WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulations aircraft applied

  1. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  2. Aircraft LTO emissions regulations and implementations at European airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunos, Siti Nur Mariani Mohd; Ghafir, Mohammad Fahmi Abdul; Wahab, Abas Ab

    2017-04-01

    Aviation affects the environment via the emission of pollutants from aircraft, impacting human health and ecosystem. Impacts of aircraft operations at lower ground towards local air quality have been recognized. Consequently, various standards and regulations have been introduced to address the related emissions. This paper discussed both environmental regulations by focusing more on the implementations of LTO emissions charges, an incentive-based regulation introduced in Europe as an effort to fill the gap in addressing the environmental issues related to aviation.

  3. Optimal control approaches for aircraft conflict avoidance using speed regulation : a numerical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cellier , Loïc; Cafieri , Sonia; Messine , Frederic

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper a numerical study is provided to solve the aircraft conflict avoidance problem through velocity regulation maneuvers. Starting from optimal controlbased model and approaches in which aircraft accelerations are the controls, and by applying the direct shooting technique, we propose to study two different largescale nonlinear optimization problems. In order to compare different possibilities of implementation, two environments (AMPL and MATLAB) and determin...

  4. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  5. Applying reliability analysis to design electric power systems for More-electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baozhu

    The More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) is a type of aircraft that replaces conventional hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrically powered components. These changes have significantly challenged the aircraft electric power system design. This thesis investigates how reliability analysis can be applied to automatically generate system topologies for the MEA electric power system. We first use a traditional method of reliability block diagrams to analyze the reliability level on different system topologies. We next propose a new methodology in which system topologies, constrained by a set reliability level, are automatically generated. The path-set method is used for analysis. Finally, we interface these sets of system topologies with control synthesis tools to automatically create correct-by-construction control logic for the electric power system.

  6. 42 CFR 55a.107 - What other regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR BLACK LUNG CLINICS General Provisions § 55a.107 What other regulations apply? Other regulations which apply to the Black Lung Clinics Program include, but are not limited to, the following: 42 CFR...

  7. 34 CFR 656.6 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.6 What regulations apply? The following regulations apply... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply? 656.6 Section 656.6 Education...

  8. 34 CFR 660.3 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply? 660.3 Section 660.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM General § 660.3 What regulations apply...

  9. 34 CFR 350.4 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (IRB) reviews research that purposefully requires inclusion of children with disabilities or... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM General § 350.4 What regulations apply? The following regulations apply to the Disability and...

  10. An overview of practice and regulations concerning aircraft noise protection in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Bojana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of studies and regulation concerning the issue of aircraft noise protection in Republic of Serbia. After crossing the limit of 50.000 operations in 2014, Airport 'Nikola Tesla' is classified as major airport, and with that urged to fulfill various requirements related to nose protection. Major airports are obliged to monitor noise, as well as to prepare strategic noise maps and action plans aiming to decrease number of people exposed to aircraft noise above acceptable level.

  11. 42 CFR 64.9 - Other HHS regulations that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.9 Other HHS regulations that apply. Several...) and requirements for drug-free workplace (grants). 45 CFR part 80—Nondiscrimination under programs...

  12. 34 CFR 658.3 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply? 658.3 Section 658.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.3 What...

  13. 34 CFR 461.4 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply? 461.4 Section 461.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.4 What...

  14. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  15. 34 CFR 400.3 - What other regulations apply to the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applied Technology Education Programs? 400.3 Section 400.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 400.3 What other regulations apply to the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs? The following regulations apply to the...

  16. Applying Required Navigation Performance Concept for Traffic Management of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; D'Souza, Sarah N.; Johnson, Marcus A.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Modi, Hemil C.; Nikaido, Ben; Hasseeb, Hashmatullah

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of a rapid increase in the number of civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) operations, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that will investigate airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. One aspect a UTM system must consider is the correlation between UAS operations (such as vehicles, operation areas and durations), UAS performance requirements, and the risk to people and property in the operational area. This paper investigates the potential application of the International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept to relate operational risk with trajectory conformance requirements. The approach is to first define a method to quantify operational risk and then define the RNP level requirement as a function of the operational risk. Greater operational risk corresponds to more accurate RNP level, or smaller tolerable Total System Error (TSE). Data from 19 small UAS flights are used to develop and validate a formula that defines this relationship. An approach to assessing UAS-RNP conformance capability using vehicle modeling and wind field simulation is developed to investigate how this formula may be applied in a future UTM system. The results indicate the modeled vehicles flight path is robust to the simulated wind variation, and it can meet RNP level requirements calculated by the formula. The results also indicate how vehicle-modeling fidelity may be improved to adequately verify assessed RNP level.

  17. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David Peter

    2008-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessment...

  18. Structural Load Alleviation Applied to Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Environmental impact of aviation is being addressed by novel aircraft configurations and materials that reduce aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. NASA is developing tools to address the challenges of increased airframe flexibility created by wings constructed with reduced structural material and novel light-weight materials. This talk will present a framework and demonstration of a flight control system using optimal control allocation with structural load feedback and constraints to achieve safe aircraft operation. As wind turbines age, they become susceptible to many forms of blade degradation. Results will be presented on work in progress that uses adaptive contingency control for load mitigation in a wind turbine simulation with blade damage progression modeled.

  19. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments ...

  20. Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotheraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Andre, L.; Georg, D.; Hodapp, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and purpose: Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Results: Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Conclusion: Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course. (orig.)

  1. [Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, F; Baus, W; Vorwerk, H; Schlömp, B; André, L; Georg, D; Hodapp, N

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course.

  2. Decomposition with thermoeconomic isolation applied to the optimal synthesis/design and operation of an advanced tactical aircraft system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancruel, Diego F.; Spakovsky, Michael R. von

    2006-01-01

    A decomposition methodology based on the concept of 'thermoeconomic isolation' and applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of an advanced tactical fighter aircraft is the focus of this paper. The total system is composed of six sub-systems of which five participate with degrees of freedom (493) in the optimization. They are the propulsion sub-system (PS), the environmental control sub-system (ECS), the fuel loop subsystem (FLS), the vapor compression and Polyalphaolefin (PAO) loops sub-system (VC/PAOS), and the airframe sub-system (AFS). The sixth subsystem comprises the expendable and permanent payloads as well as the equipment group. For each of the first five, detailed thermodynamic, geometric, physical, and aerodynamic models at both design and off-design were formulated and implemented. The most promising set of aircraft sub-system and system configurations were then determined based on both an energy integration and aerodynamic performance analysis at each stage of the mission (including the transient ones). Conceptual, time, and physical decomposition were subsequently applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of these aircraft configurations as well as to the highly dynamic process of heat generation and dissipation internal to the subsystems. The physical decomposition strategy used (i.e. Iterative Local-Global Optimization-ILGO) is the first to successfully closely approach the theoretical condition of 'thermoeconomic isolation' when applied to highly complex, highly dynamic non-linear systems. Developed at our Center for Energy Systems research, it has been effectively applied to a number of complex stationary and transportation applications

  3. Decomposition with thermoeconomic isolation applied to the optimal synthesis/design and operation of an advanced tactical aircraft system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancruel, Diego F. [Center for Energy Systems Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Spakovsky, Michael R. von [Center for Energy Systems Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)]. E-mail: vonspako@vt.edu

    2006-12-15

    A decomposition methodology based on the concept of 'thermoeconomic isolation' and applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of an advanced tactical fighter aircraft is the focus of this paper. The total system is composed of six sub-systems of which five participate with degrees of freedom (493) in the optimization. They are the propulsion sub-system (PS), the environmental control sub-system (ECS), the fuel loop subsystem (FLS), the vapor compression and Polyalphaolefin (PAO) loops sub-system (VC/PAOS), and the airframe sub-system (AFS). The sixth subsystem comprises the expendable and permanent payloads as well as the equipment group. For each of the first five, detailed thermodynamic, geometric, physical, and aerodynamic models at both design and off-design were formulated and implemented. The most promising set of aircraft sub-system and system configurations were then determined based on both an energy integration and aerodynamic performance analysis at each stage of the mission (including the transient ones). Conceptual, time, and physical decomposition were subsequently applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of these aircraft configurations as well as to the highly dynamic process of heat generation and dissipation internal to the subsystems. The physical decomposition strategy used (i.e. Iterative Local-Global Optimization-ILGO) is the first to successfully closely approach the theoretical condition of 'thermoeconomic isolation' when applied to highly complex, highly dynamic non-linear systems. Developed at our Center for Energy Systems research, it has been effectively applied to a number of complex stationary and transportation applications.

  4. Framework for applying probabilistic safety analysis in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    The traditional regulatory framework has served well to assure the protection of public health and safety. It has been recognized, however, that in a few circumstances, this deterministic framework has lead to an extensive expenditure on matters hat have little to do with the safe and reliable operation of the plant. Developments of plant-specific PSA have offered a new and powerful analytical tool in the evaluation of the safety of the plant. Using PSA insights as an aid to decision making in the regulatory process is now known as 'risk-based' or 'risk-informed' regulation. Numerous activities in the U.S. nuclear industry are focusing on applying this new approach to modify regulatory requirements. In addition, other approaches to regulations are in the developmental phase and are being evaluated. One is based on the performance monitoring and results and it is known as performance-based regulation. The other, called the blended approach, combines traditional deterministic principles with PSA insights and performance results. (author)

  5. Applying Best Practices to Military Commercial-Derivative Aircraft Engine Sustainment: Assessment of Using Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) Parts and Designated Engineering Representative (DER) Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    savings through greater use of non-OEM alternate parts and services 5 According to Broderick (2013), the FAA developed regulations governing PMA parts...when operators of surplus military aircraft wanted to keep them operat- ing safely and the OEMs were no longer making new parts ( Broderick , 2013...of the world’s aircraft and engines will be leased by the year 2020 (Sean Broderick , 2014). Categorization of Risks of Greater Use of PMA Parts and

  6. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATED HIGH TEMPERATURE MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT MULTIMODE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  7. Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming for Aircraft Conflict Avoidance by Sequentially Applying Velocity and Heading Angle Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Cafieri , Sonia; Omheni , Riadh

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider the problem of aircraft conflict avoidance in Air Traffic Management systems. Given an initial configuration of a number of aircraft sharing the same airspace, the main goal of conflict avoidance is to guarantee that a minimum safety distance between each pair of aircraft is always respected during their flights. We consider aircraft separation achieved by heading angle deviations, and propose a mixed 0-1 nonlinear optimization model, that is then combined ...

  8. 77 FR 58103 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... is determined that an upward adjustment is not required at this time. The historical estimates remain...; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning corporate aircraft costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 20012...

  9. New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control using Differential Evolution Algorithms applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 2. Validation on Aircraft Research Flight Level D Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina BOUGHARI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Cessna Citation X clearance criteria were evaluated for a new Flight Controller. The Flight Control Law were optimized and designed for the Cessna Citation X flight envelope by combining the Deferential Evolution algorithm, the Linear Quadratic Regulator method, and the Proportional Integral controller during a previous research presented in part 1. The optimal controllers were used to reach satisfactory aircraft’s dynamic and safe flight operations with respect to the augmentation systems’ handling qualities, and design requirements. Furthermore the number of controllers used to control the aircraft in its flight envelope was optimized using the Linear Fractional Representations features. To validate the controller over the whole aircraft flight envelope, the linear stability, eigenvalue, and handling qualities criteria in addition of the nonlinear analysis criteria were investigated during this research to assess the business aircraft for flight control clearance and certification. The optimized gains provide a very good stability margins as the eigenvalue analysis shows that the aircraft has a high stability, and a very good flying qualities of the linear aircraft models are ensured in its entire flight envelope, its robustness is demonstrated with respect to uncertainties due to its mass and center of gravity variations.

  10. 34 CFR 425.4 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS FOR THE INTEGRATION OF VOCATIONAL AND ACADEMIC LEARNING... Projects for the Integration of Vocational and Academic Learning Program: (a) The regulations in this part...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance...

  12. 34 CFR 280.3 - What regulations apply to this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MAGNET SCHOOLS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 280.3 What regulations apply to this program? The following regulations apply to the Magnet Schools Assistance Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR), 34 CFR parts 75 (Direct...

  13. Gust factor based on research aircraft measurements: A new methodology applied to the Arctic marine boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, Irene; Lüpkes, Christof; Hartmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    There is as yet no standard methodology for measuring wind gusts from a moving platform. To address this, we have developed a method to derive gusts from research aircraft data. First we evaluated four different approaches, including Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence, to derive the gust...... in unstable conditions (R2=0.52). The mean errors for all methods were low, from -0.02 to 0.05, indicating that wind gust factors can indeed be measured from research aircraft. Moreover, we showed that aircraft can provide gust measurements within the whole boundary layer, if horizontal legs are flown...

  14. New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control Using Differential Evolution Algorithms Applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 1. Design and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yamina BOUGHARI; Georges GHAZI; Ruxandra Mihaela BOTEZ; Florian THEEL

    2017-01-01

    Setting the appropriate controllers for aircraft stability and control augmentation systems are complicated and time consuming tasks. As in the Linear Quadratic Regulator method gains are found by selecting the appropriate weights or as in the Proportional Integrator Derivative control by tuning gains. A trial and error process is usually employed for the determination of weighting matrices, which is normally a time consuming procedure. Flight Control Law were optimized and designed by combin...

  15. 25 CFR 900.216 - What other statutes and regulations apply to contract disputes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.216 What other statutes and regulations apply to... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other statutes and regulations apply to contract...

  16. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.13 Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. (a...

  17. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  18. Considerations on radiation protection of aircraft crew in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discuss the guidelines existing in the ICRP documents related to radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew and it is presented a brief report on the evolution of these studies in this field, and also the regulations already adopted by the integrating of the European Union, Canada and USA. Also, are presented some peculiarities of Brazilian air space and the legislation applied to work with ionizing radiation, discussing the general aspects of radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew in Brazil

  19. 34 CFR 614.3 - What regulations apply to this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO USE TECHNOLOGY § 614.3 What... Technology: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply to this program? 614.3 Section...

  20. Agriculture: Laws and Regulations that Apply to Your Agricultural Operation by Farm Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general description of EPA’s requirements applicable to agriculture, and should only be used as a guide. Since rules and regulations may change use this information is a starting place to determine which regulations apply to your agricultural operation.

  1. 7 CFR 4285.93 - Other Federal statutes and regulations that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—National Agricultural, Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1981 if the project involves a college or university; (e) 7 CFR Part 3015—USDA Uniform Federal Assistance Regulations... Federal-State Research on Cooperatives Program § 4285.93 Other Federal statutes and regulations that apply...

  2. 25 CFR 900.50 - What Federal laws, regulations, and Executive Orders apply to subcontractors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management..., regulations, and Executive Orders apply to subcontracts awarded under self-determination contracts. As a... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What Federal laws, regulations, and Executive Orders...

  3. 45 CFR 660.2 - What definitions apply to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to these regulations? 660.2 Section 660.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.2 What...

  4. Analysis of Premature Wear-Out of Aircraft Gun Barrel by Applying a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łęczycki Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Firing from gun armament generates a wide range of physico-chemical phenomena contributing to the degradation of barrel material, e.g. pressure, high temperature, chemically aggressive character of post-detonation gases and friction of a driving band. In this work the technique of thin foils was used in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM to study the influence of physicochemical phenomena on the material microstructure of aircraft gun barrel. A mechanism and reason of premature wear-out of the barrel under consideration was also outlined by utilising light microscopy and hardness measurements.

  5. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, D A; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Savage, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  6. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in...

  7. Emotion processing and regulation in women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Middendorp, H. van; Devaere, L.; Larsen, J.K.; van Ramshorst, B.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional eating, the tendency to eat when experiencing negative affect, is prevalent in morbid obesity and may indicate that ways to deal with emotions are disturbed. Our aim was to compare emotion processing and regulation between 102 women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery and

  8. 15 CFR 20.2 - Programs or activities to which these regulations apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programs or activities to which these regulations apply. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides benefits or assistance to...

  9. 25 CFR 900.182 - What other statutes and regulations apply to FTCA coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other statutes and regulations apply to FTCA... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions § 900.182 What other statutes...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.271 - What other statutes and regulations apply to FTCA coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.271 What other statutes and... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other statutes and regulations apply to FTCA...

  11. 42 CFR 50.402 - To what program do these regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To what program do these regulations apply? 50.402 Section 50.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Public Health Service Grant Appeals Procedure § 50.402 To what program do...

  12. 34 CFR 356.3 - What regulations apply to this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION... purposefully requires inclusion of children with disabilities or individuals with mental disabilities as... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply to this program? 356.3 Section...

  13. 42 CFR 59.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.1 To what programs do... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 59.1... of voluntary family planning projects. These projects shall consist of the educational, comprehensive...

  14. 42 CFR 57.216 - What additional Department regulations apply to schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What additional Department regulations apply to schools? 57.216 Section 57.216 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... schools? (a) Participating schools are advised that in addition to complying with the terms and conditions...

  15. 42 CFR 57.316 - What additional Department regulations apply to schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... schools? 57.316 Section 57.316 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.316 What additional Department regulations apply to schools? Participating schools are advised that in addition to complying with the terms and conditions of these...

  16. A Mixed Integer Efficient Global Optimization Framework: Applied to the Simultaneous Aircraft Design, Airline Allocation and Revenue Management Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Satadru

    Traditional approaches to design and optimize a new system, often, use a system-centric objective and do not take into consideration how the operator will use this new system alongside of other existing systems. This "hand-off" between the design of the new system and how the new system operates alongside other systems might lead to a sub-optimal performance with respect to the operator-level objective. In other words, the system that is optimal for its system-level objective might not be best for the system-of-systems level objective of the operator. Among the few available references that describe attempts to address this hand-off, most follow an MDO-motivated subspace decomposition approach of first designing a very good system and then provide this system to the operator who decides the best way to use this new system along with the existing systems. The motivating example in this dissertation presents one such similar problem that includes aircraft design, airline operations and revenue management "subspaces". The research here develops an approach that could simultaneously solve these subspaces posed as a monolithic optimization problem. The monolithic approach makes the problem a Mixed Integer/Discrete Non-Linear Programming (MINLP/MDNLP) problem, which are extremely difficult to solve. The presence of expensive, sophisticated engineering analyses further aggravate the problem. To tackle this challenge problem, the work here presents a new optimization framework that simultaneously solves the subspaces to capture the "synergism" in the problem that the previous decomposition approaches may not have exploited, addresses mixed-integer/discrete type design variables in an efficient manner, and accounts for computationally expensive analysis tools. The framework combines concepts from efficient global optimization, Kriging partial least squares, and gradient-based optimization. This approach then demonstrates its ability to solve an 11 route airline network

  17. 32 CFR 37.130 - Which other parts of the DoD Grant and Agreement Regulations apply to TIAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations apply to TIAs? 37.130 Section 37.130 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Which other parts of the DoD Grant and Agreement Regulations apply to TIAs? (a) TIAs are explicitly... information about assistance awards. (b) Two additional parts of the DoDGARs apply to TIAs, although they do...

  18. Applying the ionising radiation regulations to radon in the UK workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    As a response to the identification of a health risk from workplace radon in the UK, the Ionising Radiations Regulations include the protection of workers from excessive levels of radon. Employers are required to make risk assessments, and the interpretation of the Health and Safety Executive is that the regulations apply to workplace premises in locations already designated as Radon Affected Areas for domestic purposes, with the difference that in workplaces, it is the maximum winter radon concentration rather than the annual average which is the parameter of interest. This paper discusses the rationale behind the current regulatory environment, outlines the role and duties of Accredited Radiation Protection Advisers and summarises the strategies necessary to conform to the regulations. (authors)

  19. New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control Using Differential Evolution Algorithms Applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 1. Design and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina BOUGHARI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting the appropriate controllers for aircraft stability and control augmentation systems are complicated and time consuming tasks. As in the Linear Quadratic Regulator method gains are found by selecting the appropriate weights or as in the Proportional Integrator Derivative control by tuning gains. A trial and error process is usually employed for the determination of weighting matrices, which is normally a time consuming procedure. Flight Control Law were optimized and designed by combining the Deferential Evolution algorithm, the Linear Quadratic Regulator method, and the Proportional Integral controller. The optimal controllers were used to reach satisfactory aircraft’s dynamic and safe flight operations with respect to the augmentation systems’ handling qualities, and design requirements for different flight conditions. Furthermore the design and the clearance of the controllers over the flight envelope were automated using a Graphical User Interface, which offers to the designer, the flexibility to change the design requirements. In the aim of reducing time, and costs of the Flight Control Law design, one fitness function has been used for both optimizations, and using design requirements as constraints. Consequently the Flight Control Law design process complexity was reduced by using the meta-heuristic algorithm.

  20. Blended Risk Approach in Applying PSA Models to Risk-Based Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, V. B.; Chapman, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the authors will discuss a modern approach in applying PSA models in risk-based regulation. The Blended Risk Approach is a combination of traditional and probabilistic processes. It is receiving increased attention in different industries in the U. S. and abroad. The use of the deterministic regulations and standards provides a proven and well understood basis on which to assess and communicate the impact of change to plant design and operation. Incorporation of traditional values into risk evaluation is working very well in the blended approach. This approach is very application specific. It includes multiple risk attributes, qualitative risk analysis, and basic deterministic principles. In blending deterministic and probabilistic principles, this approach ensures that the objectives of the traditional defense-in-depth concept are not compromised and the design basis of the plant is explicitly considered. (author)

  1. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Applied to Undergraduate, Graduate and Specialization Students from Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Redaelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The current demand for civil engineering work requires new skills and knowledge and calls for new and effective learning methods. This paper shows self-regulated learning strategies applied to undergraduate, graduate and specialization students from Civil Engineering in a Brazilian University. A Scale of Evaluation of Learning Strategies was administered with a view to identifying students´ cognitive, metacognitive and dysfunctional learning strategies.

  2. Benefit using reasonable regulations in USA, how to skill up on professional engineers, apply international code, standard, and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.L.; Morokuzu, Muneo; Amano, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    The reasonable regulations in USA consist of a graduated approach and a risk informed approach (RIA). RIA rationalizes the regulations on the basis of data of operations etc. PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), a general method of RIA, is explained in detail. The benefits of nuclear power plant using RIA are increase of the rate of operation, visualization of risk, application of design standard and design, cost down of nuclear fuel cycle, waste, production and operation, and safety. RIA is supported by the field data, code, standard, regulation and professional engineers. The effects of introduction of RIA are explained. In order to introduce RIA in Japan, all the parties concerned such as the regulation authorities, the electric power industries, makers, universities, have to understand it and work together. A part of scientific society is stated. (S.Y.)

  3. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public... boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? (a) In addition to the.... NPS applies the adopted laws and regulations to vessels and their operation on all waters (navigable...

  4. Use of Federal Acquisition Regulation. Part 12. Contracts for Applied Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) Part 12, "Acquisition of Commercial Items,"contracts for acquiring applied research. Applied research involves the scientific efforts to translate basic research into solutions for broadly defined military needs...

  5. Considerations on radiation protection of aircraft crew in Brazil; Consideracoes a respeito de protecao radiologica de tripulacoes de aeronaves no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Sordi, G.M.; Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper discuss the guidelines existing in the ICRP documents related to radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew and it is presented a brief report on the evolution of these studies in this field, and also the regulations already adopted by the integrating of the European Union, Canada and USA. Also, are presented some peculiarities of Brazilian air space and the legislation applied to work with ionizing radiation, discussing the general aspects of radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew in Brazil

  6. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to construction management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... construction management services? 900.118 Section 900.118 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...” regulations apply to construction management services? No. Construction management services may be contracted separately under section 108 of the Act. Construction management services consultants and/or Indian tribe or...

  7. 28 CFR 30.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 30.6 Section 30.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... consult with local elected officials. (b) Each state that adopts a process shall notify the Attorney...

  8. Applying Web-Based Co-Regulated Learning to Develop Students' Learning and Involvement in a Blended Computing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated, via quasi-experiments, the effects of web-based co-regulated learning (CRL) on developing students' computing skills. Two classes of 68 undergraduates in a one-semester course titled "Applied Information Technology: Data Processing" were chosen for this research. The first class (CRL group, n = 38) received…

  9. 49 CFR 17.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 17.6 Section 17.6 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.6 What...

  10. 45 CFR 1152.2 - What definitions apply to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations? Chairman means the Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts or an official or employee of the Endowment acting for the Chairman under a delegation of authority. Endowment means the National...

  11. 40 CFR 1068.40 - What special provisions apply for implementing changes in the regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS... may comply with earlier versions of applicable regulations as follows: (1) Prior to June 1, 2010, you...

  12. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  14. Regulating Cannabis Manufacturing: Applying Public Health Best Practices from Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Daniel G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-01-01

    State legalization and regulation of cannabis, despite continued federal illegality, is a massive shift in regulatory approach. Manufactured cannabis, including concentrates, extracts, edibles, tinctures, topicals and other products, has received less attention than more commonly used dried flower, but represents emerging regulatory challenges due to additives, potency, consumption methods, and abuse and misuse potential. In November 2017, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) released initial cannabis manufacturing regulations as part of a new state regulatory structure. As the largest U.S. medical cannabis market (and largest legal adult use market in the world beginning in 2018), California's regulatory approach will potentially influence national and global policy. Comparing CDPH's initial regulations to tobacco control best practices reveals that, while the regulations recognize the need to protect public health, prioritizing public health over business interests requires stronger approaches to labeling, packaging, and product formulations. Based on tobacco best practices, we recommend that cannabis regulations incorporate large and proportionately sized informational labels, a prominent universal cannabis symbol, rotating and pictorial health warnings, mandatory plain packaging, a comprehensive ban on characterizing flavors and addictive additives, and strict limits on the potency of inhalable products and those easily confused with non-cannabis products.

  15. Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ian W; Bissett, Patrick G; Canning, Jessica R; Dallery, Jesse; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gonzalez, Oscar; Green, Alan I; Greene, Mary Ann; Kiernan, Michaela; Kim, Sunny Jung; Li, Jamie; Lowe, Michael R; Mazza, Gina L; Metcalf, Stephen A; Onken, Lisa; Parikh, Sadev S; Peters, Ellen; Prochaska, Judith J; Scherer, Emily A; Stoeckel, Luke E; Valente, Matthew J; Wu, Jialing; Xie, Haiyi; MacKinnon, David P; Marsch, Lisa A; Poldrack, Russell A

    2018-02-01

    Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. We outline a research program that seeks to define a neuropsychological ontology of self-regulation, articulating the cognitive components that compose self-regulation, their relationships, and their associated measurements. The ontology will be informed by two large-scale approaches to assessing individual differences: first purely behaviorally using data collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, then coupled with neuroimaging data collected from a separate population. To validate the ontology and demonstrate its utility, we will then use it to contextualize health risk behaviors in two exemplar behavioral groups: overweight/obese adults who binge eat and smokers. After identifying ontological targets that precipitate maladaptive behavior, we will craft interventions that engage these targets. If successful, this work will provide a structured, holistic account of self-regulation in the form of an explicit ontology, which will better clarify the pattern of deficits related to maladaptive health behavior, and provide direction for more effective behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the... that its value is less than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for...

  17. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  18. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Residential Buildings Used for Fire Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos and guidance from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards that clarify how the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants applies to residential buildings used for fire training, also known as acquired structures.

  19. Focusing the Eyes Over America: Regulating and Training for the Ethical Domestic Use of Remote Piloted Aircraft (RPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    contacts at NASA and NOAA. Though they asked not to be cited by name I really benefited from their views and gained a greater understanding of their work...has been identified and is even being addressed in some academic 6 and legal forums. 7 There are no standardized regulations across all government...need an observer until it ascends to that altitude. This is allowance of flight in Class A airspace, with an IFR flight plan, is of particular

  20. Towards a just and fair Internet: applying Rawls’ principles of justice to Internet regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, David

    2015-01-01

    I suggest that the social justice issues raised by Internet regulation be exposed and examined by using a methodology adapted from that described by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. Rawls’ theory uses the hypothetical scenario of people deliberating about the justice of social institutions from

  1. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  2. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  4. 36 CFR 1220.18 - What definitions apply to the regulations in subchapter B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FEDERAL RECORDS; GENERAL § 1220.18 What definitions apply to the... for documentary materials in all physical forms, record and nonrecord, created by a Federal agency or... schedule. Documentary materials is a collective term that refers to recorded information, regardless of the...

  5. 42 CFR 65a.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (see parts 63 and 64a of this chapter), or (4) Research training support under the NIH AIDS Research..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC RESEARCH... part apply to the award of grants to support programs for basic research and training directed towards...

  6. The Regulated Third Sector: Administrative Practices Of Citizenship And Constitutional Efficiency Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Moura de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from an approach about the evolution of organizational models of the States, this work goals, initially, outline the evolution of these models in the Brazilian State, analyzing the development of the Third Sector as an exponent of the Managing State. Establish afterwards the development of the entities of civil society and the urge for its regulation due to dissemination of its many species. After short report of the most recent regulatory practices, the importance of the Sector concludes itself as apex of the active role of citizenship, whereas advocate the constitutional efficiency in the atuation of such entities.

  7. New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control using Differential Evolution Algorithms applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 2. Validation on Aircraft Research Flight Level D Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Yamina BOUGHARI; Georges GHAZI; Ruxandra Mihaela BOTEZ; Florian THEEL

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the Cessna Citation X clearance criteria were evaluated for a new Flight Controller. The Flight Control Law were optimized and designed for the Cessna Citation X flight envelope by combining the Deferential Evolution algorithm, the Linear Quadratic Regulator method, and the Proportional Integral controller during a previous research presented in part 1. The optimal controllers were used to reach satisfactory aircraft’s dynamic and safe flight operations with respect to the augme...

  8. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  9. Performance enhancement of microbial fuel cell by applying transient-state regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Zhang, Changyong; Jiang, Yong; Bian, Yanhong; Zhang, Helan; Sun, Xueliang; Yang, Xufei; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MFC was operated with transient-state regulation to enhance its performance. • Effects of the TSR parameters on MFC performance were thoroughly investigated. • Long-term operation of MFC in TSR mode allowed 32.7% higher power production. • Anode capacitance helped reduce the MFC’s internal impedance in the TSR mode. - Abstract: A binder-free, pseudocapacitive anode was fabricated by coating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and manganese oxide (MnO_2) nanoparticles on stainless steel fibre felt (SS). Microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with this novel anode yielded a maximum power density of 1045 mW m"−"2, 20 times higher than that of a similar MFC with a bare SS anode (46 mW m"−"2). Transient-state regulation (TSR) was implemented to further improve the MFC’s power generation. The optimal TSR duty cycle ranged from 67% to 95%, and the MFC’s power density increased with TSR frequency. A maximum power density output of 1238 mW m"−"2 was achieved at the TSR duty cycle of 75% and the frequency of 1 Hz, 18.4% greater than that obtained from the steady state operation. The TSR mode delivered better MFC performance especially when the external resistance was small. Long-term operation tests revealed that the current density and power density yielded in the TSR mode were on average 15.0% and 32.7% greater than those in the steady state mode, respectively. The TSR mode was believed to reduce the internal resistance of the MFC while enhance substrate mass transfer and electron transfer within the anode matrix, thereby improving the MFC performance.

  10. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    SKB will submit applications for permits and admissibility under the Environmental Act and under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. In the final repository the spent nuclear fuel from Swedish nuclear power plants is placed in order to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Construction and operation of the disposal facility in Forsmark will make an impact, give effects and consequences for the natural environment. Utilization of land for the construction of the facility and the impact on ground water as a result of groundwater drainage is expected to have negative consequences for the species included in species protection regulation. Thus, the planned activity require exemption from species protection regulation (SFS 2007:845). The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for an application for exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation from the prohibitions of 4, 6, 7 and 8 paragraph species protection regulation. A basis for the exemption application is that the proposed activity is considered to have an 'overriding public interest' prescribed in 14 paragraph species protection regulation. The document reports the impact, effects and consequences of the planned activities on species covered in the species protection regulation. The impact on protected species can be divided into two categories: - Direct effects on protected species and their habitats by utilization of the land. - Indirect effects on protected species and their habitats in the drainage of groundwater and the effect on groundwater levels. The document also includes a description of planned actions to prevent, restrict and compensate for the effects and consequences that the activity may cause. By applying for an exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation in a separate order from the application for permit according to chapters 9 and 11

  11. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  12. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  13. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  14. Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotheraphy; Rechtliche Grundlagen fuer den Umgang mit sicherheitsrelevanten Ereignissen in der Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Baus, W. [Uniklinik Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Vorwerk, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg-Giessen, Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Schloemp, B. [Berufsverband der Medizinisch-Technischen Radiologieassistenten (MTRA) in der Radioonkologie (VMTRO), Berlin (Germany); Andre, L. [Lindenhofspital Bern (Switzerland); Georg, D. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie der Medizinischen Univ. Wien/AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik; Hodapp, N. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2012-07-15

    Aims and purpose: Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Results: Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Conclusion: Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course. (orig.)

  15. Specialist-generalist model of body temperature regulation can be applied at the intraspecific level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska, Anna S; Boratyński, Jan S; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2017-07-01

    According to theoretical predictions, endothermic homeotherms can be classified as either thermal specialists or thermal generalists. In high cost environments, thermal specialists are supposed to be more prone to using facultative heterothermy than generalists. We tested this hypothesis at the intraspecific level using male laboratory mice (C57BL/cmdb) fasted under different thermal conditions (20 and 10°C) and for different time periods (12-48 h). We predicted that variability of body temperature ( T b ) and time spent with T b below normothermy would increase with the increase of environmental demands (duration of fasting and cold). To verify the above prediction, we measured T b and energy expenditure of fasted mice. We did not record torpor bouts but we found that variations in T b and time spent in hypothermia increased with environmental demands. In response to fasting, mice also decreased their energy expenditure. Moreover, animals that showed more precise thermoregulation when fed had more variable T b when fasted. We postulate that the prediction of the thermoregulatory generalist-specialist trade-off can be applied at the intraspecific level, offering a valid tool for identifying mechanistic explanations of the differences in animal responses to variations in energy supply. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  17. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  18. Action threshold for applying insect growth regulators to tomato for management of irregular ripening caused by Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D J

    2002-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring is a major pest of tomatoes, causing an irregular ripening disorder characterized externally by incomplete or inhibited reddening of fruit, especially in longitudinal sections, and internally by an increase in the amount of white tissue. Experiments were undertaken during the spring and fall of 1997 and 1998 and the spring of 1999 to develop an action threshold for applying the insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin and pyriproxyfen to manage B. argentifolii and irregular ripening. The IGRs were applied when predetermined thresholds were reached and were compared with a high rate of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid, which was applied at transplanting and provided season-long whitefly control. Only plots treated when the numbers of sessile nymphs (second through fourth instars) reached five per 10 leaflets consistently had both external and internal irregular ripening severity ratings similar to the imidacloprid standard. Results were similar for buprofezin and pyriproxyfen even though the modes of action differ. The five nymphs per 10 leaflets threshold lends itself to field scouting because nymphal counts completed in the field using the unaided eye supplemented with a 10x hand lens were linearly and significantly related to counts completed in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope.

  19. Aircraft Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  20. 77 FR 45480 - Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... business aircraft for entertainment. These final regulations affect taxpayers that deduct expenses for... section 274 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) of deductions for the use of business aircraft for...

  1. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract (particularly...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve... residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access to...

  3. 14 CFR 382.97 - To which aircraft does the requirement to provide boarding and deplaning assistance through the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide boarding and deplaning assistance through the use of lifts apply? 382.97 Section 382.97... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.97 To which aircraft does the requirement to provide boarding and deplaning assistance...

  4. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  5. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  6. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. AD 2013-13-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P... nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T...

  7. 77 FR 67561 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models... throughout the AD for Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and...

  8. Fettered aircraft for using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.

    1980-08-28

    The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.

  9. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  10. Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Howoong

    Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

  11. Flight control optimization from design to assessment application on the Cessna Citation X business aircraft =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughari, Yamina

    New methodologies have been developed to optimize the integration, testing and certification of flight control systems, an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This thesis investigates the stability of the Cessna Citation X aircraft without control, and then optimizes two different flight controllers from design to validation. The aircraft's model was obtained from the data provided by the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator (RAFS) of the Cessna Citation business aircraft. To increase the stability and control of aircraft systems, optimizations of two different flight control designs were performed: 1) the Linear Quadratic Regulation and the Proportional Integral controllers were optimized using the Differential Evolution algorithm and the level 1 handling qualities as the objective function. The results were validated for the linear and nonlinear aircraft models, and some of the clearance criteria were investigated; and 2) the Hinfinity control method was applied on the stability and control augmentation systems. To minimize the time required for flight control design and its validation, an optimization of the controllers design was performed using the Differential Evolution (DE), and the Genetic algorithms (GA). The DE algorithm proved to be more efficient than the GA. New tools for visualization of the linear validation process were also developed to reduce the time required for the flight controller assessment. Matlab software was used to validate the different optimization algorithms' results. Research platforms of the aircraft's linear and nonlinear models were developed, and compared with the results of flight tests performed on the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator. Some of the clearance criteria of the optimized H-infinity flight controller were evaluated, including its linear stability, eigenvalues, and handling qualities criteria. Nonlinear simulations of the maneuvers criteria were also investigated during this research to assess the Cessna

  12. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  13. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA- 46-350P airplanes that are equipped with... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  14. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  15. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  16. 45 CFR 660.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.6 What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities...

  17. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONCEPTS REGARDING THE EXECUTION OF COMPLEMENTARY PUNISHMENTS APPLIED TO NATURAL PERSONS WITHIN THE REGULATION OF THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DANIELA MUNTEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim at analyzing the complementary punishments applied to natural persons as regulated by the new criminal legislation, our motivation being the numerous amendments brought by the new criminal legislation, respectively the increase of the number of complementary punishments, the change of their enforcement starting moment and such other changes that we intend to debate in this study. Considering the changes brought to the starting moment of the complementary punishment enforcement, we focused mainly on the enforcement and execution of complementary punishments applied to natural persons, exemplifying the execution manner of each punishment, respectively: in the context of applying the complementary punishment regarding the forbiddance of rights, military degradation or the newest complementary punishment to be applied to natural persons, the publishing of the judgment of conviction. The amendments to the starting moment of the complementary punishment enforcement were brought as a result of introducing the punishment by fine and criminal punishments which may be executed on probation, in addition to which a complementary punishment may be applied. Regarding the enforcement of judgments, we have to mention the fact that it constitutes an autonomous stage of the criminal trial, governed by the regulations provided under the Criminal Procedure Act. Nevertheless, not all activities related to the enforcement of judgments are included in this stage, but only the ones triggering the start of the judgment enforcement. Such aspect imposes itself, taking into consideration the distinction between the enforcement of a judgment and the actual execution of the punishment. Regarding the effective execution of a punishment, activity performed outside the criminal trial, it is subordinated, on one hand, to the regulations provided under the criminal law, and on the other hand, to the regulations regarding the execution of punishments and of

  18. 20 CFR 660.300 - What definitions apply to the regulations for workforce investment systems under title I of WIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., age, sex, and disability required by 29 CFR part 37 of the DOL regulations implementing section 188 of... title I. Participation commences on the first day, following determination of eligibility, on which the... Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor. Self certification means an individual's signed attestation that...

  19. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  20. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF AIRCRAFT PILOTING PROSSESS UNDER SPECIFIED FLIGHT PATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Кузнецов

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests mathematical model of pilot’s activity as follow up system and mathematical methods of pilot’s activity description. The main idea of the model is flight path forming and aircraft stabilization on it during instrument flight. Input of given follow up system is offered to be aircraft deflection from given path observed by pilot by means of sight and output is offered to be pilot’s regulating actions for aircraft stabilization on flight path.

  2. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  3. Development of safety evaluation methods applied to the safety regulations for the operation stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study is to establish the safety evaluation methods needed in the operation stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). Related the above purpose of this study, some investigation studies for the technical standard applied to Monju were achieved in JFY 2012. (author)

  4. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    , and compare the steady state performance of rigid and flexible-winged aircraft. We present an intuitive but very useful notion, called the effective dihedral, which allows us to extend some of the stability and performance results derived for rigid aircraft to flexible aircraft. In the process, we identify the extent of flexibility needed to induce substantial performance benefits, and conversely the extent to which results derived for rigid aircraft apply to a flexible aircraft. We demonstrate, interestingly enough, that wing flexibility actually causes a deterioration in the maximum achievable turn rate when the sideslip is regulated. We also present experimental results which help demonstrate the capability of wing dihedral for control and for executing maneuvers such as slow, rapid descent and perching. Open loop as well as closed loop experiments are performed to demonstrate (a) the effectiveness of symmetric dihedral for flight path angle control, (b) yaw control using asymmetric dihedral, and (c) the elements of perching. Using a simple order of magnitude analysis, we derive conditions under which the wing is structurally statically stable, as well as conditions under which there exists time scale separation between the bending and twisting dynamics. We show that the time scale separation depends on the geometry of the wing cross section, the Poisson's ratio of the wing material, the flight speed and the aspect ratio of the wing. We design independent control laws for bending and twisting. A key contribution of this thesis is the formulation of a partial differential equation (PDE) boundary control problem for wing deformation. PDE-backstepping is used to derive tracking and exponentially stabilizing boundary control laws for wing twist which ensure that a weighted integral of the wing twist (net lift or the rolling moment) tracks the desired time-varying reference input. We show that a control law which only ensures tracking of a weighted integral improves the

  5. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII...

  6. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10 -6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  7. Applying Statistical and Complex Network Methods to Explore the Key Signaling Molecules of Acupuncture Regulating Neuroendocrine-Immune Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of acupuncture are still unclear. In order to reveal the regulatory effect of manual acupuncture (MA on the neuroendocrine-immune (NEI network and identify the key signaling molecules during MA modulating NEI network, we used a rat complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA model to observe the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of MA, and, what is more, we used statistical and complex network methods to analyze the data about the expression of 55 common signaling molecules of NEI network in ST36 (Zusanli acupoint, and serum and hind foot pad tissue. The results indicate that MA had significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects on CFA rats; the key signaling molecules may play a key role during MA regulating NEI network, but further research is needed.

  8. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  9. Some New Ideas on the Role of Legal Analysis applied to the Regulation of Telecommunications Services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Faro de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper aims to present new ideas and analytical approaches developed in recent years by Brazilian legal scholars regarding regulation and economic development. Regulatory law of telecommunications services is taken as an example of application of such new ideas and analytical approaches. Methodology/approach/design – Two main approaches to the relationship between law and economic issues are described: the New Law and Development (NLD approach and the Legal Analysis of Economic Policy (LAEP perspective. The paper highlights prominent ideas of each perspective. Findings – The paper shows that there are structured ideas available in recent Brazilian legal literature which have a non-negligible potential of being explored in legal discussions and analyses of economic policy and regulatory issues of many sectors of emerging economies, including the telecommunications industry. Originality/value – The paper offers valuable contributions that may help in efforts to enhance and innovate the role of legal expertise in the regulatory process of several economic sectors, including the telecommunications sector.

  10. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule... must include the following requirements for procedures for disinfection and flushing of aircraft water system. (i) The air carrier must conduct disinfection and flushing of the aircraft water system in...

  11. 48 CFR 1352.228-74 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value of... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert the following in all applicable contracts for leased aircraft: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (APR 2010...

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used for scientific, emergency management, and defense missions, among others. The existing federal air regulations,...

  13. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  14. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-0742; Directorate Identifier 2013-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper... identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone...

  15. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  16. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  17. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...-1295; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-060-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with...

  18. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-0251; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  19. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...-0218; Directorate Identifier 2009-CE-006-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... (AD) that applies to Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 airplanes. The existing AD currently... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  20. 47 CFR 87.47 - Application for a portable aircraft station license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a portable aircraft station... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.47 Application for a portable aircraft station license. A person may apply for a portable aircraft radio station license if the need...

  1. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    Full Text Available High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT and high night temperatures (HNT under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT. Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  3. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  4. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  5. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...

  6. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  7. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  8. The Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  9. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  10. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  12. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  13. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  14. 2002 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national

  15. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  16. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  17. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  18. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  19. Regulation of maize kernel weight and carbohydrate metabolism by abscisic acid applied at the early and middle post-pollination stages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xu-Hui; Gao, Zhen; Shen, Si; Liang, Xiao-Gui; Zhao, Xue; Lin, Shan; Zhou, Shun-Li

    2017-09-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in plants under drought stress, but views on the role of ABA in kernel formation and abortion are not unified. The response of the developing maize kernel to exogenous ABA was investigated by excising kernels from cob sections at four days after pollination and culturing in vitro with different concentrations of ABA (0, 5, 10, 100μM). When ABA was applied at the early post-pollination stage (EPPS), significant weight loss was observed at high ABA concentration (100μM), which could be attributed to jointly affected sink capacity and activity. Endosperm cells and starch granules were decreased significantly with high concentration, and ABA inhibited the activities of soluble acid invertase and acid cell wall invertase, together with earlier attainment of peak values. When ABA was applied at the middle post-pollination stage (MPPS), kernel weight was observably reduced with high concentration and mildly increased with low concentration, which was regulated due to sink activity. The inhibitory effect of high concentration and the mild stimulatory effect of low concentration on sucrose synthase and starch synthase activities were noted, but a peak level of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) was stimulated in all ABA treatments. Interestingly, AGPase peak values were advanced by low concentration and postponed by high concentration. In addition, compared with the control, the weight of low ABA concentration treatments were not statistically significant at the two stages, whereas weight loss from high concentration applied at EPPS was considerably obvious compared with that of the MPPS, but neither led to kernel abortion. The temporal- and dose-dependent impacts of ABA reveal a complex process of maize kernel growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Hot-spot analysis applied to the identification of potential high and low regulating, providing and cultural ecosystem services in Vilnius Region (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Daniel, Depellegrin; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Cerda, Artemi; Estebaranz, Ferran; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) potential assessment is crucial for a correct territorial planning at different scales of analysis (Depellegrin et al., 2016). In urban and peri-urban areas, sprawl, grazing and unsustainable agriculture practices contributed to land degradation and de decrease of the quality and quantity of the services provided by these areas (Eldridge and Delgado-Baquerizo, 2017; Favretto et al., 2017). In order to understand the spatial pattern of these impacts, mapping ES potential is key to understand the areas that need to be restored and protected for an unsustainable use (Brevik et al., 2016; Egarter-Vigl et al., 2017; Pereira et al., 2017). Hot-spot analysis is a good method to identify clusters of areas with high and low capacity for ES capacity. This analysis is very useful to detect homogeneous areas, where ES have high or low quality. The objective of this work is to apply a hot-spot analysis to detect areas with high/low capacity for Regulating, Provision, Cultural and Total ES in Vilnius region. ES potential was carried out based on the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that regulating, providing and cultural and total ES have a significant dispersed (low-clustered) pattern: Regulating (Z-score=-19.28, pInternational Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Egarter-Vigl, L., Depellegrin, D., Pereira, P., De Groot, D., Tappeiner, U. (2017) Mapping the ecosystem service delivery chain: Capacity, flow, and demand pertaining to aesthetic experiences in mountain landscapes, Science of the Total Environment, 574, 442-436. Eldridge, D.J., Delgado-Baquerizo, M. (2017) Continental-scale impacts of livestock grazing on ecosystem supporting and regulating services. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2668 Favretto, N., Lueding, E., Stringer, L., Dougill, A.J. (2017) Valuing

  1. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  2. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  3. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  4. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  5. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  6. Aircraft Capability Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  7. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  8. Aircraft parameter estimation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...

  9. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Aircraft, ships, spacecraft, nuclear plants and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, M.G.

    1984-05-01

    A few quality assurance programs outside the purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were studied to identify features or practices which the NRC could use to enhance its program for assuring quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The programs selected were: the manufacture of large commercial transport aircraft, regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration; US Navy shipbuilding; commercial shipbuilding regulated by the Maritime Administration and the US Coast Guard; Government-owned nuclear plants under the Department of Energy; spacecraft under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the construction of nuclear power plants in Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

  11. Enhancing Combat Survivability of Existing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 With efforts underway to develop rules integrating UAS’s into the National Airspace System, and...realizing that Federal Aviation Administration rule -making authority applied only to "aircraft," the term Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) was coined in...http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=122 [10] Peter La Franchi , “US study recommends self-protection for UAVs”, Flight International, 7

  12. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  13. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  14. Real-Time Risk Assessment Framework for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Capristan, Francisco M.; Foster, John V.; Condotta, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The new Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Small Unmanned Aircraft rule (Part 107) marks the first national regulations for commercial operation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) under 55 pounds within the National Airspace System (NAS). Although sUAS flights may not be performed beyond visual line-of-sight or over non- participant structures and people, safety of sUAS operations must still be maintained and tracked at all times. Moreover, future safety-critical operation of sUAS (e.g., for package delivery) are already being conceived and tested. NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System Trac Management (UTM) concept aims to facilitate the safe use of low-altitude airspace for sUAS operations. This paper introduces the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF) which was developed to provide real-time safety evaluation and tracking capability within the UTM concept. The URAF uses Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to propagate off -nominal condition probabilities based on real-time component failure indicators. This information is then used to assess the risk to people on the ground by calculating the potential impact area and the effects of the impact. The visual representation of the expected area of impact and the nominal risk level can assist operators and controllers with dynamic trajectory planning and execution. The URAF was applied to a case study to illustrate the concept.

  15. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  16. Aircraft engines. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  17. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  18. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    rodynamique, propulsion, rdsistance den structures, etc ... - lea m~thodes d’essaia an soufflerie, aur banca au aol, sur simulateurs. A un niveau de synthbse...Dunstan Graham, "Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control," Princeton University Press , Princeton, N.J., 1973. 9. Hoh, Roger H., Thomas T. Myers...discussion of the roll coupling problem" Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol 15, Pergamon Press , Oxford 1974 17-8 (6] R.W. KLOPPENSTEIN "Zeroes of

  19. Stability Result For Dynamic Inversion Devised to Control Large Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.

    2001-01-01

    High performance aircraft of the future will be designed lighter, more maneuverable, and operate over an ever expanding flight envelope. One of the largest differences from the flight control perspective between current and future advanced aircraft is elasticity. Over the last decade, dynamic inversion methodology has gained considerable popularity in application to highly maneuverable fighter aircraft, which were treated as rigid vehicles. This paper is an initial attempt to establish global stability results for dynamic inversion methodology as applied to a large, flexible aircraft. This work builds on a previous result for rigid fighter aircraft and adds a new level of complexity that is the flexible aircraft dynamics, which cannot be ignored even in the most basic flight control. The results arise from observations of the control laws designed for a new generation of the High-Speed Civil Transport aircraft.

  20. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  1. Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they can develop in the fleet. Lastly, nondestructive inspection (NDI) plays a role in all these programs through the detection of cracks, corrosion, and disbonds. However, improved and more cost effective NDI methods are needed. Some methods such as magneto-optic imaging, electronic shearography, Diffractor-Sight, and multi-parameter eddy current testing appear viable for near-term improvements in NDI of aging aircraft.

  2. Parallel Aircraft Trajectory Optimization with Analytic Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret

    2016-01-01

    Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.262 - How will my agency authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from point to point) are considered travelers and must be authorized to travel on Government aircraft... authorize travel on Government aircraft? 301-10.262 Section 301-10.262 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

  4. 76 FR 26178 - Modifications to Treatment of Aircraft and Vessel Leasing Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Modifications to Treatment of Aircraft and Vessel Leasing Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... final regulations addressing the treatment of certain income and assets related to the leasing of... controlled foreign corporations that derive income from the leasing of aircraft or vessels in foreign...

  5. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin... announced a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The...

  6. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This policy statement will enhance...

  7. 48 CFR 3052.228-92 - Fair market value of aircraft (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value of... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-92 Fair market value of aircraft... clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (DEC 2003) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or Damage...

  8. 48 CFR 1252.228-71 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value of....228-71 Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.306-70(a) and (c), insert the following clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (OCT 1994) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or...

  9. Principles for Aircraft Energy Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Frederick T N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...

  10. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  11. Liens on aircraft with special reference on statutory liens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Svetislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines three types of liens on aircraft: mortgage (as contractual lien, statutory and judicial lien on aircraft. Special attention is paid to statutory liens and its relationship with mortgage and judicial lien on same aircraft. The author highlights the problem of priority of different type of secured creditors due to the fact of existing competition between their interests. This problem is especially enlarged because of simultaneously applying three different source of law: Cape Town Convention 2001, Serbian Law of Air Transport 2011 and Geneva Convention on the Recognition of Rights in Aircraft 1948. Conclusion is that the creditor with statutory lien on aircraft has the biggest priority in realization of his right over other creditors and even creditors secured with mortgage and judicial lien which have priority between themselves in comply with principle 'first in time, first in right'. In order to achieve the ideas of this conclusion in practice it is necessary for courts to use teleological interpretation in applying laws. This is especially because of certain inconsistencies between different legal sources in regard of notion, order of priority and effect of different type of liens on aircraft.

  12. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  13. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  14. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  15. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  16. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  17. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  18. Design for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  19. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  20. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  1. General aviation aircraft design: applied methods and procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gudmundsson, Snorri

    2014-01-01

    .... Readers will find it a valuable guide to topics such as sizing of horizontal and vertical tails to minimize drag, sizing of lifting surfaces to ensure proper dynamic stability, numerical performance...

  2. Geometry Based Design Automation : Applied to Aircraft Modelling and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Amadori, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Product development processes are continuously challenged by demands for increased efficiency. As engineering products become more and more complex, efficient tools and methods for integrated and automated design are needed throughout the development process. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is one promising technique that has the potential to drastically improve concurrent design. MDO frameworks combine several disciplinary models with the aim of gaining a holistic perspective of ...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For the...

  4. Rehabilitation of executive functioning with training in attention regulation applied to individually defined goals: a pilot study bridging theory, assessment, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic-Agopian, Tatjana; Chen, Anthony J-W; Rome, Scott; Abrams, Gary; Castelli, Holli; Rossi, Annemarie; McKim, Ryan; Hills, Nancy; D'Esposito, Mark

    2011-01-01

    To assess feasibility and effects of training in goal-oriented attentional self-regulation for patients with brain injury and chronic executive dysfunction. Sixteen individuals with chronic brain injury and mild to moderate executive dysfunction. Participants were divided into 2 groups: one group completed goal-oriented attentional self-regulation training during the first 5 weeks, followed by a brief (2-hour) educational instruction session as a control midway through the second 5 weeks; the other group participated in reverse order. Neuropsychological and functional performance assessed at baseline and at weeks 5 and 10. Participants found training in goal-oriented attentional self-regulation engaging, incorporated some trained strategies into daily life, and reported subjective improvements in personal functioning. At week 5, participants who completed goals training significantly improved on tests of attention and executive function and had fewer functional task failures, while performance did not change after educational instruction. At week 10, participants who crossed over from educational instruction to goals training also significantly improved on attention and executive function tests. Participants who crossed from goals training to educational instruction maintained their week 5 gains. Training in goal-oriented attentional self-regulation is theoretically driven and feasible in a research setting. Pilot results suggest improvements in cognitive and functional domains targeted by the intervention.

  5. A modified Poisson-Boltmann model including charge regulation for the adsorption of ionizable polyelectrolytes to charged interfaces, applied to lysozyme adsorption on silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Veen, van der M.; Norde, W.

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium adsorption of polyelectrolytes with multiple types of ionizable groups is described using a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation including charge regulation of both the polymer and the interface. A one-dimensional mean-field model is used in which the electrostatic potential is

  6. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I am an operator of a regulated...

  7. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  9. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit

  10. Design Of Vertical Take-Off And Landing VTOL Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Ko Ko Oo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Take Off and Landing Vehicles VTOL are the ones which can take off and land from the same place without need of long runway. This paper presents the design and implementation of tricopter mode and aircraft mode for VTOL aircraft system. Firstly the aircraft design is considered for VTOL mode. And then the mathematical model of the VTOL aircraft is applied to test stability. In this research the KK 2.1 flight controller is used for VTOL mode and aircraft mode. The first part is to develop the VTOL mode and the next part is the transition of VTOL mode to aircraft mode. This paper gives brief idea about numerous types of VTOLs and their advantages over traditional aircraftsand insight to various types of tricopter and evaluates their configurations.

  11. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  12. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  13. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  14. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R; Feneberg, B; Ponater, M [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  15. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  16. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  17. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  18. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2012, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination conducted for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as core damage analysis code, were carried out following the planned schedule. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  19. Regulatory Analysis on the Safety Assessment of NPPs against Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Jong Seuk; Chung, Yun Suk; Jung, Rae Young

    2011-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terror, a new regulation (10CFR 50.150) was enacted in June 2009 in the United States mandating the assessment of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) against intentional aircraft crashes, along with a regulation (10CFR 50.54 (h)(h)) in March 2009 that requires the establishment of accident mitigation measures for NPPs in operation. The UAE requested that the Korean NPP (APR 1400) design meet the U.S.'s new requirements related to the intentional aircraft crash. During the UAE NPP contract bidding process, France claimed that the Korean NPP is vulnerable to aircraft crashes comparing with the French NPP (EPR). Under these international and domestic environments, the necessity to establish a domestic regulation concerning the intentional aircraft crash was raised. This paper proposes a draft regulatory position on this issue through a comprehensive analysis of various influencing factors

  20. Acoustical design economic trade off for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, A.

    The effects of ICAO fixed certification limits and local ordinances on acoustic emissions from jets on commercial transport aircraft and costs of operations are explored. The regulations effectively ban some aircraft from operation over populated areas, impose curfews on airports and, in conjunction with local civil aviation rules, levy extra taxes and quotas on noisier equipment. Jet engine manufacturers have attempted to increase the flow laminarity, decrease the exhaust speed and develop acoustic liners for selected duct areas. Retrofits are, however, not usually cost effective due to increased operational costs, e.g., fuel consumption can increase after engine modification because of increased weight. Finally, an attempt is made to assess, monetarily, the costs of noise pollution, wherein fines are levied for noisy aircraft and the money is spent insulating homes from noise.

  1. INTEGRATING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLES IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Alina Catinca POP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the Romanian civil airspace brings us back to the 1920's, when the first aircraft started to fly over the Romanian sky. Little did the legislators at that time know how to create the proper legal framework for the use of such machines so that all aspects related to their use be covered, as well as identify all potential risks and effects. Nowadays, UAVs are the new aircraft and it is a challenge for the legislators to properly identify the legal framework so that the safety and security of civil aviation are not affected. The paper will address the challenges the regulator faces in the integration of the UAVs in the Romanian civil airspace, developments and issues raised by the current regulation, as well as aspects related to the national regulations expected to enter into force at the end of 2015, beginning of 2016.

  2. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  3. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  4. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  5. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  6. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  7. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for

  8. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  9. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  10. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  11. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  12. Applying human factors engineering program to the modernization project of NPP Control Room in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellar, Renato Koga de; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the design and implementation of such a project is essential to ensure that the new man-machine interface outcoming from the modernization does not have any negative impacts on human performance and plant safety. This paper analyzes the applicability of the Human Factors Engineering Program in the licensing and certification of Konvoi Nucleoelectric Power Plant Control Room Modernization Project using digital instrumentation and control in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations. The results of the analyses show that although regulatory bodies adopt different methodology in the process of licensing the modernization of control rooms, the engineering aspects are being developed based on the principles of engineering. (author)

  13. Applying human factors engineering program to the modernization project of NPP Control Room in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, Renato Koga de, E-mail: rkoga@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Assessoria de Licenciamento Nuclear e Ambiental; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the design and implementation of such a project is essential to ensure that the new man-machine interface outcoming from the modernization does not have any negative impacts on human performance and plant safety. This paper analyzes the applicability of the Human Factors Engineering Program in the licensing and certification of Konvoi Nucleoelectric Power Plant Control Room Modernization Project using digital instrumentation and control in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations. The results of the analyses show that although regulatory bodies adopt different methodology in the process of licensing the modernization of control rooms, the engineering aspects are being developed based on the principles of engineering. (author)

  14. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  15. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Underlag till ansoekan om dispens enligt artskyddsfoerordningen. Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    SKB will submit applications for permits and admissibility under the Environmental Act and under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. In the final repository the spent nuclear fuel from Swedish nuclear power plants is placed in order to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Construction and operation of the disposal facility in Forsmark will make an impact, give effects and consequences for the natural environment. Utilization of land for the construction of the facility and the impact on ground water as a result of groundwater drainage is expected to have negative consequences for the species included in species protection regulation. Thus, the planned activity require exemption from species protection regulation (SFS 2007:845). The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for an application for exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation from the prohibitions of 4, 6, 7 and 8 paragraph species protection regulation. A basis for the exemption application is that the proposed activity is considered to have an 'overriding public interest' prescribed in 14 paragraph species protection regulation. The document reports the impact, effects and consequences of the planned activities on species covered in the species protection regulation. The impact on protected species can be divided into two categories: - Direct effects on protected species and their habitats by utilization of the land. - Indirect effects on protected species and their habitats in the drainage of groundwater and the effect on groundwater levels. The document also includes a description of planned actions to prevent, restrict and compensate for the effects and consequences that the activity may cause. By applying for an exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation in a separate order from the application for permit according to chapters 9

  16. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Underlag till ansoekan om dispens enligt artskyddsfoerordningen. Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    SKB will submit applications for permits and admissibility under the Environmental Act and under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. In the final repository the spent nuclear fuel from Swedish nuclear power plants is placed in order to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Construction and operation of the disposal facility in Forsmark will make an impact, give effects and consequences for the natural environment. Utilization of land for the construction of the facility and the impact on ground water as a result of groundwater drainage is expected to have negative consequences for the species included in species protection regulation. Thus, the planned activity require exemption from species protection regulation (SFS 2007:845). The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for an application for exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation from the prohibitions of 4, 6, 7 and 8 paragraph species protection regulation. A basis for the exemption application is that the proposed activity is considered to have an 'overriding public interest' prescribed in 14 paragraph species protection regulation. The document reports the impact, effects and consequences of the planned activities on species covered in the species protection regulation. The impact on protected species can be divided into two categories: - Direct effects on protected species and their habitats by utilization of the land. - Indirect effects on protected species and their habitats in the drainage of groundwater and the effect on groundwater levels. The document also includes a description of planned actions to prevent, restrict and compensate for the effects and consequences that the activity may cause. By applying for an exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation in a separate order from the application for permit according to chapters 9 and 11

  17. Characterising bias in regulatory risk and decision analysis: An analysis of heuristics applied in health technology appraisal, chemicals regulation, and climate change governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Brian H

    2017-08-01

    In many environmental and public health domains, heuristic methods of risk and decision analysis must be relied upon, either because problem structures are ambiguous, reliable data is lacking, or decisions are urgent. This introduces an additional source of uncertainty beyond model and measurement error - uncertainty stemming from relying on inexact inference rules. Here we identify and analyse heuristics used to prioritise risk objects, to discriminate between signal and noise, to weight evidence, to construct models, to extrapolate beyond datasets, and to make policy. Some of these heuristics are based on causal generalisations, yet can misfire when these relationships are presumed rather than tested (e.g. surrogates in clinical trials). Others are conventions designed to confer stability to decision analysis, yet which may introduce serious error when applied ritualistically (e.g. significance testing). Some heuristics can be traced back to formal justifications, but only subject to strong assumptions that are often violated in practical applications. Heuristic decision rules (e.g. feasibility rules) in principle act as surrogates for utility maximisation or distributional concerns, yet in practice may neglect costs and benefits, be based on arbitrary thresholds, and be prone to gaming. We highlight the problem of rule-entrenchment, where analytical choices that are in principle contestable are arbitrarily fixed in practice, masking uncertainty and potentially introducing bias. Strategies for making risk and decision analysis more rigorous include: formalising the assumptions and scope conditions under which heuristics should be applied; testing rather than presuming their underlying empirical or theoretical justifications; using sensitivity analysis, simulations, multiple bias analysis, and deductive systems of inference (e.g. directed acyclic graphs) to characterise rule uncertainty and refine heuristics; adopting "recovery schemes" to correct for known biases

  18. Analysis Of Damage Arising From Exploitation Of The Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploitation, due to a variety of reasons, aircrafts are damaged or suffer from different failures. In the process of operation, using appropriate methods of diagnosis, failure, damage, and relative deregulation of individual elements or units can be detected. For this purpose, one can apply a number of indirect diagnostic methods with the use of recorded diagnostic signals or a direct diagnosis with the use of non-destructive methods. The proper identification of the technical condition allows to determine the causes of irregularities and take actions aimed at preventing their occurrence. The article presents the types of exploitation damage of a multi-purpose aircraft. In addition, the criteria for the division of damage and research methods of the causes of damage are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the scope of activities to be performed during the research of causes of damage to the aircraft is made.

  19. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  20. 31 CFR 500.585 - Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. 500.585 Section 500.585 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.585 Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. Payments...

  1. 15 CFR 744.7 - Restrictions on certain exports to and for the use of certain foreign vessels or aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be registered in the case of a vessel or aircraft under construction, and (3) To the country... Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF... operating vessel or aircraft or one under construction, located in any port including a Canadian port...

  2. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  3. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  4. Structural Health Monitoring of Transport Aircraft with Fuzzy Logic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A structural health monitoring method based on the concept of static aeroelasticity is presented in this paper. This paper focuses on the estimation of these aeroelastic effects on older transport aircraft, in particular the structural components that are most affected, in severe atmospheric turbulence. Because the structural flexibility properties are mostly unknown to aircraft operators, only the trend, not the magnitude, of these effects is estimated. For this purpose, one useful concept in static aeroelastic effects for conventional aircraft structures is that under aeroelastic deformation the aerodynamic center should move aft. This concept is applied in the present paper by using the fuzzy-logic aerodynamic models. A twin-jet transport aircraft in severe atmospheric turbulence involving plunging motion is examined. It is found that the pitching moment derivatives in cruise with moderate to severe turbulence in transonic flight indicate some degree of abnormality in the stabilizer (i.e., the horizontal tail. Therefore, the horizontal tail is the most severely affected structural component of the aircraft probably caused by vibration under the dynamic loads induced by turbulence.

  5. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  6. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  7. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  8. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper investigates the aircraft impact on the collision barrier at the side of the ship. The aircraft impact on top of the reactor hatchway is investigated by another analysis. It appears that the most unfavorable angle of impact is always normal to the surface of the collision barrier. Consequently, only normal impact will be considered here. For the specific case of an aircraft striking a nuclear powered ship, the following two effects are considered: Local penetration and dynamic response of the structuure. The local penetration occurs at points where the engines or other rigid objects hit the structure. It is assumed that the aircraft engine is a rigid body projectile and the side wall of the ship is the target. The applied steel penetration formulae for projectiles were empirically derived for military applications, where both the projectile and the target are unlike those of an impact of an aircraft engine. For this reason it is expedient to calculate the upper and the lower limit values of the penetration depths. The results show that the highest penetration depth is less than the sum of all wall thicknesses of the collision barrier. The solution of the dynamic analysis is obtained by using the finite element method. The results are the eigenmodes, the eigenfrequencies, the displacements of the nodes, and the stresses in the applied plane stress elements. It is shown that the maximum stress which only appears in one element is on the same level as the yield stress of the St. 42 steel. The structural analysis shows that the collision barrier is a sufficient safeguard against the perforation of the engine and against the cracking of the structure as a result of the dynamic response to an aircraft impact. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Pulsed Radiofrequency Applied to the Sciatic Nerve Improves Neuropathic Pain by Down-regulating The Expression of Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in the Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Jin, Hailong; Jia, Zipu; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies have shown that applying pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) to the neural stem could relieve neuropathic pain (NP), albeit through an unclear analgesic mechanism. And animal experiments have indicated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is involved in generating and maintaining NP. In this case, it is uncertain whether PRF plays an analgesic role by affecting CGRP expression in DRG. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Groups A, B, C, and D. In Groups C and D, the right sciatic nerve was ligated to establish the CCI model, while in Groups A and B, the sciatic nerve was isolated without ligation. After 14 days, the right sciatic nerve in Groups B and D re-exposed and was treated with PRF on the ligation site. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and hindpaw withdrawal threshold (HWT) were measured before PRF treatment (Day 0) as well as after 2, 4, 8, and 14 days of treatment. At the same time points of the behavioral tests, the right L4-L6 DRG was sampled and analyzed for CGRP expression using RT-qPCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Fourteen days after sciatic nerve ligation, rats in Groups C and D had a shortened TWL (P 0.05). On the 8th and 14th days, the mRNA levels in Group D were restored to those of Groups A and B. Meanwhile, the CGRP content of Group D gradually dropped over time, from 76.4 pg/mg (Day 0) to 57.5 pg/mg (Day 14). Conclusions: In this study, we found that, after sciatic nerve ligation, rats exhibited apparent hyperalgesia and allodynia, and CGRP mRNA and CGRP contents in the L4-L6 DRG increased significantly. Through lowering CGRP expression in the DRG, PRF treatment might relieve the pain behaviors of NP. PMID:29333099

  10. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  11. The Swedish radiological environmental protection regulations applied in a review of a license application for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pål; Stark, Karolina; Xu, Shulan; Nordén, Maria; Dverstorp, Björn

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences. SKB's environmental risk assessment uses the freely available ERICA Tool. Environmental media activity concentrations needed as input to the tool are calculated by means of complex biosphere modelling based on site-specific information gathered from site investigations, as well as from supporting modelling studies and projections of future biosphere conditions in response to climate change and land rise due to glacial rebound. SKB's application is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). In addition to a traditional document review with an aim to determine whether SKB's models are relevant, correctly implemented and adequately parametrized, SSM has performed independent modelling in order to gain confidence in the robustness of SKB's assessment. Thus, SSM has used alternative stylized reference biosphere models to calculate environmental activity concentrations for use in subsequent exposure calculations. Secondly, an alternative dose model (RESRAD-BIOTA) is used to calculate doses to biota that are compared with SKB's calculations with the ERICA tool. SSM's experience from this review is that existing tools for environmental dose assessment are possible to use in order to show compliance with Swedish legislation. However, care is needed when site representative species are assessed with the aim to contrast them to generic reference organism. The alternative modelling of environmental concentrations resulted in much lower

  12. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.

    1997-01-01

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  13. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  15. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  16. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  17. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  18. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  19. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  20. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    neck Access door toprille capm enrFuel tank Figue 3. Fangblefiler eckinsalgbelati n. A-j L)n wal Aircraft skin Frangible filler neck Failure plane...This is because a number of major assumptions must be made in the extrapolation: the smoke generated is uniformly distri- buted and is independent

  1. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  2. NASA Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.

  3. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  4. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  5. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  6. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  7. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46- 350P airplanes. AD 2010-13-07... 23, 2010), which applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P airplanes...

  8. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy; Stanislav Stanislavovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is ...

  9. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...

  11. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  12. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  13. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  14. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  15. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  16. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    a vestigial blind speed at 121 knots. Aircraft radial velocity compon- ents for the flights discussed here varied between zero and 125 knots. Typi.cal...the contributions of Mr. D.M. Selwyn who designed the digital recording equipment and organized the flight tests, and Dr. A.W.R. Gilchrist who edited

  17. CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.

  18. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  19. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...

  20. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  1. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J; Ebel, A; Lippert, E; Petry, H [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1998-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  2. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation methodology for the reliabilty of aircraft structures under damage tolerance considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambalakos, Andreas

    Current federal aviation regulations in the United States and around the world mandate the need for aircraft structures to meet damage tolerance requirements through out the service life. These requirements imply that the damaged aircraft structure must maintain adequate residual strength in order to sustain its integrity that is accomplished by a continuous inspection program. The multifold objective of this research is to develop a methodology based on a direct Monte Carlo simulation process and to assess the reliability of aircraft structures. Initially, the structure is modeled as a parallel system with active redundancy comprised of elements with uncorrelated (statistically independent) strengths and subjected to an equal load distribution. Closed form expressions for the system capacity cumulative distribution function (CDF) are developed by expanding the current expression for the capacity CDF of a parallel system comprised by three elements to a parallel system comprised with up to six elements. These newly developed expressions will be used to check the accuracy of the implementation of a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm to determine the probability of failure of a parallel system comprised of an arbitrary number of statistically independent elements. The second objective of this work is to compute the probability of failure of a fuselage skin lap joint under static load conditions through a Monte Carlo simulation scheme by utilizing the residual strength of the fasteners subjected to various initial load distributions and then subjected to a new unequal load distribution resulting from subsequent fastener sequential failures. The final and main objective of this thesis is to present a methodology for computing the resulting gradual deterioration of the reliability of an aircraft structural component by employing a direct Monte Carlo simulation approach. The uncertainties associated with the time to crack initiation, the probability of crack detection, the

  4. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles. 52.225-7 Section 52.225-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  5. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  6. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  7. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  8. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  9. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  10. Qualification and Flight Test of Non-Chrome Primers for C-130 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    system  Significant hexavalent chrome reduction in finish system  Potential exposure level of spray applied chromated conversion coating not as...Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company Qualification and Flight Test of Non- Chrome Primers for C-130 Aircraft Scott Jones Lockheed Martin...00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Qualification and Flight Test of Non- Chrome Primers for C-130 Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  11. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY OF THE COMPOSITE WING OF A LIGHT PLANE DAMAGED DURING AN AIRCRAFT CRASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ŚWIĄTONIOWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composite structures in aircraft constructions has made it necessary to develop repair methods that will restore the component’s original design strength without compromising its structural integrity. In this paper, the complex repair technology of the composite wing of a light plane, which was damaged during an aircraft crash, is described. The applied repair scheme should meet all the original design requirements for the plane structure.

  12. Investigation of an automatic trim algorithm for restructurable aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.; Eterno, J.; Grunberg, D.; Looze, D.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops and solves an automatic trim problem for restructurable aircraft control. The trim solution is applied as a feed-forward control to reject measurable disturbances following control element failures. Disturbance rejection and command following performances are recovered through the automatic feedback control redesign procedure described by Looze et al. (1985). For this project the existence of a failure detection mechanism is assumed, and methods to cope with potential detection and identification inaccuracies are addressed.

  13. Coordinated Optimization of Aircraft Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    2007), although solution methods are sub- stantially distinct in these two areas. Khardi and Abdallah (2012) applied the variational calculus ...aircraft may face a problem encircling both the outer and inner corner space. To make the problem geometrically feasible, the requirement of having an...problem can be easily determined analytically : it should be a single route with the widest possible coverage. The latter can be inferred from Figure 11(d

  14. An Algorithm for Managing Aircraft Movement on an Airport Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maresca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the development of an algorithm for safely and optimally managing the routing of aircraft on an airport surface in future airport operations. This tool is intended to support air traffic controllers’ decision-making in selecting the paths of all aircraft and the engine startup approval time for departing ones. Optimal routes are sought for minimizing the time both arriving and departing aircraft spend on an airport surface with engines on, with benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and costs. The proposed algorithm first computes a standalone, shortest path solution from runway to apron or vice versa, depending on the aircraft being inbound or outbound, respectively. For taking into account the constraints due to other traffic on an airport surface, this solution is amended by a conflict detection and resolution task that attempts to reduce and possibly nullify the number of conflicts generated in the first phase. An example application on a simple Italian airport exemplifies how the algorithm can be applied to true-world applications. Emphasis is given on how to model an airport surface as a weighted and directed graph with non-negative weights, as required for the input to the algorithm.

  15. Potential for Landing Gear Noise Reduction on Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Nickol, Craig L.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The potential of significantly reducing aircraft landing gear noise is explored for aircraft configurations with engines installed above the wings or the fuselage. An innovative concept is studied that does not alter the main gear assembly itself but does shorten the main strut and integrates the gear in pods whose interior surfaces are treated with acoustic liner. The concept is meant to achieve maximum noise reduction so that main landing gears can be eliminated as a major source of airframe noise. By applying this concept to an aircraft configuration with 2025 entry-into-service technology levels, it is shown that compared to noise levels of current technology, the main gear noise can be reduced by 10 EPNL dB, bringing the main gear noise close to a floor established by other components such as the nose gear. The assessment of the noise reduction potential accounts for design features for the advanced aircraft configuration and includes the effects of local flow velocity in and around the pods, gear noise reflection from the airframe, and reflection and attenuation from acoustic liner treatment on pod surfaces and doors. A technical roadmap for maturing this concept is discussed, and the possible drag increase at cruise due to the addition of the pods is identified as a challenge, which needs to be quantified and minimized possibly with the combination of detailed design and application of drag reduction technologies.

  16. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  17. Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment.

  18. Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S, E-mail: sjchung@illinois.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment.

  19. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  20. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  1. Study of fuel systems for LH2-fueled subsonic transport aircraft, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Riple, J. C.; Baerst, C. F.; Garmong, G.

    1978-01-01

    Several engine concepts examined to determine a preferred design which most effectively exploits the characteristics of hydrogen fuel in aircraft tanks received major emphasis. Many candidate designs of tank structure and cryogenic insulation systems were evaluated. Designs of all major elements of the aircraft fuel system including pumps, lines, valves, regulators, and heat exchangers received attention. Selected designs of boost pumps to be mounted in the LH2 tanks, and of a high pressure pump to be mounted on the engine were defined. A final design of LH2-fueled transport aircraft was established which incorporates a preferred design of fuel system. That aircraft was then compared with a conventionally fueled counterpart designed to equivalent technology standards.

  2. Plotting the Flight Envelope of an Unmanned Aircraft System Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glīzde Nikolajs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. One of the design process steps in the preliminary design phase is the calculation of the flight envelope for the Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The results obtained will be used in the further design process. A flight envelope determines the minimum requirements for the object in Certification Specifications. The present situation does not impose any Certification Specification requirements for the class of the Unmanned Aircraft System under the development of the general European Union trend defined in the road map for the implementation of the Unmanned Aircraft System. However, operation in common European Aerospace imposes the necessity for regulations for micro class systems as well.

  3. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  4. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  5. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  6. THE PROBLEMS OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING TO TAKLE THE TASKS OF THE AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving of the aircraft continued airworthiness system is currently becoming of particular importance applied both to aircraft of domestic and foreign production, used in civil aviation of Russia. This article discusses the background and content of the tasks for long-haul aircraft continued airworthiness, which presents a challenge directly related to the provision of intensive, regular, economically viable, and safe operation of assigned airline fleet. A special place among the problems of continued airworthiness is held by the creation and organization of mechanisms and methods of resource status and age of the assigned airline fleet monitoring to manage its forecasting and timely updates. Not least important among the issues of resource and age structure monitoring to be considered is the need to improve the design of aircraft, taking into account preliminary technical and economic feasibility assessment of its modifications in the interests of the operator. A deep study of the contents of the monitoring allows to develop up-to-date methodological and scientific basis for building an integrated system of aircraft resource management and timing services. This system is developed based on the integrated approach that allows to provide a solution to the entire set of problems presented in this article and faced by professionals and scientists involved in the aircraft maintenance programs development on the stages of their design and manufacturing and long operation of aircraft continued airworthiness.

  7. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  8. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  9. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  10. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  11. Using heuristics to solve the dedicated aircraft recovery problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Larsen, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    schedules through a series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article describes an effective method to solve DARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of good quality in less than 10 seconds when...... applied to real flight schedules with disruptions from British Airways. The heuristic is able to consider delays, cancellations and reassignments simultaneously and balance the trade-off between these options. It is also demonstrated that different strategies can be applied to prioritize these options...

  12. OPTIMAL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOR AIRCRAFT APPROACHING THE AERODROME LANDING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Ivenin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research proposes a mathematical optimization approach of arriving aircraft traffic at the aerodrome zone. The airfield having two parallel runways, capable of operating independently of each other, is modeled. The incoming traffic of aircraft is described by a Poisson flow of random events. The arriving aircraft are distributed by the air traffic controller between two runways. There is one approach flight path for each runway. Both approach paths have a common starting point. Each approach path has a different length. The approach trajectories do not overlap. For each of the two approach procedures, the air traffic controller sets the average speed of the aircraft. The given model of airfield and airfield zone is considered as the two-channel system of mass service with refusals in service. Each of the two servicing units includes an approach trajectory, a glide path and a runway. The servicing unit can be in one of two states – free and busy. The probabilities of the states of the servicing units are described by the Kolmogorov system of differential equations. The number of refusals in service on the simulated time interval is used as criterion for assessment of mass service system quality of functioning. This quality of functioning criterion is described by an integral functional. The functions describing the distribution of aircraft flows between the runways, as well as the functions describing the average speed of the aircraft, are control parameters. The optimization problem consists in finding such values of the control parameters for which the value of the criterion functional is minimal. To solve the formulated optimization problem, the L.S. Pontryagin maximum principle is applied. The form of the Hamiltonian function and the conjugate system of differential equations is given. The structure of optimal control has been studied for two different cases of restrictions on the control of the distribution of incoming aircraft

  13. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  14. Dosemetry for exposures to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft - Part 1: Conceptual basis for measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The Directive requires account to be taken of the exposure of aircraft crew liable to receive more than 1 mSv per year. It then identifies the following four protection measures: (i) to assess the exposure of the crew concerned; (ii) to take into account the assessed exposure, when organizing working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed crew; (iii) to inform the workers concerned of the health risks their work involves; and (iv) to apply the same special protection during pregnancy to female crew in respect of the 'child to be born' as to other female workers. The EU Council Directive has already been incorporated into laws and regulations of EU Member States and is being included in the aviation safety standards and procedures of the Joint Aviation Authorities and the European Air Safety Agency. For regulatory and legislative purposes, the radiation protection quantities of interest are equivalent dose (to the foetus) and effective dose. The cosmic radiation exposure of the body is essentially uniform and the maternal abdomen provides no effective shielding to the foetus. As a result, the magnitude of equivalent dose to the foetus can be put equal to that of the effective dose received by the mother. Doses on board aircraft are generally predictable, and events comparable to unplanned exposure in other radiological workplaces cannot normally occur (with the rare exceptions of extremely intense and energetic solar particle events). Personal dosemeters for

  15. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  16. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Burdette, David; Jonsson, Eirikur; Kennedy, Graeme J.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate new airframe technologies we need design tools based on high-fidelity models that consider multidisciplinary interactions early in the design process. The overarching goal of this NRA is to develop tools that enable high-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft configurations, and to apply these tools to the design of high aspect ratio flexible wings. We develop a geometry engine that is capable of quickly generating conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations including the internal structure. This geometry engine features adjoint derivative computation for efficient gradient-based optimization. We also added overset capability to a computational fluid dynamics solver, complete with an adjoint implementation and semiautomatic mesh generation. We also developed an approach to constraining buffet and started the development of an approach for constraining utter. On the applications side, we developed a new common high-fidelity model for aeroelastic studies of high aspect ratio wings. We performed optimal design trade-o s between fuel burn and aircraft weight for metal, conventional composite, and carbon nanotube composite wings. We also assessed a continuous morphing trailing edge technology applied to high aspect ratio wings. This research resulted in the publication of 26 manuscripts so far, and the developed methodologies were used in two other NRAs. 1

  17. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  18. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 1; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers) and also helps improve absolute calibration. Additionally, this paper introduces an alternate way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has some benefits over conventional analyses. It is accomplished by using the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  19. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part I: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It also allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers). Additionally, this paper introduces a novel way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has several benefits over conventional analyses. In the new approach, absolute calibration is completed by inspecting the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  20. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  1. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  2. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  3. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  4. Fuel cell climatic tests designed for new configured aircraft application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begot, Sylvie; Harel, Fabien; Candusso, Denis; Francois, Xavier; Pera, Marie-Cecile; Yde-Andersen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators.

  5. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  6. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  7. Fuel cell climatic tests designed for new configured aircraft application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begot, Sylvie; Pera, Marie-Cecile [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Franche-Comte Electronique Mecanique Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies (FEMTO-ST), Departement energie et ingenierie des systemes multiphysiques (ENISYS), Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 6174, University of Franche-Comte (UFC) (France); Harel, Fabien; Candusso, Denis [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (INRETS), Transports and Environment Laboratory (LTE), Laboratory for New Technologies (LTN) (France); Francois, Xavier [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FC LAB, University of Technology Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM) (France); Yde-Andersen, Steen [IRD Fuel Cells A/S, Kullinggade 31, 5700 Svendborg (Denmark)

    2010-07-15

    The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators. (author)

  8. Erosion Testing of Coatings for V-22 Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Richardson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity (183 m/sec sand erosion tests in a wind tunnel were conducted to evaluate developmental coatings from three separate companies under funding by the Navy's phase I small business innovative research program. The purpose of the coatings was to address a particular problem the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft (Osprey was having with regard to ingestion of sand particles by a titanium impeller that was associated with the aircraft's environmental control system. The three coatings that were deposited on titanium substrates and erosion-tested included (1 SixCy/DLC multilayers deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD; (2 WC/TaC/TiC processed by electrospark deposition; and (3 polymer ceramic mixtures applied by means of an aqueous synthesis. The erosion test results are presented; they provided the basis for assessing the suitability of some of these coatings for the intended application.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  10. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  11. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  12. Retooling CFD for hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kutler, Paul; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1987-01-01

    The CFD facility requirements of hypersonic aircraft configuration design development are different from those thus far employed for reentry vehicle design, because (1) the airframe and the propulsion system must be fully integrated to achieve the desired performance; (2) the vehicle must be reusable, with minimum refurbishment requirements between flights; and (3) vehicle performance must be optimized for a wide range of Mach numbers. An evaluation is presently made of flow resolution within shock waves, transition and turbulence phenomenon tractability, chemical reaction modeling, and hypersonic boundary layer transition, with state-of-the-art CFD.

  13. Aircraft Icing Handbook. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Maryland - . . . Kohiman Aviation, Lawrence , Kansas Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio .I --- t-r 1-- - -t I.Q,,- t ../e . Pratt and Whitney...lower; about six percent at -22 ’F (-30 *C). 1.2.3 Variations with Season The summer or warm season months create large warm air masses which can...on Aircraft Surfaces," NASA TM 87184, May 1986. 2-54 Hausman , R.J. and Turnock, S.R., "Investigation of Surface Water Behavior During Glaze Ice

  14. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  15. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  16. New entrants and overcapacity: lessons from regional aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial aircraft manufacturing industry has been largely dominated by the advanced economies in North America and Western Europe. During recent decades, several emerging economies have invested heavily in the commercial aircraft industry, notably in regional aircraft manufacturing. This paper

  17. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  18. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  19. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  20. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 62 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 64 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...what several executives referred to as the “perfect storm” now blowing through the aviation market . With this information many questions remain: Will

  1. Making Aircraft Vortices Visible to Radar by Spraying Water into the Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices pose a danger to following aircraft during take-off and landing. This necessitates spacing rules, based on aircraft type, to be enforced during approach in IFR (Instrument Flight Regulations) conditions; this can limit airport capacity. To help choose aircraft spacing based on the actual location and strength of the wake, it is proposed that wake vortices can be detected using conventional precipitation and cloud radars. This is enabled by spraying a small quantity water into the wake from near the wing. The vortex strength is revealed by the doppler velocity of the droplets. In the present work, droplet size distributions produced by nozzles used for aerial spraying are considered. Droplet trajectory and evaporation in the flow-field is numerically calculated for a heavy aircraft, followed by an evaluation of radar reflectivity at 6 nautical miles behind the aircraft. Small droplets evaporate away while larger droplets fall out of the wake. In the humid conditions that typically prevail during IFR, a sufficient number of droplets remain in the wake and give good signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). For conditions of average humidity, higher frequency radars combined with spectral processing gives good SNR.

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  3. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  4. 41 CFR 301-70.801 - When may we authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel on Government aircraft only as follows: (a) For official travel when— (1) No scheduled commercial... in accordance with §§ 301-10.262(a) and 301-70.803(a). (c) For space available travel when— (1) The... to travel space available under 10 U.S.C. 4744 and regulations implementing that statute. ...

  5. 41 CFR 102-33.315 - What are the procedures for mutilating unsalvageable aircraft parts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Advisory Circular 21-38, “Disposition of Unsalvageable Aircraft Parts and Materials,” available from the... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT..., remove the serial/lot/part numbers, and cut, crush, grind, melt, burn, or use other means to prevent the...

  6. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  7. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  8. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  9. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter...

  10. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. [67 FR 8350, Feb. 22, 2002] ...

  11. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  12. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... business of the Federal Government or used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the...

  13. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an ‘antifreeze’ solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40–50% — and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15–30% lower footprint than using ‘bio’ de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: ► Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. ► Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40–50%. ► Recycling ‘fossil’ de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling ‘bio’ de-icer.

  14. Static Aeroelastic and Longitudinal Trim Model of Flexible Wing Aircraft Using Finite-Element Vortex-Lattice Coupled Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.

  15. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  16. Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization of a Composite Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Charles Maxwell

    A multidisciplinary shape optimization tool coupling aerodynamics, structure, and performance was developed for battery powered aircraft. Utilizing high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics analysis tools and a structural wing weight tool, coupled based on the multidisciplinary feasible optimization architecture; aircraft geometry is modified in the optimization of the aircraft's range or endurance. The developed tool is applied to three geometries: a hybrid blended wing body, delta wing UAS, the ONERA M6 wing, and a modified ONERA M6 wing. First, the optimization problem is presented with the objective function, constraints, and design vector. Next, the tool's architecture and the analysis tools that are utilized are described. Finally, various optimizations are described and their results analyzed for all test subjects. Results show that less computationally expensive inviscid optimizations yield positive performance improvements using planform, airfoil, and three-dimensional degrees of freedom. From the results obtained through a series of optimizations, it is concluded that the newly developed tool is both effective at improving performance and serves as a platform ready to receive additional performance modules, further improving its computational design support potential.

  17. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor nuclear containment for aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukreja, Mukesh [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: mrkukreja@yahoo.com

    2005-08-01

    Safety assessment of Indian nuclear containments has been carried out for aircraft impact. The loading time history for Boeing and Airbus categories of aircrafts is generated based on the principle of momentum transfer of crushable aircrafts. The case studies include the analysis of BWR Mark III containment as a benchmark problem and analyses of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor containment (inner and outer containment) for impulsive loading due to aircraft impact. Initially, the load is applied on outer containment wall model and subsequently the load is transferred to inner containment after the local perforation of the outer containment wall is noticed in the transient simulation. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behavior of double containment walls and multi barrier structural configurations for aircraft impact with higher energies. The present analysis illustrates that with the provision of double containments for Indian nuclear power plants, adequate reserve strength is available for the case of an extremely low probability event of missile impact generated due to the commercial aircrafts operated in India.

  18. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  19. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor nuclear containment for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreja, Mukesh

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of Indian nuclear containments has been carried out for aircraft impact. The loading time history for Boeing and Airbus categories of aircrafts is generated based on the principle of momentum transfer of crushable aircrafts. The case studies include the analysis of BWR Mark III containment as a benchmark problem and analyses of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor containment (inner and outer containment) for impulsive loading due to aircraft impact. Initially, the load is applied on outer containment wall model and subsequently the load is transferred to inner containment after the local perforation of the outer containment wall is noticed in the transient simulation. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behavior of double containment walls and multi barrier structural configurations for aircraft impact with higher energies. The present analysis illustrates that with the provision of double containments for Indian nuclear power plants, adequate reserve strength is available for the case of an extremely low probability event of missile impact generated due to the commercial aircrafts operated in India

  20. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  1. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. C.; Bentley, R. D.; Horwood, N. A.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H.; Jones, J. B. L.; Powell, D.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  2. Development of Stitched Composite Structure for Advanced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn; Przekop, Adam; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew; Velicki, Alex; Linton, Kim; Wu, Hsi-Yung; Baraja, Jaime; Thrash, Patrick; Hoffman, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop technologies which will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composites. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building blocks were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. These building blocks addressed tension, compression, and pressure loading conditions. The emphasis of the development work has been to assess the loading capability, damage arrestment features, repairability, post-buckling behavior, and response of PRSEUS flat panels to out-of plane pressure loading. The results of this building-block program from coupons through an 80%-scale pressure box have demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. This development program shows that the PRSEUS benefits are also applicable to traditional tube-andwing aircraft, those of advanced configurations, and other

  3. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  4. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors' expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm -2 is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm -2 . The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO x emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from -0.67 to 0.25 Wm -2 in summer a/nd from -0.36 to 0.21 Wm -2 in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO x and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months

  5. Set-membership fault detection under noisy environment with application to the detection of abnormal aircraft control surface positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houda Thabet, Rihab; Combastel, Christophe; Raïssi, Tarek; Zolghadri, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The paper develops a set membership detection methodology which is applied to the detection of abnormal positions of aircraft control surfaces. Robust and early detection of such abnormal positions is an important issue for early system reconfiguration and overall optimisation of aircraft design. In order to improve fault sensitivity while ensuring a high level of robustness, the method combines a data-driven characterisation of noise and a model-driven approach based on interval prediction. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation results obtained based on data recorded in several flight scenarios of a highly representative aircraft benchmark.

  6. Knowledge-Based Aircraft Automation: Managers Guide on the use of Artificial Intelligence for Aircraft Automation and Verification and Validation Approach for a Neural-Based Flight Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this report was to integrate the powerful tools of artificial intelligence into the traditional process of software development. To maintain the US aerospace competitive advantage, traditional aerospace and software engineers need to more easily incorporate the technology of artificial intelligence into the advanced aerospace systems being designed today. The future goal was to transition artificial intelligence from an emerging technology to a standard technology that is considered early in the life cycle process to develop state-of-the-art aircraft automation systems. This report addressed the future goal in two ways. First, it provided a matrix that identified typical aircraft automation applications conducive to various artificial intelligence methods. The purpose of this matrix was to provide top-level guidance to managers contemplating the possible use of artificial intelligence in the development of aircraft automation. Second, the report provided a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the traditional process of software development. The matrix was developed by organizing the discipline of artificial intelligence into the following six methods: logical, object representation-based, distributed, uncertainty management, temporal and neurocomputing. Next, a study of existing aircraft automation applications that have been conducive to artificial intelligence implementation resulted in the following five categories: pilot-vehicle interface, system status and diagnosis, situation assessment, automatic flight planning, and aircraft flight control. The resulting matrix provided management guidance to understand artificial intelligence as it applied to aircraft automation. The approach taken to develop a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the software engineering life cycle was to start with the existing software quality assurance standards and to change these standards to include neural network

  7. A Study on External Fire Damage of Structures subjected to Aircraft Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A large commercial aircraft consists of various components as fuselage, wings, fuel tank, engine etc. During a collision of the aircraft, the fuel tank with a large amount of jet fuel have a significant effect on the total load of the aircraft as well as causing explosive fire and smoke which affect the safety of the structure and equipment. US Sandia National Laboratories and Finland VTT etc. performed the test and simulation studies to evaluate the dispersion range of the fluid after the crash of liquid filled cylinder missiles. The test condition and results have been referred in this paper. The fluid modeling approach using SPH is applied to evaluate the dispersing range of the fluid, and is compared with the Brown's results. The jet fuel is idealized as particles contained in an aluminum cylinder missile, where those particles can be dispersed to the surrounding area after the missile crashes into a rigid target. The fluid model using the SPH method is briefly verified through comparison with test results, and then the modelling method is applied to a jet fuel model in an aircraft model. The dispersion analysis of jet fuel caused by aircraft impact is performed using an aircraft model for the determination of fire duration and fire affected zone in a nuclear power plant. Finally, the structural integrity of the roof of the structure during a jet fuel fire is evaluated. In this study, the filled jet fuel was modeled by using smooth particle hydrodynamics technique; jet fuel spread area following an aircraft crash was analyzed

  8. A Study on External Fire Damage of Structures subjected to Aircraft Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A large commercial aircraft consists of various components as fuselage, wings, fuel tank, engine etc. During a collision of the aircraft, the fuel tank with a large amount of jet fuel have a significant effect on the total load of the aircraft as well as causing explosive fire and smoke which affect the safety of the structure and equipment. US Sandia National Laboratories and Finland VTT etc. performed the test and simulation studies to evaluate the dispersion range of the fluid after the crash of liquid filled cylinder missiles. The test condition and results have been referred in this paper. The fluid modeling approach using SPH is applied to evaluate the dispersing range of the fluid, and is compared with the Brown's results. The jet fuel is idealized as particles contained in an aluminum cylinder missile, where those particles can be dispersed to the surrounding area after the missile crashes into a rigid target. The fluid model using the SPH method is briefly verified through comparison with test results, and then the modelling method is applied to a jet fuel model in an aircraft model. The dispersion analysis of jet fuel caused by aircraft impact is performed using an aircraft model for the determination of fire duration and fire affected zone in a nuclear power plant. Finally, the structural integrity of the roof of the structure during a jet fuel fire is evaluated. In this study, the filled jet fuel was modeled by using smooth particle hydrodynamics technique; jet fuel spread area following an aircraft crash was analyzed.

  9. A fully adaptive hybrid optimization of aircraft engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L.; Druez, B.; Lecerf, N.

    2009-10-01

    A new fully adaptive hybrid optimization method (AHM) has been developed and applied to an industrial problem in the field of the aircraft engine industry. The adaptivity of the coupling between a global search by a population-based method (Genetic Algorithms or Evolution Strategies) and the local search by a descent method has been particularly emphasized. On various analytical test cases, the AHM method overperforms the original global search method in terms of computational time and accuracy. The results obtained on the industrial case have also confirmed the interest of AHM for the design of new and original solutions in an affordable time.

  10. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  11. Impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameris, M; Sausen, R; Grewe, V; Koehler, I; Ponater, M [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Steil, B [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Bruehl, Ch [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A hierarchy of models of different complexity has been applied to estimate the impact of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions on atmospheric chemistry. The global circulation model ECHAM3 has been coupled with two types of chemistry modules. The first of these describes only a simplified (linear) NO{sub x} and HNO{sub 3} chemistry while the second one is a comprehensive chemistry module (CHEM), describing tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry including photochemical reactions and heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosols and PSCs. The module CHEM has been coupled either off-line or with feedback via the ozone concentration. First results of multilayer integrations (over decades) are discussed. (author) 27 refs.

  12. Impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameris, M.; Sausen, R.; Grewe, V.; Koehler, I.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Steil, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Bruehl, Ch. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A hierarchy of models of different complexity has been applied to estimate the impact of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions on atmospheric chemistry. The global circulation model ECHAM3 has been coupled with two types of chemistry modules. The first of these describes only a simplified (linear) NO{sub x} and HNO{sub 3} chemistry while the second one is a comprehensive chemistry module (CHEM), describing tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry including photochemical reactions and heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosols and PSCs. The module CHEM has been coupled either off-line or with feedback via the ozone concentration. First results of multilayer integrations (over decades) are discussed. (author) 27 refs.

  13. 19 CFR 122.30 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.30 Section 122.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.30 Other Customs laws and regulations...

  14. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  15. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  16. Ambient dose equivalent H*(d) - an appropriate philosophy for radiation monitoring onboard aircraft and in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Hajek, M.; Berger, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with the ambient dose equivalent H * (d) and their application for onboard Aircraft and Space station. The discussion and the carried out experiments demonstrated that the philosophy of H * (10) leads to an underestimation of the whole-body radiation exposure when applied onboard aircraft and in space. It therefore has to be considered to introduce a new concept that could be based on microdosimetric principles, offering the unique potential of a more direct correlation to radiobiological parameters

  17. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  18. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  19. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11... AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for recording, a conveyance must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of Transportation, Post Office...

  20. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...

  1. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach...

  2. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and..., contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772) 567-4361...

  3. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of... than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for violation of section...

  4. AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS AS AN AUTOMATION OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Zhmurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of designing aviation electrical power systems (EPS is related to the need to fulfill a number of requirements of normative and technical documents and to conduct a large number of calculations. Experience has shown that it is not possible to obtain reliable initial data on the nature and magnitude of electricity consumption by electricity receivers (end users at the early stages of design. The composition of the electric power receivers and the power consumption of electricity during the design process are repeatedly changed. This leads to the need to repeatedly perform tasks related to the synthesis of primary and secondary systems of generation and calculation.The desire to improve the efficiency of EPS led to the emergence of new standardized types of electrical energy - 270 V DC and 380 V three-phase AC of stable and unstable frequency. It follows that it is possible to implement a rather large number of options for EPS structures, and there may be several secondary EPS or, in general, EPS of a third or higher level.The lack of ready-made aviation energy converters implies the impossibility of using ready-made components, and the development of specific devices should be coordinated with the development of EPS. In this case, one of the results of EPS design will be a set of requirements for the devices and units of the EPS projected.In any case, the design process for EPS aircraft requires a lot of iterations that take into account the change in both the raw data and the constraints on the EPS elements and the design process itself.The traditional approach to the design of EPS aircraft, assuming the knowledge of the designer of dozens of GOSTs (State All-Union standards and OSTs (All-Union standarts regulating the design stages of EPS, as well as the existence of standard EPS structures, from which a specific choice is made, is practically impossible at present. The only way to consciously approach the problem of designing EPS

  5. Modelling of the automatic stabilization system of the aircraft course by a fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonova, T.; Syryamkin, V.; Vasilyeva, T.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of the present paper concerns the development of a fuzzy model of the system of an aircraft course stabilization. In this work modelling of the aircraft course stabilization system with the application of fuzzy logic is specified. Thus the authors have used the data taken for an ordinary passenger plane. As a result of the study the stabilization system models were realised in the environment of Matlab package Simulink on the basis of the PID-regulator and fuzzy logic. The authors of the paper have shown that the use of the method of artificial intelligence allows reducing the time of regulation to 1, which is 50 times faster than the time when standard receptions of the management theory are used. This fact demonstrates a positive influence of the use of fuzzy regulation.

  6. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John; Dedecker, Craig; Doerer, Robert; Dols, Jonathan; Ekwall, Bengt; Heck, Mark; Jungco, Rolando; Koch, David; Lolley, James; Matyi, Kyle; McCaffrey, Terrance; Provost, Carla; Snyder, Daniel; Szucs, Jozsef; Truhn, Harry; Tyler, J. R

    2008-01-01

    .... With the exception of the relatively less mature unmanned aircraft systems sector, significant changes to the number and identity of competing firms are not likely in the next few years, although...

  7. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  8. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  9. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  10. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  11. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  12. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  13. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  14. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or waters...

  15. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Govinda Raju. Aircraft of various types are necessary for meeting the ... configuration is thoroughly evaluated for performance, stabil- ity and controllability .... Specialised tests, like those for measuring various stability de- rivatives involve ...

  16. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  17. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  18. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  19. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  20. Aircraft 4D trajectories planning under uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Chaimatanan , Supatcha; Delahaye , Daniel; Mongeau , Marcel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To sustain the rapidly increasing air traffic demand, the future air traffic management system will rely on a concept, called Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), that will require aircraft to follow an assigned 4D trajectory (time-constrained trajectory) with high precision. TBO involves separating aircraft via strategic (long-term) trajectory deconfliction rather than the currently-practicing tactical (short-term) conflict resolution. In this context, this paper presen...

  1. Pathfinder-Plus aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Pathfinder-Plus solar-powered aircraft is shown taking off from a runway, then flying at low altitude over the ocean. The vehicle, which looks like a flying ruler, operates at low airspeed. Among the missions proposed for a solar-powered aircraft are communications relay, atmospheric studies, pipeline monitoring and gas leak detection, environmental monitoring using thermal and radar images, and disaster relief and monitoring.

  2. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič

    2017-01-01

    In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...

  3. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-01-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories – policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop sever...

  4. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  5. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  6. Method of test signal design for estimating the aircraft aerodynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokon', S. A.; Zolotukhin, Yu. N.; Filippov, M. N.

    2017-07-01

    A method of test signal design is proposed for studying the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics with the use of the technology of dynamically scaled free-flight models. Simultaneous excitation of all input channels in a prescribed frequency band by a set of mutually orthogonal signals is applied to increase the efficiency. A modified method of calculating the set of mutually orthogonal sinusoidal signals with a small normalized peak factor is presented. Results of simulating the aircraft motion in the MATLAB/Simulink environment with the use of the developed method of test signal design are reported.

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.210 - How do we account for the use of our Government aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting...., the Governmental function that the aircraft was dispatched to perform); (d) Departure and destination...

  8. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  9. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  10. 32 CFR 37.1220 - Applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applied research. 37.1220 Section 37.1220... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1220 Applied research..., Development, Test and Evaluation programs within Budget Activity 2, Applied Research (also known informally as...

  11. Multi-sensor fusion with interacting multiple model filter for improved aircraft position accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taehwan; Lee, Changho; Choi, Sangbang

    2013-03-27

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), multilateration (MLAT) and wide-area multilateration (WAM) systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  12. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  13. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the

  14. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as...

  15. On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System Issues, Challenges, Operational Restrictions, Certification, and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos; Piegl, Les A

    2012-01-01

    This book presents, in a comprehensive way, current unmanned aviation regulation, airworthiness certification, special aircraft categories, pilot certification, federal aviation requirements, operation rules, airspace classes and regulation development models. It discusses unmanned aircraft systems levels of safety derived mathematically based on the corresponding levels for manned aviation. It provides an overview of the history and current status of UAS airworthiness and operational regulation worldwide. Existing regulations have been developed considering the need for a complete regulatory framework for UAS. It focuses on UAS safety assessment and functional requirements, achieved in terms of defining an “Equivalent Level of Safety”, or ELOS, with that of manned aviation, specifying what the ELOS requirement entails for UAS regulations. To accomplish this, the safety performance of manned aviation is first evaluated, followed by a novel model to derive reliability requirements for achieving target lev...

  16. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  17. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  18. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  19. RF Coupling into the Fuel Tank of a Large Transport Aircraft from Intentionally Transmitting Peds in the Passenger Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Ely, Jay J.; Richardson, Robert E.; Hatfield, Michael O.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the potential for radio frequency (RF) power radiated from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) to create an arcing/sparking event within the fuel tank of a large transport aircraft. This paper describes the experimental methods used for measuring RF coupling to the fuel tank and Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) wiring from PED sources located in the passenger cabin. To allow comparison of voltage/current data obtained in a laboratory chamber FQIS installation to an actual aircraft FQIS installation, aircraft fuel tank RF reverberation characteristics were also measured. Results from the measurements, along with a survey of threats from typical intentional transmitting PEDs are presented. The resulting worst-case power coupled onto fuel tank FQIS wiring is derived. The same approach can be applied to measure RF coupling into various other aircraft systems.

  20. Safety assurance of non-deterministic flight controllers in aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Alfonso

    Loss of control is a serious problem in aviation that primarily affects General Aviation. Technological advancements can help mitigate the problem, but the FAA certification process makes certain solutions economically unfeasible. This investigation presents the design of a generic adaptive autopilot that could potentially lead to a single certification for use in several makes and models of aircraft. The autopilot consists of a conventional controller connected in series with a robust direct adaptive model reference controller. In this architecture, the conventional controller is tuned once to provide outer-loop guidance and navigation to a reference model. The adaptive controller makes unknown aircraft behave like the reference model, allowing the conventional controller to successfully provide navigation without the need for retuning. A strong theoretical foundation is presented as an argument for the safety and stability of the controller. The stability proof of direct adaptive controllers require that the plant being controlled has no unstable transmission zeros and has a nonzero high frequency gain. Because most conventional aircraft do not readily meet these requirements, a process known as sensor blending was used. Sensor blending consists of using a linear combination of the plant's outputs that has no unstable transmission zeros and has a nonzero high frequency gain to drive the adaptive controller. Although this method does not present a problem for regulators, it can lead to a steady state error in tracking applications. The sensor blending theory was expanded to take advantage of the system's dynamics to allow for zero steady state error tracking. This method does not need knowledge of the specific system's dynamics, but instead uses the structure of the A and B matrices to perform the blending for the general case. The generic adaptive autopilot was tested in two high-fidelity nonlinear simulators of two typical General Aviation aircraft. The results

  1. Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rachelle Lea

    2005-12-01

    Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from

  2. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  3. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  4. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  5. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  6. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  7. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  8. CORRELATION OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1944 AND THE PEKING CONVENTION OF 2010 IN THE FIELD OF THE MISUSE OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. . Luli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue concerning the international legal problem of using armed forces to counter the threats posed by the misuse of civil aircraft, in particular, the use of civil aircraft as a weapon to kill people and destroy objects on the territory of States (the events of 11th September 2001 in the USA. It proves the need for universal international legal norms regulating the actions of States to prevent and suppress acts of the misuse of civil aircraft.

  9. Analytic Solution to the Problem of Aircraft Electric Field Mill Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2003-12-01

    possible to solve for a single 2m-vector b that provides all other needed variables (i.e., the unknown fair weather field, the unknown aircraft charge, and the unknown matrix M). To avoid retrieving the trivial solution b = 0, appropriate external constraints are applied. Numerical tests of the solution, effects of measurement errors, and studies of solution non-uniqueness are ongoing as of this writing.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  11. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  12. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  13. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  14. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  15. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Fábry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.

  16. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  17. Inductive Sensor for Lightning Current Measurement, Fitted in Aircraft Windows-Part I: Analysis for a Circular Window

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Deursen, A.P.J.; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 199-204 ISSN 1530-437X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lightning * inductive sensor * aircraft * window * viewport Subject RIV: JB - Sensors , Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  18. 41 CFR 301-70.904 - Must travelers whom we carry on Government aircraft be authorized to travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flight in which they are also traveling (i.e., being transported from point to point) are considered... carry on Government aircraft be authorized to travel? 301-70.904 Section 301-70.904 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY...

  19. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck Sound...

  20. 22 CFR 126.6 - Foreign-owned military aircraft and naval vessels, and the Foreign Military Sales program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign-owned military aircraft and naval vessels, and the Foreign Military Sales program. 126.6 Section 126.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.6 Foreign-owned military...

  1. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  2. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  3. Optical wireless networked-systems: applications to aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on leveraging the progress in semiconductor technologies to facilitate production of efficient light-based in-flight entertainment (IFE), distributed sensing, navigation and control systems. We demonstrate the ease of configuring "engineered pipes" using cheap lenses, etc. to achieve simple linear transmission capacity growth. Investigation of energy-efficient, miniaturized transceivers will create a wireless medium, for both inter and intra aircrafts, providing enhanced security, and improved quality-of-service for communications links in greater harmony with onboard systems. The applications will seamlessly inter-connect multiple intelligent devices in a network that is deployable for aircrafts navigation systems, onboard sensors and entertainment data delivery systems, and high-definition audio-visual broadcasting systems. Recent experimental results on a high-capacity infrared (808 nm) system are presented. The light source can be applied in a hybrid package along with a visible lighting LED for both lighting and communications. Also, we present a pragmatic combination of light communications through "Spotlighting" and existing onboard power-lines. It is demonstrated in details that a high-capacity IFE visible light system communicating over existing power-lines (VLC/PLC) may lead to savings in many areas through reduction of size, weight and energy consumption. This paper addresses the challenges of integrating optimized optical devices in the variety of environments described above, and presents mitigation and tailoring approaches for a multi-purpose optical network.

  4. Neural network application to aircraft control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using artificial neural network as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.

  5. Neural network application to aircraft control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using artificial neural networks as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research are identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.

  6. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F; Jacquin, L; Laverdant, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  7. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  8. Preliminary Correlations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gómez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS is currently undergoing a noteworthy expansion. The diverse types of missions that these aircraft can accomplish, both in military and civil environments, have motivated an increase of interest in their study and applications. The methods chosen to develop this study are based on the statistical analysis of a database including numerous models of RPAS and the estimation of different correlations in order to develop a design method for rapid sizing of H-tail RPAS. Organizing the information of the database according to relevant characteristics, information relative to the state-of-the-art design tendencies can be extracted, which can serve to take decisions relative to the aerodynamic configuration or the power plant in the first phases of the design project. Furthermore, employing statistical correlations estimated from the database, a design method for rapid-sizing of H-tail RPAS has been conducted, which will be focused on the sizing of the wing and tail surfaces. The resulting method has been tested by applying it to an example case so as to validate the proposed procedure.

  9. Fiber-Optic Sensor for Aircraft Lightning Current Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George G.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    An electric current sensor based on Faraday rotation effect in optical fiber was developed for measuring aircraft lightning current. Compared to traditional sensors, the design has many advantages including the ability to measure total current and to conform to structure geometries. The sensor is also small, light weight, non-conducting, safe from interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. Potential applications include characterization of lightning current waveforms, parameters and paths, and providing environmental data for aircraft certifications. In an optical fiber as the sensing medium, light polarization rotates when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. By forming closed fiber loops around a conductor and applying Ampere s law, measuring the total light rotation yields the enclosed current. A reflective polarimetric scheme is used, where polarization change is measured after the polarized light travels round-trip through the sensing fiber. The sensor system was evaluated measuring rocket-triggered lightning over the 2011 summer. Early results compared very well against a reference current shunt resistor, demonstrating the sensor s accuracy and feasibility in a lightning environment. While later comparisons show gradually increasing amplitude deviations for an undetermined cause, the overall waveforms still compared very well.

  10. Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.

  11. Computation of load functions for different types of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, Alexander; Henkel, Fritz-Otto

    2013-01-01

    In the presentation the influence of different parameters on the Ft-function were shown. The increase of the impact velocity shows for all aircraft a higher maximal load value and a reduced impact time. Due to the structural setup of the aircraft's the intensity is of these effects different. Comparing the Ft-function of A320, A340 and A380 for an impact velocity of 100 and 175 m/s no constant relation between them can be determined. • The variation of the flight direction with respect to the vertical axis shows a great influence on the Ft-function. A approximation by the cosine is especially for bigger rotations not correct. The influence of the rotation about the horizontal axis can be neglected. Finally the SPH-method was applied for the modelling of the fuel. The comparison to the discrete modelling approach was carried out for the Phantom F4. Thereby no big influence on the Ft-function is observed. For the evaluation of this modelling approach on the local damage the loaded area must be determined in further investigations

  12. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  13. Robust Aircraft Squadron Scheduling in the Face of Absenteeism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gokcen, Osman B

    2008-01-01

    Air Force fighter aircraft squadrons the world over share a unique problem. Each requires complex training schedules coupling aircraft to pilots, the duo to missions and airspaces, and then the entire combination to a feasible time slot...

  14. Visit to China's ARJ21 Aircraft Manufacturing Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balut, Stephen J; McNicol, David L; Nelson, J. R; Harmon, Bruce R; Holder, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    During a December 2007 visit to China to share information about civilian aircraft costs, a delegation from IDA visited the Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Facility where the commercial chinese ARJ21...

  15. Smart Patches for Monitoring Fatigue Crack Growth in Aircraft Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom

    2001-01-01

    A built-in cost-effective diagnostic system for monitoring crack growth in aircraft structures was developed, particularly for riveted fuselage joints and cracked aircraft parts with composite bonded patches...

  16. System for indicating fuel-efficient aircraft altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude at which an aircraft should fly so the W/d ratio (weight of the aircraft divided by the density of air) more closely approaches the optimum W/d for the aircraft. A passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft is directed at different angles with respect to the horizon to determine the air temperature, and therefore the density of the air, at different altitudes. The weight of the aircraft is known. The altitude of the aircraft is changed to fly the aircraft at an altitude at which is W/d ratio more closely approaches the optimum W/d ratio for that aircraft.

  17. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  18. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...

  19. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    ...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...

  1. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  2. Cost Valuation: A Model for Comparing Dissimilar Aircraft Platforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    .... A demonstration of the model's validity using aircraft and cost data from the Predator UAV and the F-16 was then performed to illustrate how it can be used to aid comparisons of dissimilar aircraft...

  3. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...

  4. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  5. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  6. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment of aircraft impact on a spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Belal, E-mail: balmomani@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon, E-mail: shlee1222@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, Dalgubeol-daero 1095, Dalseo-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dongchan, E-mail: dongchan.jang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: kangh6@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new risk assessment frame is proposed for aircraft impact into an interim dry storage. • It uses event tree analysis, response-structural analysis, consequence analysis, and Monte Carlo simulation. • A case study of the proposed procedure is presented to illustrate the methodology’s application. - Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic risk evaluation framework for one of the most significant impact events on an interim dry storage facility, an aircraft crash, by using a probabilistic approach. A realistic case study that includes a specific cask model and selected impact conditions is performed to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed framework. An event tree analysis of an occurred aircraft crash that defines a set of impact conditions and storage cask response is constructed. The Monte-Carlo simulation is employed for the probabilistic approach in consideration of sources of uncertainty associated with the impact loads onto the internal storage casks. The parameters for representing uncertainties that are managed probabilistically include the aircraft impact velocity, the compressive strength of the reinforced concrete wall, the missile shape factor, and the facility wall thickness. Failure probabilities of the impacted wall and a single storage cask under direct mechanical impact load caused by the aircraft crash are estimated. A finite element analysis is applied to simulate the postulated direct engine impact load onto the cask body, and a source term analysis for associated releases of radioactive materials as well as an off-site consequence analysis are performed. Finally, conditional risk contribution calculations are represented by an event tree model. Case study results indicate that no severe risk is presented, as the radiological consequences do not exceed regulatory exposure limits to the public. This risk model can be used with any other representative detailed parameters and reference design concepts for

  8. Review of Design Aspects and Challenges of Efficient and Quiet Amphibious Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Rhea P. Liem Ph.

    2018-04-01

    Apart from the commercial and military aviation sectors, the general aviation (GA) sector is expected to experience a rapid growth, especially in Asia. The increasing economic activities in the region would demand for more efficient and convenient transportation, which would open door to more GA services. This development would require sufficient infrastructure supports, including airports. However, insufficient land area has often imposed limitations in airport development. As such, some areas (e.g., remote islands) are not easily accessible by air. One implication is that travels can only be done via land or water, which might prolong the travel time. This applies to business travels, with the significant increase in business and economic activities, which in turns demands for more efficient and faster mobility. In other cases, this involves some rural areas where the infrastructures are not very well-developed, and where the geographical terrains are too challenging to build a pad for vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) air vehicles. Under such circumstances, it would be imperative to enable air travels to carry critical logistics such as medical supplies, food, and even sick patients. In this regard, we propose to develop a low-payload, low-altitude amphibious aircraft, which can takeoff and land on both water and land. Aircraft design process is a complex procedure and multidisciplinary in nature, and for amphibious aircraft design we need to consider the two takeoff and landing modes, which imposes further challenges to the design. In this paper we present two preliminary design projects, for two-seater and ten-seater aircraft. To design an efficient and quiet amphibious aircraft, we conduct some experiments on noise shielding mechanisms to reduce the propeller noise. The challenges and resulting designs are briefly discussed in this paper. Amphibious aircraft development will be very relevant to Indonesia, which is the world’s largest archipelago with

  9. 14 CFR 47.19 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19... REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or other communication sent to the FAA under this Part must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of...

  10. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  11. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  12. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of chafing of a new... flight, reinstall the fuel return line assembly (Cessna P/N 0516031-1) following Cessna Aircraft Company...

  13. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...

  14. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition... Fuel Return System Modification Do not install Cessna Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB 04- 28-03...

  15. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters. ...

  16. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  17. 78 FR 25363 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A... Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 20, 2012. The... Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 26, 2012. (2) If chafing...

  18. Future V/STOL Aircraft For The Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1992-01-01

    Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.

  19. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...

  20. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  1. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  2. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a... ``Public Aircraft Oversight Forum: Ensuring Safety for Critical Missions'', are to (1) raise awareness of...

  3. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  4. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...

  5. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  6. 78 FR 60656 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  7. 77 FR 52205 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and F-1A... inspection results. This new AD was prompted by a report of a Univair Aircraft Corporation Model ERCO 415-D...

  8. 77 FR 21402 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  9. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  10. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  11. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  12. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  13. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  14. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  16. Shimmy of Aircraft Main Landing Gears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The landing gear is an important aircraft system, which has to meet many different design requirements. It is a highly loaded structure, which is designed for minimum weight. Shimmy is a dynamic instability of the landing gear, which is caused by the interaction of the dynamic behaviour of the

  17. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  18. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  19. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines that an emission standard cannot be met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. (b...

  20. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429