countries. This is a reflection of an increasing interest in and recognition of the necessity to consider a broader range of issues when conducting a GMO risk assessment. At the same time, there are discussions about how socio-economic considerations can be identified and how their assessment can be carried out. To provide an understanding of the advances achieved so far, we describe the state of the art of existing biosafety institutional frameworks, legislation and policies with provisions on socio-economic considerations. We analyse the scope of the socio-economic considerations that have been included, the methodological options taken and the role of participatory processes and stakeholders involvement in the GMO-related decision-making. Since many of the countries that have legislation for assessing socio-economic considerations lack implementation experience, we provide an analysis of how implementation has evolved in Norway with the intention to illustrate that the inclusion of socio-economic considerations might be based on a learning process. Norway was the first country to include broader issues in its GMO assessment process, and is at present one of the countries with the most experience on implementation of these issues. Finally, we emphasise that there is a great need for training on how to perform assessments of socio-economic considerations, as well as reflection on possible ways for inclusion of participatory processes.

  20. Regulatory and economic instruments in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050: financial impacts on industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Industrial groups will be exposed to increasingly stringent regulation measures against GHG emissions. Uncertainties over the form and extent of international cooperation on climate change should not begin to weaken the European voluntarism otherwise than concerning the targets level of ambition. Therefore, the degree of restraint will remain strong. Halving global emissions between 1990 and 2050 will involve a reduction by a factor of 4 of those in developed countries. However, given the difficulty of achieving such a goal in the diffuse sectors (households, agriculture, transport...), the European industry will most likely reduce its GHG emissions by a factor of 5 to 6. (author)

  1. The Right to Education in the International Regulations on Protection of Human Rights and its regulation in the National Legal System : Preliminary Analysis from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Creusa de Araújo Borges

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine, in this article, the question of the right to education, from the Univer- sal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966. In the Brazilian national law, they are analyzed the Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Educa- tion, 1996, regarding the regulation of education matter, in coordination with the inter- national instruments in question. It is noteworthy that the regulation of the matter at the national level, is influenced by the recognition of this right in international norms, but advances in the recognition of the right to higher education of marginalized social groups, expanding the mandatory gratuity and beyond elementary school because in the Brazilian case, basic education is compulsory and the principle of free governs the entire education system in official establishments. Set up in this way, the existence of an essential core regarding the right to education, which is fully chargeable.

  2. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  3. Market Regulators of Service Spheres Innovative Development as a Tool of Regional Socio-Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pugacheva, Anna S.; Filippova, Viktoriya P.; Kon, Andrei Y.; Dorzhieva, Lyudmila B.; Silchenok, Igor S.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.; Lunev, Alexander N.; Mustafina, Alfiya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the innovative development of service spheres as the reduction of territorial social and economic differentiation to the level, due to objective differences of the regions and to balance of their revenue base and expenditure commitments. The service sector is one of the most dynamic and growing segments of regional markets and one of the characteristics of effective socio-economic policy in the region. Innovative development of service spheres as a...

  4. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-04-16

    Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people's quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors (such as education

  5. Power Quality Regulation from an Economical and a Technical Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, Jarmo; Viljainen, Satu; Lassila, Jukka; Honkapuro, Samuli; Tahvanainen, Kaisa; Jaerventausta, Pertti; Maekinen, Antti; Kivikko, Kimmo

    2005-06-01

    An essential guideline for the implementation of power quality regulation - or any regulation for that matter - is that it needs to find the right balance between the interests of the different stakeholders. This is particularly important when assessing the inconvenience caused to customers by the failures in the electricity supply. Customers' experiences should obviously not be underestimated but it is equally important that excessive requirements concerning the power quality developments are not laid on the distribution companies, either - especially if they are not provided with adequate means to carry out the necessary developments. After all, regulation should encourage innovations, both organisational and technological, that benefit the industry in the long run - this applies to power quality developments as well as any other developments within the industry. Failing to do this, the investors will soon loose their interest in the electricity distribution business, and this will be extremely harmful for the capital-intensive industry. Regulators are currently developing versatile power quality regulation schemes in different countries. At this point it might be worth considering what benefits could be achieved if the framework for the power quality regulation schemes that are applied in different countries was the same - after all the goals are principally the same anyway. One of the obvious benefits would be that the regulators would have more comparable data on the observed power quality levels in different countries. In addition, those companies that operate in various markets could more easily transfer their best practices concerning the power quality developments from one market to another

  6. The role of instrumental emotion regulation in the emotions-creativity link: how worries render individuals with high neuroticism more creative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Liou, Shyhnan; Qiu, Lin; Kwan, Letty Y-Y; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Yong, Jose C

    2014-10-01

    Based on the instrumental account of emotion regulation (Tamir, 2005), the current research seeks to offer a novel perspective to the emotions-creativity debate by investigating the instrumental value of trait-consistent emotions in creativity. We hypothesize that emotions such as worry (vs. happy) are trait-consistent experiences for individuals higher on trait neuroticism and experiencing these emotions can facilitate performance in a creativity task. In 3 studies, we found support for our hypothesis. First, individuals higher in neuroticism had a greater preference for recalling worrisome (vs. happy) events in anticipation of performing a creativity task (Study 1). Moreover, when induced to recall a worrisome (vs. happy) event, individuals higher in neuroticism came up with more creative design (Study 2) and more flexible uses of a brick (Study 3) when the task was a cognitively demanding one. Further, Study 3 offers preliminary support that increased intrinsic task enjoyment and motivation mediates the relationship between trait-consistent emotion regulation and creative performance. These findings offer a new perspective to the controversy concerning the emotions-creativity relationship and further demonstrate the role of instrumental emotion regulation in the domain of creative performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Guide to the economic regulation of the energy industries in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This new addition to the series of OXERA Guides to Regulation provides an analysis of the electricity and gas sectors of each of the 15 EU member states, against the backdrop of the liberalisation of the electricity market and the anticipated liberalisation of the gas market. For each country, the guide provides details of: the industry and institutional structure; privatisation status; government policy; level of competition; licensing regimes; price and non-price regulation and; environmental policies. (Author)

  8. Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Rott, P.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European

  9. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gitto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression, might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females, aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status and socio-economic

  10. Risk based economic optimization of investment decisions of regulated power distribution system operators; Risikobasierte wirtschaftliche Optimierung von Investitionsentscheidungen regulierter Stromnetzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on risk-based economic optimization of investment decisions of regulated power distribution system operators. The focus is the economically rational decision behavior of operators under certain regulatory requirements. Investments in power distribution systems form the items subject to decisions. Starting from a description of theoretical and practical regulatory approaches, their financial implications are quantified at first. On this basis, optimization strategies are derived with respect to the investment behavior. For this purpose, an optimization algorithm is developed and applied to exemplary companies. Finally, effects of uncertainties in regulatory systems are investigated. In this context, Monte Carlo simulations are used in conjunction with real options analysis.

  11. Statutory Instruments No 144 of 1994. European Communities (Protection of outside workers from ionising radiation) Regulations, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    These Regulations implement Council Directive 90/641 EURATOM of 4 December, 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. The Regulations provide for the radiation protection of workers liable to receive an exposure of high radiation levels while working away from their employers' premises. The Regulations also apply to workers who come from, or who go to work in, another Member State of the European Community

  12. The Economic Development of Natural Resources: Fracking and Self-Regulation in the Market for Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Kubik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to apply some of the lessons learned during the period of industrialization in 19th century Europe to the study of the effects and appropriate regulation of the contemporary process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the natural gas industry. An attempt is made to support the conclusion that the harmful side effects associated with the creation of self-regulating markets for land, labor and money during the 19th century is paralleled today by the self-regulating character of the process of hydraulic fracturing. As a result, the negative consequences associated with industrialization are been visited again on present day market economies.

  13. Labour market regulation in Denmark during and beyond the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jens; Rasmussen, Erling Juel

    Since the 1950s, Denmark has developed an economy, a social welfare system and an inclusive labour market which have been admired by overseas commentators (Smith, 2011, Auer 2000, Ganssmann 2000). In the process, it has transformed itself from a relatively low wage country to a high-wage, high...... policy ‘soul-searching’ and adverse economic and social changes. The so-called ‘Danish Model’ of employment relations and its ‘flexicurity’ approach has been heralded by many commentators for its ability to being adaptive and creating win-win economic, social and labour market outcomes (Auer, 2000; Due...... that the ‘Danish Model’ have been relatively successful in the last couple of decades, there have been frequent warnings that the end may be nigh for the ‘Danish Model’ (see Auer, 2009; Smith, 2011). A similar warning is the basic message of this article though in light of the remarkable Danish ability to re...

  14. The importance of economic theory in the regulation of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusratullin Vil Kasimovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes to pay more attention to the scientific results of local authors, their recommendations, including its development in the framework of non-equilibrium economics. In particular, he stressed the importance of the ideological interpretation of nonequilibrium profits and justify its source - intelligence and its carriers; formulated to them the law of large numbers, which proves that there is no special law of value separately for rent and nerentnyh industries etc.

  15. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  16. European Community (Radiological and Nuclear Medicine Installations) Regulations, 1998. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 250 of 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These regulations establish the criteria of acceptability to be met for radiological installations and nuclear medicine installations. The regulations implement the provisions of EC Directive 84/466 Euratom of 3 September 1984 laying down the basic measures for radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examinations or treatment and to provide protection for workers and the general public. (author)

  17. Consequences of Uncertainty for Regulation: Law and Economics of the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article analyzes the last financial crisis focussing on the recurrent dynamics of externalities in banking. It shows that two major determinants of the crisis were the uncertainty of a new form of financial intermediation and the failure of regulation to cope with its

  18. Integrated research - water quality, sociological, economic, and modeling - in a regulated watershed: Jordan Lake, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna Osmond; Mazdak Arabi; Caela O' Connell; Dana Hoag; Dan Line; Marzieh Motallebi; Ali Tasdighi

    2016-01-01

    Jordan Lake watershed is regulated by state rules in order to reduce nutrient loading from point and both agricultural and urban nonpoint sources. The agricultural community is expected to reduce nutrient loading by specific amounts that range from 35 - 0 percent nitrogen, and 5 - 0 percent phosphorus.

  19. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  20. Economic Costs and Adaptations for Alternative Regulations of California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy K. Tanaka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stacy K. Tanaka, Christina R. Connell–Buck, Kaveh Madani, Josue Medellín-Azuara, Jay R. Lund, and Ellen Hanakdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v9iss2art4Water exports from California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta are an environmental concern because they reduce net outflows of fresh water from the Delta, and can entrain fish and disrupt flows within the Delta. If exports were no longer pumped from within the Delta, the regulatory issue becomes one of maintaining appropriate flows into and out of the Delta. This paper presents the results of two sets of hydro-economic optimization modeling runs, which were developed to represent a range of modified Delta operations and their economic and operational effects on California’s water supply system. The first set of runs represents decreasing export capacity from the Delta. The second set increases minimum net Delta outflow (MNDO requirements. The hydro-economic model seeks the least–cost statewide water management scheme for water supply, including a wide range of resources and water management options. Results show that reducing exports or increasing MNDO requirements increase annual average statewide water scarcity, scarcity costs, and operating costs (from greater use of desalination, wastewater recycling, water treatment, and pumping. Effects of reduced exports are especially concentrated in agricultural communities in the southern Central Valley because of their loss of access to overall water supply exports and their ability to transfer remaining water to southern California. Increased outflow requirements increase water scarcity and associated costs throughout California. For an equivalent amount of average Delta outflows, statewide costs increase more rapidly when exports alone are reduced than when minimum outflow requirements are increased and effects are more widely distributed statewide.

  1. Blend-wall economics. Relaxing US ethanol regulations can lead to increased use of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Qiu, Cheng; Wetzstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently considering a waiver allowing an increase in the fuel-ethanol blend limit (the 'blend wall') from 10% (E10) up to 15% (E15). Justifications for this waiver are reduced vehicle fuel prices and less consumption of petroleum gasoline leading to energy security. A theoretical examination of this waiver reveals an anomaly where a relaxation of this blend wall elicits a demand response. Under a wide range of elasticities, this demand response can actually increase the consumption of petroleum gasoline and thus lead to greater energy insecurity. The economics supporting this result and associated policy implications are developed and discussed. (author)

  2. Blend-wall economics. Relaxing US ethanol regulations can lead to increased use of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zibin [Department of Economics at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Qiu, Cheng; Wetzstein, Michael [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently considering a waiver allowing an increase in the fuel-ethanol blend limit (the 'blend wall') from 10% (E10) up to 15% (E15). Justifications for this waiver are reduced vehicle fuel prices and less consumption of petroleum gasoline leading to energy security. A theoretical examination of this waiver reveals an anomaly where a relaxation of this blend wall elicits a demand response. Under a wide range of elasticities, this demand response can actually increase the consumption of petroleum gasoline and thus lead to greater energy insecurity. The economics supporting this result and associated policy implications are developed and discussed. (author)

  3. Regulation of non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    critical source areas taking spatial parameters into account. With reference to the joint findings of all four papers it is concluded that a tax on P surplus can be a core element in a close-to-efficient policy regulating P losses from the agricultural sector. However, the general tax fails to regulate...... P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment. The first paper identifies the most important parameters to include in a dynamic model where farm profit is maximized over time whilst taking soil-P dynamics into account. The second paper...... completes the modelling framework from paper 1 and analyses how a tax on P surpluses motivates the different farmer types to utilize the soil-P stock and implement measures to reduce P loss. The third and fourth papers are empirical, where a farm profit maximization model is developed for an area...

  4. Exploration economics in a regulated petroleum province: The case of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus; Osmundsen, Petter

    2008-01-01

    Reserve replacement remains a key challenge for the international oil and gas companies. As market-oriented oil and gas provinces are maturing, exploration activity is shifted towards the resource-rich, regulated regimes outside the OECD. Regulated oil and gas provinces remain under-explored also in econometric terms. In this paper, we specify and estimate an econometric model of exploration and appraisal drilling for the highly regulated Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) over the period 1965 to 2004. Explanatory variables include the oil price, cumulative discoveries and open exploration acreage. Estimated error-correction models account explicitly for sluggishness and short-term adjustments in exploration drilling. We find robust long-term oil price effects on exploration activity, whereas the short-term response is muted. On the other hand, the temporary influence on exploration drilling from licensing rounds for new exploration acreage is significant, and so are the feedback effects from historical exploration success. At the same time, the longer-term impact of these variables is more moderate. (author)

  5. Environmental policy based on economic efficiency - The case of policy instrument choice for air quality standards for nitro dioxide and particles; Miljoepolitik paa samhaellsekonomisk grund - En fallstudie om styrmedlet miljoekvalitetsnormer foer partiklar och kvaevedioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyddoke, Roger; Nerhagen, Lena

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards. Such assessments are regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision-making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. In the beginning of the report we provide a theoretical discussion about the value of doing socioeconomic analysis. It is argued that structured and quantified assessments such as cost-benefit or cost-efficiency analysis can help to clarify the extent of the environmental problem and the efficiency of a policy instruments and their impact on the community. Economic reasoning also provides a basis for a discussion about possible reasons for why this type of information may not have been used on a regular basis. The main conclusion from this report is that neither the current design of these environmental quality standards nor the policy instruments chosen have been based on quantified economic assessments. This is so even though Sweden for the emissions considered in this report has adopted limit values that are more far reaching than those stated in EC directives. Moreover, although new evidence regarding the harmfulness of these pollutants has emerged, no adaptations to the original limit values have been undertaken. Nor are the action programmes, which have been implemented in cities where the environmental quality standard

  6. A New Approach to Assessing Self-Regulation by Older Drivers: Development and Testing of a Questionnaire Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Appropriate self-regulation of driving; that is, adjusting ones driving patterns by driving less or avoiding specific situations in which one feels unsafe or uncomfortable, shows considerable promise as a strategy for compensating for functional d...

  7. A new approach to assessing self-regulation by older drivers : development and testing of a questionnaire instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Appropriate self-regulation of driving; that is, adjusting ones driving patterns by driving less or avoiding specific : situations in which one feels unsafe or uncomfortable, shows considerable promise as a strategy for compensating for : function...

  8. Development of innovation complexes as a mechanism of technologies transfer and an instrument of social-economic policy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sukhovey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is developed a role of innovation complexes of a region at the base of analysis of foreign and domestic experience of organization science-technological complexes. Main reasons, braking innovation transformations in Russia are cleared. For example of Russia it is shown, that unsystematic forming objects of innovation infrastructure without interaction with needs of development region and state its science-technical and industrial potential do not taken to positive change at economy and do not help to activation of innovation processes. Peculiarity different innovation complexes as instrument of social-economic policy, its participation at decision, those actual problems as overcoming of decline traditional branches of industry, forming high-tech sector, rise of outlaying districts, rise of competitive ability of industry were cleared. It is given special attention to possibility of innovation complexes as effective mechanism passing of technologies, allowing to create favorable conditions to subjects of innovation activity and to speed up process “research — production”. Measures to foundation of effective innovation infrastructure as one conditions of acceleration innovation development in Russia are offered.

  9. The role of the ACCC in Australia's economic wellbeing and energy regulation: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, E.

    2004-01-01

    A recent report by the Department of Primary Industries and Energy found that demand for energy in Australia is projected to increase by 50 per cent by 2020, and the energy industry estimates that investments of at least $37 billion will be required by 2020 to meet the nation's energy needs. They are awesome statistics and place a great responsibility on the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission to ensure we get the balance right when it comes to regulating the energy sector. That balance involves the right of those making those massive investments in energy sources and infrastructure to earn a decent return while at the same time ensuring these resources can continue to be made available at a price that as far as possible mimics a competitive market and does not lead to the exploitation of monopoly positions. And we have to do this in a way that ensures that whether industry or consumers choose gas or electricity is not determined by differing regulations in those sectors but by allowing both to develop in a way that encourages competition within, and between the two, to the benefit of industry, end users, and the nation. This is the philosophy behind the creation of the most recent evolutionary development in energy regulation - the Australian Energy Regulator. I will talk more about the AER shortly, but first I would to look at the record so far. NCP reforms The AER is the result of a decade of National Competition Policy reforms in the energy sector to open up the former government-controlled intra-state monopolies in gas and electricity to competition and make them more efficient. Although reforms proceeded on a sectoral basis, federal, state and territory governments agreed through the Council of Australian Governments to similar reforms for both industries, including: 1. Placing utilities on a commercial footing through corporatisation 2. Vertically separating generation, transmission, distribution and retail businesses and 'ring-fencing' these

  10. European Communities (Foodstuffs treated with ionising radiation) Regulations, 2000. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 297 of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These Regulations give effect to Directive 1999/2/EC (the framework Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation and Directive 1999/3/EC (the implementing Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the establishment of a Community list of foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. The effect of these Regulations is to lay down the general provisions for the treatment of foodstuffs with ionising radiation. Provisions concerning the approval and control of irradiation facilities and rules on labelling are also included. A positive list of foodstuffs authorised for treatment with ionising radiation and their maximum radiation doses are defined in the implementing Directive. These Regulations should be read together with the two Directives (author)

  11. Statutory Instrument No 276 of 1994. European Communities (Supervision and control of certain shipments of radioactive waste) Regulations, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    These Regulations provide for the implementation of Council Directive 92/3/EURATOM of 3 February, 1992 laying down conditions for the supervision and control of shipments of radioactive waste between Member States and into and out of the Community, whenever quantities and concentrations of such waste exceed certain levels. These conditions supplement the existing Council Directives on basic safety standards for the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionising radiation. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has been deemed the Competent Authority for the purpose of implementation of these Regulations in this country and application should be made to that body for all authorisations required under the Regulations

  12. Local ordinances as an instrument of social exclusion: the regulation affecting the homeless is administrative law of the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melero Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses local ordinances, especially the so-called coexistence ordinances, to the extent they affect the daily activities of the homeless. There are three areas of regulation: the prohibition of begging; a ban on sleeping, washing and perform physiological needs in public spaces; and the prohibition of sorting through garbage. This regulation is subjected to a critical analysis, focusing on the fact that has an impact on the fundamental rights of the homeless. The basic parameters of control are the reserve of law and, above all, the principle of proportionality. The conclusion reached is that, in many cases, this regulation is not only illegal, it can also be included within the category Administrative Law of the enemy.

  13. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falit, Benjamin P., E-mail: bfalit2@allianceoncology.com [Pacific Cancer Institute, Wailuku, Hawaii (United States); Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Alexander, Brian M. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely

  14. Safety Margins and Their Economical Value in a De-regulated Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The definition of safety margins is sometimes ambiguous. Depending on assumptions used to evaluate the evolution of plant parameters and on acceptance criteria, the same design could well turn out to have positive, zero, or negative margin for the same operating situation. Very often, considering that an optimized reactor would have to operate with zero margin compared to at least one safety criterion, designers or utilities considered in their analyses penalizing assumptions. This was done for example either considering reduced component capability or very high core peaking factors, the latter generally exceeding by far what would be anticipated in perturbed situations. This approach has three major drawbacks: -having a reasonable understanding of the real importance of safety margins is difficult, -if a non-conservatism is identified in a methodology, there is a high risk of being in a no-compliance situation from a regulatory standpoint, -it leads to a limitation on allowable electrical output and constraints on technical specifications for example. In a regulated market, such a situation can be tolerable as the final customer has to pay the extra financial burden in any case. In a de-regulated market, the situation is significantly different. The final customer can choose his supplier, and is likely to go to those offering the best prices, i.e. those making optimal use of their available resources. There is so a need for better understanding of real plant capabilities. Revisiting assumptions used for evaluating safety margins is so highly recommended, if not imperative, to electricity companies. This will helpful to reshape company strategies in case of evolution of market conditions. (author)

  15. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falit, Benjamin P.; Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Alexander, Brian M.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely to create

  16. Regulation amending the mandatory reporting requirements for emissions of certain contaminants into the atmosphere : economic impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, R.; Turgeon, M.L.; Dumais, M.; Bernier, A.G.; Leblond, V.; Benoit, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quebec's proposal to amend regulations regarding pollutants responsible for the increase in greenhouse gases, acid rain, smog and toxic pollution will ensure improved monitoring of the state of the environment. The proposed amendments are designed to harmonize with the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and determine certain methods of calculation. The WCI includes seven U.S. states, including California, and 4 Canadian provinces including Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Manitoba. By joining WCI in 2008, Quebec agreed to a cap and trade of GHG emissions. One of the first steps of the process leading to the creation of a common carbon market is to ensure the thoroughness of the information collected on these emissions. Once established, the system of cap and trade will become an important instrument of the provincial strategy to address climate change. The current regulations require Quebec businesses to report GHG emissions that equal or exceed 50,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent. According to the rules of the WCI, the new threshold for reporting will be 10,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent. To date, companies did not have any requirements as to how to quantify their emissions. With the amended regulation, calculation methods for GHG emissions will be required for most emission sources. These methods have been adapted for Quebec businesses and were first developed by WCI partners from existing techniques used by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). They will standardize how issuers calculate their GHG emissions. In addition, the reporting of 25,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent or more, will have to be verified by an accredited organization to ensure that the prescribed methods of calculation have been followed and that the statements contain all required data. 1 tab.

  17. DNA barcodes for bio-surveillance: regulated and economically important arthropod plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    Many of the arthropod species that are important pests of agriculture and forestry are impossible to discriminate morphologically throughout all of their life stages. Some cannot be differentiated at any life stage. Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has gained increasing adoption as a tool to both identify known species and to reveal cryptic taxa. Although there has not been a focused effort to develop a barcode library for them, reference sequences are now available for 77% of the 409 species of arthropods documented on major pest databases. Aside from developing the reference library needed to guide specimen identifications, past barcode studies have revealed that a significant fraction of arthropod pests are a complex of allied taxa. Because of their importance as pests and disease vectors impacting global agriculture and forestry, DNA barcode results on these arthropods have significant implications for quarantine detection, regulation, and management. The current review discusses these implications in light of the presence of cryptic species in plant pests exposed by DNA barcoding.

  18. Key Economic Parameters for an Optimal Pharmacy Network in a Regulated Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo MLINARIC

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies are an integral part of the modern healthcare system which strives for a holistic and effi cient care. General practitioners and pharmacists are held in high esteem among local communities as they are the fi rst point of contact when people have health issues. However, a strong demand for health services in developed countries and its present fi nancing schemes undermined the sustainability of the whole health system (8.9% of GDP in 2013 and growing. According to WHO and EU recommendations, the whole healthcare system shall accept a holistic approach and focus on education, prevention and proper medicine consume. Part of this strategy is a seamless care concept, where medical doctors and pharmacists build a team around the well-being of a patient. Financing scheme incentives and KPI’s (key performance indicators will be focused on keeping people healthy, instead of paying for procedures. The future healthcare ecosystem obliges pharmacists to optimize network coverage and to extend health services. Nevertheless, their growth strategy needs to be gradual, considering the present level of network coverage, the low pace of private and public expenditures for medicine and services, and the fact that a new fi nancing model for pharmacies is still unknown. Thus, we expect the development of pharmacy network in regulated environment to be fi nanced predominantly from retained earnings in publicly owned pharmacies and by awarding pharmacy concessions.

  19. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  20. Energy efficiency drivers in Europe. Regulations and other instruments open new horizons for energy management in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, H.

    2010-01-01

    Curbing climate change and global warming will be one of the major challenges of the 21. Century.The very survival of our society could be at stake. Greenhouse gases including CO 2 have been identified as the culprits and the vast majority of industrialized countries have agreed to cut emissions drastically over coming decades. Buildings account for nearly 40% of the energy used in most countries and are responsible for a similar level of global CO 2 emissions. Energy efficiency in buildings is therefore one of the keys to reducing green-house emissions. The main driving force to achieve the ambitious goals that have been set for the reduction of greenhouse gases will come from energy efficiency regulations, building codes, standards, labels, certifications, obligations and incentives, all of which have been multiplying steadily over recent decades. International institutions are rolling out energy efficiency directives and standards that set minimum requirements for buildings.They are gradually being taken into account in national regulations and building codes. Today, most energy efficiency regulations concern building design. They hardly touch on Energy Management aspects that can generate major operational gains with relatively low investments and quick payback. Beyond regulations that focus on minimum requirements, environmental performance labels use building rating criteria that can take energy efficiency much further.They offer a practical way of assigning value to energy efficiency and in this way represent powerful market drivers. Moreover, the important benefits of Energy Management can be easily integrated in the rating criteria of these far-reaching schemes. Indeed, through effective building measurement, monitoring and control systems, Energy Management is one of the keys to rapidly reducing carbon emissions and achieving climate change targets. (author)

  1. Fiscal greening and energy. Part 2. Economic effects of increase and broadening of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Mulder, M.; Vromans, M.

    2001-07-01

    For the benefit of the discussion on greening the Dutch tax system, The Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) has made an analysis of the economic and environmental effects of raising the energy tax in the Netherlands, the so called Regulating Energy Tax.This energy tax is introduced in 1996 and has been raised in the following years in order to encourage energy efficiency improvement and the production of renewable energy. Since the introduction and the raising of this energy tax is coupled with a reduction of the tax tariffs on labour and capital, the tax basis is shifted towards environment polluting factors.This tax shift is called 'greening the tax system'. Five variants for raising the energy tax are analysed. In two of these variants the existing tariffs are raised by maintaining the existing exemption for energy use above a certain level. In the other two variants this level is raised, meaning that a larger part of the total energy use is taxed.In addition to these 4 variants, CPB has formulated a variant in which taxes have to be paid for all energy use without any exemption. In the long run uniform marginal tariffs for all energy users is the most efficient variant. Measures to reduce emissions will then be taken by the firms and households where the marginal reduction costs are relatively low. In the medium run the environmental and macroeconomic effects are almost the same in all variants. Raising the energy tax will result in a reduction of the emissions of CO2 in 2020 by 2,5 -8,5 Mton. The explanation for this range is the existence of large uncertainties concerning the development of costs and non-financial bottlenecks in the field of renewable energy production. The macro-economic costs of all variants in 2020 will be less then 0,1% GDP. The differences in environmental and macro-economic effects in the medium run are too small and the uncertainties about these effects are too large to rank these variants according their cost

  2. Instruments for the regulation of the electric power projects: An integrated vision of the socio-environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regini Nutti, Miriam; Milazzo, Maria Luiza; Rodriguez Garcia, Eduardo; Menezes, Carlos Frederico; Pompeu Serran, Flavia; Sebastiao Costa, Luiz; Neves Mundim, Rogerio

    1999-01-01

    The process of institutional change in the Brazilian electric sector accelerated the revision or elaboration of relating normative documents to the elaboration of studies and generation projects and electric power transmission. These documents were produced in a cooperative way by initiative of the organ federal regulator, under the coordination of ELETROBRAS and with the collaboration of technical teams of about ten Brazilian companies of energy. The aspects socio-environmental was absorbed in the normative documents, starting from an integrated vision of content and of the activities proposed with the energy studies and of engineering, allowing to diminish the relating uncertainties to the implementation of the projects and to assist to the national and sector environmental politics

  3. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS ON THE WARANT, AS REPRESENTATIVE TITLE OF GOODS IN WAREHOUSES, ANALYZED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ITS FUNCTION OF PAYMENT INSTRUMENT, IN THE LIGHT OF SPECIAL REGULATIONS AND PROVISIONS OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bulearcă

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of terminology, both the doctrine and national regulation or community law are making confusion between the terms „payment instruments” and „means of payment” when they need to designate the document through which is made the payment to a pecuniary obligation by the debtor. In order to highlight the legal status of warant as payment tool of international trade law has been used both the method of comparative law and rules of interpretation specific to the international trade law science, and rules of interpretation common to all branches of law, including commercial and banking law. Thus, in a first perspective was considered the concept of “instrumentum” according to which as long as the document by which is made the payment of a pecuniary obligation relating to a legal relationship with a foreign element is a document, either on a material support or dematerialized, we hold that the appropriate term to describe this is payment instrument and not means of payment, because the latter means, on the one hand, how the payment is made, and on the other hand, international liquidity - in currency - used in economic exchanges. From another perspective, have been considered the proposals to update national legislation both in terms of financial and banking practice set globally and the progress made in information technology, widely used to achieve crossborder payments.

  4. Smart electricity metering as an energy efficiency instrument: Comparative analyses of regulation and market conditions in Europe. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Parsons, John; Kester, Josco C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The new European Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services (ESD) (EC 2006/32, 2006) states the importance of installing metering and billing systems allowing consumers to regulate and steer their consumption. Extra information provided by these 'Smart Meters', is proposed as an important technological innovation to improve energy efficiency. In the next few years the European energy markets will face a challenging task - implementation of Smart Metering systems for small and middle-size customers. The public policies and implementation paths of Smart Metering today vary across Europe from full-scale implementation to very limited. Implementation of Smart Metering systems provides a technological basis, which makes it possible to implement new market-based products and services encouraging the Final Customers to save energy. Electricity suppliers and Distribution System Operators play a key role in a full utilisation of the energy saving potential from Smart Metering, but need a benefit for doing this. These new market opportunities could provide this benefit

  5. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.307 Monetary instruments. The term monetary instruments shall have the meaning...

  6. From networks to hybrids : Strategic behaviour and crisis-driven change in the regulation and governance of the European financial and economic system,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; Mijs, A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.; Meeuwen, B.; Van der Puil, J.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge that European decision-makers struggle with today is regulating and governing the European financial and economic system in a way that is both effective and legitimate. To help address this challenge, this paper asks why regulatory gaps occurred and European governance has been weak,

  7. Economic analysis of Japanese air pollution regulation : an optimal retirement problem under the vehicle type regulation in the NOx-particulate matter law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the vehicle type regulation that was introduced under the Automobile : Nitrogen OxidesParticulate Matter Law to mitigate air pollution in Japanese metropolitan : areas. The vehicle type regulation effectively sets the timing fo...

  8. Economic analysis of a Japanese air pollution regulation : an optimal retirement problem under vehicle type regulation in the NOx-particulate matter law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This paper empirically examines the vehicle type regulation that was introduced under the : Automobile Nitrogen OxidesParticulate Matter Law to mitigate air pollution problems in Japanese metropolitan areas. The vehicle type regulation effectively...

  9. THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS: A NEW INSTRUMENT TO ADDRESS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Courtis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the adoption of the new Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a means to obtain redress for violations against economic, social and cultural rights in the international sphere – including its potential use for the consideration of the violation of extraterritorial obligations. Keywords: Human rights. Social rights. Violations. Optinal protocol.

  10. The economic impact of proposed regulations on the discharge of drilling muds and cuttings from the offshore facilities on US undiscovered crude oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential economic impact of proposed regulations. on the discharge of drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings on US offshore undiscovered crude oil resources. These regulations include proposed Best Available Technology economically achievable (BAT) and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) effluent limitations under the Clean Water Act governing the discharge of drilling fluids and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas drilling operations. The impact of the proposed RAT/NSPS regulations for the drilling fluids and drill cuttings disposal on the cost of funding, developing, and producing Lower-48 offshore undiscovered crude oil resources will depend significantly on operators perceptions on the chances of failing toxicity or static sheen tests. If operators, in economically justifying their projects, assume that the fluids fail one of these tests, thereby prohibiting them from being discharged, up to 11% of the economically recoverable offshore resource would be considered uneconomic to produce. This would amount to 845 million barrels of oil at an oil price around $25 per barrel. On the other hand, if operators are willing co take their chances and see if their fluids fail one of these tests, then, based on EPA's assumptions concerning forecast fluid use and static sheen and toxicity test failure rates, up to 4% of the offshore undiscovered resource would be impacted, amounting to lost reserves of up to 270 million barrels

  11. Economic incentives for optimal sulfur abatement in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews and develops theoretical and empirical representations of economic incentives for implementing pollution control strategies. A number of alternative economic instruments exist, which, if applied internationally, could encourage implementation of abatement strategies by counties. The article considers means of persuading countries to minimize abatement costs. A comparison between the pollution targets achieved by the imposition of a uniform charge rate and by differentiated charge rates is discussed, and empirical results are provided with associated conclusions. These results are compared with a simple standards setting in the form of critical loads, in order to assess empirically if economic instruments work better than regulations

  12. Governance, violence and the struggle for economic regulation in South Sudan: the case of Budi County (Eastern Equatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walraet

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Budi County in Eastern Equatoria State (South Sudan was governed during the 1990s and up to mid-2007. Because its capital Chukudum was the SPLM/A headquarters almost throughout that period, it provides us with an interesting case from which to explore how the SPLM/A governed during the war and how this impacts on the post-war peace. One observation is that the war, besides a period of devastation and human suffering, was also a time of economic opportunities and social differentiation. For that reason this article will also explore livestock trade as a new mode of wealth appropriation and the changing nature of cattle raiding, and how this interferes with the struggle for regulatory power and governable “spaces”. This means that we comprehend the economy as a political terrain. At the same time we leave room for sociological perspectives, to complement the more restricted “competition for resources and gains” approach to conflict and violence. The article is written in three sections. In the first section we briefly clarify why in 1999 there was an uprising in Budi County against SPLM/A rule and why it engendered massive local support. In the second section we examine one of the most destructive manifestations of violence that affect Budi county: cattle raiding. We look at it from a perspective that has been under-researched in the eld: that of trans-border trade. In the last section we look at how, after the peace of 2005, newly appointed local government authorities are (reclaiming do- mains of state regulation that previously lay rmly in the hands of the military. Particular attention is given to the capacity of the local authorities to guarantee security and provide protection. Key words: governance, violent conflict, regulatory power, trans-border trade, South Sudan Eastern Equatoria

  13. Improvisation and entrepreneurial bricolage versus rationalisation: A case-based analysis of contrasting responses to economic instability in the UK brass musical instruments industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David J.; Blundel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In periods of economic crisis and instability, the response of many business organisations is to try and adapt to prevailing market conditions. This typically results in a pattern of retrenchment and rationalisation designed to cut costs. Responses of this kind may be justifiable and, to varying degrees, effective at a firm-level. However, their wider repercussions can include the worsening of a pre-existing economic downturn (e.g. large- scale redundancies affecting local communities and can...

  14. Contribution to the economic impact assessment of policy options to regulate animal cloning for food production with an economic simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Dillen; Emanuele Ferrari; Pascal Tillie; George Philippidis; Sophie Helaine

    2013-01-01

    The EU is currently evaluating different policy options towards the use of cloning or products derived from cloned animals in the food chain. This study presents a first attempt to quantify the likely effects of different policy scenarios on international trade and EU domestic production. In the context of the Impact Asessment process the JRC was requested to simulate via a modelling study the economic impact of selected policy options. Based on a literature review and the specific constra...

  15. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  16. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  17. The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This commentary to the editorial of Hajizadeh argues that the economic, social and health consequences of legalizing cannabis in Canada will depend in large part on the exact stipulations (mainly from the federal government and on the implementation, regulation and practice of the legalization act (on provincial and municipal levels. A strict regulatory framework is necessary to minimize the health burden attributable to cannabis use. This includes prominently control of production and sale of the legal cannabis including control of price and content with ban of marketing and advertisement. Regulation of medical marijuana should be part of such a framework as well

  18. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector; Spatialisation des impacts de la regulation economique de l'effet de serre d'origine agricole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2004-02-15

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  19. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  20. The Behavioural Law and Economics of the Precautionary Principle in the EU and Its Impact on Internal Market Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2014-01-01

    The precautionary principle contributes to “the social” of internal market regulation as it counterbalances the loss aversion and availability bias of regulators who may too hastily endorse measures based to further the fundamental freedoms instead of fundamental rights and environmental protection.

  1. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  2. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  3. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  4. Assessment, Problems and Ways of Improvement of Technical Regulation of Foreign Economic Activity (FEA in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steblyanko Maryna D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of technical regulation of FEA in the world and Ukraine and identifies main problems and ways of increase of efficiency of certification. It considers the system of technical regulation of EU and provides examples of application of technical barriers by some countries for ensuring security of goods in the domestic market. The article offers to develop a strategy of development of the national system of information provision of technical regulation and suspend transition from the system of mandatory certification to the system of assessment of correspondence with requirements of technical orders of business.

  5. Economic Value of Li-ion Energy Storage System in Frequency Regulation Application from Utility Firm’s Perspective in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchang Hur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy Storage Systems (ESSs have recently been highlighted because of their many benefits such as load-shifting, frequency regulation, price arbitrage, renewables, and so on. Among those benefits, we aim at evaluating their economic value in frequency regulation application. However, unlike previous literature focusing on profits obtained from participating in the ancillary service market, our approach concentrates on the cost reduction from the perspective of a utility firm that has an obligation to pay energy fees to a power exchange. More specifically, we focus on the payments between the power exchange market and the utility firm as a major source of economic benefits. The evaluation is done by cost- benefit analysis (CBA with a dataset of the Korean market while considering operational constraint costs as well as scheduled energy payments, and a simulation algorithm for the evaluation is provided. Our results show the potential for huge profits to be made by cost reduction. We believe that this research can provide a guideline for a utility firm considering investing in ESSs for frequency regulation application as a source of cost reduction.

  6. Propensity-score matching in economic analyses: comparison with regression models, instrumental variables, residual inclusion, differences-in-differences, and decomposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, William H

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines the use of propensity score matching in economic analyses of observational data. Several excellent papers have previously reviewed practical aspects of propensity score estimation and other aspects of the propensity score literature. The purpose of this paper is to compare the conceptual foundation of propensity score models with alternative estimators of treatment effects. References are provided to empirical comparisons among methods that have appeared in the literature. These comparisons are available for a subset of the methods considered in this paper. However, in some cases, no pairwise comparisons of particular methods are yet available, and there are no examples of comparisons across all of the methods surveyed here. Irrespective of the availability of empirical comparisons, the goal of this paper is to provide some intuition about the relative merits of alternative estimators in health economic evaluations where nonlinearity, sample size, availability of pre/post data, heterogeneity, and missing variables can have important implications for choice of methodology. Also considered is the potential combination of propensity score matching with alternative methods such as differences-in-differences and decomposition methods that have not yet appeared in the empirical literature.

  7. Innovation Policy of the European Union: Concept Strategic Update and Instruments Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Hassouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes formation of EU innovation policy and its conceptual update, which has strategic character and is concerned with the social and economic model change, determines differences between EU innovation policy and national politics and the forms of its implementation, detects major changes of EU innovation policy instruments, which were the result of support concept and innovation regulations change.

  8. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  9. Exploring the comparative cost-effectiveness of economic incentive and command-and-control instruments, and of renewable energy technologies in PM10 emission control: A case study of Lima-Callao, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm

    Much economic literature expounds the superior cost-effectiveness of economic incentive (EI) policies over command-and-control (CAC) ones, based on appealing theoretical arguments. However, one of the assumptions underlying much of this literature is that monitoring and enforcement (M&E) of policies are not only feasible, but essentially costless. In reality, M&E are never costless and sometimes infeasible, and, crucially, M&E requirements vary across policy types. Furthermore, in technical economic terms, cost-effectiveness is defined with respect to variable costs only; however, in choosing among policies, the objective generally is to identify that with the lowest total (variable plus fixed) cost per unit abatement, which in its own right may be termed cost-effective. The neglect of M&E and of fixed costs throws up the question of the validity of much of the policy advice that draws on the environmental economics literature for developing countries, where the institutional capacity for effective M&E often is strongly limited, and where creating this capacity will require considerable infrastructure investments. The limited institutional capacity also has led to the suggestion that in developing countries, conventional environmental policies, such as input or output taxes, emission charges, or standards, may be less cost-effective than non-conventional environmental policies, such as direct public provision of electricity from renewable sources, because the M&E capacity required for the implementation of non-conventional policies is often less stringent. I test the hypotheses of superior cost-effectiveness of EI over CAC and of non-conventional over conventional environmental policy instruments. The samples of pollution control policies used to test the hypotheses are drawn from a list of frequently recommended urban air pollution abatement measures for developing countries, plus two renewable energy sources. Both sets of environmental policy types are compared

  10. The evaluation of drug regulation - economic approaches into the valuation and evaluation of the drug regulatory framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvy, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The European pharmaceutical market is strictly regulated. Sufficient levels of quality, safety, and efficacy will have to be demonstrated before a pharmaceutical is allowed to enter the market. There is little evidence, however, that the current drug regulatory framework is achieving its goals of

  11. Regulation and adaptation of management accounting innovations : The case of economic value added in Thai state-owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiwamit, Pimsiri; Modell, Sven; Scapens, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research on the diffusion of management accounting innovations (MAIs) has grown into a substantial literature which, draws attention to how diffusion processes can be fuelled by compulsory regulation. However, relatively little is known about how MAIs interact with wider regulatory processes in

  12. Economic globalization and convergence in labour market regulation: an empirial assessment / Peter Gahan, Richard Mitchell, Sean Cooney ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Tööõiguse ja tööturu regulatsiooni arengust majanduse globaliseerumise tingimustes Austraalia, Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa, India, Suurbritannia ja Ameerika Ühendriikide võrdluses. Lisatud lühiülevaade LLRI-ist (Longitudinal Labour Regulation Index) lk. 738-741

  13. Should virtual cybercrime be regulated by means of criminal law? A philosophical, legal-economic, pragmatic and constitutional dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2014-01-01

    This paper will be about the question of whether or not virtual cybercrime should be regulated by means of criminal law. By virtual cybercrime I mean activities such as the stealing of virtual property or the killing of an avatar (a player's virtual representation) within the virtual worlds of

  14. The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria Comment on "Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Crépault, Jean-François; Fischer, Benedikt

    2016-08-20

    This commentary to the editorial of Hajizadeh argues that the economic, social and health consequences of legalizing cannabis in Canada will depend in large part on the exact stipulations (mainly from the federal government) and on the implementation, regulation and practice of the legalization act (on provincial and municipal levels). A strict regulatory framework is necessary to minimize the health burden attributable to cannabis use. This includes prominently control of production and sale of the legal cannabis including control of price and content with ban of marketing and advertisement. Regulation of medical marijuana should be part of such a framework as well. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  16. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Methods/Design Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders - federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces will be included. Ethics - beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics - scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs. For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. Discussion The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing

  17. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Methods/Design Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders - federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces) will be included. Ethics - beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics - scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs. For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. Discussion The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing recommendations for regulatory bodies

  18. MARKET FAIRNESS IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS LAW AND ETHICS: A Study on Modern and Traditional Market Regulations in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapa Khamal Rokan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated by unfair market conditions in the form of marginalization of traditional markets in Indonesia due to unequal competition with the modern market. This article tries to find a fair legal formulation to maintain the existence of a small market (traditional. To find the legal formulation, the author attempts to discuss market regulation in Indonesian legislation, analyzed and found it to be optimized to create a fair market arrangements in the perspective of Islamic law. This study propose a paradigm that the market functions not only as an business institution but also as religious and social institutions based on brotherhood which requires mutual respect and responsibility. There are prescriptive law to maintain the existence of traditional markets in Indonesia, which optimizes the concept of ownership as a form of common ownership and optimize the regulation of cooperation between the traditional and the modern market economy based on the doctrine of Islamic law.

  19. The Budget Policy in the Context of Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnik Vladimir A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and role of budget policy in the system of socio-economic development of country, defining the institutional approach in the process of its formation and implementation, based on changes in the public environment. The socio-economic development of society at this stage requires the use of budgetary policy as an effective instrument for the State regulation of economic and social relations. It is important to determine the priorities of the budget policy, including the medium-term perspective, based on the basic principles of the socio-economic development of country, improvement of the State regulation in the sphere of generation of budget income, the planning and usage of budget expenditures, the inter-budget relations, which will increase the efficiency of functioning of the economic and budget system as a whole.

  20. The sustainability benefit and economic profit of the Green Projects Regulation; De duurzaamheidswinst en economische winst Regeling groenprojecten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; Afman, M.R.; Blom, M.J.

    2013-02-15

    In 1995, the Dutch government launched the Green Projects Scheme with the aim to stimulate the market introduction of innovative sustainable measures. The main conclusion from the study is that the title scheme is a cost effective tool to achieve environmental goals. The scheme has stimulated innovation and ensured that environmental innovations have found their way to the market [Dutch] In 1995 heeft de overheid de Regeling groenprojecten opgestart met als doel de marktintroductie te stimuleren van innovatieve duurzame maatregelen. De belangrijkste conclusie uit de titel studie is dat de regeling een kosteneffectief instrument is om milieudoelen te realiseren. De regeling heeft innovatie gestimuleerd en ervoor gezorgd dat milieu-innovaties de weg naar de markt hebben gevonden.

  1. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  2. Optimising the effect of policy instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Economic modelling generally assumes that businesses are profit maximisers. However, behavioural economics holds that businesses pursue multiple objectives and may even sacrifice some profit. This has implications for the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies. Using Danish farme...... to policy instruments; farmers who focus on yield indicate less responsiveness to economic policy instruments. The results imply that it is important to implement a broad array of policy instruments to match different farmer rationales.......Economic modelling generally assumes that businesses are profit maximisers. However, behavioural economics holds that businesses pursue multiple objectives and may even sacrifice some profit. This has implications for the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies. Using Danish farmers...... as a case, this paper examines whether non-economic rationales may trump economic ones in farmer decisions, and, unlike previous research, we quantify how widespread non-economic values are compared to more economic values. Data derive from a survey (1164 responses) of Danish conventional farmers' decision...

  3. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  4. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  5. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  6. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  8. The ancestral logic of politics: upper-body strength regulates men's assertion of self-interest over economic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sznycer, Daniel; Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-07-01

    Over human evolutionary history, upper-body strength has been a major component of fighting ability. Evolutionary models of animal conflict predict that actors with greater fighting ability will more actively attempt to acquire or defend resources than less formidable contestants will. Here, we applied these models to political decision making about redistribution of income and wealth among modern humans. In studies conducted in Argentina, Denmark, and the United States, men with greater upper-body strength more strongly endorsed the self-beneficial position: Among men of lower socioeconomic status (SES), strength predicted increased support for redistribution; among men of higher SES, strength predicted increased opposition to redistribution. Because personal upper-body strength is irrelevant to payoffs from economic policies in modern mass democracies, the continuing role of strength suggests that modern political decision making is shaped by an evolved psychology designed for small-scale groups.

  9. THE READINESS OF FOREIGN WORKERS REGULATIONS IN THE ENGINEERING AND MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS SECTOR ENTERING THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusmidah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the domestic labor market and prevention of skilled foreign workers entry through negative list are not in accordance with free market principle of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC to be implemented in ASEAN countries such as Indonesia in the second half of 2015. However, restrictions are still practiced by some Indonesian government institutions, such as Ministry of Health for doctors, dentists, and nurses, the Ministry of Public Works for surveyors, and the Ministry of Tourism for tourism profesionals. Through literature study and legal analysis, it was found that foreign workers restriction by professional associations according to certain competency standards aims to prevent domestic work from being monopolized by skilled foreign workers in the AEC 2015 era.

  10. The IKARUS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, H.J.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    When the Federal Government decided on a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions till 2005 in 1990 the necessity resulted that an instrument has to be developed for the analysis and assessment of the ecological, economic and energetic impact of different reduction strategies. The development task was awarded by the BMFT to the Research Centre Juelich in cooperation with well-known institutions of energy system research. The total instrument is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1994. For the decentral use of the instrument by a wide specialist public the developed models and data banks which are equipped with a user-friendly surface are suited for larger PCs (486, 16 MB RAM/500-1000 MB ROM). (orig.) [de

  11. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  12. The atomic energy regulations, 2012: Statutory instruments supplement no. 4 to the Uganda gazette no. 5 volume CV dated 27 January, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The regulations specifies minimum requirements for the protection of individuals, society and environment from the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation. It also provides for the safety and security of radiation sources

  13. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  14. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  15. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  16. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  17. Essays in development economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters in the field of Development Economics. The first chapter examines the saving and investment decisions of self-employed farming households in Indonesia. Using an instrumental variables strategy, with local rainfall as an instrument for farm profit, no

  18. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  19. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  20. REGULATION OF A RIGHT TO A SALARY IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF ILO AND UN AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LEGISLATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhošev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the salary as the most important legal institute, element and principle of the labour relations. Before we approach the analysis of the legal regime of the salary, we will define the term labour relations. This paper puts special emphasis on the terminology of the notion salary, as well as the legal nature of the legal regime of the salary. Additionally, in this paper the most important international legal instruments of ILO, UN and The European Council are analyzed for salary regulation and ban on compensation discrimination. In this context, the most important legal acts in the Republic of Macedonia are analyzed which regulate the legal institute salary, i.e. the minimum wage (The Constitution, Labour Law, and Law on Minimum Wage.

  1. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  2. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  3. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  4. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  5. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  6. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  7. International Harmonization of Reactor Licensing Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, Dietmar.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of a harmonization policy for reactor licensing regulations on the basis of already considerable experience is to attain greater rationalisation in this field, in the interest of economic policy and healthy competition, and most important, radiation protection and safety of installations. This paper considers the legal instruments for such harmonization and the conditions for their implementation, in particular within the Communities framework. (NEA) [fr

  8. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  9. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-03-01

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  10. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  11. The single non-representative trade union as a political and economic instrument of the Franco Regime | El sindicato vertical como instrumento político y económico del régimen franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicerio Sánchez Recio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The single non-representative trade union followed the pattern of the single party in order to carry out the function specified in the title of this article. With compulsory membership for all workers and employers, the single trade union was deployed by the Franco regime in order to bring both sides of industry together. An analysis of its history shows that it was a political and economic instrument of the regime. The regime gave the union its powers and solved the conflicts that arose, while at the same time using it to control and contain the workers, and pay back owners and managers for their support. | El sindicato único y vertical fue el instrumento parejo del partido único para ejercer la función que se le atribuye en el título. A través del sindicato único, de afiliación generalizada y obligatoria para obreros y empresarios, el franquismo trataba de integrar al mundo del trabajo y de la empresa. A través del análisis de su trayectoria puede afirmarse que el sindicato vertical fue un instrumento político y económico del régimen franquista, que fue éste el que le dio la fuerza y resolvió los problemas que se le plantearon, pero que, al mismo tiempo, lo utilizó para controlar y encuadrar a los obreros y compensar a los empresarios y patronos por los apoyos que le prestaban.

  12. Translating Scientific Judgment, Technological Insight and Economic Theory Into Practical Policy Lessons: The Case of Climate Regulation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    Effective solutions to the climate change problem will require unprecedented cooperation across space, continuity across time and coordination between disciplines. One well-known methodology for synthesizing the lessons of physical science, energy engineering and economics is integrated assessment. Typically, integrated assessment models use scientific and technological relationships as physical constraints in a larger macroeconomic optimization that is designed to either balance the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation or find the least-cost path to an exogenously prescribed endpoint (e.g. atmospheric CO2 stabilization). The usefulness of these models depends to a large extent on the quality of the assumptions and the relevance of the outcome metrics chosen by the user. In this study, I show how a scientifically-based emissions reduction scenario can be combined with engineering-based assumptions about the energy system (e.g. estimates of the marginal cost premium of carbon-free technology) to yield insights about the price path of CO2 under a future regulatory regime. I then show how this outcome metric (carbon price) relates to key decisions about the design of a future cap-and-trade system and the way in which future carbon markets may be regulated.

  13. Current economic cost, the ARENH (Regulated Access to the Historic (EDF) Nuclear Energy Supplier) price, the differential rent and the scarcity rent of nuclear power: some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)

  14. The economic impact of carbon pricing with regulated electricity prices in China—An application of a computable general equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ji Feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ya Xiong; Kou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    We use a dynamic CGE model (SICGE) to assess the economic and climate impacts of emissions trading system (ETS) in China with a carbon price of 100 Yuan/ton CO2. A particular focus is given to the regulated electricity price regime, which is a major concern of electricity sector’s cost-effective participation in ETS in China. We found: (1) Carbon pricing is an effective policy for China to reduce CO 2 emissions. Total CO 2 emissions reduction ranges from 6.8% to 11.2% in short-term. (2) Rigid electricity price entails lower CO 2 emissions reduction but can be considered as a feasible starting point to introduce carbon pricing policies in short-term as long as governmental subsidies are given to electricity production. (3) In mid- and long-term, the efficient policy is to earmark carbon revenue with competitive electricity price. We propose to use carbon revenue to reduce consumption tax in the first year of the introduction of carbon price and to use the carbon revenue to reduce production tax in following years. - Highlights: • We use a CGE model to assess the impacts of carbon pricing in China. • We test different scenarios of carbon cost pass-through in electricity price. • Carbon pricing policy cost-efficiency is examined with double-dividend hypothesis

  15. Statutory Instruments - 1984 No. 863 and 1985 No. 708. Public Health, England and Wales - Public Health Scotland. The Control of Pollution (Radioactive Waste) Regulations 1984, The Control of Pollution (Radioactive Waste) Regulations 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Regulations provide that radioactive waste is to be treated as any other waste for pollution control purposes as opposed to special radioactive control purposes. In the former respect, radioactive waste is subject to Part II of the Control of Pollution Act 1974, but in the latter, it remains subject to the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. (NEA) [fr

  16. Essays in public economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  17. Policy instruments for energy conservation: A multidimensional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, Louis-Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of various forms of taxes, subsidies and regulations implemented to correct for market failures that may prevent energy savings. It builds on various approaches, with gradual complexity. First, a standard micro-economic model is developed to compare the static performances of these instruments. Second, the representation of consumer behaviour is strengthened in a model of the residential energy demand for space heating in France, which allows to identify the dynamic mechanisms by which instruments can correct for the main market failures. Third, an empirical evaluation of 'white certificate' schemes - tradable energy saving obligations imposed on energy operators - is made from the comparison between the British, Italian and French experiences, taking into account national institutions. The following conclusions can be drawn from these various approaches: (i) energy taxes, by encouraging both energy efficiency investment and sufficiency behaviour, are particularly effective; (ii) energy efficiency regulations have a significant impact on the diffusion of efficient technologies; (iii) subsidies to energy efficiency induce a large rebound effect; (iv) depending on the institutional environment in which they operate, white certificate schemes combine different properties of these instruments. Applied to the French residential building sector, the most effective combination of these instruments does not allow to reach the energy saving target set by the Government. (author)

  18. Policy instruments for pollution control in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1992-07-01

    Economic development in developing countries must be accomplished in a manner that does not harm the environment with pollution. Pollution harms human health and productivity. Thus appropriate strategies must be developed that promote growth, reduce poverty, and protect the environment. A review of the current literature is performed with attention paid to cost-effective interventions i.e., comparisons of regulatory and fiscal instruments that can reduce pollution. Both direct instruments (like effluent charges, tradable permits, deposit refund systems, emission regulations and regulatory agency funding for purification, cleanup, waste disposal, and enforcement) and indirect instruments (like input/output taxes and subsidies, substitution subsidies, abatement inputs, regulation of equipment and processes, and development of clean technologies) are examined. Examples are used to show how indirect instruments can be successful when monitoring and enforcement is too costly. A careful examination of distributive concerns illustrate how the effect on the poor may need particular consideration and how groups with vested interests can help evaluate the probable success of such interventions.

  19. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  20. Price regulation and international resource supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, H

    1982-03-01

    Price regulation is an instrument between two diverging aims: The demand for low resource prices motivated by the principle of equal distribution in our day, and the desire for economical management of resources as a responsibility we have to future generations. The present publication investigates how price regulation influences intertemporal supply of resources. For the assumed cases constant resource price, constant admissible increase in resource price, expected release of resource price and deregulation of a price held constant for a period of time mathematical models are developmed.

  1. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  2. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  3. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  4. Water Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.. This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented.

  5. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  6. Essays in environmental economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz-Marvez, Sherry L.

    This body of work contributes to the literature on two current topics in environmental economics: (1) the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation; and (2) the effectiveness of mandatory information disclosure as a regulatory instrument. For the first topic, we link theoretical and empirical Environmental Kuznets Curve research by using calibration and simulation to test a growth model with environmental quality as a normal good and emissions as a factor of production. We use U.S. macroeconomic, emissions and compliance data to calibrate parameters representing preferences for environmental quality and marginal abatement costs. We simulate the model starting from a less-developed initial condition and compare the predicted pollution-income relationship with that in the data. Our results are mixed. Some support exists for the theory that an inverted U-shape results from a corner solution in which less developed countries do not abate pollution. However, pollution peaks at a level of per capita income which is much lower than that observed in the U.S. data. For the second topic, we study the effectiveness of mandatory information disclosure as environmental regulation. Community-right-to-know programs such as the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) use mandatory information disclosure to "shame" dirty firms into reducing emissions. The idea is that the public---armed with previously unavailable emissions information---will pressure firms with higher-than-expected emissions to "clean-up." We use the electricity industry to study the impact of price-and-entry deregulation on the effectiveness of the TRI. Using event studies, we find that, on average, utilities experience losses in firm value immediately following TRI announcements. Using panel regressions, we show that toxic emissions released in regulated states are associated with decreases in firm value while those released in deregulated states are associated with increases in firm

  7. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Lake; Thomas Kerr

    2017-01-01

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited ...

  8. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  9. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  10. Monetary policy and insolvency of economic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavac Rajko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of monetary policy of our central bank is to achieve and preserve stability of prices and currency. Targeted inflation rate has been chosen as operating instrument for gradual realization of low and stable inflation, along with elimination of inflation expectations. Also, a specific inflation corridor is chosen to ensure operations, transparency and ex ante effects of monetary policy. The paper presents analysis on whether there really is a restrictive monetary policy, deflections of real inflation from the programmed one, level of 'restrictiveness' of monetary policy and behavior of bank loans, money supply, nominal and real economic growth. Analysis is carried out and criticism of concepts of monetary regulation of mandatory bank reserves, blocking of financial bank potential through monetary regulation instruments, but also relations between central and business banks through open market policy. Criticism of repo operations and complete disappearance of selective credit policy is provided as well. The problem of almost embedded insolvency of economic sector is highlighted.

  11. 美国的土地政策在宏观调控中的角色与功能%Roles and Functions of Land Use Policies on Macro Economic Regulation in the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰雷; 施昱年

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to induce literatures on the land policies in the U.S. and discuss its impacts on the macro economy. Method used is literature review. The results indicate that: 1 ) Farm land conservation policy is useful for stabilizing farm product price in the short run while it is unsuitable to be an instrument of macro-regulation in the long run; 2) Suspending or keeping on urban expansion and urban renewal through zoning can decrease or increase investment. Decreasing floor area ratio (FAR) will stimulate developer to build quickly and suspend opportunistic behavior in the short run and raise the quality of housing and environmental in the long run. Property tax can guide the opportunistic investing of real estate in the short run and decrease the benefits of opportunistic investing in the long run; 3 ) Interest rate influences REITs and stocks of real estate companies quickly in the short run. High interest rate will attack the growth of economy. It is also important to monitor the risk of bad debt of mortgage market.In the long run, interest rate policy must coordinate with business cycle and it is also crucial to ameliorate financial market. It is concluded that land policies have significant impacts on the economic growth and cycles although they are not directly as the macro-regulation tools in U.S. The experiences are useful to the situation in China.%研究目的:归纳美国土地政策的文献,探讨美国的土地政策对宏观经济的影响,为中国土地宏观调控实践提供借鉴。研究方法:文献综述法。研究结果:(1)农地保护政策短期有助于农产品价格稳定,长期则不宜作为宏观调控的工具。(2)土地使用分区管制对投资影响的短期效果明显;调降容积率短期会刺激开发商抢建及暂缓投机,长期则能提高居住环境质量;不动产税收政策短期能够引导房地产投机需求的流向,长期则可降

  12. Economic bid evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, T.

    1975-01-01

    When it is intended to install a new nuclear power station, the usual procedure is to invite for tenders. In due course, bids will be received from various manufacturers, out of which the most favourable one is then to be selected. Appraisal is concluded in the Economic Bid Evaluation, the purpose of which is to define the economically most favourable bid by comparing overall costs and benefits of the various alternatives. Thus, Economic Bid Evaluation is a most important instrument for deciding on award of contract. (orig.) [de

  13. Economics of regulation. New rules for capital markets and grid industries. Congress documentation; Oekonomie der Regulierung. Neue Spielregeln fuer Kapitalmaerkte und Netzindustrien. Kongress-Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picot, Arnold [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Information, Organisation und Management; Schenck, Marcus (eds.) [E.ON AG, Duesseldorf (Germany). Unternehmenskommunikation

    2010-07-01

    In industries subject to intensive regulation, especially grid-based industries (telecommunication, energy, railways, postal services), the current regulation framework must be reviewed and updated. This book provides deeper expert knowledge and empirical knowledge in the field of regulation and attempts to enhance awareness of the importance of regulation for corporate policy and national economy. It contains the papers presented by renowned experts and decision-makers of industry, politics and economy at the 63rd German Business Experts Day 2009 (Deutscher Betriebswirtschafter-Tag).

  14. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  15. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  16. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  17. Learning Economics and Attitudes to Market Solutions to Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Harring

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change challenges governments to reduce emissions, and to gain support for such actions from their citizens. This can be in the form of taxation or legislation, or other forms of government interventions. In previous research, several instruments have been developed to capture attitudes towards the roles of markets and governments in the economy. Some of these instruments have assumed that respondents will have the same attitude towards the role of markets and governments, regardless of the context (e.g., welfare, environment, health or the form of government intervention (law, taxation, subsidy, spending etc.. However, these studies have not examined attitudes towards, or belief in, the efficacy of government intervention in markets, through microeconomic policies on taxation (e.g., duties levied on particular products or subsidies. This paper reports on the results of taking such a specific focus, that is, investigating economics students’ knowledge of, and attitudes towards, government interventions in markets, specifically addressing the problem of climate change. We make use of unique, two-wave longitudinal data from Swedish university students. The data were collected during their initial semester at the university. The first data collection was performed at the beginning of the semester, August/September 2014, and the second wave of data collection was performed in December/January 2014/2015, at the end of the semester. We were able to match 414 students between the first and second survey. The results show that students of economics change their policy attitudes and become more knowledgeable in economics. After one semester, they are more likely to think of economic instruments/incentives (taxes and subsidies as good and efficient policy instruments, and less likely to think that other instruments (regulation and information are good and efficient policy instruments. However, further analyses show that knowledgeable students do

  18. Competition through regulation - efforts aimed at reform in the European and German gas industries: Appropriate, feasible and consistent with the economic facts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaue, S.

    1994-01-01

    At the forefront of the ongoing debate in Europe on the political, economic and legal aspects of energy supplies are considerations for introducing a new regulatory framework, especially the general third-party access (TPA) regime for grid energies. Most advocates of such reform claim that it is needed for the sake of more competition in the energy sector. However, they do not set out from economic facts and seek a solution to the problems. Instead, the solution is laid down as the target, to which the economic facts are subordinated. Blind activism inspired by theoretical motives and without regard for the consequences must be avoided. Otherwise there is a danger of the new framework being unsuitable for really bringing about any movement, be it in the intended direction or towards the envisaged goal. The introduction of general TPA can only be successful if there are certain structures and market trends. Do such structures and market trends exist in the European and German gas industries? In answering this question, it is necessary to proceed from the economic conditions, on which both a general and an economical/legal assessment of reform efforts should actually be based. Reference is therefore made to Jonathan P. Stern, who gathered in facts and whose evaluations are taken into account here. (orig.)

  19. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  20. The regulatory instruments for the correction of energy-related environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labanderia Villot, X.; Lopez Otero, X.; Rodriguez Mendez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the different regulatory instruments for the correction of energy-related environmental externalities. This objective is justified by the size and general occurrence of this type of externalities in contemporary societies. In this sense, we distinguish between three main generations of instruments: conventional regulations, market mechanisms and voluntary approaches. In all cases, some practical examples of their application are presented, albeit emphasizing the experience with the so-called market instruments and the results of hypothetical simulations for the Spanish case. As a general conclusion we underline the role of economic analysis in the design, choice and evaluation of those mechanisms, which also explains the structure and contents of the article. (Author)

  1. Access regulation in the next generation access network environment: A comparative study of Hong Kong and Singapore from the transaction cost economics perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Au Man

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted two different models in the regulation of the next generation access (NGA) networks. In Hong Kong, the government has decided that access regulation will not be applied to fibre-based access networks and its strategy will be to rely on facilities-based competition to promote investment in the NGA networks. Singapore, on the other hand, has promoted access/services-based competition over a next generation broadband infrastructure subsidised by public fundin...

  2. Public choice and environmental regulation: tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe. New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Svendsen provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the actual experience with systems of tradable permits for environmental management. Moreover, he puts this treatment in a public-choice framework so that we can understand why policy makers in Europe have chosen green taxes, while t...... their counterparts in the United States have opted for systems of tradable permits. The book is a valuable source for a basic understanding of the theory, the and the political economy of incentive-based policy instruments....

  3. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  4. Administrative and economic tools of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Staničová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with administrative and economic instruments of environmental protection, which represent the most important groups of instruments of environmental protection. Administrative and economic instruments are means and methods that affect human behavior in relation to environment. The thesis is systematically divided into two main parts and each of them is subdivided into chapters and subchapters. The first part of the thesis is focused generally and provides overview of ...

  5. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  6. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  7. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  8. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  9. Introduction: The effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Cashmore, M; Bond, A; Sadler, B

    2009-01-01

    The global application of impact assessment instruments to achieve a variety of policy integration goals (e.g. the mainstreaming of environmental, gender or economic efficiency concerns) continues to proliferate. These instruments represent important components of contemporary political governance and hence are an important locus for applied research. This special issue of Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal critically examines 'state-of-the-art' knowledge and understanding of the effecti...

  10. Equity Criteria as Instrument to Ensure Sustainability of Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency: A Correlation Hidden by Sources of Confounding as Key for Sorting Out the Global Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzo, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is that Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency have an aspect of sustainability in relation to inequality. The analysis finds efficient situations reached increasing inequality as diminishing in the long term effective demand in a larger measure than counterbalancing increases thanks to total factor productivity growth. Equity and efficiency in welfare economics, rather than being quite contrasting objectives, are as such related and mutually necessary. As such countries are called...

  11. Regional cooperation on nuclear instrument maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Proper nuclear instrument maintenance is the essential precondition for any experimental work in nuclear sciences and technology. With the rapidly increasing sophistication of nuclear instrumentation, and considering the rather specific conditions that prevail in many IAEA Member States, this topic is gaining in importance, and has a strong economic implication. There is a general opinion that a regional, and possibly interregional cooperation in the field might be advantageous, and economically beneficial to all participating parties. The experience in such cooperation is limited, but sufficient that some reliable observations can be made, some conclusion can be drawn, and some recommendation for the possible future development can be presented

  12. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  13. The Financial Policy as a Component of the State Regulation of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravets Vladislav I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of financial policy as a component of institutional development of economy. At the current stage of improvement of financial-economic relations it is important to deepen the essence of financial policy as a component of socio-economic development, improvement of provisions on the influence of instruments of the State financial regulation on the socio-economic processes in the country taking into account the institutional peculiarities of the financial system. It is necessary to increase investment activity of economic entities with increasing the level of efficiency of capital investments, including through the use of mechanisms of the State support and the stimulating measures of both the fiscal-tax and the monetary-credit policy. The priority directions of financial policy need to be improved based on the main tasks of the socio-economic development, as well as the cyclical dynamics of the economy.

  14. GLOBAL RISKS AND INSTRUMENTS OF ITS MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Havryliuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that economic globalization leads to the formation of macro-economic, political and other risks that are able to grow into global risks affecting, without exception, all national economies, creating a serious threat to national economic security. The emphasis is on the negative elements of a set of global risks, their development and minimize the possibility of using a number of tools. Ensuring firmness of the state to external risks demands continuous monitoring and forecasting of world processes and usage of economic instruments of rapid response for prevention of negative consequences. The essence of the category of "risk" is revealed and deepened. The global risks that can not affect the economic security of Ukraine is disclosed. It is shown that the emergence of these global risks has negative impact on the economic security of Ukraine.

  15. Law Review of Islamic Capital Market Role to Support Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helza Nova Lita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this paper is to assess on how the rule of Islamic capital markets to support   sustainable economic development and what kind of instruments can be developed.Method – The method used in this research is the study of normative juridical approach to legislation and the concept of Islamic economics through literature review.Result – Issuer's business activities related to support for environmentally friendly business activities are part of the implementation of sharia principles despite the provisions of the implementation of Islamic finance through a decision has not been stated . All types of instruments issued by issuers of sharia in Indonesia should be consistent with Islamic economic values, including the commitment to enforcement of environmentally friendly business activities.Conclusion – This finding suggests to strengthen the legal instruments in the issuer's issuance of Islamic instruments in the form of regulations issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission  and through the National Fatwa Council of Sharia.Keywords : Islamic Capital Markets, sustainable economic development, friendly environment

  16. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  17. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  19. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  20. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  1. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  2. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  3. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  4. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  5. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  6. Tax system competition – instruments and beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2014-01-01

    Tax competition among states and jurisdictions has already been examined many times in the economic literature. However, the main scope of the research was focused on a tax rates competition in income taxes and its consequences in bringing direct investments. This scripture/commentary tries to analyze various instruments and beneficiaries of the tax system competition and provide a general overview on this subject.

  7. Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Heide, van der C.M.

    2013-01-01

    to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about

  8. The impact of economic regulation on attempts to curb expense preference behavior: a micro-data analysis of CEO compensation schemes for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixon, F.G.; Upadhyaya, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study uses a large, micro data set to present evidence which suggests that owners of regulated electric utilities have little incentive to structure CEO compensation packages in an effort to curb potential expense preference behavior. Because such potential behavior occurs, or would occur, at no cost to the firm (or the firm's owners), little incentive exists to structure compensation schemes in a way that would curb such behavior (e.g. by compensating them with incentive bonus plans and stock options). The results presented here augment those which examine other industries (e.g. banking) in an effort to point out the relationships between ownership organization, political involvement and expense preference behavior. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... quantitative implications for the field of long-run economic growth. We also use our framework to examine related empirical techniques. We find that two prominent regression methodologies - using gravity-based instruments for trade and including ancestry-adjusted variables in linear regression models - have...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...

  10. Coordinated regulation of nitrogen supply mode and initial cell density for energy storage compounds production with economized nitrogen utilization in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Lei; Yao, Changhong; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Lipids and carbohydrates are main energy storage compounds (ESC) of microalgae under stressed conditions and they are potential feedstock for biofuel production. Yet, the sustainable and commercially successful production of ESC in microalgae needs to consider nitrogen utilization efficiency. Here the impact of different initial cell densities (ICDs) on ESC accumulation in Isochrysis zhangjiangensis under two nitrogen supply modes (an initially equal concentration of nitrogen per-cell in the medium (N1) and an equal total concentration of nitrogen in the culture system (N2)) were investigated. The results demonstrated that the highest ESC yield (1.36gL(-1)) at N1, which included a maximal nitrogen supply in the cultivation system, and the highest ESC content (66.5%) and ESC productivity per mass of nitrogen (3.28gg(-1) (N) day(-1)) at N2, were all obtained under a high ICD of 8.0×10(6)cellsmL(-1). Therefore I. zhangjiangensis qualifies for ESC-enriched biomass production with economized nitrogen utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate policy instruments and industry-effects and potential responses in the Swedish context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Efficient policy instruments for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases are essential for the realisation of a successful climate policy. General economic policy instruments have the potential for providing efficient emission reduction as they equalise marginal costs for emission reduction between different actors. They also provide incentives for a great variety of responses such as energy efficiency improvements, fuel substitution and reduced consumption of carbon intensive products. However, as a result of the fact that it has so far been impossible to implement policy instruments on a global scale, these instruments are often adapted in such a way that some of their potential advantages are eliminated. In this paper the possibility of different policy instruments to contribute to reductions in industrial CO 2 emissions, while preserving the competitiveness of industry, is evaluated theoretically. The consequences of increasing the cost of CO 2 emission in various industrial sectors are also discussed. Attention is directed towards carbon taxes, emission trading (ET), and regulation. CO 2 taxes without tax reductions and ET with allocation through auctioning have theoretical advantages in a global climate regime but may lead to significant disadvantages if implemented in a single or a small groups of countries. ET with free intensity-based allocation would in this case have a major advantage in combining incentives for emission reductions through efficiency improvements and fuel substitution, with little impact on production levels

  12. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1996-01-01

    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  13. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  14. The role of government spending on economic growth in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Oladele

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether government expenditure helps or hinders economic growth is still debatable. This study examines the contribution of government spending towards economic growth in South Africa using annual data from 1980 – 2014. The cointegration approach and Vector Error Correction Model were used to analyse the data. The cointegration test results indicate that there is long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in South Africa. The VECM outcome indicates a positive and significant link between economic growth and expenditure on the long run. There is a positive and significant relationship between exchange rate and economic growth and a significant and negative relationship between economic growth and private consumption. Based on these findings, the correlation between government expenditure and economic growth showed that there is positive relationship on the long run in South Africa, while there is a negative and significant relationship between government spending and economic growth on the short run. More spending should therefore be directed towards important sectors such as infrastructural development and industrial development in order to accelerate economic growth. There is also a need for fiscal policy to be used as an instrument to regulate the amount of money in the economy.

  15. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization – adolescent usage and impaired driving – and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization – specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use – that have to date not received adequate attention.

  16. “Europa 2020”, nuovo governo economico e ri-regolamentazione finanziaria:incentivi o vincoli alla crescita?(“Europe 2010”, a new economic governance and financial re-regulation: incentives or constraints to growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the launch of a new strategy for growth in Europe (the Europe 2020 strategy and the ongoing efforts to design a new international financial architecture, prospects for an economic recovery of Europe remain dim. Public deficits and debts will have to be reduced at a faster pace, with contractionary effects unless a strong recovery of private expenditure will materialize. Financial re-regulation is projected to further depress the economy by imposing higher capital ratios, lower leverage, a late (though welcome discipline of liquidity. The compound effect of the two policy trends pose a serious threat on the social sustainability of the European social market economy.   JEL: H6, F3, O52

  17. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  18. Determinants of The Application of Macro Prudential Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Firano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of macro prudential instruments today gives rise to a major debate within the walls of central banks and other authorities in charge of financial stability. Contrary to micro prudential instruments, whose effects remain limited, macro prudential instruments are different in nature and can affect the stability of the financial system. By influencing the financial cycle and the financial structure of financial institutions, the use of such instruments should be conducted with great vigilance as well as macroeconomic and financial expertise. But the experiences of central banks in this area are sketchy, and only some emerging countries have experience using these types of instruments in different ways. This paper presents an analysis of instruments of macro prudential policy and attempts to empirically demonstrate that these instruments should be used only in specific economic and financial situations. Indeed, the results obtained, using modeling bivariate panel, confirm that these instruments are more effective when used to mitigate the euphoria of financial and economic cycles. In this sense, the output gap, describing the economic cycle, and the Z-score are the intermediate variables for the activation of capital instruments. Moreover, the liquidity ratio and changes in bank profitability are the two early warning indicators for activation of liquidity instruments.

  19. Using disease management and market reforms to address the adverse economic effects of drug budgets and price and reimbursement regulations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwermann, Tim; Greiner, Wolfgang; v d Schulenburg, J M Graf

    2003-01-01

    Germany spends the highest share (10.4%) of its gross domestic product on health care among European Union countries. The majority of this financing comes from an earmarked tax on labor earnings. Drug spending, as a share (12.7%), is relatively low, as is per-capita drug spending. Over the past decade, a number of specific budgeting initiatives were introduced to control drug spending-with some success, at least until the 11% increase in the first 6 months of 2001. This article describes and analyzes these governmental initiatives as well as other market reforms. Germany has had a "drug budget silo mentality" throughout this period. But the focus of the mentality moved rapidly from the central budget to regional budgets and to drug budgets per physician based on historical data. These amounts do not correspond to either medical necessity or economic considerations. An analysis of the health-care system as a whole shows that the efforts to constrain spending with budget in one area can lead to higher total costs. This article also considers the impact of introducing other actual or proposed reforms such as a positive list to replace the negative list, generic substitution, retail price competition among pharmacies, and E-health commerce. There is also a new national institute constructing a database of information on health technology assessments. To overcome the strong segmentation of the health system in physician, drug, and hospital budgets, we recommend using this information from proper cost-effectiveness evaluations to develop clear guidelines for disease management programs, reinforced by appropriate financial incentives.

  20. New technology in nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The primary topic of this book is what can be done to improve nuclear power plant operation safety and the economic benefits that can be gained with the utilization of advance instrumentation and control technology. Other topics discussed are the industry's reluctance to accept new designs determining cost effective improvements, and difficulties in meeting regulatory standards with new technology control. The subjects will be useful when considering the area of instrumentation and control for enhancing plant operation and safety. Contents: Advanced Instrumention, Plant Control and Monitoring, Plant Diagnostics and Failure Detection, Human Factors Considerations in Instrumentation and Control, NRC and Industry Perspective on Advanced Instrumentation and Control

  1. An economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Share buy-backs evolved into a significant instrument of companies’ financial cash management. Compared to dividend distributions the taxation of domestic share buy-backs is considered to be favourable. The taxation of a cross-border share buy-back is subject to the regulations as applied by the tax regimes of the shareholder as well as of the repurchasing company. The ambiguous character of own shares leading to inconsistent legal treatment, the prevailing corporate tax system, the distincti...

  2. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  3. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  4. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  5. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  6. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  7. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  8. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  9. A quantitative model of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yulong; Fu, Shijun [Economy and Business Administration School of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper explores quantification of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. Based on social welfare economics, we articulately depict RPF's qualitative concept and its economic meaning. Then, applying abstract functions (i.e., abstract social welfare function, abstract utility function, and abstract production function), we deduce the partial-social-welfare elasticity, and build the mathematics model of maximizing social welfare. We nest this elasticity into the model's Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and obtain RPF's definition formula. By solving the Kuhn-Tucker conditions, we get RPF's quantitative formula, which solves the problem of hard to quantify regulator's preference in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. The result shows that RPF only has relationship to subsystems' production function, and is independent of social welfare function and subsystems' utility function. Finally, we provide an empirical research based on the western region of China from year 1995 to 2004. It reveals that regulator has relative stability preference to mitigating pollutants. And validity test confirms that the empirical result is fit well to the practice. The RPF is truly a more general and valid instrument to measure regulator's preference in its regulated field. (author)

  10. Decoupling of economic structures and transport. Example regional business development; Entkopplung von Wirtschaftswachstum und Verkehr. Beispiel Regionale Wirtschaftsfoerderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschow, Ulrich; Buchholz, Frank; Schaegner, Jan-Philipp; Sprenger, Rolf Ulrich [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The research project under consideration reports on three themes: (a) Contribution to more transparency in the discussion about the interactions between economic growth and transport development; (b) Development of approaches and design principles as a part of laws, regulations and frameworks for the decoupling of the two parameters; (c) Preparation of proposals for their political and administrative implementation. Selected instruments of regional development and economic development at the European, national and regional level were the main subject of research. The research focused on the strategic guidelines of the European Union. Furthermore, the research deals with the implementation of operational programs as instruments of the European Structural Funds and examines the development of the joint task 'Improvement of the regional economic structure'.

  11. Decoupling of economic structures and transport. Example regional business development; Entkopplung von Wirtschaftswachstum und Verkehr. Beispiel Regionale Wirtschaftsfoerderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschow, Ulrich; Buchholz, Frank; Schaegner, Jan-Philipp; Sprenger, Rolf Ulrich [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The research project under consideration reports on three themes: (a) Contribution to more transparency in the discussion about the interactions between economic growth and transport development; (b) Development of approaches and design principles as a part of laws, regulations and frameworks for the decoupling of the two parameters; (c) Preparation of proposals for their political and administrative implementation. Selected instruments of regional development and economic development at the European, national and regional level were the main subject of research. The research focused on the strategic guidelines of the European Union. Furthermore, the research deals with the implementation of operational programs as instruments of the European Structural Funds and examines the development of the joint task 'Improvement of the regional economic structure'.

  12. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  13. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  14. Are developing countries ready for first world waste policy instruments?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available behavior Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium 2.2 Economic instruments In contrast with command-and-control approaches, which mandate specific behaviours, economic instruments (EIs) (such as taxes, subsidies..., and marketable permits) aim to change behaviour indirectly by changing the prices (and hence incentives) that individuals and businesses face. For example, taxes per unit of waste collected or disposed of, create incentives to reduce waste generation...

  15. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  16. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  17. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  18. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  19. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  20. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    . The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  1. Doctrines and Contemporary Economic Theories in the Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states. Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.

  2. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  3. Lithuanian Cluster of Sea EconomicsInstrument of Sustainable Regional Development Lietuvos jūrų ūkio klasteris – darnios regiono plėtros instrumentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Grublienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses problems of cluster’s formation in Lithuania. The reasons why clusters in Lithuania are evolving slowly are described in this article. Also cluster’s development process in a logical sequence is submitted. The article accented that the Lithuanian cluster’s policy principles should assess the specific Lithuanian conditions, the positive foreign experience and strategic objectives of competitiveness.Lithuanian status of fisheries sector is estimated. Also the main problems in this sector are named: complexity of management, decreasing of fishing quota, shorter season of cod fishing, economic problems. The article made assumptions that the clustering process should ensure more sustainable development of the sector, a new operational quality creating the ability to compete at lower prices and innovation. Also it was emphasized that clustering processes should assess such factors as: sector’s culture, competitive opportunities and sustainable development of the region.During formation of this cluster it is recommended to assess the fisheries sector as the component of Lithuanian maritime economy. Lithuanian maritime cluster should be developed allowing for common features inherent in clusters, assessing sustainable development principles of the sector. In this way Lithuanian maritime cluster combines not only the fisheries sector but also the activities characterized by Lithuanian maritime economy.

    Keywords: cluster, sea economics, regional development, fisheries sector.

    "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  4. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  5. Instruments of the Money Market. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy Q., Ed.

    This booklet is a compilation of articles on money market instruments which were published in the "Monthly Review" of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond from 1964-1967. They have been revised to include recent changes in the various markets, as well as to reflect currently applicable laws and regulations. The articles are titled: The Money…

  6. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  7. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  8. A Symphony of Redistributive Instruments Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. Zoutman (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the most important trends in developed countries is the rise of economic inequality. In the US the top 1 percent currently earns a little more than 22 percent of all income.1 In the period 1993-2012 real income of the top income earners has increased by 86

  9. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  10. Development of smart nuclear instrumentation for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaganty, S.P.; Das, D.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Das, A.; Sreedharan, Preetha; Kataria, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Variety of nuclear instruments are required for different applications in reactors such as reactor start-up, reactor protection and regulating system, area monitoring, failed fuel detection, stack monitoring etc. Attempts are made to develop a standardized microcomputer based hardware for configuring different types of instruments. PC architecture is chosen due to easy availability of components/boards and software. These instruments have dual redundant Network Interface Cards for connecting to a Primary Radiation Data LAN which in turn can be connected to Plant Information Bus through Gateways. These SMART instruments can be tested/calibrated through specific commands from remote computers connected over the LAN. This paper describes the various issues involved and the design details. (author)

  11. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  12. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  13. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  14. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  15. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  16. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  17. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  18. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  19. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  1. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  2. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  3. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  4. Comparing surgical trays with redundant instruments with trays with reduced instruments: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, A; Sowerby, L J; Chin, C J; Martin, J; Rotenberg, B W

    2016-01-01

    When prearranged standard surgical trays contain instruments that are repeatedly unused, the redundancy can result in unnecessary health care costs. Our objective was to estimate potential savings by performing an economic evaluation comparing the cost of surgical trays with redundant instruments with surgical trays with reduced instruments ("reduced trays"). We performed a cost-analysis from the hospital perspective over a 1-year period. Using a mathematical model, we compared the direct costs of trays containing redundant instruments to reduced trays for 5 otolaryngology procedures. We incorporated data from several sources including local hospital data on surgical volume, the number of instruments on redundant and reduced trays, wages of personnel and time required to pack instruments. From the literature, we incorporated instrument depreciation costs and the time required to decontaminate an instrument. We performed 1-way sensitivity analyses on all variables, including surgical volume. Costs were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars. The cost of redundant trays was $21 806 and the cost of reduced trays was $8803, for a 1-year cost saving of $13 003. In sensitivity analyses, cost savings ranged from $3262 to $21 395, based on the surgical volume at the institution. Variation in surgical volume resulted in a wider range of estimates, with a minimum of $3253 for low-volume to a maximum of $52 012 for high-volume institutions. Our study suggests moderate savings may be achieved by reducing surgical tray redundancy and, if applied to other surgical specialties, may result in savings to Canadian health care systems.

  5. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  6. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  7. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  8. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  9. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  10. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  11. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  12. Developing and testing a positive theory of instrument choice: Renewable energy policy in the fifty American states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocirlan, Cristina E.

    The environmental economics literature consistently suggests that properly designed and implemented economic incentives are superior to command-and-control regulation in reducing pollution. Economic incentives, such as green taxes, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives, are able to reduce pollution in a cost-effective manner, provide flexibility to industry and stimulate innovation in cleaner technologies. In the past few decades, both federal and state governments have shown increased use of economic incentives in environmental policy. Some states have embraced them in an active manner, while others have failed to do so. This research uses a three-step analysis. First, it asks why some states employ more economic incentives than others to stimulate consumption of renewable energy by the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Second, it asks why some states employ stronger incentives than others. And third, it asks why certain states employ certain instruments, such as electricity surcharges, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives or grants, while others do not. The first two analyses were conducted using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, while the third analysis employed logistic regression models to analyze the data. Data for all three analyses were obtained from a combination of primary and secondary sources. To address these questions, a theory of instrument choice at the state level, which includes both internal and external determinants of policy-making, was developed and tested. The state level of analysis was chosen. States have proven to be pioneers in designing policies to address greenhouse gases (see, for instance, the recent cap-and-trade legislation passed in California). The theory was operationalized with the help of four models: needs/responsiveness, interest group influence, professionalism/capacity and innovation-and-diffusion. The needs/responsiveness model suggests that states tend to choose more and stronger economic

  13. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  14. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  15. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  16. Reaching Outside the Comfort Zone: Realising the FCTC's Potential for Public Health Governance and Regulation in the European Union Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteletti, Florence

    2017-09-13

    In their paper, Nikogosian and Kickbusch show how the effects of the adoption by the World Health Organization (WHO) of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and its first Protocol extend beyond tobacco control and contribute to public health governance more broadly, by revealing new processes, institutions and instruments. While there are certainly good reasons to be optimistic about the impact of these instruments in the public health sphere, the experience of the FCTC's implementation in the context of the European Union (EU) shows that further efforts are still necessary for its full potential to be realised. Indeed, one of the main hurdles to the FCTC's success so far has been the difficulty in developing and maintaining comprehensive multisectoral measures and involving sectors beyond the sphere of public health. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  18. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  19. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  20. Voodoo Economics:Voodoo Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Alonso, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...

  1. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  2. Analysis of cryptocurrencies as standard financial instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes cryptocurrencies as financial instruments. Firstly, we introduced the main features of cryptocurrencies and summarized the brief history. We found out that price of the most famous cryptocurrency Bitcoin follows the hypothesis of efficient markets and it immediately react on publicly announce information. Furthermore, Bitcoin can be seen as standard economic good that is priced by interaction of supply and demand on the market. These factors can be driven by macro financia...

  3. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  4. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada Comment on "Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization - adolescent usage and impaired driving - and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization - specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use - that have to date not received adequate attention. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued......The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...... that raising awareness about the political character of impact assessment instruments, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within...

  6. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  7. Policy instruments for energy conservation and environmental policy in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovenberg, A.L. [Tinbergen Inst., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1992-03-01

    In this paper it is assumed that the policy objective is not so much to economize on energy as to reduce pollution. In particular, to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide. A number of environmental policy instruments pertaining to fossil fuels are analyzed, mainly in the context of the Dutch economy: regulation, subsidies, voluntary agreements with industry, and taxation. At the moment, most industrial countries, including the Netherlands, rely almost entirely on the first three instruments. More recently, however, there has been a growing interest in environmental taxation. The theory that taxation is always and everywhere the best instrument assumes, however, perfect markets and a closed economy. Most economies, including the Dutch one, are riddled with market imperfections. Hence, policy makers confront a second best case. This implies that in selecting policy instruments, they have to resort to a more pragmatic `case-by-case` approach. A diversified diet is advocated. Taxation is part of that diet. Section 2 explores a number of important advantages of the tax instrument. Section 3 discusses a number of problems if a small open economy like the Netherlands would unilaterally adopt such a tax, especially if that tax would include energy-intensive firms that are subject to international competition. In this connection, some alternative policy instruments are analyzed in Section 4. Section 5 proceeds by investigating the case of international coordination and explores the conditions under which coordinated taxes could be successful. Section 6 analyzes policies targeted at households and at firms that are not subject to international competition. 13 refs.

  8. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    questions divided into several categories; the adoption and planned adoption of energy saving measures, energy audits, the EPC, building regulations, the energy tax, financial incentives, information tools and socio-economic and dwelling characteristics. Data on motivations for energy use and perceived influences of instruments was also gathered. The questionnaire was used to meet several objectives. To survey the overall effectiveness of the national instruments available to owner occupiers at that time, to compare owner-occupiers who received an EPC to those who did not along several parameters and to compare owner-occupiers who received an energy audit to those who did not along several parameters. Required sample sizes were calculated on the basis of assumptions and several critical components of the questionnaire that required a set response rate to allow statistical comparison (See Appendix 2. Approximately, 30,000 households from the national EPC/energy audit database were sent a link to the questionnaire. The comparison group was created by sending approximately 16,000 members of the Home Owners Association a link to the questionnaire. Following a reminder, a response rate of 17% was received for the EPC/energy audit database and 10% for the Association of Home Owners database. Both descriptive and statistical analysis was conducted on response data. Descriptive analysis focused on whether householders reported an association between the adoption of energy saving measures and instrument use. Pearson’s chi square tests were used to identify whether an association between adopting measures and instruments could be statistically proven. The final research component consisted of a comparative study of several front-runner countries to gather knowledge and examine the instruments associated with success in meeting climate change targets for existing dwellings. Literature from comparative public policy was used to structure this research component. Denmark, Germany

  9. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Indra Juarsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Corporation/MNC has a significant role to play in promoting sustainable development and alleviating global poverty. As a subject of International Economic Law, MNC has the rights to take profit from its business activities. In addition, it also has responsibility to protect sustainable environment through CSR program. This paper focuses on what more specific instrument sets CSR in international economic law, and how CSR can be implemented by the MNC. International (public law has been providing instruments to regulate MNC activities related to CSR, those are: OECD Guidelines, ILO Declaration and UN Global Compact. However, they are only “soft laws” that still require more specific instrument to be implemented. As a continuation of the general rules of public international CSR Instruments, the World Bank Group through the IFC and MIGA sets standard performances that must be met by every corporation that will get finance (IFC or guarantee (MIGA. Standard Performances are described further in the environmental, health and safety guidelines that are essential for every company to provide protection to stakeholders related to business activities including workers, communities, and environment. As the method of evaluation and enforcement, IFC and MIGA have institution namely Compliance Advisor Ombudsman serving to receive reports from the public, investigate and provide notification to the company activities that negatively affect the society. Ultimately CSR is not only seen as philanthropy (mandatory but also as guidelines and a code of conduct to be followed by the corporation in carrying out any business.   Key words: mandatory norm, obligatory norm, CSR

  10. How do political and economic institutions affect each other?

    OpenAIRE

    Braunfels, Elias

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for the mutually reinforcing relation of political and economic institutions. To overcome problems of endogeneity I utilize lag instruments within a GMM framework for dynamic panel data. Employing recently developed tests, I show that limiting the number of lag instruments and collapsing the instru- ment matrix eliminates many and weak instrument biases. My major findings are that (i) improving economic institutions has a large positive effec...

  11. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  12. FISCAL POLICY - AN INSTRUMENT FOR ACHIEVING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana HOLT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal policy construction developped at national level is focused on the maintenance of the macroeconomic stability process in order to achieve the nominal and real convergence criteria concerning the membership of the Romanian economy to the European Union integrated monetary space. The orientation of the fiscal national policy is subdue to some major constraints regarding her capacity of ensuring the external sustenance, of developping the non-inflation process, of forming and consolidating the financing resources necessary to the accomplishment of the post-adhesion engagements assumed by Romania as a member state of the European Union.

  13. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  14. Economic fables

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Shane

    2010-01-01

    I had the good fortune to grow up in a wonderful area of Jerusalem, surrounded by a diverse range of people: Rabbi Meizel, the communist Sala Marcel, my widowed Aunt Hannah, and the intellectual Yaacovson. As far as I'm concerned, the opinion of such people is just as authoritative for making social and economic decisions as the opinion of an expert using a model. Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world's foremost economists looks at ...

  15. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  16. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  17. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  18. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  19. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)

  20. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...