WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulations affecting privacy

  1. Regulating Online Data Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Reid

    2004-01-01

    With existing data protection laws proving inadequate in the fight to protect online data privacy and with the offline law of privacy in a state of change and uncertainty, the search for an alternative solution to the important problem of online data privacy should commence. With the inherent problem of jurisdiction that the Internet presents, such a solution is best coming from a multi-national body with the power to approximate laws in as many jurisdictions as possible, with a recognised au...

  2. HIPPA privacy regulations: practical information for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, E B; Lee-Huber, T

    2001-07-01

    After much debate and controversy, the Bush administration announced on April 12, 2001, that it would implement the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations issued by the Clinton administration in December of 2000. The privacy regulations became effective on April 14, 2001. Although the regulations are considered final, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services has the power to modify the regulations at any time during the first year of implementation. These regulations affect how a patient's health information is used and disclosed, as well as how patients are informed of their privacy rights. As "covered entities," physicians have until April 14, 2003, to comply fully with the HIPAA privacy regulations, which are more than 1,500 pages in length. This article presents a basic overview of the new and complex regulations and highlights practical information about physicians' compliance with the regulations. However, this summary of the HIPAA privacy regulations should not be construed as legal advice or an opinion on specific situations. Please consult an attorney concerning your compliance with HIPAA and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

  3. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 261a [Docket No. R-1313] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees... records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the release of medical records to...

  4. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  5. ‘Regulating’ Online Data Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Reid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available With existing data protection laws proving inadequate in the fight to protect online data privacy and with the offline law of privacy in a state of change and uncertainty, the search for an alternative solution to the important problem of online data privacy should commence. With the inherent problem of jurisdiction that the Internet presents, such a solution is best coming from a multi-national body with the power to approximate laws in as many jurisdictions as possible, with a recognised authority and a functioning enforcement mechanism. The European Union is such a body and while existing data protection laws stem from the EU, they were neither tailored specifically for the Internet and the online world, nor do they fully harmonise the laws of the member states – an essential element in Internet regulation. Current laws face further problems with the ease and frequency of data transfers outwith the EU. An Internet specific online data privacy regulation would fully approximate the laws of the twenty five member states and, if suitably drafted, could perhaps, drawing upon EC competition jurisprudence, achieve a degree of extraterritoriality, thus combating the problem posed by transfers outwith the EU. Any solution, however, is dependant upon our political leaders having the political will and courage to reach and agreement upon any new law.

  6. Through Patients' Eyes: Regulation, Technology, Privacy, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2018-04-22

    Privacy is commonly regarded as a regulatory requirement achieved via technical and organizational management practices. Those working in the field of informatics often play a role in privacy preservation as a result of their expertise in information technology, workflow analysis, implementation science, or related skills. Viewing privacy from the perspective of patients whose protected health information is at risk broadens the considerations to include the perceived duality of privacy; the existence of privacy within a context unique to each patient; the competing needs inherent within privacy management; the need for particular consideration when data are shared; and the need for patients to control health information in a global setting. With precision medicine, artificial intelligence, and other treatment innovations on the horizon, health care professionals need to think more broadly about how to preserve privacy in a health care environment driven by data sharing. Patient-reported privacy preferences, privacy portability, and greater transparency around privacy-preserving functionalities are potential strategies for ensuring that privacy regulations are met and privacy is preserved. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  7. 75 FR 20298 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse and perform its other authorized duties and activities relating...--RATB Investigative Files'' and ``RATB--12--RATB Fraud Hotline Program Files,'' pursuant to the Privacy... 5 U.S.C. 552a: (1) From subsection (c)(3) because the release of accounting of disclosure would...

  8. Privacy and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology now enables firms to collect detailed and potentially intrusive data about their customers both easily and cheaply. This means that privacy concerns are no longer limited to government surveillance and public figures' private lives. The empirical literature on privacy regulation shows that privacy regulation may affect the extent and direction of data-based innovation. We also show that the impact of privacy regulation can be extremely heterogeneous. T...

  9. 76 FR 63896 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Privacy Training, 2010-013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... should a breach occur; and (7) Any agency-specific privacy training requirements. (d) The contractor is... Acquisition Regulation; Privacy Training, 2010-013 AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... contractors to complete training that addresses the protection of privacy, in accordance with the Privacy Act...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF PRIVACY REGULATION ON URBAN MALAY FAMILIES LIVING IN TERRACE HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmad Hashim

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on behavioral norms and territoriality as part of behavioral and environmental mechanisms used to regulate privacy among urban Malay families living in terrace housing. In-depth interview was employed involving 11 case studies of Malay families living in three-bedroom two-storey terrace housings in the urban areas. Findings indicate that while most of the behavioral norms employed to regulate privacy are consistent with Malay cultural norms and religious belief, there are a few which are not consistent due to the constraint of terrace housing. Defined territory and the need to respect the neighbors’ privacy are found to indirectly affect community intimacy among Malay families living in terrace housings.

  11. Behavioural Sciences and the Regulation of Privacy on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Alemanno, A.; Sibony, A.-L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the policy implications of behavioural sciences insights for the regulation of privacy on the Internet, by focusing in particular on behavioural targeting. This marketing technique involves tracking people’s online behaviour to use the collected information to show people

  12. Privacy in Digital Age: Dead or Alive?! Regarding the New EU Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Dorraji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To review and critically discuss the current state of privacy in the context of constant technological changes and to emphasize the pace of technological advancements and developments reached over the time when the last EU data protection laws came into effect. These facts inevitably affect the perception of privacy and raise the question of whether privacy is dead or takes the last breath in the digital age? This paper is an attempt to address this question.Design/Methodology/Approach – Based on the comparison and systematic analysis of scientific literature, the authors discuss problematic issues related to privacy and data protection in the technology era – where these issues are too complicated to be clearly regulated by laws and rules since “laws move as a function of years and technology moves as a function of months” (Ron Rivest. Therefore, this analytical approach towards the issue may help to facilitate reaching the best-fit decision in this area.Findings – The authors emphasize the change of perception of privacy, which originated and grew on the idea of “an integral part of our humanity”, the “heart of our liberty” and “the beginning of all freedoms” (Solove, 2008, leading to the recently raised idea that privacy is severely hanging with threat. The authors are of the opinion that legislation and regulation may be one of the best and effective techniques for protecting privacy in the twenty-first century, but it is not currently adequate (Wacks, 2012. One of the solutions lies in technology design.Research limitations/implications – The aspects of privacy and data protection in the European Union have been widely discussed recently because of their broad applicability. Therefore, it is hardly possible to review and cover all the important aspects of the issue. This article focuses on the roles of technology and legislation in securing privacy. The authors examine and provide their own views based on

  13. MODEL REGULATION FOR DATA PRIVACY IN THE APPLICATION OF BIOMETRIC SMART CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinta Dewi

    2017-03-01

    This article will explore data privacy model regulation which is intended to regulate and protect  data privacy. This  regulatory model  combining several approaches in managing data privacy, especially in using biometric smardcard. Firstly, through laws that enforces the principles and international standards. Secondly, through the market approach (market-based solution which is derived through industry associations to help protect consumer data privacy by applying privacy policy in the form of a statement that the industry will protect consumers' privacy by implementing fair information principles. Third, through technological approach such as PET's (privacy enchasing technology,  i.e the techniques for anonymous and pseudo-anonymous payment, communication, and web access. Fourthly, through corporate privacy rules.

  14. California's privacy pileup. New state laws meet even newer federal regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Chris

    2009-08-01

    In California, teasing apart state and federal breach notification laws highlights the challenges organizations everywhere face in determining their responsibilities under ARRA's new privacy regulations.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF PRIVACY REGULATION ON URBAN MALAY FAMILIES LIVING IN TERRACE HOUSING

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hariza Hashim; Zaiton Abdul Rahim

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on behavioral norms and territoriality as part of behavioral and environmental mechanisms used to regulate privacy among urban Malay families living in terrace housing. In-depth interview was employed involving 11 case studies of Malay families living in three-bedroom two-storey terrace housings in the urban areas. Findings indicate that while most of the behavioral norms employed to regulate privacy are consistent with Malay cultural norms and religious belief, there are a...

  16. Regulating genetic privacy in the online health information era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    As the clinical implications of the genetic components of disease come to be better understood, there is likely to be a significant increase in the volume of genetic information held within clinical records. As patient health care records, in turn, come on-line as part of broader health information networks, there is likely to be considerable pressure in favour of special laws protecting genetic privacy. This paper reviews some of the privacy challenges posed by electronic health records, some government initiatives in this area, and notes the impact that developments in genetic testing will have upon the 'genetic content' of e-health records. Despite the sensitivity of genetic information, the paper argues against a policy of 'genetic exceptionalism', and its implications for genetic privacy laws.

  17. Regulation of Unmanned Aerial Systems and Related Privacy Issues in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūraitė Aurelija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in Lithuania has significantly increased. However, enjoying the advantages of this technology, which improves society’s socio-economical safety (public safety in a broad sense, raises some privacy concerns. This article analyses European Union and national legal regulations regarding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as well as legal tools for defence of the right to privacy or prevention from its breaches in the Republic of Lithuania. Unmanned aerial vehicles have become popular only recently; thus, legislation regarding their use has not yet become a common topic among lawyers. Furthermore, case law of the Republic of Lithuania is silent about it. Thus, the authors model a situation of breach of privacy using an unmanned aerial vehicle and analyse possible defence mechanisms.

  18. Rethinking the Privacy Calculus: On the Role of Dispositional Factors and Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Flavius; Wentzel, Daniel; Mayer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Existing research on information privacy has mostly relied on the privacy calculus model which views privacy-related decision making as a rational process where individuals weigh the anticipated risks of disclosing personal data against the potential benefits. However, scholars have recently challenged two basic propositions of the privacy calculus model. First, some authors have distinguished between general and situational factors in the context of privacy calculus and have argued that ...

  19. A Certificate Authority (CA-based cryptographic solution for HIPAA privacy/security regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Ray

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA passed by the US Congress establishes a number of privacy/security regulations for e-healthcare systems. These regulations support patients’ medical privacy and secure exchange of PHI (protected health information among medical practitioners. Three existing HIPAA-based schemes have been studied but appear to be ineffective as patients’ PHI is stored in smartcards. Moreover, carrying a smartcard during a treatment session and accessing PHI from different locations results in restrictions. In addition, authentication of the smartcard presenter would not be possible if the PIN is compromised. In this context, we propose an MCS (medical center server should be located at each hospital and accessed via the Internet for secure handling of patients’ PHI. All entities of the proposed e-health system register online with the MCS, and each entity negotiates a contributory registration key, where public-key certificates issued and maintained by CAs are used for authentication. Prior to a treatment session, a doctor negotiates a secret session key with MCS and uploads/retrieves patients’ PHI securely. The proposed scheme has five phases, which have been implemented in a secure manner for supporting HIPAA privacy/security regulations. Finally, the security aspects, computation and communication costs of the scheme are analyzed and compared with existing methods that display satisfactory performance.

  20. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  1. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  2. Affect and person specificity in mood regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Corby, Emma Kate

    2007-01-01

    489 university students in three countries completed questionnaires in a study investigating affect and person specificity in the use of mood regulation strategies. The major aims of the study were to (1) describe the relationship between specific affective states and the strategies utilised, (2) explore the role that individual differences variables played in the tendency to use particular strategies, and (3) measure the impact that the use of different strategies had upon subjective well-b...

  3. Is Electronic Privacy Achievable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E; Levin, Timothy E

    2000-01-01

    ... individuals. The purpose of this panel was to focus on how new technologies are affecting privacy. Technologies that might adversely affect privacy were identified by Rein Turn at previous symposia...

  4. Office layout affecting privacy, interaction, and acoustic quality in LEED-certified buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young S. [School of Planning, Design, and Construction, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The study investigated differences in worker satisfaction and perceived job performance regarding privacy, interaction, and acoustic quality issues in personal workspaces between five office types in LEED-certified buildings. It finds that people in high cubicles showed significantly lower satisfaction and job performance in relation to visual privacy and interaction with co-workers than both enclosed private and enclosed shared office types. They also showed significantly lower satisfaction with noise level and sound privacy and lower job performance perceived by acoustic quality than enclosed private, enclosed shared, and bullpen types. The bullpen type, open-plan office without partitions, presented significantly higher satisfaction with noise level and higher performance perceived by acoustic quality than both high and low cubicles. Considering the bullpen type also showed higher satisfaction with sound privacy than the high cubicle type, high partitions don't seem to contribute to creating workspaces where people can have a secure conversation. The bullpen type didn't show any difference from the enclosed shared type in all privacy, interaction, and acoustic quality questions, indicating it may be a good option for a small office space instead of the enclosed shared type. (author)

  5. Do privacy and security regulations need a status update? Perspectives from an intergenerational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Stacey; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Peoples, Hayley A; Gutierrez, Amanda M; Majumder, Mary A; McGuire, Amy L; Rothstein, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information. 1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher) were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P privacy or security of online or health information (all P > 0.05). This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample. Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously.

  6. Do privacy and security regulations need a status update? Perspectives from an intergenerational survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Stacey; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Gutierrez, Amanda M.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.; Rothstein, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the “Facebook Generation” has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents’ views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary. Methods Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information. Results 1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher) were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P privacy or security of online or health information (all P > 0.05). Limitations This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample. Conclusions Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously. PMID:28926626

  7. Do privacy and security regulations need a status update? Perspectives from an intergenerational survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Pereira

    Full Text Available The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary.Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk, which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information.1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P 0.05.This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample.Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously.

  8. Privacy and Library Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  9. Putting the Focus Back on the Patient: How Privacy Concerns Affect Personal Health Information Sharing Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed; Gaia, Joana; Sanders, G Lawrence

    2017-09-13

    Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. This study investigated the factors that influence individuals' intentions to share their PHI electronically with health care providers, creating an understanding of how we can represent a patient's interests more accurately in sharing settings, instead of treating patients like predetermined subjects. Unlike privacy concern and trust, patient activation is a stable trait that is not subject to change in the short term and, thus, is a useful factor in predicting sharing behavior. We apply the extended privacy model in the health information sharing context and adapt this model to include patient activation and issue involvement to predict individuals' intentions. This was a survey-based study with 1600+ participants using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data to validate a model through various statistical techniques. The research method included an assessment of both the measurement and structural models with post hoc analysis. We find that privacy concern has the most influence on individuals' intentions to share. Patient activation, issue involvement, and patient-physician relationship are significant predictors of sharing intention. We contribute to theory by introducing patient activation and issue involvement as proxies for personal interest factors in the health care context. Overall, this study found that although patients are open to sharing their PHI, they still have concerns over the privacy of their PHI

  10. Foreign clouds in the European sky: how US laws affect the privacy of Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general analysis of how user autonomy in the cloud is increasingly put into jeopardy by the growing comfort and efficiency of the user-interface. Although this issue has not been, thus far, explicitly addressed by the law, it is a fundamental ethical question that should be carefully assessed to guide the future deployment of cloud computing. Different policy decisions might, in fact, significantly affect user’s fundamental rights and online freedoms by shifting the balance from one part or another of the trade-off. This article aims to explore emerging trends in cloud computing technologies and analyse them from an ethical perspective to identify the issues they might raise, and the extent to which current laws and regulations actually take these issues into account.

  11. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…

  13. 78 FR 8963 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... FR 60622] inadvertently omits the responsibility of NASA's Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Office..., this correction adds responsibility of the FOIA Office. This corrections also corrects the title to Sec... appropriate system manager, or, if unknown, to the Center Privacy Manager or Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  14. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was…

  15. Co-regulation in EU personal data protection : The case of technical standards and the privacy by design standardisation ‘mandate’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, Irene

    The recently adopted General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a technology-neutral law, endorses self-regulatory instruments, such as certification and technical standards. Even before the adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation, standardisation activity in the field of privacy

  16. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  17. Persona Rights for User-Generated Content: A Normative Framework for Privacy and Intellectual Property Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Shepherd

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term “persona rights” as a normative conceptual framework for analyzing the language of regulatory debates around privacy and intellectual property online, mainly from a Canadian perspective. In using the concept of persona rights to interrogate and critique the current limitations of regulatory discourses in protecting user rights online, the legal implications of persona rights law are translated into more conceptual terms. As a normative framework, persona rights is shown to be useful in addressing the gaps in regulatory understandings of privacy and intellectual property – particularly in spaces for user-generated content (UGC – and in suggesting how policy might be written to account for user rights to the integrity of identity in commercial UGC platforms.

  18. Reducing behavioural risk factors for cancer: An affect regulation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Daniel; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of all cancer deaths are attributable to preventable causes, primarily unhealthy behaviours such as tobacco use, alcohol use and overeating. In this review, we argue that people engage in these behaviours, at least in part, as a means of regulating their affective states. To better understand why people engage in these behaviours and how researchers might design interventions to promote the selection of healthier methods for regulating affect, we propose a conceptual model of affect regulation. We synthesise research from both the stress and coping tradition as well as the emotion and emotion regulation tradition, two literatures that are not typically integrated. In so doing, we indicate where researchers have made headway in understanding these behaviours as affect regulation and note how our model could be used to structure future work in a way that would be particularly advantageous to cancer control efforts.

  19. A Deterrence Approach to Regulate Nurses' Compliance with Electronic Medical Records Privacy Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Talley, Paul C; Hung, Ming-Chien; Chen, Yen-Liang

    2017-11-03

    Hospitals have become increasingly aware that electronic medical records (EMR) may bring about tangible/intangible benefits to managing institutions, including reduced medical errors, improved quality-of-care, curtailed costs, and allowed access to patient information by healthcare professionals regardless of limitations. However, increased dependence on EMR has led to a corresponding increase in the influence of EMR breaches. Such incursions, which have been significantly facilitated by the introduction of mobile devices for accessing EMR, may induce tangible/intangible damage to both hospitals and concerned individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may tend to inhibit nurses' intentions to violate privacy policy concerning EMR based upon the deterrence theory perspective. Utilizing survey methodology, 262 responses were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Results revealed that punishment certainty, detection certainty, and subjective norm would most certainly and significantly reduce nurses' intentions to violate established EMR privacy policy. With these findings, recommendations for health administrators in planning and designing effective strategies which may potentially inhibit nurses from violating EMR privacy policy are discussed.

  20. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  1. Designing Privacy-by-Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.H.C. van; Boonstra, D.; Everts, M.H.; Rijn, M. van; Paassen, R.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    The proposal for a new privacy regulation d.d. January 25th 2012 introduces sanctions of up to 2% of the annual turnover of enterprises. This elevates the importance of mitigation of privacy risks. This paper makes Privacy by Design more concrete, and positions it as the mechanism to mitigate these

  2. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD),

  3. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), somatoform disorder (SoD), comorbid BPD+SoD, and a psychiatric comparison group (PC) to provide a baseline against which to compare the hypothesized elevations in dysfunctional self and affect regulation....

  4. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.

  5. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C...

  6. Factors affecting the frequency and amount of social networking site use: Motivations, perceptions, and privacy concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect the use of social networking Web sites. In doing so, this investigation focuses on two dimensions of social networking site use frequency (i.e., how often people use social networking sites) and amount (i.e., how much time people spend on social networks). Integrating the technology acceptance model with uses and gratification and other consumer characteristics, this study found that interpersonal utility, perceived ease of use, ...

  7. Trust Me, I’m a Doctor: Examining Changes in How Privacy Concerns Affect Patient Withholding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Background As electronic health records (EHRs) become ubiquitous in the health care industry, privacy breaches are increasing and being made public. These breaches may make consumers wary of the technology, undermining its potential to improve care coordination and research. Objective Given the developing concerns around privacy of personal health information stored in digital format, it is important for providers to understand how views on privacy and security may be associated with patient disclosure of health information. This study aimed to understand how privacy concerns may be shifting patient behavior. Methods Using a pooled cross-section of data from the 2011 and 2014 cycles of the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS), we tested whether privacy and security concerns, as well as quality perceptions, are associated with the likelihood of withholding personal health information from a provider. A fully interacted multivariate model was used to compare associations between the 2 years, and interaction terms were used to evaluate trends in the factors that are associated with withholding behavior. Results No difference was found regarding the effect of privacy and security concerns on withholding behavior between 2011 and 2014. Similarly, whereas perceived high quality of care was found to reduce the likelihood of withholding information from a provider in both 2011 (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.94) and 2014 (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.76), no difference was observed between years. Conclusions These findings suggest that consumers’ beliefs about EHR privacy and security, the relationship between technology use and quality, and intentions to share information with their health care provider have not changed. These findings are counter to the ongoing discussions about the implications of security failures in other domains. Our results suggest that providers could ameliorate privacy and security by focusing on the care

  8. Mum's the Word: Feds Are Serious About Protecting Patients' Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Crystal

    2010-08-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act significantly changes HIPAA privacy and security policies that affect physicians. Chief among the changes are the new breach notification regulations, developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights. The Texas Medical Association has developed resources to help physicians comply with the new HIPAA regulations.

  9. Trust Me, I'm a Doctor: Examining Changes in How Privacy Concerns Affect Patient Withholding Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel M; Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R

    2017-01-04

    As electronic health records (EHRs) become ubiquitous in the health care industry, privacy breaches are increasing and being made public. These breaches may make consumers wary of the technology, undermining its potential to improve care coordination and research. Given the developing concerns around privacy of personal health information stored in digital format, it is important for providers to understand how views on privacy and security may be associated with patient disclosure of health information. This study aimed to understand how privacy concerns may be shifting patient behavior. Using a pooled cross-section of data from the 2011 and 2014 cycles of the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS), we tested whether privacy and security concerns, as well as quality perceptions, are associated with the likelihood of withholding personal health information from a provider. A fully interacted multivariate model was used to compare associations between the 2 years, and interaction terms were used to evaluate trends in the factors that are associated with withholding behavior. No difference was found regarding the effect of privacy and security concerns on withholding behavior between 2011 and 2014. Similarly, whereas perceived high quality of care was found to reduce the likelihood of withholding information from a provider in both 2011 (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.94) and 2014 (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.76), no difference was observed between years. These findings suggest that consumers' beliefs about EHR privacy and security, the relationship between technology use and quality, and intentions to share information with their health care provider have not changed. These findings are counter to the ongoing discussions about the implications of security failures in other domains. Our results suggest that providers could ameliorate privacy and security by focusing on the care quality benefits EHRs provide. ©Daniel M Walker

  10. 32 CFR 701.101 - Privacy program terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from a project on privacy issues, identifying and resolving the privacy risks, and approval by a... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy program terms and definitions. 701.101... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.101 Privacy program terms and...

  11. Privacy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    Privacy is a prime concern in today’s information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website, processes

  12. Privacy Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  13. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  14. 77 FR 60620 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... rules and regulations governing the manner of its operations and the exercise of the powers vested in it..., public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules, and of promoting...

  15. 45 CFR 503.1 - Definitions-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-Privacy Act. 503.1 Section 503.1... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.1 Definitions—Privacy Act. For the purpose of this part: Agency...

  16. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  17. Mentalized affectivity: A new model and assessment of emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS. A large online adult sample (N = 2,840 completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them; Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions; and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly. Hierarchical modeling suggested that Processing emotions delineates from Identifying them, and Expressing emotions delineates from Processing them. We then showed how these components are associated with personality traits, well-being, trauma, and 18 different psychological disorders (including mood, neurological, and personality disorders. Notably, those with anxiety, mood, and personality disorders showed a profile of high Identifying and low Processing compared to controls. Further, results showed how mentalized affectivity scores varied across psychological treatment modalities and years spent in therapy. Taken together, the model of mentalized affectivity advances prior theory and research on emotion regulation and the MAS is a useful and reliable instrument that can be used in both clinical and non-clinical settings in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.

  18. Cybersecurity and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    he huge potential in future connected services has as a precondition that privacy and security needs are dealt with in order for new services to be accepted. This issue is increasingly on the agenda both at the company and at individual level. Cybersecurity and Privacy – bridging the gap addresses...... two very complex fields of the digital world, i.e., Cybersecurity and Privacy. These multifaceted, multidisciplinary and complex issues are usually understood and valued differently by different individuals, data holders and legal bodies. But a change in one field immediately affects the others....... Policies, frameworks, strategies, laws, tools, techniques, and technologies – all of these are tightly interwoven when it comes to security and privacy. This book is another attempt to bridge the gap between the industry and academia. The book addresses the views from academia and industry on the subject...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock. ...

  20. Digital privacy in the marketplace perspectives on the information exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, George

    2015-01-01

    Digital Privacy in the Marketplace focuses on the data ex-changes between marketers and consumers, with special ttention to the privacy challenges that are brought about by new information technologies. The purpose of this book is to provide a background source to help the reader think more deeply about the impact of privacy issues on both consumers and marketers. It covers topics such as: why privacy is needed, the technological, historical and academic theories of privacy, how market exchange af-fects privacy, what are the privacy harms and protections available, and what is the likely future of privacy.

  1. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a... of this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in...

  2. 48 CFR 52.224-2 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 52.224-2... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.224-2 Privacy... agency function: Privacy Act (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor agrees to— (1) Comply with the Privacy Act of...

  3. Privacy Implications for Information and Communications Technology (ICT): the Case of the Jordanian E-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Almatarneh, Akram

    2011-01-01

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is one of the fastest growing sectors in Jordan. The importance of ICT cannot be ignored as it affects all aspects of Jordanian society including telecommunications, education, banking, commerce and employment. However, the issue of individual privacy in this sector is a particular challenge as individuals are disclosing large amounts of personal information than ever at a time when there are no specific privacy laws or regulations. This paper i...

  4. Tracking Walls, Take-It-Or-Leave-It Choices, the GDPR, and the ePrivacy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.; Kruikemeier, S.; Boerman, S.C.; Helberger, N.

    2017-01-01

    On the internet, we encounter take-it-or-leave-it choices regarding our privacy on a daily basis. In Europe, online tracking for targeted advertising generally requires the internet users’ consent to be lawful. Some websites use a tracking wall, a barrier that visitors can only pass if they consent

  5. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  6. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  7. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  8. Consumer Responses to the Introduction of Privacy Protection Measures: An Exploratory Research Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Xu

    2009-01-01

    Information privacy is at the center of discussion and controversy among multiple stakeholders including business leaders, privacy activists, and government regulators. However, conceptualizations of information privacy have been somewhat patchy in current privacy literature. In this article, we review the conceptualizations of information privacy through three different lenses (information exchange, social contract and information control), and then try to build upon previous literature from...

  9. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  10. Procrastination as a Form of Misregulation in the Context of Affect and Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims in situating procrastination, as a specific form of affect regulation failure in context of general affect and self-regulation literature. This will be brought starting with definition of the phenomenon and its’ various forms and perspectives. Next, giving an insight into affect regulation literature. In the third step we will focus on elaborating the picture of procrastination and its’ underlying mechanisms in order to locate it in a broader domain of affect regulation as a specific form of self-regulatory lapse. A commentary regarding dealing with procrastination and effective affect regulation will be provided.

  11. Regulation of Expressive Behavior as Reflecting Affect Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Regulated expressiveness (the modification of expressive behavior) is a complex phenomenon. Accomplished basically in four ways, regulated expressiveness has developmental dimensions, motivational precursors, and cognitive antecedents, including perspective-taking ability and the growth of self-awareness. Ability to regulate expressiveness appears…

  12. What was privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Lew

    2008-10-01

    Why is that question in the past tense? Because individuals can no longer feel confident that the details of their lives--from identifying numbers to cultural preferences--will be treated with discretion rather than exploited. Even as Facebook users happily share the names of their favorite books, movies, songs, and brands, they often regard marketers' use of that information as an invasion of privacy. In this wide-ranging essay, McCreary, a senior editor at HBR, examines numerous facets of the privacy issue, from Google searches, public shaming on the internet, and cell phone etiquette to passenger screening devices, public surveillance cameras, and corporate chief privacy officers. He notes that IBM has been a leader on privacy; its policy forswearing the use of employees' genetic information in hiring and benefits decisions predated the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act by three years. Now IBM is involved in an open-source project known as Higgins to provide users with transportable, potentially anonymous online presences. Craigslist, whose CEO calls it "as close to 100% user driven as you can get," has taken an extremely conservative position on privacy--perhaps easier for a company with a declared lack of interest in maximizing revenue. But TJX and other corporate victims of security breaches have discovered that retaining consumers' transaction information can be both costly and risky. Companies that underestimate the importance of privacy to their customers or fail to protect it may eventually face harsh regulation, reputational damage, or both. The best thing they can do, says the author, is negotiate directly with those customers over where to draw the line.

  13. Does regulating others' feelings influence people's own affective well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.

  14. Are organisations in South Africa ready to comply with personal data protection or privacy legislation and regulations?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, Ntsako

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available people. Organisations require people’s trust and in turn, people are entitled to demand, as far as practicable and lawful, certain privileges from these organisations, such as the right to data protection or privacy. The power imbalance between... of restrictions on international data transfers, where there are no ‘adequate’ levels of personal data protection [5, 6]. This could have dire consequences for businesses. The European Union (EU) Directive [5] was a game changer. It resulted in the conclusion...

  15. Does drug price-regulation affect healthcare expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aharon, Omer; Shavit, Oren; Magnezi, Racheli

    2017-09-01

    Increasing health costs in developed countries are a major concern for decision makers. A variety of cost containment tools are used to control this trend, including maximum price regulation and reimbursement methods for health technologies. Information regarding expenditure-related outcomes of these tools is not available. To evaluate the association between different cost-regulating mechanisms and national health expenditures in selected countries. Price-regulating and reimbursement mechanisms for prescription drugs among OECD countries were reviewed. National health expenditure indices for 2008-2012 were extracted from OECD statistical sources. Possible associations between characteristics of different systems for regulation of drug prices and reimbursement and health expenditures were examined. In most countries, reimbursement mechanisms are part of publicly financed plans. Maximum price regulation is composed of reference-pricing, either of the same drug in other countries, or of therapeutic alternatives within the country, as well as value-based pricing (VBP). No association was found between price regulation or reimbursement mechanisms and healthcare costs. However, VBP may present a more effective mechanism, leading to reduced costs in the long term. Maximum price and reimbursement mechanism regulations were not found to be associated with cost containment of national health expenditures. VBP may have the potential to do so over the long term.

  16. Privacy-preserving Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Milutinovic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    With the technological advances and the evolution of online services, user privacy is becoming a crucial issue in the modern day society. Privacy in the general sense refers to individuals’ ability to protect information about themselves and selectively present it to other entities. This concept is nowadays strongly affected by everyday practices that assume personal data disclosure, such as online shopping and participation in loyalty schemes. This makes it difficult for an individual to con...

  17. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  18. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi M. Korpela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507 evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS. The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM. Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  19. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Kalevi M.; Pasanen, Tytti; Repo, Veera; Hartig, Terry; Staats, Henk; Mason, Michael; Alves, Susana; Fornara, Ferdinando; Marks, Tony; Saini, Sunil; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Soares, Ana L.; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2018-01-01

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation. PMID:29720955

  20. From Data Privacy to Location Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Ling

    Over the past decade, the research on data privacy has achieved considerable advancement in the following two aspects: First, a variety of privacy threat models and privacy principles have been proposed, aiming at providing sufficient protection against different types of inference attacks; Second, a plethora of algorithms and methods have been developed to implement the proposed privacy principles, while attempting to optimize the utility of the resulting data. The first part of the chapter presents an overview of data privacy research by taking a close examination at the achievements from the above two aspects, with the objective of pinpointing individual research efforts on the grand map of data privacy protection. As a special form of data privacy, location privacy possesses its unique characteristics. In the second part of the chapter, we examine the research challenges and opportunities of location privacy protection, in a perspective analogous to data privacy. Our discussion attempts to answer the following three questions: (1) Is it sufficient to apply the data privacy models and algorithms developed to date for protecting location privacy? (2) What is the current state of the research on location privacy? (3) What are the open issues and technical challenges that demand further investigation? Through answering these questions, we intend to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art in location privacy research.

  1. Accuracy and Generalizability in Summaries of Affect Regulation Strategies: Comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Adam A.; Hemenover, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009).…

  2. 75 FR 33501 - Definitions for Regulations Affecting All Savings Associations; Money Market Deposit Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...] RIN 1550-AC40 Definitions for Regulations Affecting All Savings Associations; Money Market Deposit... Supervision is amending its regulations to eliminate restrictions on certain kinds of transfers from money... for savings deposit, Regulation D lists several types of savings deposit accounts, including Money...

  3. 48 CFR 352.224-70 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 352.224-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.224-70 Privacy Act. As prescribed in 324.103(b)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Privacy Act (January...

  4. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  5. Patient Privacy in the Era of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kayaalp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Protecting patient privacy requires various technical tools. It involves regulations for sharing, de-identifying, securely storing, transmitting and handling protected health information (PHI. It involves privacy laws and legal agreements. It requires establishing rules for monitoring privacy leaks, determining actions when they occur, and handling de-identified clinical narrative reports. Deidentification is one such indispensable instrument in this set of privacy tools

  6. Getting a grip on your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose that volitional action is supported by intuitive affect regulation, defined as flexible, efficient, and nonrepressive control of own affective states. Intuitive affect regulation should be most apparent among action-oriented individuals under demanding conditions. Consistent with

  7. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  8. 32 CFR 701.109 - Privacy Act (PA) appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals. (a... commence when the appeal reaches the office of the review authority having jurisdiction over the record...

  9. 32 CFR 701.119 - Privacy and the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy and the web. 701.119 Section 701.119... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.119 Privacy and the web. DON activities shall consult SECNAVINST 5720.47B for guidance on what may be posted on a Navy Web site. ...

  10. The regulation of autophagy differentially affects Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Vanrell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cellular process required for the removal of aged organelles and cytosolic components through lysosomal degradation. All types of eukaryotic cells from yeasts to mammalian cells have the machinery to activate autophagy as a result of many physiological and pathological situations. The most frequent stimulus of autophagy is starvation and the result, in this case, is the fast generation of utilizable food (e.g. amino acids and basic nutrients to maintain the vital biological processes. In some organisms, starvation also triggers other associated processes such as differentiation. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes a series of differentiation processes throughout its complex life cycle. Although not all autophagic genes have been identified in the T. cruzi genome, previous works have demonstrated the presence of essential autophagic-related proteins. Under starvation conditions, TcAtg8, which is the parasite homolog of Atg8/LC3 in other organisms, is located in autophagosome-like vesicles. In this work, we have characterized the autophagic pathway during T. cruzi differentiation from the epimastigote to metacyclic trypomastigote form, a process called metacyclogenesis. We demonstrated that autophagy is stimulated during metacyclogenesis and that the induction of autophagy promotes this process. Moreover, with exception of bafilomycin, other classical autophagy modulators have similar effects on T. cruzi autophagy. We also showed that spermidine and related polyamines can positively regulate parasite autophagy and differentiation. We concluded that both polyamine metabolism and autophagy are key processes during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis that could be exploited as drug targets to avoid the parasite cycle progression.

  11. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, underlying affective vulnerabilities, and smoking for affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Cook, Jessica W; Japuntich, Sandra J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overrepresented among cigarette smokers. It has been hypothesized that those with PTSD smoke to alleviate negative affect and counteract deficient positive affect commonly associated with the disorder; however, limited research has examined associations between PTSD symptoms, smoking motives, and affective vulnerability factors. In the current study, we examined (1) whether PTSD symptoms were associated with positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives; and (2) whether two affective vulnerability factors implicated in PTSD-anxiety sensitivity and anhedonia-mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking motives. Data were drawn from a community sample of non-treatment-seeking smokers recruited without regard for trauma history (N = 342; 10+ cig/day). We used the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) to assess overall PTSD symptom severity as well as individual PTSD subfactors. Overall, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with negative reinforcement, but not positive reinforcement, smoking motives. Variation in anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relation between PTSD symptom severity and negative reinforcement smoking motives, whereas anhedonia did not. Regarding PTSD subfactors, emotional numbing was the only PTSD subfactor associated with smoking rate, while re-experiencing symptoms were uniquely associated with both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives. Findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important feature associated with PTSD that enhances motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement purposes. Smoking cessation interventions that alleviate anxiety sensitivity and enhance coping with negative affect may be useful for smokers with elevated PTSD symptoms. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy tends to ignore the political economy of privacy in capitalism that can mask socio-economic inequality and protect capital and the rich from public accountability. Facebook is in this paper analyzed with the help of an approach, in which privacy for dominant groups, in regard to the ability of keeping wealth and power secret from the public, is seen as problematic, whereas privacy at the bottom of the power pyramid for consumers and normal citizens is seen as a protection from dominant interests. Facebook’s privacy concept is based on an understanding that stresses self-regulation and on an individualistic understanding of privacy. The theoretical analysis of the political economy of privacy on Facebook in this paper is based on the political theories of Karl Marx, Hannah Arendt and Jürgen Habermas. Based on the political economist Dallas Smythe’s concept of audience commodification, the process of prosumer commodification on Facebook is analyzed. The political economy of privacy on Facebook is analyzed with the help of a theory of drives that is grounded in Herbert Marcuse’s interpretation of Sigmund Freud, which allows to analyze Facebook based on the concept of play labor (= the convergence of play and labor.

  14. Privacy og selvbeskrivelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, Hans Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse......En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse...

  15. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. [FR Doc. 2013-18535 Filed 7...

  16. Privacy vs security

    CERN Document Server

    Stalla-Bourdillon, Sophie; Ryan, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Securing privacy in the current environment is one of the great challenges of today's democracies. Privacy vs. Security explores the issues of privacy and security and their complicated interplay, from a legal and a technical point of view. Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon provides a thorough account of the legal underpinnings of the European approach to privacy and examines their implementation through privacy, data protection and data retention laws. Joshua Philips and Mark D. Ryan focus on the technological aspects of privacy, in particular, on today's attacks on privacy by the simple use of today'

  17. Blood rights: the body and information privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    Genetic and other medical technology makes blood, human tissue and other bodily samples an immediate and accessible source of comprehensive personal and health information about individuals. Yet, unlike medical records, bodily samples are not subject to effective privacy protection or other regulation to ensure that individuals have rights to control the collection, use and transfer of such samples. This article examines the existing coverage of privacy legislation, arguments in favour of baseline protection for bodily samples as sources of information and possible approaches to new regulation protecting individual privacy rights in bodily samples.

  18. An agent-based model for integrated emotion regulation and contagion in socially affected decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The agent-based model is illustrated for the interaction between two persons. Simulation experiments for different kinds of scenarios help to understand how decisions can be affected by regulating the ...

  19. Privacy in the Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ayday, Erman; Clayton, Ellen W; Fellay, Jacques; Gunter, Carl A; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Malin, Bradley A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward.

  20. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  1. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  2. Do Market Regulation and Financial Imperfections Affect Firm Size? New Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Fonseca; Natalia Utrero González

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance that market regulation and financial imperfections have in firm size. We analyse institutions affecting labour market as Employment Protection Laws (EPL) and Product Market Regulation (PMR). Moreover, we study the effects of these institutions on firm growth. We use data from 29 industrial sectors across 15 developed countries. We find that market regulations related to financial imperfections help to explain differences in firm structure across countries.

  3. Neuro Emotional Literacy Program: Does Teaching the Function of Affect and Affect Regulation Strategies Improve Affect Management and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kathryn E.; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Although research on Emotion Regulation (ER) is developing at a rapid rate, much of it lacks a clear theoretical framework and most focuses on a narrow set of ER strategies. This work presents the details of a pilot project, the Neuro Emotional Literacy Program (NELP), designed for parents and based on the Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect (SAMA).…

  4. Neural correlates of emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia and non-affected siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette van der Meer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia often experience problems regulating their emotions. Non-affected relatives show similar difficulties, although to a lesser extent, and the neural basis of such difficulties remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we investigated whether schizophrenia patients, non-affected siblings and healthy controls (HC exhibit differences in brain activation during emotion regulation. METHODS: All subjects (n = 20 per group performed an emotion regulation task while they were in an fMRI scanner. The task contained two experimental conditions for the down-regulation of emotions (reappraise and suppress, in which IAPS pictures were used to generate a negative affect. We also assessed whether the groups differed in emotion regulation strategies used in daily life by means of the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ. RESULTS: Though the overall negative affect was higher for patients as well as for siblings compared to HC for all conditions, all groups reported decreased negative affect after both regulation conditions. Nonetheless, neuroimaging results showed hypoactivation relative to HC in VLPFC, insula, middle temporal gyrus, caudate and thalamus for patients when reappraising negative pictures. In siblings, the same pattern was evident as in patients, but only in cortical areas. CONCLUSIONS: Given that all groups performed similarly on the emotion regulation task, but differed in overall negative affect ratings and brain activation, our findings suggest reduced levels of emotion regulation processing in neural circuits in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, this also holds for siblings, albeit to a lesser extent, indicating that it may be part and parcel of a vulnerability for psychosis.

  5. Privacy and ethics in pediatric environmental health research-part I: genetic and prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    2006-10-01

    The pressing need for empirically informed public policies aimed at understanding and promoting children's health has challenged environmental scientists to modify traditional research paradigms and reevaluate their roles and obligations toward research participants. Methodologic approaches to children's environmental health research raise ethical challenges for which federal regulations may provide insufficient guidance. In this article I begin with a general discussion of privacy concerns and informed consent within pediatric environmental health research contexts. I then turn to specific ethical challenges associated with research on genetic determinants of environmental risk, prenatal studies and maternal privacy, and data causing inflicted insight or affecting the informational rights of third parties.

  6. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect......-regulating function of affectionate, caregiving and playful maternal touch in 24 PPD and 47 nonclinical mother-infant dyads when infants were four months old. In order to investigate the direction of effects and to account for repeated observations, the data were analysed using time-window sequential analysis......, only in the PPD dyads, were the mothers more likely to initiate affectionate touch when their infants were displaying negative facial affect. Our results also showed that mothers use specific touch types to regulate infants’ negative and positive affects; infants are more likely to initiate positive...

  7. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Individual Differences in Automatic Emotion Regulation Affect the Asymmetry of the LPP Component

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP) when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS). Two participant groups were catego...

  10. Neuroethics and Brain Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology.......An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology....

  11. Privacy and internet services

    OpenAIRE

    Samec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is focused on internet services user privacy. Goal of this thesis is to determine level of user awareness of how is their privacy approached while using internet services. Then suggest procedure to improve this awareness, or that will lead to better control of individual privacy. In theoretical part I analyze general and legislative approach to privacy, followed by analysis of behaviour of internet service users and providers. Part of this analysis deals with usage of web cookies ...

  12. Internet and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fadhli, Meshal Shehab

    2007-01-01

    The concept of privacy is hard to understand and is not easy to define, because this concept is linked with several dimensions. Internet Privacy is associated with the use of the Internet and most likely appointed under communications privacy, involving the user of the Internet’s personal information and activities, and the disclosure of them online. This essay is going to present the meaning of privacy and the implications of it for Internet users. Also, this essay will demonstrate some of t...

  13. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand Skånland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  14. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: the role of MP3 players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-08-07

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  15. Factors affecting self-regulated learning in medical students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.

  16. Trait Affect, Emotion Regulation, and the Generation of Negative and Positive Interpersonal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Scopelliti, Kate A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals' trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals' trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection.

  18. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Baars

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  19. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  20. Privacy: The Small and Large of It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSBAUM, ANNA W.

    1999-01-01

    The topic of Privacy is complex, multi-faceted, and often emotionally laden. This paper will cover the following topics, in an effort to further understanding of federal regulations and activities, the balancing act that necessarily occurs in business, and what role a records manager can play. The topics are: Definitions; The Privacy Act; ''Private'' companies; Potential areas of concern; Expectations; Corporate responsibilities; Case studies; and Records Manager's role

  1. Privacy: The Small and Large of It

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NUSBAUM,ANNA W.

    1999-10-22

    The topic of Privacy is complex, multi-faceted, and often emotionally laden. This paper will cover the following topics, in an effort to further understanding of federal regulations and activities, the balancing act that necessarily occurs in business, and what role a records manager can play. The topics are: Definitions; The Privacy Act; ''Private'' companies; Potential areas of concern; Expectations; Corporate responsibilities; Case studies; and Records Manager's role.

  2. Privacy Verification Using Ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, Martin; Freytag, Johann-Christoph; Kargl, Frank; Kung, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    As information systems extensively exchange information between participants, privacy concerns may arise from its potential misuse. A Privacy by Design (PbD) approach considers privacy requirements of different stakeholders during the design and the implementation of a system. Currently, a

  3. Rare disease research: Breaking the privacy barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mascalzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the few patients affected, rare disease research has to count on international registries to exist in order to produce significant research outputs. Data sharing of registries is therefore a unique resource to allow rare disease research to flourish and any lost data will jeopardize the quality of an already extremely difficult research. The rules usually applied to research such as the right to withdraw or the need for specific consent for every use of data can be detrimental in order to get effective results. Privacy rights regulated through traditional informed consent mechanisms have been regarded as a major barrier in order to effectively share data worldwide. Some authors argue that this barrier hampers results that could be beneficial to the patients so that another right will be overstated: the right to quality healthcare. We argue in this paper that privacy has been often interpreted just one-sided as the right to secrecy but it can entail another meaning: the right to manage one's own private sphere. Managing it pertains, not only to the right to deny access, but also to the right to grant access. At the same time research on patient participation and transparency shows that new forms of IT-based informed consent can provide a good balance between the right of individuals to be in control of their data and the opportunity for science to pursue international research.

  4. Users or Students? Privacy in University MOOCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Regner, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    Two terms, student privacy and Massive Open Online Courses, have received a significant amount of attention recently. Both represent interesting sites of change in entrenched structures, one educational and one legal. MOOCs represent something college courses have never been able to provide: universal access. Universities not wanting to miss the MOOC wave have started to build MOOC courses and integrate them into the university system in various ways. However, the design and scale of university MOOCs create tension for privacy laws intended to regulate information practices exercised by educational institutions. Are MOOCs part of the educational institutions these laws and policies aim to regulate? Are MOOC users students whose data are protected by aforementioned laws and policies? Many university researchers and faculty members are asked to participate as designers and instructors in MOOCs but may not know how to approach the issues proposed. While recent scholarship has addressed the disruptive nature of MOOCs, student privacy generally, and data privacy in the K-12 system, we provide an in-depth description and analysis of the MOOC phenomenon and the privacy laws and policies that guide and regulate educational institutions today. We offer privacy case studies of three major MOOC providers active in the market today to reveal inconsistencies among MOOC platform and the level and type of legal uncertainty surrounding them. Finally, we provide a list of organizational questions to pose internally to navigate the uncertainty presented to university MOOC teams.

  5. Social Media Users’ Legal Consciousness About Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Sarikakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the concept of privacy is understood in the context of social media and with regard to users’ awareness of privacy policies and laws in the ‘Post-Snowden’ era. In the light of presumably increased public exposure to privacy debates, generated partly due to the European “Right to be Forgotten” ruling and the Snowden revelations on mass surveillance, this article explores users’ meaning-making of privacy as a matter of legal dimension in terms of its violations and threats online and users’ ways of negotiating their Internet use, in particular social networking sites. Drawing on the concept of legal consciousness, this article explores through focus group interviews the ways in which social media users negotiate privacy violations and what role their understanding of privacy laws (or lack thereof might play in their strategies of negotiation. The findings are threefold: first, privacy is understood almost universally as a matter of controlling one’s own data, including information disclosure even to friends, and is strongly connected to issues about personal autonomy; second, a form of resignation with respect to control over personal data appears to coexist with a recognized need to protect one’s private data, while respondents describe conscious attempts to circumvent systems of monitoring or violation of privacy, and third, despite widespread coverage of privacy legal issues in the press, respondents’ concerns about and engagement in “self-protecting” tactics derive largely from being personally affected by violations of law and privacy.

  6. 17 CFR 248.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal... customer to a nonaffiliated third party, if that former customer has not had the opportunity to exercise an...

  7. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  8. Neurofeedback, Affect Regulation and Attachment: A Case Study and Analysis of Anti-Social Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sebern F.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…

  9. Handbook of Laws and Regulations Affecting Public Libraries in New York State. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Joseph, Comp.

    In a looseleaf format which permits easy revision, this handbook synthesizes statutes, opinions, and regulations that affect library operation in New York State. The text consists of excerpts and synopses of statutes and opinions from state agencies and courts. Topics include: (1) library types; (2) establishment and dissolution of libraries; (3)…

  10. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  11. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolya Calisir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.

  12. An agent-based model for integrated emotion regulation and contagion in socially affected decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The

  13. When love is not blind: rumination impairs implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Karremans, J.; Finkenauer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined how rumination influences implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat. In three studies, the disposition to ruminate impaired the ability to maintain positive feelings about the romantic partner in the face of explicit or implicit reminders of

  14. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  15. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Wingen, G.A. van; Wittwer, J.; Mohajeri, M.H.; Kloek, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport

  16. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Marijn C. W.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M. Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, hyptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across

  17. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  18. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  19. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  20. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  2. A Taxonomy of Privacy Constructs for Privacy-Sensitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rueben, Matthew; Grimm, Cindy M.; Bernieri, Frank J.; Smart, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of robots into our society will also introduce new concerns about personal privacy. In order to study these concerns, we must do human-subject experiments that involve measuring privacy-relevant constructs. This paper presents a taxonomy of privacy constructs based on a review of the privacy literature. Future work in operationalizing privacy constructs for HRI studies is also discussed.

  3. Dynamic changes in parent affect and adolescent cardiac vagal regulation: a real-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    The current study explored the role of parents' negative and positive affect in adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during a parent-adolescent conflict discussion task and the moderating effects of adolescent sex and age. Questionnaire data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age; M = 13.37 years) and their primary caregivers (83.3% biological mothers). Electrocardiogram and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA variables were computed. Parent affect was coded during the conflict discussion task. Multilevel modeling was used to distinguish the between- and within-individual effects of parent affect on adolescent RSA. Results indicated that observed within-parent-teen dyad anger was negatively associated with adolescent RSA, controlling for previous-minute RSA level, particularly among adolescents 13 years and older. In addition, observed between-dyad positive affect was positively linked to RSA for both boys and girls when previous-minute RSA level was controlled. Within-dyad positive affect was positively related to girl's RSA only. These findings suggest that expressions of positive affect may be related to better vagal regulation (RSA increases), whereas expressions of anger may be related to poor vagal regulation (RSA decreases) during social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. An overview of human genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinghua; Wu, Xintao

    2017-01-01

    The study of human genomics is becoming a Big Data science, owing to recent biotechnological advances leading to availability of millions of personal genome sequences, which can be combined with biometric measurements from mobile apps and fitness trackers, and of human behavior data monitored from mobile devices and social media. With increasing research opportunities for integrative genomic studies through data sharing, genetic privacy emerges as a legitimate yet challenging concern that needs to be carefully addressed, not only for individuals but also for their families. In this paper, we present potential genetic privacy risks and relevant ethics and regulations for sharing and protecting human genomics data. We also describe the techniques for protecting human genetic privacy from three broad perspectives: controlled access, differential privacy, and cryptographic solutions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Privacy and policy for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCew, Judith Wagner

    2004-01-01

    I begin with a discussion of the value of privacy and what we lose without it. I then turn to the difficulties of preserving privacy for genetic information and other medical records in the face of advanced information technology. I suggest three alternative public policy approaches to the problem of protecting individual privacy and also preserving databases for genetic research: (1) governmental guidelines and centralized databases, (2) corporate self-regulation, and (3) my hybrid approach. None of these are unproblematic; I discuss strengths and drawbacks of each, emphasizing the importance of protecting the privacy of sensitive medical and genetic information as well as letting information technology flourish to aid patient care, public health and scientific research.

  6. An overview of human genetic privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinghua; Wu, Xintao

    2016-01-01

    The study of human genomics is becoming a Big Data science, owing to recent biotechnological advances leading to availability of millions of personal genome sequences, which can be combined with biometric measurements from mobile apps and fitness trackers, and of human behavior data monitored from mobile devices and social media. With increasing research opportunities for integrative genomic studies through data sharing, genetic privacy emerges as a legitimate yet challenging concern that needs to be carefully addressed, not only for individuals but also for their families. In this paper, we present potential genetic privacy risks and relevant ethics and regulations for sharing and protecting human genomics data. We also describe the techniques for protecting human genetic privacy from three broad perspectives: controlled access, differential privacy, and cryptographic solutions. PMID:27626905

  7. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD and somatoform disorders (SoD, remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method: BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC, PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results: No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation most commonly found in BPD, and

  8. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Designing Privacy for You : A User Centric Approach For Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Senarath, Awanthika; Arachchilage, Nalin A. G.; Slay, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Privacy directly concerns the user as the data owner (data- subject) and hence privacy in systems should be implemented in a manner which concerns the user (user-centered). There are many concepts and guidelines that support development of privacy and embedding privacy into systems. However, none of them approaches privacy in a user- centered manner. Through this research we propose a framework that would enable developers and designers to grasp privacy in a user-centered manner and implement...

  10. Protecting Privacy in Shared Photos via Adversarial Examples Based Stealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online image sharing in social platforms can lead to undesired privacy disclosure. For example, some enterprises may detect these large volumes of uploaded images to do users’ in-depth preference analysis for commercial purposes. And their technology might be today’s most powerful learning model, deep neural network (DNN. To just elude these automatic DNN detectors without affecting visual quality of human eyes, we design and implement a novel Stealth algorithm, which makes the automatic detector blind to the existence of objects in an image, by crafting a kind of adversarial examples. It is just like all objects disappear after wearing an “invisible cloak” from the view of the detector. Then we evaluate the effectiveness of Stealth algorithm through our newly defined measurement, named privacy insurance. The results indicate that our scheme has considerable success rate to guarantee privacy compared with other methods, such as mosaic, blur, and noise. Better still, Stealth algorithm has the smallest impact on image visual quality. Meanwhile, we set a user adjustable parameter called cloak thickness for regulating the perturbation intensity. Furthermore, we find that the processed images have transferability property; that is, the adversarial images generated for one particular DNN will influence the others as well.

  11. Regulating and facilitating: the role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael R; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Sherf, Elad N

    2015-05-01

    Although past research has identified the effects of emotional intelligence on numerous employee outcomes, the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity has not been well established. We draw upon affective information processing theory to explain how two facets of emotional intelligence-emotion regulation and emotion facilitation-shape employee creativity. Specifically, we propose that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (PA) when faced with unique knowledge processing requirements, while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their PA to enhance their creativity. We find support for our hypotheses using a multimethod (ability test, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers across a wide range of jobs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: An experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMartínez-Iñigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as

  13. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal

  14. Affective Biases and Heuristics in Decision Making : Emotion regulation as a factor for decision making competence

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, William

    2013-01-01

    Stanovich and West (2008) explored if measures of cognitive ability ignored some important aspects of thinking itself, namely that cognitive ability alone is not enough to generally prevent biased thinking. In this thesis a series of decision making (DM) tasks is tested to see if emotion regulation (ER) is a factor for the decision process and therefore should be a measured in decision making competence. A set of DM tasks was compiled involving both affective and cognitive dimensions. 400 par...

  15. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  16. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Myong Lee; Hyo-Jung Kim; Jong-Youn Rha

    2017-01-01

    Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality) and social values (i.e., equity and common good). In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC) in the choice of grocery store format and to inve...

  17. Musical Intensity in Affect Regulation: Uncovering Hope and Resilience Through Heavy Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hereld, Diana Christine

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nature of music’s impact on identity, subjectivity, and the self. To better understand music’s role in promoting hope and resilience, I pinpoint how heavy, intense, and highly emotive music applied over distinct listening practices impacts the regulation of affect and self-destructive impulses in individuals who suffer from trauma, mental illness, or self-destructive behavior. This research also investigates the characteristic of intensity often found in heavy music ...

  18. Protecting genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P A; Annas, G J

    2001-05-01

    This article outlines the arguments for and against new rules to protect genetic privacy. We explain why genetic information is different to other sensitive medical information, why researchers and biotechnology companies have opposed new rules to protect genetic privacy (and favour anti-discrimination laws instead), and discuss what can be done to protect privacy in relation to genetic-sequence information and to DNA samples themselves.

  19. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  20. 76 FR 52320 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... & Privacy, and DoD Information Assurance Regulations. Auditing: Audit trail records from all available.../JS Privacy Office, Freedom of Information Directorate, Washington Headquarters Services, 1155 Defense... Defense. DHA 23 System name: Pharmacy Data Transaction Service (PDTS). System location: Primary: Emdeon...

  1. 75 FR 22569 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2010-0014] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  2. 75 FR 22570 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2010-0012] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  3. 76 FR 53420 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0097] Privacy Act of 1974... notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are [[Page...

  4. 77 FR 37002 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2012-OS-0072] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  5. 75 FR 39921 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0102] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  6. 78 FR 43869 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID USN-2013-0025] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  7. 75 FR 17910 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0040] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  8. 76 FR 66698 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0117] Privacy Act of 1974... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  9. 75 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2010-OS-0117] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  10. 75 FR 33789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0078] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  11. 77 FR 65539 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2012-OS-0132] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. [[Page... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  12. 77 FR 60412 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2012-0012] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  13. 76 FR 70428 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0120] Privacy Act of 1974... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  14. 75 FR 10476 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2010-OS-0021] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  15. 78 FR 73511 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE [Docket ID: USN-2013-0046] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY... Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. The system being deleted is N01500-8, System Name: Personnel and Training... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  16. 75 FR 29728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0067] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  17. 77 FR 37885 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2012-OS-0074] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  18. 78 FR 60265 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2013-OS-0201] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  19. 76 FR 60008 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0023] Privacy Act of 1974; System... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  20. 76 FR 82286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0028] Privacy Act of 1974; System... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  1. 75 FR 16760 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0037] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  2. 75 FR 17910 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID: USN-2010-0007] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  3. 75 FR 63824 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2010-0026] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change...

  4. 75 FR 33794 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0013] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  5. 75 FR 15694 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0035] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  6. 75 FR 65456 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0147] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. [[Page... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  7. 77 FR 26260 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2012-OS-0030] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  8. 77 FR 66442 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2012-OS-0133] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  9. 75 FR 3714 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0004] Privacy Act of 1974... its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  10. 76 FR 39394 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID USN-2011-0010] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  11. 77 FR 35945 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2012-OS-0067] Privacy Act of 1974... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: The proposed action will be... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  12. 75 FR 62111 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0140] Privacy Act of 1974... records notices in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  13. 78 FR 22525 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-0057] Privacy Act of 1974... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  14. 32 CFR 806b.51 - Privacy and the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy and the Web. 806b.51 Section 806b.51... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.51 Privacy and the Web. Do not post personal information on publicly accessible DoD web sites unless clearly authorized by law and implementing regulation...

  15. Privacy in domestic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Radics, Peter J; Gracanin, Denis

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed While there is a growing body of research on privacy,most of the work puts the focus on information privacy. Physical and psychological privacy issues receive little to no attention. However, the introduction of technology into our lives can cause problems with regard to these aspects of privacy. This is especially true when it comes to our homes, both as nodes of our social life and places for relaxation. This paper presents the results of a study intended to captu...

  16. Privacy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing that training and awareness are critical to protecting agency Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the EPA is developing online training for privacy contacts in its programs and regions.

  17. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  18. 75 FR 36535 - Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information Act... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and its regulations concerning the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). It... correct those errors. List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information; Privacy. 0 Accordingly...

  19. Interpersonal dysfunction and affect-regulation difficulties in disordered eating among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Slane, Jennifer D; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies suggest that negative affect and interpersonal problems serve as important contributors for eating-related problems, much of this research has been conducted among women and less is known about their roles in precipitating and maintaining eating problems among men. Previous studies with undergraduate men suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating even after controlling for differences in body mass index (BMI) and negative affect. The present study sought to replicate these findings and extend them to assess any unique variance explained by problems in interpersonal functioning among both men and women. Participants were men (n=213) and women (n=521) undergraduates at a large Midwestern university who completed a demographic information form, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex Form (IIP-SC). A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DERS and IIP-SC significantly predicted EDE-Q global scores after controlling for variability in BMI and negative affect and that the results were similar for men and women. Our findings offer preliminary support for models that highlight emotional vulnerability and interpersonal problems for disordered eating for young adult men. Future research extending these findings among treatment-seeking samples and employing multi-method assessment would serve to further clarify the tenability of these theoretical models for both men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  1. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  2. Codon usage regulates protein structure and function by affecting translation elongation speed in Drosophila cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangzhou; Yu, Chien-Hung; Liu, Yi

    2017-08-21

    Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and have been proposed to regulate different aspects of translation process. Codon optimality has been shown to regulate translation elongation speed in fungal systems, but its effect on translation elongation speed in animal systems is not clear. In this study, we used a Drosophila cell-free translation system to directly compare the velocity of mRNA translation elongation. Our results demonstrate that optimal synonymous codons speed up translation elongation while non-optimal codons slow down translation. In addition, codon usage regulates ribosome movement and stalling on mRNA during translation. Finally, we show that codon usage affects protein structure and function in vitro and in Drosophila cells. Together, these results suggest that the effect of codon usage on translation elongation speed is a conserved mechanism from fungi to animals that can affect protein folding in eukaryotic organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  5. Information Privacy Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    2013-01-01

    Why is Information Privacy the focus of the January-February 2013 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" and "EDUCAUSE Review Online"? Results from the 2012 annual survey of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) indicate that "meeting regulatory compliance requirements continues to be the top perceived driver…

  6. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  7. Individual differences in automatic emotion regulation affect the asymmetry of the LPP component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS. Two participant groups were categorized by the Emotion Regulation-Implicit Association Test which has been used in previous research to identify two groups of participants with automatic emotion control and with automatic emotion express. The main finding was that automatic emotion express group showed a right dominance of the LPP component at posterior electrodes, especially in high arousal conditions. But no right dominance of the LPP component was observed for automatic emotion control group. We also found the group with automatic emotion control showed no differences in the right posterior LPP amplitude between high- and low-arousal emotion conditions, while the participants with automatic emotion express showed larger LPP amplitude in the right posterior in high-arousal conditions compared to low-arousal conditions. This result suggested that AER (Automatic emotion regulation modulated the hemispheric asymmetry of LPP on posterior electrodes and supported the right hemisphere hypothesis.

  8. Individual differences in automatic emotion regulation affect the asymmetry of the LPP component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP) when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS). Two participant groups were categorized by the Emotion Regulation-Implicit Association Test which has been used in previous research to identify two groups of participants with automatic emotion control and with automatic emotion express. The main finding was that automatic emotion express group showed a right dominance of the LPP component at posterior electrodes, especially in high arousal conditions. But no right dominance of the LPP component was observed for automatic emotion control group. We also found the group with automatic emotion control showed no differences in the right posterior LPP amplitude between high- and low-arousal emotion conditions, while the participants with automatic emotion express showed larger LPP amplitude in the right posterior in high-arousal conditions compared to low-arousal conditions. This result suggested that AER (Automatic emotion regulation) modulated the hemispheric asymmetry of LPP on posterior electrodes and supported the right hemisphere hypothesis.

  9. Privacy under construction : A developmental perspective on privacy perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, W.M.P.; Vedder, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a developmental perspective regarding the difference in perceptions toward privacy between young and old. Here, we introduce the notion of privacy conceptions, that is, the specific ideas that individuals have regarding what privacy actually is. The differences in privacy concerns often

  10. Dominance rank causally affects personality and glucocorticoid regulation in female rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Jordan N.; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Barreiro, Luis B.; Johnson, Zachary P.; Tung, Jenny; Wilson, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    Low social status is frequently associated with heightened exposure to social stressors and altered glucocorticoid regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Additionally, personality differences can affect how individuals behave in response to social conditions, and thus may aggravate or protect against the effects of low status on HPA function. Disentangling the relative importance of personality from the effects of the social environment on the HPA axis has been challenging, since social status can predict aspects of behavior, and both can remain stable across the lifespan. To do so here, we studied an animal model of social status and social behavior, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). We performed two sequential experimental manipulations of dominance rank (i.e., social status) in 45 adult females, allowing us to characterize personality and glucocorticoid regulation (based on sensitivity to the exogenous glucocorticoid dexamethasone) in each individual while she occupied two different dominance ranks. We identified two behavioral characteristics, termed ‘social approachability’ and ‘boldness,’ which were highly social status-dependent. Social approachability and a third dimension, anxiousness, were also associated with cortisol dynamics in low status females, suggesting that behavioral tendencies may sensitize individuals to the effects of low status on HPA axis function. Finally, we found that improvements in dominance rank increased dexamethasone-induced acute cortisol suppression and glucocorticoid negative feedback. Our findings indicate that social status causally affects both behavioral tendencies and glucocorticoid regulation, and that some behavioral tendencies also independently affect cortisol levels, beyond the effects of rank. Together, they highlight the importance of considering personality and social status together when investigating their effects on HPA axis function. PMID:27639059

  11. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...

  12. The Models of Applying Online Privacy Literacy Strategies: A Case Study of Instagram Girl Users

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Bicharanlou; Seyedeh farzaneh Siasi rad

    2017-01-01

    Social networks affect remarkably in the lives of virtual space users. These networks like most human relations involve compromising between self-disclosure and privacy protection. A process which is realized through improving privacy and empowering the user at the personal level. This study aimed to assess strategies based on online privacy literacy. In particular, strategies that Instagram young girls users should employ to achieve the optimum level of privacy. For this purpose, firstly the...

  13. Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha N Reebye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved

  14. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  15. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.

  16. Variation in orbitofrontal cortex volume: relation to sex, emotion regulation and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, B Locke; Papademetris, Xenophon; Reis, Deidre L; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Bloise, Suzanne M; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    Sex differences in brain structure have been examined extensively but are not completely understood, especially in relation to possible functional correlates. Our two aims in this study were to investigate sex differences in brain structure, and to investigate a possible relation between orbitofrontal cortex subregions and affective individual differences. We used tensor-based morphometry to estimate local brain volume from MPRAGE images in 117 healthy right-handed adults (58 female), age 18-40 years. We entered estimates of local brain volume as the dependent variable in a GLM, controlling for age, intelligence and whole-brain volume. Men had larger left planum temporale. Women had larger ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), right lateral orbitofrontal (rlOFC), cerebellum, and bilateral basal ganglia and nearby white matter. vmPFC but not rlOFC volume covaried with self-reported emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression), expressivity of positive emotions (but not of negative), strength of emotional impulses, and cognitive but not somatic anxiety. vmPFC volume statistically mediated sex differences in emotion suppression. The results confirm prior reports of sex differences in orbitofrontal cortex structure, and are the first to show that normal variation in vmPFC volume is systematically related to emotion regulation and affective individual differences.

  17. Laccase-13 Regulates Seed Setting Rate by Affecting Hydrogen Peroxide Dynamics and Mitochondrial Integrity in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed setting rate is one of the most important components of rice grain yield. To date, only several genes regulating setting rate have been identified in plant. In this study, we showed that laccase-13 (OsLAC13, a member of laccase family genes which are known for their roles in modulating phenylpropanoid pathway and secondary lignification in cell wall, exerts a regulatory function in rice seed setting rate. OsLAC13 expressed in anthers and promotes hydrogen peroxide production both in vitro and in the filaments and anther connectives. Knock-out of OsLAC13 showed significantly increased seed setting rate, while overexpression of this gene exhibited induced mitochondrial damage and suppressed sugar transportation in anthers, which in turn affected seed setting rate. OsLAC13 also induced H2O2 production and mitochondrial damage in the root tip cells which caused the lethal phenotype. We also showed that high abundant of OsmiR397, the suppressor of OsLAC13 mRNA, increased the seed setting rate of rice plants, and restrains H2O2 accumulation in roots during oxidative stress. Our results suggested a novel regulatory role of OsLAC13 gene in regulating seed setting rate by affecting H2O2 dynamics and mitochondrial integrity in rice.

  18. Emotion malleability beliefs, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: Integrating affective and clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Elizabeth T; Dovidio, John F; Joormann, Jutta; Clark, Margaret S

    2016-04-01

    Beliefs that individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed, also referred to as emotion malleability beliefs, may play a crucial role in individuals' emotional experiences and their engagement in changing their emotions. The current review integrates affective science and clinical science perspectives to provide a comprehensive review of how emotion malleability beliefs relate to emotionality, emotion regulation, and specific clinical disorders and treatment. Specifically, we discuss how holding more malleable views of emotion could be associated with more active emotion regulation efforts, greater motivation to engage in active regulatory efforts, more effort expended regulating emotions, and lower levels of pathological distress. In addition, we explain how extending emotion malleability beliefs into the clinical domain can complement and extend current conceptualizations of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. This may prove important given the increasingly central role emotion dysregulation has been given in conceptualization and intervention for these psychiatric conditions. Additionally, discussion focuses on how emotion beliefs could be more explicitly addressed in existing cognitive therapies. Promising future directions for research are identified throughout the review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  20. Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Peled

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs, the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  1. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  2. Data security breaches and privacy in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Data Security Breaches and Privacy in Europe aims to consider data protection and cybersecurity issues; more specifically, it aims to provide a fruitful discussion on data security breaches. A detailed analysis of the European Data Protection framework will be examined. In particular, the Data Protection Directive 95/45/EC, the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications and the proposed changes under the Data Protection Regulation (data breach notifications) and its implications are considered. This is followed by an examination of the Directive on Attacks against information systems a

  3. Protecting patron privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Beckstrom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In a world where almost anyone with computer savvy can hack, track, and record the online activities of others, your library can serve as a protected haven for your visitors who rely on the Internet to conduct research-if you take the necessary steps to safeguard their privacy. This book shows you how to protect patrons' privacy while using the technology that your library provides, including public computers, Internet access, wireless networks, and other devices. Logically organized into two major sections, the first part of the book discusses why the privacy of your users is of paramount

  4. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  5. Privacy in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis lecture provides a survey of work on privacy in online social networks (OSNs). This work encompasses concerns of users as well as service providers and third parties. Our goal is to approach such concerns from a computer-science perspective, and building upon existing work on privacy, security, statistical modeling and databases to provide an overview of the technical and algorithmic issues related to privacy in OSNs. We start our survey by introducing a simple OSN data model and describe common statistical-inference techniques that can be used to infer potentially sensitive inf

  6. An empirical analysis of mental state talk and affect regulation in two single-cases of psychodynamic child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Bekar, Ozlem; Gürleyen, Büşra

    2017-06-01

    Literature has shown the importance of mentalizing techniques in symptom remission and emotional understanding; however, no study to date has looked at the dynamic relations between mental state talk and affect regulation in the psychotherapy process. From a psychodynamic perspective, the emergence of the child's capacity to regulate affect through the therapist's reflection on the child's mental states is a core aspect of treatment. In an empirical investigation of 2 single cases with separation anxiety disorder, who were treated in long-term psychodynamic play therapy informed with mentalization principles, the effect of therapists' and children's use of mental state talk on children's subsequent capacity to regulate affect in play was assessed. One case was a positive outcome case, whereas the other did not show symptomatic improvement at the end of treatment. Children's and therapists' utterances in the sessions were coded using the Coding System for Mental State Talk in Narratives, and children's play was coded by Children's Play Therapy Instrument, which generated an index of children's "affect regulation." Time-series Granger Causality tests showed that even though both therapists' use of mental state talk significantly predicted children's subsequent affect regulation, the association between child's mental state talk and affect regulation was only supported for the child who showed clinically significant symptom reduction. This study provided preliminary support that mental state talk in psychodynamic psychotherapy facilitates emotion regulation in play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Does Training in How to Regulate One's Learning Affect How Students Report Self-Regulated Learning in Diary Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferreira, P.; Veiga Simão, A. M.; Lopes da Silva, A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes and perceptions of students' self-regulated learning are not easily measured. Thus, research has presented and suggested numerous ways in which these processes and perceptions of self-regulated learning can be investigated and assessed. Accordingly, this study aims to assess whether training in how to regulate one's learning is…

  8. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  9. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients with Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghei, Abbas

    2015-05-17

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases.

  10. Privacy-related context information for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-03-11

    Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how data can be processed or how components

  11. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  12. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  13. Privacy for Sale?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Khajuria, Samant

    Data brokers have become central players in the collection online of private user data. Data brokers’ activities are however not very transparent or even known by users. Many users regard privacy a central element when they use online services. Based on 12 short interviews with users, this paper...... analyses how users perceive the concept of online privacy in respect to data brokers col- lection of private data, and particularly novel services that offer users the possi- bility to sell their private data. Two groups of users are identified: Those who are considering selling their data under specific...... conditions, and those who reject the idea completely. Based on the literature we identify two positions to privacy either as an instrumental good, or as an intrinsic good. The paper positions vari- ous user perceptions on privacy that are relevant for future service develop- ment....

  14. Privacy as Fundamental right:The Case of Indian AAdhar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    In August 2017; unanimous judgment by the Supreme Court of India (SCI) i was a resounding victory for privacy. The ruling was the outcome of a petition challenging the constitutional validity of the Indian biometric identity scheme Aadhaar. The one-page order signed by all nine judges declares....... “The right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution.” Privacy is a key concerns today in the emerging digital market of India. The vision of Digital Indian can only......-mining tool. Looking into EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), where the main goal of the regulation is to build and/or increase trust in the EU citizens in using digital services. Similarly, a clear well defined privacy regulations needs to be in place in India with heavy fines failing to comply....

  15. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  16. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  17. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Myong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.

  18. Interleukin-1β: A New Regulator of the Kynurenine Pathway Affecting Human Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunszain, Patricia A; Anacker, Christoph; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Choudhury, Shanas; Musaelyan, Ksenia; Myint, Aye Mu; Thuret, Sandrine; Price, Jack; Pariante, Carmine M

    2012-01-01

    Increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we show for the first time how IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. IL-1β was detrimental to neurogenesis, as shown by a decrease in the number of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts (−28%), and mature, microtubule-associated protein-2-positive neurons (−36%). Analysis of the enzymes that regulate the kynurenine pathway showed that IL-1β induced an upregulation of transcripts for indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (42-, 12- and 30-fold increase, respectively, under differentiating conditions), the enzymes involved in the neurotoxic arm of the kynurenine pathway. Moreover, treatment with IL-1β resulted in an increase in kynurenine, the catabolic product of IDO-induced tryptophan metabolism. Interestingly, co-treatment with the KMO inhibitor Ro 61-8048 reversed the detrimental effects of IL-1β on neurogenesis. These observations indicate that IL-1β has a critical role in regulating neurogenesis whereas affecting the availability of tryptophan and the production of enzymes conducive to toxic metabolites. Our results suggest that inhibition of the kynurenine pathway may provide a new therapy to revert inflammatory-induced reduction in neurogenesis. PMID:22071871

  19. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  20. Endogenous ovarian hormones affect mitochondrial efficiency in cerebral endothelium via distinct regulation of PGC-1 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Martin F; Zhao, Yuanzi; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria support the energy-intensive functions of brain endothelium but also produce damaging-free radicals that lead to disease. Previously, we found that estrogen treatment protects cerebrovascular mitochondria, increasing capacity for ATP production while decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether these effects occur specifically in endothelium in vivo and also explore underlying transcriptional mechanisms, we studied freshly isolated brain endothelial preparations from intact and ovariectomized female mice. This preparation reflects physiologic influences of circulating hormones, hemodynamic forces, and cell-cell interactions of the neurovascular unit. Loss of ovarian hormones affected endothelial expression of the key mitochondrial regulator family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1), but in a unique way. Ovariectomy increased endothelial PGC-1α mRNA but decreased PGC-1β mRNA. The change in PGC-1β correlated with decreased mRNA for crucial downstream mitochondrial regulators, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, as well as for ATP synthase and ROS protection enzymes, glutamate-cysteine ligase and manganese superoxide dismutase. Ovariectomy also decreased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitochondrial/nuclear DNA ratio). These results indicate ovarian hormones normally act through a distinctive regulatory pathway involving PGC-1β to support cerebral endothelial mitochondrial content and guide mitochondrial function to favor ATP coupling and ROS protection.

  1. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  2. DEPTOR in POMC neurons affects liver metabolism but is dispensable for the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Labbé, Sébastien M; Mouchiroud, Mathilde; Huard, Renaud; Lanfray, Damien; Richard, Denis; Laplante, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated that specific overexpression of DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) protects mice against high-fat diet-induced obesity, revealing DEPTOR as a significant contributor to energy balance regulation. On the basis of evidence that DEPTOR is expressed in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the MBH, the present study aimed to investigate whether these neurons mediate the metabolic effects of DEPTOR. Here, we report that specific DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not recapitulate any of the phenotypes observed when the protein was overexpressed in the MBH. Unlike the previous model, mice overexpressing DEPTOR only in POMC neurons 1) did not show differences in feeding behavior, 2) did not exhibit changes in locomotion activity and oxygen consumption, 3) did not show an improvement in systemic glucose metabolism, and 4) were not resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. These results support the idea that other neuronal populations are responsible for these phenotypes. Nonetheless, we observed a mild elevation in fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and alterations in liver glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice overexpressing DEPTOR in POMC neurons. Taken together, these results show that DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not affect energy balance regulation but could modulate metabolism through a brain-liver connection. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puddu, A.; Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  4. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  5. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 72428 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-017 General Legal Records System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For general questions and privacy issues... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DHS-2011-0094] Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--017 General Legal Records System of Records AGENCY: Privacy...

  7. 76 FR 71417 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA)) Match Number 5001 AGENCY: Social Security... protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching by Federal... accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...

  8. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  9. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current ICl swell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The ICl swell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates ICl swell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect ICl swell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on ICl

  10. An informational theory of privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schottmuller, C.; Jann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory that explains how and when privacy can increase welfare. Without privacy, some individuals misrepresent their preferences, because they will otherwise be statistically discriminated against. This "chilling effect" hurts them individually, and impairs information aggregation. The

  11. Affect regulation, brain development, and behavioral/emotional health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R E

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of affect regulation (AR) in relation to a broad range of behavioral and emotional health problems that emerge during adolescence. AR is defined as the adaptive modulation of emotional experience to serve a goal or purpose. This conceptualization of AR emphasizes the use of cognitive skills to guide, inhibit, or modify emotion and behavior, including the expression of emotional responses, in learned, strategic ways-skills that ultimately underpin adult levels of social maturity and the ability to show "responsible" behavior across a range of emotional situations. Neurobehavioral systems that subserve these AR skills include areas of the inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC), with rich interconnections to several limbic structures and other cortical areas, including the dorsolateral PFC. Adolescence represents an important developmental period in the functional maturation of adult AR skills; it is also a critical time in the development of clinical disorders of AR (eg, rates of depression increase dramatically and gender differences in depression emerge). Maturational changes in AR that occur during adolescence-particularly with respect to the role of emotions influencing responsible decision making-are also relevant to understanding key aspects of the developmental pathways of some behavioral health problems, such as alcohol use and nicotine dependence. A strong case is made for developmental research in affective neuroscience aimed at this important maturational period, particularly the kind of transdisciplinary research leading toward mechanistic understanding of the development of adolescent-onset disorders. Improving understanding in these areas could ultimately lead to the development of early interventions in targeted high-risk populations, and has enormous clinical and social policy relevance.

  12. Privacy in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Λεονάρδος, Γεώργιος; Leonardos, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the aspects of privacy over the use of social networks web sites. More specific, we will show the types of social networks, their privacy mechanisms that are different in each social network site, their privacy options that are offered to users. We will report some serious privacy violations incidents of the most popular social networks sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Also, we will report some important surveys about social networks and pr...

  13. 77 FR 31371 - Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... presentations, including the privacy compliance fundamentals, privacy and data security, and the privacy... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance... Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Privacy Compliance Workshop.'' DATES: The...

  14. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  15. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  16. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  17. Privacy in an Ambient World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  18. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency...-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and...

  19. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  20. Endocrine disruptors induce cytochrome P450 by affecting transcriptional regulation via pregnane X receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikamo, Eriko; Harada, Shingo; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nishihara, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes for cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and organic anion-transporting peptide 2 (OATP2). These genes control the metabolism (CYP3A subfamily) and aspects of the pharmacokinetics (MDR1 and OATP2) of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Since PXR is important in understanding the actions of endocrine disruptors (EDs), we determined the ability of suspected EDs to interact with PXR. In our study, 7 of 54 xenobiotics compounds interacted with PXR, including methoxychlor and benzophenone. All of the chemicals activated PXR in vitro and induced CYP3A mRNA in the male rat liver. In addition, CYP2C11 was also induced by some PXR agonists and converted methoxychlor into xenoestrogen. These findings suggest that some EDs affect sex hormone receptor indirectly by induction of metabolic enzyme via PXR, to produce rapidly higher concentrations of effective metabolites, leading to disturbance of the endocrine system

  1. 3x2 Classroom Goal Structures, Motivational Regulations, Self-Concept, and Affectivity in Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Méndez-Alonso, David

    2017-09-20

    The main objective was to analyze relationships and predictive patterns between 3x2 classroom goal structures (CGS), and motivational regulations, dimensions of self-concept, and affectivity in the context of secondary education. A sample of 1,347 secondary school students (56.6% young men, 43.4% young women) from 10 different provinces of Spain agreed to participate (M age = 13.43, SD = 1.05). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated the self-approach CGS was the most adaptive within the spectrum of self-determination, followed by the task-approach CGS. The other-approach CGS had an ambivalent influence on motivation. Task-approach and self-approach CGS predicted academic self-concept (p approach CGS (negatively) predicted family self-concept (p approach and other-approach CGS's (p approach-oriented CGS's (p approach (positively) and self-approach (negatively) CGS (p < .001; p < .05, respectively; R 2 = .028). These results expand the 3x2 achievement goal framework to include environmental factors, and reiterate that teachers should focus on raising levels of self- and task-based goals for students in their classes.

  2. Yeast genes involved in regulating cysteine uptake affect production of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Walker, Michelle E; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    An early burst of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation could increase varietal thiols and therefore enhance desirable tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc. Here we attempted to identify genes affecting H2S formation from cysteine by screening yeast deletion libraries via a colony colour assay on media resembling grape juice. Both Δlst4 and Δlst7 formed lighter coloured colonies and produced significantly less H2S than the wild type on high concentrations of cysteine, likely because they are unable to take up cysteine efficiently. We then examined the nine known cysteine permeases and found that deletion of AGP1, GNP1 and MUP1 led to reduced production of H2S from cysteine. We further showed that deleting genes involved in the SPS-sensing pathway such as STP1 and DAL81 also reduced H2S from cysteine. Together, this study indirectly confirms that Agp1p, Gnp1p and Mup1p are the major cysteine permeases and that they are regulated by the SPS-sensing and target of rapamycin pathways under the grape juice-like, cysteine-supplemented, fermentation conditions. The findings highlight that cysteine transportation could be a limiting factor for yeast to generate H2S from cysteine, and therefore selecting wine yeasts without defects in cysteine uptake could maximise thiol production potential. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Trust information-based privacy architecture for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka Sakari; Blobel, Bernd; Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko

    2013-10-08

    Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections were developed using system

  4. Disentangling privacy from property: toward a deeper understanding of genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Sonia M

    2004-04-01

    connoting commodification, disaggregation, and arms-length dealings, can negatively affect the self and harm these relationships. This Article concludes that a deeper understanding of genetic privacy calls for remedies for privacy violations that address dignitary harm and breach of trust, as opposed to market harms, as the property model suggests.

  5. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Genomics Research Intellectual Property Issues in Genetics Archive Online Bioethics Resources Privacy in Genomics Regulation of ... are not regulated, meaning that they go to market without any independent analysis to verify the claims ...

  6. Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Privacy Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Meis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is a software quality that is closely related to security. The main difference is that security properties aim at the protection of assets that are crucial for the considered system, and privacy aims at the protection of personal data that are processed by the system. The identification of privacy protection needs in complex systems is a hard and error prone task. Stakeholders whose personal data are processed might be overlooked, or the sensitivity and the need of protection of the personal data might be underestimated. The later personal data and the needs to protect them are identified during the development process, the more expensive it is to fix these issues, because the needed changes of the system-to-be often affect many functionalities. In this paper, we present a systematic method to identify the privacy needs of a software system based on a set of functional requirements by extending the problem-based privacy analysis (ProPAn method. Our method is tool-supported and automated where possible to reduce the effort that has to be spent for the privacy analysis, which is especially important when considering complex systems. The contribution of this paper is a semi-automatic method to identify the relevant privacy requirements for a software-to-be based on its functional requirements. The considered privacy requirements address all dimensions of privacy that are relevant for software development. As our method is solely based on the functional requirements of the system to be, we enable users of our method to identify the privacy protection needs that have to be addressed by the software-to-be at an early stage of the development. As initial evaluation of our method, we show its applicability on a small electronic health system scenario.

  7. Factors Affecting the Use of Self-Regulated L2 Learning Strategies in Turkish FLE Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Dündar, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the overall self-regulated L2 learning strategy use of L2 learners depending upon the Strategic Self-Regulation (S[superscript 2]R) Model proposed by Oxford (2011), and to examine the relationships between their reported self-regulated L2 strategy use and their personality traits, identity, beliefs about L2 learning,…

  8. How Does Self-Regulation Affect Computer-Programming Achievement in a Blended Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigdem, Harun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learners' self-regulation which is one of the essential skills for student achievement in blended courses. Research on learners' self-regulation skills in blended learning environments has gained popularity in recent years however only a few studies investigating the correlation between self-regulation skills and student…

  9. Privacy Bridges: EU and US Privacy Experts In Search of Transatlantic Privacy Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramatic, J.-F.; Bellamy, B.; Callahan, M.E.; Cate, F.; van Eecke, P.; van Eijk, N.; Guild, E.; de Hert, P.; Hustinx, P.; Kuner, C.; Mulligan, D.; O'Connor, N.; Reidenberg, J.; Rubinstein, I.; Schaar, P.; Shadbolt, N.; Spiekermann, S.; Vladeck, D.; Weitzner, D.J.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Hagenauw, D.; Hijmans, H.

    2015-01-01

    The EU and US share a common commitment to privacy protection as a cornerstone of democracy. Following the Treaty of Lisbon, data privacy is a fundamental right that the European Union must proactively guarantee. In the United States, data privacy derives from constitutional protections in the

  10. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier.

  12. BORDERS OF COMMUNICATION PRIVACY IN SLOVENIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE – CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zgaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to fast technological development and our constant communication protection of communication privacy in every aspect of our (legal life has become more important than ever before. Regarding protection of privacy in criminal procedure special emphasis should be given to the regulation of privacy in Slovenian Constitution and its interpretation in the case law of the Constitutional Court. This paper presents the definition of privacy and communication privacy in Slovenian constitutional law and exposes the main issues of communication privacy that have been discussed in the case law of the Constitutional Court in the last twenty years. Thereby the paper tries to show the general trend in the case law of Constitutional Court regarding the protection of communication privacy and to expose certain unsolved issues and unanswered challenges. Slovenian constitutional regulation of communication privacy is very protective, considering the broad definition of privacy and the strict conditions for encroachment of communication privacy. The case law of Slovenian Constitutional Court has also shown such trend, with the possible exception of the recent decision on a dynamic IP address. The importance of this decision is however significant, since it could be applicable to all forms of communication via internet, the prevailing form of communication nowadays. Certain challenges still lay ahead, such as the current proposal for the amendment of Criminal Procedure Act-M, which includes the use of IMSI catchers and numerous unanswered issues regarding data retention after the decisive annulment of its partial legal basis by the Constitutional Court.

  13. Biometrics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this

  14. Reconciling privacy and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Friedewald, M.; Wright, D.; Gutwirth, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional "trade-off" paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental

  15. Privacy Policy | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Lab. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Lab will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may collect and store

  16. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  17. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  18. Landscape elements and river chemistry as affected by river regulation – a 3-D perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Smedberg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis whether individual land classes within a river catchment contribute equally to river loading with dissolved constituents or whether some land classes act as "hot spots" to river loading and if so, are these land classes especially affected by hydrological alterations. The amount of land covered by forests and wetlands and the average soil depth (throughout this paper soil refers to everything overlying bedrock i.e. regolith of a river catchment explain 58–93% of the variability in total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved silicate (DSi concentrations for 22 river catchments in Northern Sweden. For the heavily regulated Luleälven, with 7 studied sub-catchments, only 3% of the headwater areas have been inundated by reservoirs, some 10% of the soils and aggregated forest and wetland areas have been lost due to damming and further hydrological alteration such as bypassing entire sub-catchments by headrace tunnels. However, looking at individual forest classes, our estimates indicate that some 37% of the deciduous forests have been inundated by the four major reservoirs built in the Luleälven headwaters. These deciduous forest and wetlands formerly growing on top of alluvial deposits along the river corridors forming the riparian zone play a vital role in loading river water with dissolved constituents, especially DSi. A digital elevation model draped with land classes and soil depths which highlights that topography of various land classes acting as hot spots is critical in determining water residence time in soils and biogeochemical fluxes. Thus, headwater areas of the Luleälven appear to be most sensitive to hydrological alterations due to the thin soil cover (on average 2.7–4.5 m and only patchy appearance of forest and wetlands that were significantly perturbed. Hydrological alterations of these relatively small headwater areas significantly impacts downstream flux of dissolved constituents and their delivery to

  19. Leaking privacy and shadow profiles in online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction and data integration in the digital society can affect the control that individuals have on their privacy. Social networking sites can access data from other services, including user contact lists where nonusers are listed too. Although most research on online privacy has focused on inference of personal information of users, this data integration poses the question of whether it is possible to predict personal information of nonusers. This article tests the shadow profile ...

  20. Regulation and the Marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder; Michael Maier; Karim Jamal

    2004-01-01

    Under what conditions is government regulation better at protecting market participants than private, evolving, market-driven protections? An intriguing answer to that question emerges if we examine a relatively unregulated area of market participant protection: e-commerce privacy. In the United States, the privacy of participants engaged in e-commerce is largely unregulated by government; instead, many commercial websites contract with third parties to establish privacy protection codes and ...

  1. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ES). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = .63) and affect before regular eating (ES = .68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = .50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in Bulimia Nervosa (ES = −.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in Binge Eating Disorder compared to Bulimia Nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge versus regular eating episodes for the DSM definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode. PMID:21574678

  2. Design and Evaluation of Affective Serious Games for Emotion Regulation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Jerčić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are thought to be a key factor that critically influences human decision-making. Emotion regulation can help to mitigate emotion related decision biases and eventually lead to a better decision performance. Serious games emerged as a new angle introducing technological methods to learning emotion regulation, where meaningful biofeedback information displays player's emotional state. This thesis investigates emotions and the effect of emotion regulation on decision performance. F...

  3. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual differences in effects of child care quality : The role of child affective self-regulation and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands.

  5. The Importance of Affects, Self-Regulation and Relationships in the Writing of a Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Bastien

    2018-01-01

    While the number of postgraduate students is increasing, the writing of a master's dissertation still poses numerous challenges to them. The outcome of this work depends just as much on technical and methodological skills as on affects, self-regulation, and the relationship to the supervisor. In order to test a comprehensive model including all…

  6. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults' differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict…

  7. Individual differences in the effects of emotion regulation strategies : The role of personality and trait affect intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    This experimental study examined if (1) emotion experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, giving in, neutral) when listening to a well-known rock music fragment, and if (2) personality and trait affect intensity can predict individual differences in

  8. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  9. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children With Multiple Disabilities During Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment. [Miscellaneous Article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G

    2009-01-01

    : In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase,

  10. The relationships between HIV stigma, emotional status, and emotional regulation among HIV-affected children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6-17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform their

  11. Motivational and emotional components affecting male's and female's self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between self-referenced feelings and cognitions and self-regulated learning has become an important area of research. But to what extent can differences in self-regulation be explained by differences in motivation and emotion? And how facilitating or debilitating is the effect of

  12. 77 FR 467 - Notice of Tribal Consultation Meetings Regarding How the Current SACWIS Regulations Affect Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... about current Federal regulations governing child welfare automation, please contact Mr. Peter Howe... consultation reflects our growing familiarity with the automation needs and preferences of Tribes and our... citing the related section of regulations or program guidance. (1) What are the obstacles for your Tribe...

  13. How Do Motivational Regulation Strategies Affect Achievement: Mediated by Effort Management and Moderated by Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…

  14. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  15. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative

  16. Where Dating Meets Data: Investigating Social and Institutional Privacy Concerns on Tinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The widespread diffusion of location-based real-time dating or mobile dating apps, such as Tinder and Grindr, is changing dating practices. The affordances of these dating apps differ from those of “old school” dating sites, for example, by privileging picture-based selection, minimizing room for textual self-description, and drawing upon existing Facebook profile data. They might also affect users’ privacy perceptions as these services are location based and often include personal conversations and data. Based on a survey collected via Mechanical Turk, we assess how Tinder users perceive privacy concerns. We find that the users are more concerned about institutional privacy than social privacy. Moreover, different motivations for using Tinder—hooking up, relationship, friendship, travel, self-validation, and entertainment—affect social privacy concerns more strongly than institutional concerns. Finally, loneliness significantly increases users’ social and institutional privacy concerns, while narcissism decreases them.

  17. Towards Territorial Privacy in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Bastian; Schaub, Florian; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Territorial privacy is an old concept for privacy of the personal space dating back to the 19th century. Despite its former relevance, territorial privacy has been neglected in recent years, while privacy research and legislation mainly focused on the issue of information privacy. However, with the

  18. Privacy Awareness: A Means to Solve the Privacy Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzsch, Stefanie

    People are limited in their resources, i.e. they have limited memory capabilities, cannot pay attention to too many things at the same time, and forget much information after a while; computers do not suffer from these limitations. Thus, revealing personal data in electronic communication environments and being completely unaware of the impact of privacy might cause a lot of privacy issues later. Even if people are privacy aware in general, the so-called privacy paradox shows that they do not behave according to their stated attitudes. This paper discusses explanations for the existing dichotomy between the intentions of people towards disclosure of personal data and their behaviour. We present requirements on tools for privacy-awareness support in order to counteract the privacy paradox.

  19. PRIVACY IN CLOUD COMPUTING: A SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Arockiam L; Parthasarathy G; Monikandan S

    2012-01-01

    Various cloud computing models are used to increase the profit of an organization. Cloud provides a convenient environment and more advantages to business organizations to run their business. But, it has some issues related to the privacy of data. User’s data are stored and maintained out of user’s premises. The failure of data protection causes many issues like data theft which affects the individual organization. The cloud users may be satisfied, if their data are protected p...

  20. Impact of Mini-drone based Video Surveillance on Invasion of Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunov, Pavel; Bonetto, Margherita; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Ramponi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    An increase in adoption of video surveillance, affecting many aspects of daily lives, raises public concern about an intrusion into individual privacy. New sensing and surveillance technologies, such as mini-drones, threaten to eradicate boundaries of private space even more. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of mini-drones on privacy intrusion and to understand how existing protection privacy filters perform on a video captured by a mini-drone. To this end, we have built a publi...

  1. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  2. Gaussian operations and privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states

  3. Privacy 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Papathanassopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the era of change. In this world, privacy is not a static concept, but instead has a dynamic component. Overall, it becomes clear that the public and private are not defined in the same manner as in the past and as in the actual world, while our personal information has become a commodity that can raise our visibility in the social media driven world.

  4. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  5. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy remains both contentious and ever more pertinent in contemporary society. Yet it persists as an ill-defined term, not only within specific fields but in its various uses and implications between and across technical, legal and political contexts. This article offers a new critical review of the history of privacy in terms of two dominant strands of thinking: freedom and property. These two conceptions of privacy can be seen as successive historical epochs brought together under digital technologies, yielding increasingly complex socio-technical dilemmas. By simplifying the taxonomy to its socio-cultural function, the article provides a generalisable, interdisciplinary approach to privacy. Drawing on new technologies, historical trends, sociological studies and political philosophy, the article presents a discussion of the value of privacy as a term, before proposing a defense of the term cyber security as a mode of scalable cognitive privacy that integrates the relative needs of individuals, governments and corporations.

  6. SACE_0012, a TetR-Family Transcriptional Regulator, Affects the Morphogenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinqiang; Wu, Hang; Yuan, Li; Huang, Xunduan; Zhang, Buchang

    2013-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea, a mycelium-forming actinomycete, produces a clinically important antibiotic erythromycin. Extensive investigations have provided insights into erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea, but knowledge of its morphogenesis remains limited. By gene inactivation and complementation strategies, the TetR-family transcriptional regulator SACE_0012 was identified to be a negative regulator of mycelium formation of S. erythraea A226. Detected by quantitative real-time PCR,...

  7. Privacy and medical information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven B

    2006-02-01

    Health-care consumers are beginning to realize the presence and value of health-care information available on the Internet, but they need to be aware of risks that may be involved. In addition to delivering information, some Web sites collect information. Though not all of the information might be classified as protected health information, consumers need to realize what is collected and how it might be used. Consumers should know a Web site\\'s privacy policy before divulging any personal information. Health-care providers have a responsibility to know what information they are collecting and why. Web servers may collect large amounts of visitor information by default, and they should be modified to limit data collection to only what is necessary. Providers need to be cognizant of the many regulations concerning collection and disclosure of information obtained from consumers. Providers should also provide an easily understood privacy policy for users.

  8. The privacy implications of Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Kostakos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermor...

  9. 78 FR 47210 - National Practitioner Data Bank and Privacy Act; Exempt Records System; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... reference cited in the Privacy Act regulations. The National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) system of records... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 5b RIN 0906-AA97 National Practitioner Data Bank and Privacy Act; Exempt Records System; Technical Correction AGENCY: Health Resources and Services...

  10. 76 FR 58007 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ..., Division of Information Security & Privacy Management, Enterprise Architecture and Strategy Group, Office... system contain Protected Health Information (PHI) as defined by HHS regulation ``Standards for Privacy of... such PHI that are otherwise authorized by these routine uses may only be made if, and as, permitted or...

  11. Opening More Data : A New Privacy Risk Scoring Model for Open Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Zuiderwijk-van Eijk, AMG; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    While the opening of data has become a common practice for both governments and companies, many datasets
    are still not published since they might violate privacy regulations. The risk on privacy violations is a factor
    that often blocks the publication of data and results in a reserved

  12. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  13. Cognitive Privacy for Personal Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Cognitive Privacy (CogPriv framework that improves privacy of data sharing between Personal Clouds for different application types and across heterogeneous networks. Depending on the behaviour of neighbouring network nodes, their estimated privacy levels, resource availability, and social network connectivity, each Personal Cloud may decide to use different transmission network for different types of data and privacy requirements. CogPriv is fully distributed, uses complex graph contacts analytics and multiple implicit novel heuristics, and combines these with smart probing to identify presence and behaviour of privacy compromising nodes in the network. Based on sensed local context and through cooperation with remote nodes in the network, CogPriv is able to transparently and on-the-fly change the network in order to avoid transmissions when privacy may be compromised. We show that CogPriv achieves higher end-to-end privacy levels compared to both noncognitive cellular network communication and state-of-the-art strategies based on privacy-aware adaptive social mobile networks routing for a range of experiment scenarios based on real-world user and network traces. CogPriv is able to adapt to varying network connectivity and maintain high quality of service while managing to keep low data exposure for a wide range of privacy leakage levels in the infrastructure.

  14. A Survey of Privacy on Data Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Do Son, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This survey is an integrated view of other surveys on privacy preserving for data integration. First, we review the database context and challenges and research questions. Second, we formulate the privacy problems for schema matching and data matching. Next, we introduce the elements of privacy models. Then, we summarize the existing privacy techniques and the analysis (proofs) of privacy guarantees. Finally, we describe the privacy frameworks and their applications.

  15. Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David

    2018-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, instead of using existing metrics, n...

  16. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Dong; Wang, Lei; Feng, Hailan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation

  17. Gaming Horror’s horror: Representation, Regulation and Affect in Horror Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Krzywinska, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This position article outlines a personal perspective on the way that Horror games create affect in a complex play between representation and performance and that, in some cases, operate against the usual Vitruvian coordinates of games that are used in order to work with the types of affect associated with pleasure, agency and assuredness. The author argues that against the usual informative pleasures of self-affirmation and a clockwork universe, Horror games configured against normative game...

  18. SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer and affects genes involved in lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise-Lotte; True, Kirsten; Hamilton, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer where they have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. RNA profiling of 314 colorectal adenomas/adenocarcinomas and 292 adjacent normal colon mucosa samples using RNA-sequencing demonstrated that the snoRNA host...... gene 16 (SNHG16) is significantly up-regulated in adenomas and all stages of CRC. SNHG16 expression was positively correlated to the expression of Wnt-regulated transcription factors, including ASCL2, ETS2, and c-Myc. In vitro abrogation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells reduced the expression of SNHG16...... indicating that SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway. Silencing of SNHG16 resulted in reduced viability, increased apoptotic cell death and impaired cell migration. The SNHG16 silencing particularly affected expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. A connection between SNHG16 and genes involved...

  19. Up-regulation of microRNA-1290 impairs cytokinesis and affects the reprogramming of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Ji, Xiaowei; Zhu, Linlin; Jiang, Qiaoli; Wen, Zhenzhen; Xu, Song; Shao, Wei; Cai, Jianting; Du, Qin; Zhu, Yongliang; Mao, Jianshan

    2013-02-28

    Abnormal cytokinesis increases the possibility of nuclear fusion in tumor cells. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in abnormal cytokinesis is unclear. Here, we found that miR-1290 was significantly up-regulated in clinical colon cancer tissues. Up-regulation of miR-1290 postponed cytokinesis and led to the formation of multinucleated cells. KIF13B was a target of miR-1290 that was involved in aberrant cytokinesis. Furthermore, enforced expression of miR-1290 activated the Wnt pathway and increased the reprogramming-related transcript factors c-Myc and Nanog. Our results suggest that up-regulation of miR-1290 in colon cancer cells impaired cytokinesis and affected reprogramming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local ordinances as an instrument of social exclusion: the regulation affecting the homeless is administrative law of the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melero Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses local ordinances, especially the so-called coexistence ordinances, to the extent they affect the daily activities of the homeless. There are three areas of regulation: the prohibition of begging; a ban on sleeping, washing and perform physiological needs in public spaces; and the prohibition of sorting through garbage. This regulation is subjected to a critical analysis, focusing on the fact that has an impact on the fundamental rights of the homeless. The basic parameters of control are the reserve of law and, above all, the principle of proportionality. The conclusion reached is that, in many cases, this regulation is not only illegal, it can also be included within the category Administrative Law of the enemy.

  1. 78 FR 69925 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Bureau of the Fiscal Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching... savings securities. C. Authority for Conducting the Matching Program This computer matching agreement sets... amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, as amended, and the regulations and...

  2. Do changes in regulation affect employment duration in temporary help agencies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoni, Manfred; Jahn, Elke

    2009-01-01

    The employment duration of workers in temporary help agencies is seen as an important indicator of their job quality. Most of the countries that regulate temporary agency employment do so to insure at least a minimal level of employment stability. Over the past three decades Germany has repeatedly...

  3. Emotion regulation and coping motives serially affect cannabis cessation problems among dually diagnosed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Walukevich, Katherine A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Gallagher, Matthew W

    2017-11-01

    Little empirical work has evaluated why anxious cannabis users are especially vulnerable to poorer cannabis cessation outcomes. Presumably, these individuals rely on cannabis because they have difficulties with emotion regulation and they therefore use cannabis to manage their negative emotions. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of anxiety severity on a range of cannabis cessation variables among 79 (63.3% non-Hispanic White; 43.0% female) adults with anxiety disorders seeking outpatient treatment for cannabis use disorder. The independent and serial indirect effects of difficulties with emotion regulation and coping motives were examined in relation to the anxiety-cannabis variables. Anxiety severity was directly and robustly related to greater cannabis withdrawal symptom severity, less self-efficacy to refrain from using cannabis in emotionally distressing situations, and more reasons for quitting. Anxiety was indirectly related to cannabis outcomes via the serial effects of emotion regulation and coping motives. These findings document the important role of emotion regulation and coping motives in the relations of anxiety with cannabis cessation variables among dually diagnosed outpatients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Acetylation regulates WRN catalytic activities and affects base excision DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Kusumoto, Rika; Speina, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    The Werner protein (WRN), defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, participates in a number of DNA metabolic processes, and we have been interested in the possible regulation of its function in DNA repair by post-translational modifications. Acetylation mediated by histone...... acetyltransferases is of key interest because of its potential importance in aging, DNA repair and transcription....

  5. 75 FR 33734 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) The Director publishes a special edition of the Federal Register called ``The United States Government... its regulations the requirement that the United States Government Manual (Manual) be published and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy P. Bunk, Director of Legal Affairs and Policy, Office of the Federal Register, at...

  6. The association between motivation, affect, and self-regulated learning when solving problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Baars (Martine); L. Wijnia (Lisette); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSelf-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a

  7. French regulations for countering external violent forces affecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the general principles underlying nuclear safety regulations to counter external violent forces to which plants can be exposed. It then examines the statutory directives concerning external violences connected with human activities or originating from natural phenomena. 3 refs [fr

  8. European regulation affecting nanomaterials – review of limitations and future recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    After learning about the potential risks associated with various specific nanomaterials, concerns have been raised about adequacy of existing regulation in Europe and what should be done to address any potential regulatory gaps related to nanomaterials. Understanding the limitations of the curren...

  9. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, J.D.; van Boxtel, R.; Bergen, D.J.; Brans, M.A.; Brakkee, J.H.; Toonen, P.W.; Garner, K.M.; Adan, R.A.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is

  10. Self-Regulation Programs for At-Risk Youth: Are Teachers Affected Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtinger, Einat; Leichtentritt, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes experienced by teachers of youth at socioeconomic risk during and after conducting self-regulation programs with their students. Participants' self-reports were classified into 3 change models. Teachers in the 1st model reported changes in their interaction with the school, their role with the students, and their own…

  11. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  12. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  13. A UV-induced mutation in neurospora that affects translational regulation in response to arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, M.; Dighde, N.; Sachs, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa arg-2 gene encodes the small subunit of arginine-specific carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. The levels of arg-2 mRNA and mRNA translation are negatively regulated by arginine. An upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the transcript's 5' region has been implicated in arginine-specific control. An arg-2-hph fusion gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase conferred arginine-regulated resistance to hygromycin when introduced into N. crassa. We used an arg-2-hph strain to select for UV-induced mutants that grew in the presence of hygromycin and arginine, and we isolated 46 mutants that had either of two phenotypes. One phenotype indicated altered expression of both arg-2-hph and arg-2 genes; the other, altered expression of arg-2-hph but not arg-2. One of the latter mutations, which was genetically closely linked to arg-2-hph, was recovered from the 5' region of the arg-2-hph gene using PCR Sequence analyses and transformation experiments revealed a mutation at uORF codon 12 (Asp to Asn) that abrogated negative regulation. Examination of the distribution of ribosomes on arg-2-hph transcripts showed that loss of regulation had a translational component, indicating the uORF sequence was important for Arg-specific translational control. Comparisons with other uORFs suggest common elements in translational control mechanisms

  14. SACE_0012, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator, affects the morphogenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinqiang; Wu, Hang; Yuan, Li; Huang, Xunduan; Zhang, Buchang

    2013-12-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea, a mycelium-forming actinomycete, produces a clinically important antibiotic erythromycin. Extensive investigations have provided insights into erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea, but knowledge of its morphogenesis remains limited. By gene inactivation and complementation strategies, the TetR-family transcriptional regulator SACE_0012 was identified to be a negative regulator of mycelium formation of S. erythraea A226. Detected by quantitative real-time PCR, the relative transcription of SACE_7115, the amfC homolog for an aerial mycelium formation protein, was dramatically increased in SACE_0012 mutant, whereas erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryA, a pleiotropic regulatory gene bldD, and the genes SACE_2141, SACE_6464, SACE_6040, that are the homologs to the sporulation regulators WhiA, WhiB, WhiG, were not differentially expressed. SACE_0012 disruption could not restore its defect of aerial development in bldD mutant, and also did not further accelerate the mycelium formation in the mutant of SACE_7040 gene, that was previously identified to be a morphogenesis repressor. Furthermore, the transcriptional level of SACE_0012 had not markedly changed in bldD and SACE_7040 mutant over A226. Taken together, these results suggest that SACE_0012 is a negative regulator of S. erythraea morphogenesis by mainly increasing the transcription of amfC gene, independently of the BldD regulatory system.

  15. Neonatal immune challenge does not affect body weight regulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J; Mouihate, Abdeslam; Galic, Michael A; Ellis, Shaun L; Pittman, Quentin J

    2007-08-01

    The perinatal environment plays a crucial role in programming many aspects of adult physiology. Myriad stressors during pregnancy, from maternal immune challenge to nutritional deficiency, can alter long-term body weight set points of the offspring. In light of the increasing concern over body weight issues, such as obesity and anorexia, in modern societies and accumulating evidence that developmental stressors have long-lasting effects on other aspects of physiology (e.g., fever, pain), we explored the role of immune system activation during neonatal development and its impact on body weight regulation in adulthood. Here we present a thorough evaluation of the effects of immune system activation (LPS, 100 microg/kg ip) at postnatal days 3, 7, or 14 on long-term body weight, adiposity, and body weight regulation after a further LPS injection (50 microg/kg ip) or fasting and basal and LPS-induced circulating levels of the appetite-regulating proinflammatory cytokine leptin. We show that neonatal exposure to LPS at various times during the neonatal period has no long-term effects on growth, body weight, or adiposity. We also observed no effects on body weight regulation in response to a short fasting period or a further exposure to LPS. Despite reductions in circulating leptin levels in response to LPS during the neonatal period, no long-term effects on leptin were seen. These results convincingly demonstrate that adult body weight and weight regulation are, unlike many other aspects of adult physiology, resistant to programming by a febrile-dose neonatal immune challenge.

  16. New Source Review and coal plant efficiency gains: How new and forthcoming air regulations affect outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Sarah K.; Hoppock, David C.; Monast, Jonas J.

    2014-01-01

    Forthcoming carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regulations for existing power plants in the United States have heightened interest in thermal efficiency gains for coal-fired power plants. Plant modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger New Source Review (NSR), a Clean Air Act requirement to adopt of state-of-the-art pollution controls. This article explores whether existing coal plants would likely face additional pollution control requirements if they undertake modifications that trigger NSR. Despite emissions controls that are or will be installed under the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) and Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) or its replacement, 80% of coal units (76% of capacity) that are expected to remain in operation are not projected to meet the minimum NSR requirements for at least one pollutant: nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide. This is an important consideration for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state policymakers as they determine the extent to which CO 2 regulation will rely on unit-by-unit thermal efficiency gains versus potential flexible compliance strategies such as averaging, trading, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. NSR would likely delay and add cost to thermal efficiency projects at a majority of coal units, including projects undertaken to comply with forthcoming CO 2 regulation. - Highlights: • We explore the status of the U.S. coal-fired fleet relative to New Source Review (NSR) requirements. • Modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger NSR. • Thermal efficiency gains may also be an important strategy for forthcoming CO 2 regulation. • 80% Of non-retiring coal-fired units are projected not to meet minimum NSR requirements. • NSR is an important consideration for the design of CO 2 regulations for existing plants

  17. The Privacy Coach: Supporting customer privacy in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Broenink, Gerben; Hoepman, Jaap-Henk; Hof, Christian van 't; van Kranenburg, Rob; Smits, David; Wisman, Tijmen

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing technologies on the RFID tags themselves. Instead the Privacy Coach functions as a mediator between customer privacy preferences and corporate privacy policies, trying to find a match between the ...

  18. Profiling of Human Molecular Pathways Affected by Retrotransposons at the Level of Regulation by Transcription Factor Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Daniil; Penzar, Dmitry; Garazha, Andrew; Sorokin, Maxim; Tkachev, Victor; Borisov, Nicolas; Poltorak, Alexander; Prassolov, Vladimir; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2018-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons also termed retroelements (REs) are mobile genetic elements that were active until recently in human genome evolution. REs regulate gene expression by actively reshaping chromatin structure or by directly providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We aimed to identify molecular processes most deeply impacted by the REs in human cells at the level of TFBS regulation. By using ENCODE data, we identified ~2 million TFBS overlapping with putatively regulation-competent human REs located in 5-kb gene promoter neighborhood (~17% of all TFBS in promoter neighborhoods; ~9% of all RE-linked TFBS). Most of REs hosting TFBS were highly diverged repeats, and for the evolutionary young (0–8% diverged) elements we identified only ~7% of all RE-linked TFBS. The gene-specific distributions of RE-linked TFBS generally correlated with the distributions for all TFBS. However, several groups of molecular processes were highly enriched in the RE-linked TFBS regulation. They were strongly connected with the immunity and response to pathogens, with the negative regulation of gene transcription, ubiquitination, and protein degradation, extracellular matrix organization, regulation of STAT signaling, fatty acids metabolism, regulation of GTPase activity, protein targeting to Golgi, regulation of cell division and differentiation, development and functioning of perception organs and reproductive system. By contrast, the processes most weakly affected by the REs were linked with the conservative aspects of embryo development. We also identified differences in the regulation features by the younger and older fractions of the REs. The regulation by the older fraction of the REs was linked mainly with the immunity, cell adhesion, cAMP, IGF1R, Notch, Wnt, and integrin signaling, neuronal development, chondroitin sulfate and heparin metabolism, and endocytosis. The younger REs regulate other aspects of immunity, cell cycle progression and

  19. Profiling of Human Molecular Pathways Affected by Retrotransposons at the Level of Regulation by Transcription Factor Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Nikitin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons also termed retroelements (REs are mobile genetic elements that were active until recently in human genome evolution. REs regulate gene expression by actively reshaping chromatin structure or by directly providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs. We aimed to identify molecular processes most deeply impacted by the REs in human cells at the level of TFBS regulation. By using ENCODE data, we identified ~2 million TFBS overlapping with putatively regulation-competent human REs located in 5-kb gene promoter neighborhood (~17% of all TFBS in promoter neighborhoods; ~9% of all RE-linked TFBS. Most of REs hosting TFBS were highly diverged repeats, and for the evolutionary young (0–8% diverged elements we identified only ~7% of all RE-linked TFBS. The gene-specific distributions of RE-linked TFBS generally correlated with the distributions for all TFBS. However, several groups of molecular processes were highly enriched in the RE-linked TFBS regulation. They were strongly connected with the immunity and response to pathogens, with the negative regulation of gene transcription, ubiquitination, and protein degradation, extracellular matrix organization, regulation of STAT signaling, fatty acids metabolism, regulation of GTPase activity, protein targeting to Golgi, regulation of cell division and differentiation, development and functioning of perception organs and reproductive system. By contrast, the processes most weakly affected by the REs were linked with the conservative aspects of embryo development. We also identified differences in the regulation features by the younger and older fractions of the REs. The regulation by the older fraction of the REs was linked mainly with the immunity, cell adhesion, cAMP, IGF1R, Notch, Wnt, and integrin signaling, neuronal development, chondroitin sulfate and heparin metabolism, and endocytosis. The younger REs regulate other aspects of immunity, cell cycle

  20. Photoperiodic regulation of the sucrose transporter StSUT4 affects the expression of circadian-regulated genes and ethylene production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela eChincinska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several recent publications report different subcellular localisation of members of the SUT4 subfamily of sucrose transporters. The physiological function of SUT4 sucrose transporters is still not entirely clarified as down-regulation of members of the SUT4 clade had very different effects in rice, poplar and potato. Here, we provide new data on the localization and function of the Solanaceous StSUT4 protein, further elucidating involvement in the onset of flowering, tuberization and in the shade avoidance syndrome of potato plants.Induction of early flowering and tuberization in SUT4-inhibited potato plants correlates with increased sucrose export from leaves and increased sucrose and starch accumulation in terminal sink organs such as developing tubers. SUT4 does not only affect the expression of gibberellin and ethylene biosynthetic enzymes, but also the rate of ethylene synthesis in potato. In SUT4-inhibited plants, the ethylene production no longer follows a diurnal rhythm, leading to the assumption that StSUT4 controls circadian gene expression, potentially by regulating sucrose export from leaves. Furthermore, SUT4 expression affects clock-regulated genes such as StFT, StSOC1 and StCO, which might also be involved in a photoperiod-dependently controlled tuberization. A model is proposed in which StSUT4 controls a phloem-mobile signalling molecule generated in leaves which together with enhanced sucrose export affects developmental switches in apical meristems. SUT4 seems to link photoreceptor-perceived information about the light quality and day length, with phytohormone biosynthesis and the expression of circadian genes.

  1. Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Oddi, Kate B; Laake, Lauren M; Murdock, Kyle W; Bachmann, Melissa N

    2013-02-01

    Subdisciplines within psychology frequently examine self-regulation from different frameworks despite conceptually similar definitions of constructs. In the current study, similarities and differences between effortful control, based on the psychobiological model of temperament (Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994), and executive functioning are examined and empirically tested in three studies (n = 509). Structural equation modeling indicated that effortful control and executive functioning are strongly associated and overlapping constructs (Study 1). Additionally, results indicated that effortful control is related to the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory, but not inhibition (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 also demonstrates that better updating/monitoring information in working memory and better effortful control were uniquely linked to lower dispositional negative affect, whereas the executive function of low/poor inhibition was uniquely associated with an increased tendency to express negative affect. Furthermore, dispositional negative affect mediated the links between effortful control and, separately, the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory and the tendency to express negative affect. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, and a potential framework for guiding future work directed at integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation is suggested. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  3. Culture medium, gas atmosphere and MAPK inhibition affect regulation of RNA-binding protein targets during mouse preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Michele D; Watson, Patricia H; Watson, Andrew J

    2011-11-01

    During oogenesis, mammalian oocytes accumulate maternal mRNAs that support the embryo until embryonic genome activation. RNA-binding proteins (RBP) may regulate the stability and turnover of maternal and embryonic mRNAs. We hypothesised that varying embryo culture conditions, such as culture medium, oxygen tension and MAPK inhibition, affects regulation of RBPs and their targets during preimplantation development. STAU1, ELAVL1, KHSRP and ZFP36 proteins and mRNAs were detected throughout mouse preimplantation development, whereas Elavl2 mRNA decreased after the two-cell stage. Potential target mRNAs of RBP regulation, Gclc, Slc2a1 and Slc7a1 were detected during mouse preimplantation development. Gclc mRNA was significantly elevated in embryos cultured in Whitten's medium compared with embryos cultured in KSOMaa, and Gclc mRNA was elevated under high-oxygen conditions. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway reduced Slc7a1 mRNA expression while inhibition of ERK increased Slc2a1 mRNA expression. The half-lives of the potential RBP mRNA targets are not regulated in parallel; Slc2a1 mRNA displayed the longest half-life. Our results indicate that mRNAs and proteins encoding five RBPs are present during preimplantation development and more importantly, demonstrate that expression of RBP target mRNAs are regulated by culture medium, gas atmosphere and MAPK pathways.

  4. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  5. Story Lab: Student Data Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Student data privacy is an increasingly high-profile--and controversial--issue that touches schools and families across the country. There are stories to tell in virtually every community. About three dozen states have passed legislation addressing student data privacy in the past two years, and eight different proposals were floating around…

  6. Does the intensity of prudential regulation affect banks? Evidence from the 2007-2009 crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Argimon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to gather empirical evidence on the effects of more or less stringency and more or less risk sensitivity in regulatory capital requirements on the observed behaviour of European banks during the initial years of the financial crisis. To do so, we use the indices built in Argimón and Ruiz (2010, which capture such characteristics of capital regulation. We test their incidence using changes in yearly data for individual banks for 25 countries of the European Union covering the period 2007-2009. Our results show that more stringency and risk sensitivity in capital regulation resulted in higher capital increases, with limited effect on risk taking. However, for well capitalized banks, higher risk sensitivity resulted in higher capital and higher risk, thus requiring striking the right balance, so as to lead to increased stability.

  7. Neuroticism and responsiveness to error feedback: adaptive self-regulation versus affective reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2010-10-01

    Responsiveness to negative feedback has been seen as functional by those who emphasize the value of reflecting on such feedback in self-regulating problematic behaviors. On the other hand, the very same responsiveness has been viewed as dysfunctional by its link to punishment sensitivity and reactivity. The present 4 studies, involving 203 undergraduate participants, sought to reconcile such discrepant views in the context of the trait of neuroticism. In cognitive tasks, individuals were given error feedback when they made mistakes. It was found that greater tendencies to slow down following error feedback were associated with higher levels of accuracy at low levels of neuroticism but lower levels of accuracy at high levels of neuroticism. Individual differences in neuroticism thus appear crucial in understanding whether behavioral alterations following negative feedback reflect proactive versus reactive mechanisms and processes. Implications for understanding the processing basis of neuroticism and adaptive self-regulation are discussed.

  8. Does interoceptive awareness affect the ability to regulate unfair treatment by others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha eVan 't Wout

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to investigate how awareness of bodily responses, referred to as interoceptive awareness, influences decision-making in a social interactive context. Interoceptive awareness is thought to be crucial for adequate regulation of one’s emotions. However, there is a dearth of studies that examine the association between interoceptive awareness and the ability to regulate emotions during interpersonal decision-making. Here, we quantified interoceptive awareness with a heartbeat detection task in which we measured the difference between subjective self-reports and an objective psychophysiological measurement of participant heart rates. Social decision-making was quantified using a two-round Ultimatum Game. Participants were asked to first reject or accept an unfair division of money proposed by a partner. In turn, participants could then make an offer on how to divide an amount of money with the same partner. Participants performed 20 rounds of the two-round Ultimatum Game twice, once during baseline condition and once while asked to reappraise emotional reactions when confronted with unfair offers from partners. Results showed that after reappraisal participants 1 accepted more unfair offers and 2 offered higher return divisions, as compared to baseline. With respect to interoceptive awareness, participants with better heartbeat detection scores tended to report less emotional involvement when they applied reappraisal while playing the Ultimatum Game. However, there was no reliably significant relationship between heartbeat detection and the acceptance of unfair offers. Similarly, heartbeat detection accuracy was not related to return offers made in the second round of the Ultimatum Game or the habitual use of emotion regulation. These preliminary findings suggest that the relationship between interoceptive awareness and behavioral changes due to emotion regulation in a social decision-making context appears to be complex.

  9. Therapeutic affect reduction, emotion regulation, and emotional memory reconsolidation: A neuroscientific quandary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Lane et al. emphasize the role of emotional arousal as a precipitating factor for successful psychotherapy. However, as therapy ensues, the arousal diminishes. How can the unfolding therapeutic process generate long-term memories for reconsolidated emotional material without the benefit of arousal? Studies investigating memory for emotionally regulated material provide some clues regarding the neural pathways that may underlie therapy-based memory reconsolidation.

  10. The regulated synthesis of a Bacillus anthracis spore coat protein that affects spore surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, A; Goodman, B; Smith, Z

    2014-05-01

    Examine the regulation of a spore coat protein and the effects on spore properties. A c. 23 kDa band in coat/exosporial extracts of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores varied in amount depending upon the conditions of sporulation. It was identified by MALDI as a likely orthologue of ExsB of Bacillus cereus. Little if any was present in an exosporial preparation with a location to the inner coat/cortex region established by spore fractionation and immunogold labelling of electron micrograph sections. Because of its predominant location in the inner coat, it has been renamed Cotγ. It was relatively deficient in spores produced at 37°C and when acidic fermentation products were produced a difference attributable to transcriptional regulation. The deficiency or absence of Cotγ resulted in a less robust exosporium positioned more closely to the coat. These spores were less hydrophobic and germinated somewhat more rapidly. Hydrophobicity and appearance were rescued in the deletion strain by introduction of the cotγ gene. The deficiency or lack of a protein largely found in the inner coat altered spore hydrophobicity and surface appearance. The regulated synthesis of Cotγ may be a paradigm for other spore coat proteins with unknown functions that modulate spore properties in response to environmental conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca 2+ concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca 2+ -mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation of the αsubunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca 2+ are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that [ 3 H] spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development

  12. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  13. Speech Privacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-08-18

    eondwious, «ach AnvoWnc either one or tiro staple m^aSattoa processes. The British teo -dimensioaai privacy system eUiissd both ire- oasaay ana time...of the 884 gas tube and ground showed that the tubs did not re- main fired throughout the duration of the 4- kc puls.e. Instead, the tube fired on...ouri’ent through the relay circuit was not sufficient to: permit its firm operation, especially when the amplitude of the 4~ kc pulse was low. This

  14. The drive to control : how affect and motivation regulate cognitive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Hendrik van

    2012-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis aimed to investigate how affect and motivation impact cognitive control, in terms of both behavior and brain activation. Six out of the eight empirical studies found support for indirect effects on cognitive control, as measured with sequential trial-to-trial

  15. The regulation of catalase activity by PPAR gamma is affected by alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakunin, Eugenia; Kisos, Haya; Kulik, Willem; Grigoletto, Jessica; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Sharon, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While evidence for oxidative injury is frequently detected in brains of humans affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in relevant animal models, there is uncertainty regarding its cause. We tested the potential role of catalase in the oxidative injury that characterizes PD. Methods:

  16. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  17. The Privacy Calculus: Mobile Apps and User Perceptions of Privacy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fife

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A continuing stream of new mobile data services are being released that rely upon the collection of personal data to support a business model. New technologies including facial recognition, sensors and Near Field Communications (NFC will increasingly become a part of everyday services and applications that challenge traditional concepts of individual privacy. The average person as well as the “tech‐savvy” mobile phone user may not yet be fully aware of the extent to which their privacy and security are being affected through their mobile activities and how comparable this situation is to personal computer usage. We investigate perceptions and usage of mobile data services that appear to have specific privacy and security sensitivities, specifically social networking,\tbanking/payments\tand\thealth‐related activities. Our annual survey of smartphone users in the U.S. and Japan is presented from 2011. This nationally representative survey data is used to show demographic and cultural differences, and substantiate our hypotheses about the links between use and privacy concerns

  18. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  19. Proliferation marker pKi-67 affects the cell cycle in a self-regulated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Duchrow, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation marker pKi-67 is commonly used in research and pathology to detect proliferating cells. In a previous work, we found the protein to be associated with regulators of the cell cycle, controlling S-phase progression, as well as entry into and exit from mitosis. Here we investigate whether pKi-67 has a regulative effect on the cell cycle itself. For that purpose we cloned four fragments of pKi-67, together representing nearly the whole protein, and an N-terminal pKi-67 antisense oligonucleotide into a tetracycline inducible gene expression system. The sense fragments were C-terminally modified by addition of either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a STOP codon to address the impact of their intracellular distribution. FACS based cell cycle analysis revealed that expression of nearly all pKi-67 domains and the antisense oligonucleotide led to a decreased amount of cells in S-phase and an increased number of cells in G(2)/M- and G(1)-phase. Subsequent analysis of the endogenous pKi-67 mRNA and protein levels revealed that the constructs with the most significant impact on the cell cycle were able to silence pKi-67 transcription as well. We conclude from the data that pKi-67 influences progression of S-phase and mitosis in a self-regulated manner and, therefore, effects the cell cycle checkpoints within both phases. Furthermore, we found pKi-67 mediates an anti-apoptotic effect on the cell and we verified that this marker, although it is a potential ribosomal catalyst, is not expressed in differentiated tissues with a high transcriptional activity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Zebrafish foxo3b negatively regulates canonical Wnt signaling to affect early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-wei Xie

    Full Text Available FOXO genes are involved in many aspects of development and vascular homeostasis by regulating cell apoptosis, proliferation, and the control of oxidative stress. In addition, FOXO genes have been showed to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling by competing with T cell factor to bind to β-catenin. However, how important of this inhibition in vivo, particularly in embryogenesis is still unknown. To demonstrate the roles of FOXO genes in embryogenesis will help us to further understand their relevant physiological functions. Zebrafish foxo3b gene, an orthologue of mammalian FOXO3, was expressed maternally and distributed ubiquitously during early embryogenesis and later restricted to brain. After morpholino-mediated knockdown of foxo3b, the zebrafish embryos exhibited defects in axis and neuroectoderm formation, suggesting its critical role in early embryogenesis. The embryo-developmental marker gene staining at different stages, phenotype analysis and rescue assays revealed that foxo3b acted its role through negatively regulating both maternal and zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, we found that foxo3b could interact with zebrafish β-catenin1 and β-catenin2 to suppress their transactivation in vitro and in vivo, further confirming its role relevant to the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, we revealed that foxo3b played a very important role in embryogenesis and negatively regulated maternal and zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly interacting with both β-catenin1 and β-catenin2. Our studies provide an in vivo model for illustrating function of FOXO transcription factors in embryogenesis.

  1. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina Campos Antoniêto

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0, neutral (pH 7.0, and alkaline (pH 10.0 medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  2. A model-driven privacy compliance decision support for medical data sharing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussi Rahmouni, H; Solomonides, T; Casassa Mont, M; Shiu, S; Rahmouni, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical practitioners and medical researchers often have to share health data with other colleagues across Europe. Privacy compliance in this context is very important but challenging. Automated privacy guidelines are a practical way of increasing users' awareness of privacy obligations and help eliminating unintentional breaches of privacy. In this paper we present an ontology-plus-rules based approach to privacy decision support for the sharing of patient data across European platforms. We use ontologies to model the required domain and context information about data sharing and privacy requirements. In addition, we use a set of Semantic Web Rule Language rules to reason about legal privacy requirements that are applicable to a specific context of data disclosure. We make the complete set invocable through the use of a semantic web application acting as an interactive privacy guideline system can then invoke the full model in order to provide decision support. When asked, the system will generate privacy reports applicable to a specific case of data disclosure described by the user. Also reports showing guidelines per Member State may be obtained. The advantage of this approach lies in the expressiveness and extensibility of the modelling and inference languages adopted and the ability they confer to reason with complex requirements interpreted from high level regulations. However, the system cannot at this stage fully simulate the role of an ethics committee or review board.

  3. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  4. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-092)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... retirement of one Privacy Act system of records notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, NASA is giving notice that it proposes to cancel the following Privacy Act system of records notice...

  5. Nutritive values of brassica campestris L. oil as affected by growth regulator treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.; Khan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of plant growth regulators, viz. Indole acetic acid (IAA), Gibberellic acid (GA) and Abscisic acid (ABA) were studied on fatty acid compositions, glucosinolate content and protein content of Brassica campestris L subsp. Oleifera (common name yellow sarson). Growth regulators were applied in seed soaking solution as well as foliar spray during vegetative phase and at flowering stage. There were reductions in the amount of long chain fatty acids viz erucic acid, eicosenoic acid and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acid viz. linoleic acid by lAA applications. The stimulating effect of lAA which reduced amount of unsaturated fatty acid was more pronounced when applied as foliar spray at vegetative stage. But, foliar spray of ABA during flowering increased the concentration of linoleic acid and reduced the eicosenoic acid and erucic acid. The glucosinolate content was greater in seeds soaked in 10/sup -5/ M lAA than that of control but less in 10/sup -5/ M GA treated seeds than that of control. The ABA treatment (10/sup -5/M) increased the concentration of glucosinolates in the seeds IAA treatments (10/sup -5/M) increased the protein percentage in the seeds. Foliar application of GA (10/sup -5/M) during vegetative growth and ABA (10/sup -5/M) as seed soaking prior to sowing as well as foliar spry during flowering decreased the protein content of seeds. (author)

  6. Physiological and Proteomics Analyses Reveal Low-Phosphorus Stress Affected the Regulation of Photosynthesis in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shanshan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiangqian; Yu, Kaiye; Chao, Maoni; Han, Suoyi; Zhang, Dan

    2018-06-06

    Previous studies have revealed a significant genetic relationship between phosphorus (P)-efficiency and photosynthesis-related traits in soybean. In this study, we used proteome profiling in combination with expression analysis, biochemical investigations, and leaf ultrastructural analysis to identify the underlying physiological and molecular responses. The expression analysis and ultrastructural analysis showed that the photosynthesis key genes were decreased at transcript levels and the leaf mesophyll and chloroplast were severely damaged after low-P stress. Approximately 55 protein spots showed changes under low-P condition by mass spectrometry, of which 17 were involved in various photosynthetic processes. Further analysis revealed the depression of photosynthesis caused by low-P stress mainly involves the regulation of leaf structure, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, absorption and transportation of CO₂, photosynthetic electron transport, production of assimilatory power, and levels of enzymes related to the Calvin cycle. In summary, our findings indicated that the existence of a stringent relationship between P supply and the genomic control of photosynthesis in soybean. As an important strategy to protect soybean photosynthesis, P could maintain the stability of cell structure, up-regulate the enzymes’ activities, recover the process of photosystem II (PSII), and induce the expression of low-P responsive genes and proteins.

  7. 76 FR 39392 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System...: Mr. Leroy Jones, Department of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army Records Management and... address, counselor's phone number and email, documentary evidence, affidavits, information from individual...

  8. Balancing Cyberspace Promise, Privacy, and Protection: Tracking the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metivier-Carreiro, Karen A.; LaFollette, Marcel C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines aspects of cyberspace policy: Internet content and expectations; privacy: medical information and data collected by the government; and the regulation of offensive material: the Communications Decency Act, Internet filters, and the American Library Association's proactive great Web sites for children. Suggests that even "child…

  9. The Fat-Dachsous signaling pathway regulates growth of horns in Trypoxylus dichotomus, but does not affect horn allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, James; Lavine, Mark D; Worthington, Amy M; Zinna, Robert; Gotoh, Hiroki; Niimi, T; Lavine, Laura

    Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al., 2015). To investigate the role of Fat signaling in the growth and scaling of the sexually dimorphic, condition-dependent traits of the in the Asian rhinoceros beetle T. dichotomus, we used RNA interference to knock down expression of fat and its co-receptor dachsous. Knockdown of fat, and to a lesser degree dachsous, caused shortening and widening of appendages, including the head and thoracic horns. However, scaling of horns to body size was not affected. Our results show that Fat signaling regulates horn growth in T. dichotomus as it does in appendage growth in other insects. However, we provide evidence that Fat signaling does not mediate the disproportionate, positive allometric growth of horns in T. dichotomus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An adaptive-learning approach to affect regulation: strategic influences on evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Peter; Bluemke, Matthias; Fiedler, Klaus

    2011-04-01

    An adaptive cognition approach to evaluative priming is not compatible with the view that the entire process is automatically determined by prime stimulus valence alone. In addition to the evaluative congruity of individual prime-target pairs, an adaptive regulation function should be sensitive to the base rates of positive and negative stimuli as well as to the perceived contingency between prime and target valence. The present study was particularly concerned with pseudocontingent inferences that offer a proxy for the assessment of contingencies from degraded or incomplete stimulus input. As expected, response latencies were shorter for the more prevalent target valence and for evaluatively congruent trials. However, crucially, the congruity effect was eliminated and overridden by pseudocontingencies inferred from the stimulus environment. These strategic inferences were further enhanced when the task called for the evaluation of both prime stimuli and target stimuli. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  11. Advanced research in data privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the research work on data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies carried by the participants of the ARES project. ARES (Advanced Research in Privacy an Security, CSD2007-00004) has been one of the most important research projects funded by the Spanish Government in the fields of computer security and privacy. It is part of the now extinct CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010 program, a highly competitive program which aimed to advance knowledge and open new research lines among top Spanish research groups. The project started in 2007 and will finish this 2014. Composed by 6 research groups from 6 different institutions, it has gathered an important number of researchers during its lifetime. Among the work produced by the ARES project, one specific work package has been related to privacy. This books gathers works produced by members of the project related to data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies. The presented works not only summarize important research carried in the proje...

  12. 75 FR 37287 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... provide considerable advantage to the subject in providing him or her with knowledge concerning the nature... requesting individual might in itself provide an answer to that individual relating to an on-going...

  13. 78 FR 46555 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... sources to refrain from giving such information because of fear of reprisal, or fear of breach of promise... preparation of an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement under the requirements of the...) Litigation, Appeal and Case Files System, Interior/Office of the Solicitor-1 to the extent that it consists...

  14. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  15. Towards Privacy Managment of Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Drageide, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    This masters thesis provides insight into the concept of privacy. It argues why privacy is important, and why developers and system owners should keep privacy in mind when developing and maintaining systems containing personal information. Following this, a strategy for evaluating the overall level of privacy in a system is defined. The strategy is then applied to parts of the cellphone system in an attempt to evaluate the privacy of traffic and location data in this system.

  16. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-01-01

    The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy ...

  17. Effective online privacy mechanisms with persuasive communication

    OpenAIRE

    Coopamootoo, P L

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contributes to research by taking a social psychological perspective to managing privacy online. The thesis proposes to support the effort to form a mental model that is required to evaluate a context with regards to privacy attitudes or to ease the effort by biasing activation of privacy attitudes. Privacy being a behavioural concept, the human-computer interaction design plays a major role in supporting and contributing to end users’ ability to manage their privacy online. Howev...

  18. Adding query privacy to robust DHTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket

    2012-01-01

    intermediate peers that (help to) route the queries towards their destinations. In this paper, we satisfy this requirement by presenting an approach for providing privacy for the keys in DHT queries. We use the concept of oblivious transfer (OT) in communication over DHTs to preserve query privacy without...... privacy over robust DHTs. Finally, we compare the performance of our privacy-preserving protocols with their more privacy-invasive counterparts. We observe that there is no increase in the message complexity...

  19. Regulación afectiva diádica y autorregulación en los infantes en el primer año de vida Dyadic Affective Regulation And Infant Affective Self Regulation In The First Year Of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara R. de Schejtman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo recorre el concepto de Regulación Afectiva, desde la Filosofía, los desarrollos freudianos y de otros autores psicoanalíticos y los nuevos aportes de los estudios en interacciones tempranas con metodología observacional empírica. Se hace hincapié sobre la relación entre el funcionamiento parental y el pasaje de la regulacion diádica a la autorregulación que va logrando el bebé en el primer año de vida. Se presenta el diseño de la investigación UBACyT P806: 48 madres, entre 19 y 39 años y sus bebés sanos, entre 23 y 31 semanas, fueron filmadas durante 3 minutos de interacción cara a cara. La autorregulación de los infantes fue evaluada a partir del microanálisis de la interacción a través de la escala ICEP (Infant and Caregiver Engagement Phases; Tronick y Weinberg, 2000. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos y algunas inferencias acerca de la relación entre autorregulación y autoerotismo en momentos de estructuración psíquica.The present paper deals with the concept of Affective Regulation, starting from a philosophical perspective, continuing with the Freudian and other psychoanalytic approaches and ending with the contributions of new research on early interactions with empirical observational methodology. The paper highlights the relation between parental functioning and the transition from dyadic affective regulation to infant's self regulation during the first year of life. The research design UBACyT P 806 is presented: 48 mothers between 19 and 39 years old and their healthy babies, between 23 and 31 weeks were videotaped in a three minutes face-to-face interaction. Infant's self regulation was evaluated, microanalysing the interaction using the ICEP Scale (Infant and Caregiver Engagement Phases (Tronick y Weinberg, 2000. Results are presented and a discussion about the influence on psychic structure of the relationship between self regulation and autoerotism is formulated.

  20. Trajectory data privacy protection based on differential privacy mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ke; Yang, Lihao; Liu, Yongzhi; Liao, Niandong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a trajectory data privacy protection scheme based on differential privacy mechanism. In the proposed scheme, the algorithm first selects the protected points from the user’s trajectory data; secondly, the algorithm forms the polygon according to the protected points and the adjacent and high frequent accessed points that are selected from the accessing point database, then the algorithm calculates the polygon centroids; finally, the noises are added to the polygon centroids by the differential privacy method, and the polygon centroids replace the protected points, and then the algorithm constructs and issues the new trajectory data. The experiments show that the running time of the proposed algorithms is fast, the privacy protection of the scheme is effective and the data usability of the scheme is higher.

  1. Privacy and CHI : methodologies for studying privacy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, S.; Romero, N.A.; Karat, J.

    2006-01-01

    This workshop aims to reflect on methodologies to empirically study privacy issues related to advanced technology. The goal is to address methodological concerns by drawing upon both theoretical perspectives as well as practical experiences.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, Duane A.; Weaver, Clifford L.; Rielley, Kevin J.; Gallagher, Kevin C.; Harmon, Susan B.; Hejna, David T.; Kitch, Edmund W.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. When Differential Privacy Meets Randomized Perturbation: A Hybrid Approach for Privacy-Preserving Recommender System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, An; Zhang, Xiangliang; Li, Zhixu; Liu, Guanfeng; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2017-01-01

    result. However, none is designed for both hiding users’ private data and preventing privacy inference. To achieve this goal, we propose in this paper a hybrid approach for privacy-preserving recommender systems by combining differential privacy (DP

  4. Performing privacy in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom; Andersen, Lars Bo

    with technologies is carried out as well as observation is conducted. We obtain and present new knowledge about how surveillance is practiced in the interpersonal relations of students and teachers. References: Monahan, T., & Torres, R. D. (2009). Schools Under Surveillance: Cultures of Control in Public Education....... Rutgers University Press. Selwyn, N. (2010). Schools and Schooling in the Digital Age: A Critical Analysis. Routledge. Taylor, E. (2013). Surveillance Schools: Security, Discipline and Control in Contemporary Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Taylor, E., & Rooney, T. (2016). Surveillance Futures: Social......In this presentation we pursue the question: How is privacy performed and perceived in schools by children? Our aim is to investigate how the boundaries between public and private spheres are continuously performed in the formal setting of the classroom as well as in the social lives of students...

  5. Parasiteware: Unlocking Personal Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Garrie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyware presents a threat of privacy infringement to unassuming internet users irrespective of their country of citizenship. European legislation attempts to protect end-users from unethical processing of their personal data. Spyware technologies, however, skirts these laws and often break them in their entirety. Outlawing the spyware and strengthening the legal consent requirement to mine data are statutory solutions that can prevent spyware users from skirting the law. An internationally standardized technology education system for the judiciaries in Europe and the U.S. can help ensure that when spyware users do break the law, they cannot hide by escaping from one nation to another without being held accountable. Transnational improvements are necessary to remedy the global spyware epidemic.

  6. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  7. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk eBeyenal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA. We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl (cathodic mat system and +300 mVAg/AgCl (anodic mat system and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both anodic and cathodic mat systems. Interestingly, the cathodic mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the anodic mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the cathodic mats than in the anodic mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the cathodic mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that

  8. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  9. Safety, security, hygiene and privacy in migrant farmworker housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Weir, Maria M; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F; Bischoff, Werner E; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-01-01

    Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.

  10. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists and for nicotine and α-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides (β-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer

  11. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. (National Cancer Institute-Navy Medical Oncology Branch, Bethesda, MD (USA) Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  12. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Can Create Alternative Polyadenylation Signals and Affect Gene Expression through Loss of MicroRNA-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laurent F.; Sætrom, Pål

    2012-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) can for example occur when a protein-coding gene has several polyadenylation (polyA) signals in its last exon, resulting in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with different 3′ untranslated region (UTR) lengths. Different 3′UTR lengths can give different microRNA (miRNA) regulation such that shortened transcripts have increased expression. The APA process is part of human cells' natural regulatory processes, but APA also seems to play an important role in many human diseases. Although altered APA in disease can have many causes, we reasoned that mutations in DNA elements that are important for the polyA process, such as the polyA signal and the downstream GU-rich region, can be one important mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can create or disrupt APA signals (APA-SNPs). By using a data-integrative approach, we show that APA-SNPs can affect 3′UTR length, miRNA regulation, and mRNA expression—both between homozygote individuals and within heterozygote individuals. Furthermore, we show that a significant fraction of the alleles that cause APA are strongly and positively linked with alleles found by genome-wide studies to be associated with disease. Our results confirm that APA-SNPs can give altered gene regulation and that APA alleles that give shortened transcripts and increased gene expression can be important hereditary causes for disease. PMID:22915998

  14. The role of emotion regulation in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour in the presence of negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Röder, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Empathy and prosocial behaviour are crucial factors for children's positive social adjustment. Contemporary models of empathy highlight the capacity to regulate vicariously experienced emotions as a precursor to empathy-related responses (e.g., prosocial behaviour). The goal of this study was to examine the role of emotion regulation (ER) in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour. A sample of 157 children (76 boys and 81 girls; M age = 9.94 years) participated in a two-tiered interview procedure that utilised vignettes to assess empathy and prosocial behaviour. Between both phases of the interview, a negative affect was induced to investigate the influence of ER on the change between the two phases. Results from a latent change model showed that ER strategies positively predicted change scores, that is, children with higher abilities to regulate emotions showed a higher increase in empathy and prosocial behaviour. Implications for the promotion of social-emotional learning in school are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed data mining from privacy-sensitive multi-party data is likely to play an important role in the next generation of integrated vehicle health monitoring...

  16. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang; Papadimitriou, Panagiotis D.; Raï ssi, Chedy; Kalnis, Panos; Pung, Hungkeng

    2011-01-01

    an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data

  17. Privacy and the Connected Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    The Vision of the 5G enabled connected society is highly based on the evolution and implementation of Internet of Things. This involves, amongst others, a significant raise in devices, sensors and communication in pervasive interconnections as well as cooperation amongst devices and entities across...... the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  18. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Derek

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  19. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  20. Plasma membrane factor XIIIA transglutaminase activity regulates osteoblast matrix secretion and deposition by affecting microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil F Al-Jallad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2 and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA, has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics.

  1. Biotin status affects nickel allergy via regulation of interleukin-1beta production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Kinbara, Masayuki; Sato, Naoki; Tanaka, Yukinori; Nagai, Yasuhiro; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Endo, Yasuo; Sugawara, Shunji

    2009-05-01

    Biotin, a water-soluble B complex vitamin, is possibly involved in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the detailed mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin status on nickel (Ni) allergy in mice. Mice were fed a basal or biotin-deficient (BD) diet for 8 wk and sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of NiCl(2) and lipopolysaccharide. Ten days after sensitization, NiCl(2) was intradermally injected into pinnas and ear swelling was measured. For in vitro analysis, we cultured a murine macrophage cell line, J774.1, under a biotin-sufficient (C, meaning control) or BD condition for 4 wk and analyzed interleukin (IL)-1 production. Significantly higher ear swelling was induced in BD mice than C mice. Adaptive transfer of splenocytes from both C and BD mice induced Ni allergy in unsensitized mice. Regardless of donor mice, ear swelling was significantly higher in BD recipient mice than C recipient mice. Ni allergy was not induced in either C or BD IL-1(-/-) mice. Splenocytes from BD mice produced a significantly higher amount of IL-1beta than those from C mice. Production and mRNA expression of IL-1beta were significantly higher in BD J774.1 cells than in C cells. Biotin supplementation inhibited the augmentation of IL-1beta production in vitro. In vivo supplementation of biotin in drinking water dose-dependently decreased ear swelling in C and BD mice. These results indicate that biotin status affects Ni allergy in the elicitation phase via the upregulation of IL-1beta production in mice, suggesting that biotin supplementation may have therapeutic effects on human metal allergy.

  2. Privacy in tijden van internet, sociale netwerken en big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbers, Yolande; Hildebrandt, M.; Vandewalle, Joos; de Hert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The current use of the internet, social media and big data severely affects the privacy of ordinary users. This positioning paper is primarily aimed at the private user young and old who did not have special education or training regarding ICT but still uses these services intensively and who,

  3. A Student Right of Privacy: The Developing School Records Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdeb, Michael J.

    1975-01-01

    Current legal ramifications of the right of privacy in students' school records are examined. It is suggested that resolution of the school record problem must be made with the realization that whatever is imprinted on a youth will affect his future and that of society. (LBH)

  4. PRIVACY CONCERNS IN FACEBOOK SITE

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Singh

    2014-01-01

    Today social networking sites play an important role and inexpensive way to maintain existing relationships and present oneself. However, the increasing use of online sites give rise to privacy concerns and risks. All Internet sites are also under attack from phishers, fraudsters, and spammers. They aim to steal user information and expose users to unwanted spam. They have so many resources at their disposal.This paper studies the awareness of college students regarding the privacy in Faceboo...

  5. Security and privacy in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Campisi, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This important text/reference presents the latest secure and privacy-compliant techniques in automatic human recognition. Featuring viewpoints from an international selection of experts in the field, the comprehensive coverage spans both theory and practical implementations, taking into consideration all ethical and legal issues. Topics and features: presents a unique focus on novel approaches and new architectures for unimodal and multimodal template protection; examines signal processing techniques in the encrypted domain, security and privacy leakage assessment, and aspects of standardizati

  6. Hacking Facebook Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    REPORT Hacking Facebook Privacy and Security 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: When people talk about hacking and social networks , they’re...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Facebook , Privacy, Security, Social Network Dr. Jeff Duffany (Advisor), Omar Galban...transmit personal information that many people that they dare not do it personally. FACEBOOK PLATFORM Facebook is a popular social networking

  7. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  8. Privacy protection for personal health information and shared care records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, Roderick L B

    2014-01-01

    The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers: this will become more onerous with the introduction of the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in mid-2014. Many institutions, both large and small, have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient consent and control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring, has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failure to protect privacy: these too are set to become more onerous under the GDPR, increasing to a maximum of 2% of annual turnover. There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information. This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy. This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing. REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVACY: There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers) to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient. To achieve this information storage and retrieval, communication systems must be appropriately configured. There are many components of this, which are discussed in this paper. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore, their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval (i.e. like the World Wide Web) under patient control and kept private: a method for delivering this is outlined.

  9. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Amitabh, E-mail: amitabhdas.kn@gmail.com [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jin Choul, E-mail: jincchai@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyoung Hwa, E-mail: khjung2@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Das, Nando Dulal, E-mail: nando.hu@gmail.com [Clinical Research Centre, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Chul, E-mail: gujiju11@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seek, E-mail: yslee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyemyung, E-mail: hseo@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygchai@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  10. Do personality traits related to affect regulation predict other tobacco product use among young adult non-daily smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence non-cigarette tobacco use is important given these products' prevalence and health risks. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality traits related to affect regulation would be associated with greater frequency of other tobacco product (OTP) use in a sample of young adult non-daily smokers. Participants (n=518, 51% male) aged 18-24 were non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Personality characteristics (impulsivity, anhedonia, and negative affectivity) were measured at baseline, and participants reported recent tobacco use at baseline and 3, 6, and 9months later. Assessments were conducted online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 33-52% of participants reported recent OTP use, with frequency of use decreasing over time. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models indicated that greater sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were associated with more frequent OTP use (psnon-daily cigarette smokers with greater propensity for immediately rewarding behaviors may use OTPs more frequently. Young, non-daily cigarette smokers with high levels of sensation seeking and/or lack of premeditation may be at increased risk for harms related to OTP use and may benefit from prevention and cessation strategies that specifically address affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Smartphone Power Users Protect Mobile Privacy Better than Nonpower Users? Exploring Power Usage as a Factor in Mobile Privacy Protection and Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunjin; Shin, Wonsun

    2016-03-01

    This study examines how consumers' competence at using smartphone technology (i.e., power usage) affects their privacy protection behaviors. A survey conducted with smartphone users shows that power usage influences privacy protection behavior not only directly but also indirectly through privacy concerns and trust placed in mobile service providers. A follow-up experiment indicates that the effects of power usage on smartphone users' information management can be a function of content personalization. Users, high on power usage, are less likely to share personal information on personalized mobile sites, but they become more revealing when they interact with nonpersonalized mobile sites.

  12. 75 FR 62623 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2010-0015] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Internal Revenue Service (IRS))--Match Number 1016 AGENCY: Social Security... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching...

  13. 77 FR 33547 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Centers for Medicare and Medicaid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ...: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a new computer matching program that will expire... protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching by Federal... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0015] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended...

  14. 77 FR 24757 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Department of Labor (DOL))-Match...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2011-0083] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Department of Labor (DOL))--Match Number 1015 AGENCY: Social Security... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching...

  15. 77 FR 27108 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Office of Child Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching... protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching by Federal... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0010] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended...

  16. 77 FR 38880 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Railroad Retirement Board (SSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program that... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0002] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended...

  17. 45 CFR 2508.19 - What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from disclosure? 2508.19 Section 2508.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... ACT OF 1974 § 2508.19 What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from...

  18. 45 CFR 2508.8 - Who is responsible for establishing the Corporation's rules of conduct for Privacy Act compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Corporation's rules of conduct for Privacy Act compliance? 2508.8 Section 2508.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2508.8 Who is responsible for establishing the Corporation's rules of conduct for...

  19. 76 FR 5235 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)-Match Number 1014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching....C. 552a, as amended, and the provisions of the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...

  20. Patient Privacy in the Era of Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2018-01-20

    Privacy was defined as a fundamental human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the 1948 United Nations General Assembly. However, there is still no consensus on what constitutes privacy. In this review, we look at the evolution of privacy as a concept from the era of Hippocrates to the era of social media and big data. To appreciate the modern measures of patient privacy protection and correctly interpret the current regulatory framework in the United States, we need to analyze and understand the concepts of individually identifiable information, individually identifiable health information, protected health information, and de-identification. The Privacy Rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act defines the regulatory framework and casts a balance between protective measures and access to health information for secondary (scientific) use. The rule defines the conditions when health information is protected by law and how protected health information can be de-identified for secondary use. With the advents of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics, computational text de-identification algorithms produce de-identified results nearly as well as those produced by human experts, but much faster, more consistently and basically for free. Modern clinical text de-identification systems now pave the road to big data and enable scientists to access de-identified clinical information while firmly protecting patient privacy. However, clinical text de-identification is not a perfect process. In order to maximize the protection of patient privacy and to free clinical and scientific information from the confines of electronic healthcare systems, all stakeholders, including patients, health institutions and institutional review boards, scientists and the scientific communities, as well as regulatory and law enforcement agencies must collaborate closely. On the one hand, public health laws and privacy regulations define rules

  1. Will you accept the government's friend request? Social networks and privacy concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Siegel

    Full Text Available Participating in social network websites entails voluntarily sharing private information, and the explosive growth of social network websites over the last decade suggests shifting views on privacy. Concurrently, new anti-terrorism laws, such as the USA Patriot Act, ask citizens to surrender substantial claim to privacy in the name of greater security. I address two important questions regarding individuals' views on privacy raised by these trends. First, how does prompting individuals to consider security concerns affect their views on government actions that jeopardize privacy? Second, does the use of social network websites alter the effect of prompted security concerns? I posit that prompting individuals to consider security concerns does lead to an increased willingness to accept government actions that jeopardize privacy, but that frequent users of websites like Facebook are less likely to be swayed by prompted security concerns. An embedded survey experiment provides support for both parts of my claim.

  2. Will you accept the government's friend request? Social networks and privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A

    2013-01-01

    Participating in social network websites entails voluntarily sharing private information, and the explosive growth of social network websites over the last decade suggests shifting views on privacy. Concurrently, new anti-terrorism laws, such as the USA Patriot Act, ask citizens to surrender substantial claim to privacy in the name of greater security. I address two important questions regarding individuals' views on privacy raised by these trends. First, how does prompting individuals to consider security concerns affect their views on government actions that jeopardize privacy? Second, does the use of social network websites alter the effect of prompted security concerns? I posit that prompting individuals to consider security concerns does lead to an increased willingness to accept government actions that jeopardize privacy, but that frequent users of websites like Facebook are less likely to be swayed by prompted security concerns. An embedded survey experiment provides support for both parts of my claim.

  3. How group-buying servicescape affect consumers’ purchase intention, the regulating effects of price discount and time pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a conceptual model of how group-buying servicescape affect consumers’ purchase intention and discusses the regulating effects of price discount and time pressure. This research uses a survey approach to collect data, as a result, we collected 506 valid questionnaires. The results show that aesthetic appeal, information exchange, interpersonal interaction and perceived security have a positive effect on positive emotion; layout and functionality, information exchange and interpersonal interaction have a positive effect on virtual touch. Positive emotion and virtual touch can promote the consumer’s purchase intention, and time pressure and price discount play a regulatory function. The results of this study have an important reference value for group-buying operators to use servicescape to attract and retain consumers.

  4. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Bai

    Full Text Available Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta (YRD of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008 after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  6. Insights to develop privacy policy for organization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaini, E.; Kusumasari, T. F.; Lubis, M.; Lubis, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the increased utilization of shared application in the network needs not only dictate to have enhanced security but also emphasize the need to balance its privacy protection and ease of use. Meanwhile, its accessibility and availability as the demand from organization service put privacy obligations become more complex process to be handled and controlled. Nonetheless, the underlying principles for privacy policy exist in Indonesian current laws, even though they spread across various article regulations. Religions, constitutions, statutes, regulations, custom and culture requirements still become the reference model to control the activity process for data collection and information sharing accordingly. Moreover, as the customer and organization often misinterpret their responsibilities and rights in the business function, process and level, the essential thing to be considered for professionals on how to articulate clearly the rules that manage their information gathering and distribution in a manner that translates into information system specification and requirements for developers and managers. This study focus on providing suggestion and recommendation to develop privacy policy based on descriptive analysis of 791 respondents on personal data protection in accordance with political and economic factor in Indonesia.

  7. Three regulators of G protein signaling differentially affect mating, morphology and virulence in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marino; Wang, Lei; Grognet, Pierre; Lanver, Daniel; Link, Hannes; Kahmann, Regine

    2017-09-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate heterotrimeric G protein signaling negatively. To broaden an understanding of the roles of RGS proteins in fungal pathogens, we functionally characterized the three RGS protein-encoding genes (rgs1, rgs2 and rgs3) in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. It was found that RGS proteins played distinct roles in the regulation of development and virulence. rgs1 had a minor role in virulence when deleted in a solopathogenic strain. In crosses, rgs1 was dispensable for mating and filamentation, but was required for teliospore production. Haploid rgs2 mutants were affected in cell morphology, growth, mating and were unable to cause disease symptoms in crosses. However, virulence was unaffected when rgs2 was deleted in a solopathogenic strain, suggesting an exclusive involvement in pre-fusion events. These rgs2 phenotypes are likely connected to elevated intracellular cAMP levels. rgs3 mutants were severely attenuated in mating, in their response to pheromone, virulence and formation of mature teliospores. The mating defect could be traced back to reduced expression of the transcription factor rop1. It was speculated that the distinct roles of the three U. maydis RGS proteins were achieved by direct modulation of the Gα subunit-activated signaling pathways as well as through Gα-independent functions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perfectionism and negative/positive affect associations: the role of cognitive emotion regulation and perceived distress/coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juliana; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana T; Macedo, António

    2017-01-01

    To explore 1) if perfectionism, perceived distress/coping, and cognitive emotion regulation (CER) are associated with and predictive of negative/positive affect (NA/PA); and 2) if CER and perceived distress/coping are associated with perfectionism and if they mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations. There is a distinction between maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism in its association with NA/PA. CER and perceived distress/coping may mediate the maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and NA/PA associations. 344 students (68.4% girls) completed the Hewitt & Flett and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales, the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. NA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive CER and perceived distress (positively), positive reappraisal and planning, and perceived coping (negatively). PA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and perceived distress (negatively), positive reappraisal and planning, positive refocusing and perceived coping (positively). The association between maladaptive perfectionism and NA was mediated by maladaptive CER/low adaptive CER, perceived distress/low coping. Maladaptive perfectionism and low PA association was mediated by perceived distress. High PA was determined by low maladaptive perfectionism and this association was mediated by adaptive REC and coping. Adaptive perfectionism and NA association was mediated by maladaptive CER and perceived distress. CER and perceived distress/coping are associated and mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations.

  9. Privacy of genetic information: a review of the laws in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, B; Ip, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the privacy of genetic information and the laws in the United States designed to protect genetic privacy. While all 50 states have laws protecting the privacy of health information, there are many states that have additional laws that carve out additional protections specifically for genetic information. The majority of the individual states have enacted legislation to protect individuals from discrimination on the basis of genetic information, and most of this legislation also has provisions to protect the privacy of genetic information. On the Federal level, there has been no antidiscrimination or genetic privacy legislation. Secretary Donna Shalala of the Department of Health and Human Services has issued proposed regulations to protect the privacy of individually identifiable health information. These regulations encompass individually identifiable health information and do not make specific provisions for genetic information. The variety of laws regarding genetic privacy, some found in statutes to protect health information and some found in statutes to prevent genetic discrimination, presents challenges to those charged with administering and executing these laws.

  10. Big Data and Consumer Participation in Privacy Contracts: Deciding who Decides on Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Rhoen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Big data puts data protection to the test. Consumers granting permission to process their personal data are increasingly opening up their personal lives, thanks to the “datafication” of everyday life, indefinite data retention and the increasing sophistication of algorithms for analysis.The privacy implications of big data call for serious consideration of consumers’ opportunities to participate in decision-making processes about their contracts. If these opportunities are insufficient, the resulting rules may represent special interests rather than consumers’ needs. This may undermine the legitimacy of big data applications.This article argues that providing sufficient consumer participation in privacy matters requires choosing the best available decision making mechanism. Is a consumer to negotiate his own privacy terms in the market, will lawmakers step in on his behalf, or is he to seek protection through courts? Furthermore is this a matter of national law or European law? These choices will affect the opportunities for achieving different policy goals associated with the possible benefits of the “big data revolution”.

  11. Is More Government Regulation Needed to Promote E-commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    Layne-Farrar, Anne; Hahn, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    E-commerce has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years. Nonetheless, senators, privacy watchdog groups, and the Federal Trade Commission have argued that e-commerce is being held back by consumer worries about online privacy and security. Some privacy advocates are calling for additional regulations, specifically new online privacy rules aimed at providing consumers with more information and customer choice. And Congress has tried to answer that call, most recently with a bill i...

  12. Assessing subject privacy and data confidentiality in an emerging region for clinical trials: United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sponsored clinical trials, formerly conducted predominantly in the United States and Europe, have expanded to emerging regions, including the Middle East. Our study explores factors influencing clinical trial privacy and confidentiality in the United Arab Emirates. Factors including concept familiarity, informed consent compliance, data access, and preservation, were analyzed to assess current practices in the Arab world. As the UAE is an emerging region for clinical trials, there is a growing need for regulations related to data confidentiality and subject privacy. Informational and decisional privacy should be viewed within the realms of Arab culture and religious background.

  13. The privacy coach: Supporting customer privacy in the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, E.G.; Hoepman, J.H.; Hof, C. van 't; Kranenburg, R. van; Smits, D.; Wisman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing

  14. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice to Revise Privacy Act Systems of Records... two Privacy Act Systems of Records entitled ``Information on Persons Disqualified from the...

  15. 76 FR 67763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-109)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  16. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-093)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  17. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-091)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act...: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NASA is... Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes those amendments as set forth below under the caption...

  18. 78 FR 40515 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-071] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Each Federal agency is required by the Privacy Act of 1974 to publish...

  19. 78 FR 77503 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-149] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to existing Privacy Act systems of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  20. 77 FR 69898 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-100] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  1. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  2. Privacy Protection in Personal Health Information and Shared Care Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick L B Neame

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers. Many institutions have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failures to protect privacy. Objective  There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information.  This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy.  This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing.Requirements for Privacy  There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient.  To achieve this information storage and retrieval, and communication systems must be appropriately configured. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval under patient control and kept private. 

  3. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  4. CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampigethaya, Krishna; Huang, Leping; Li, Mingyan; Poovendran, Radha; Matsuura, Kanta; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    .... This type of tracking leads to threats on the location privacy of the vehicle's user. In this paper, we study the problem of providing location privacy in VANET by allowing vehicles to prevent tracking of their broadcast communications...

  5. Gendered Cultural Identities: The Influences of Family and Privacy Boundaries, Subjective Norms, and Stigma Beliefs on Family Health History Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2017-05-25

    This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.

  6. Public assessment of new surveillance-oriented security technologies: Beyond the trade-off between privacy and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vincenzo; Esposti, Sara Degli

    2012-07-01

    As surveillance-oriented security technologies (SOSTs) are considered security enhancing but also privacy infringing, citizens are expected to trade part of their privacy for higher security. Drawing from the PRISE project, this study casts some light on how citizens actually assess SOSTs through a combined analysis of focus groups and survey data. First, the outcomes suggest that people did not assess SOSTs in abstract terms but in relation to the specific institutional and social context of implementation. Second, from this embedded viewpoint, citizens either expressed concern about government's surveillance intentions and considered SOSTs mainly as privacy infringing, or trusted political institutions and believed that SOSTs effectively enhanced their security. None of them, however, seemed to trade privacy for security because concerned citizens saw their privacy being infringed without having their security enhanced, whilst trusting citizens saw their security being increased without their privacy being affected.

  7. SIED, a Data Privacy Engineering Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mivule, Kato

    2013-01-01

    While a number of data privacy techniques have been proposed in the recent years, a few frameworks have been suggested for the implementation of the data privacy process. Most of the proposed approaches are tailored towards implementing a specific data privacy algorithm but not the overall data privacy engineering and design process. Therefore, as a contribution, this study proposes SIED (Specification, Implementation, Evaluation, and Dissemination), a conceptual framework that takes a holist...

  8. Privacy and Data-Based Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ori Heffetz; Katrina Ligett

    2013-01-01

    What can we, as users of microdata, formally guarantee to the individuals (or firms) in our dataset, regarding their privacy? We retell a few stories, well-known in data-privacy circles, of failed anonymization attempts in publicly released datasets. We then provide a mostly informal introduction to several ideas from the literature on differential privacy, an active literature in computer science that studies formal approaches to preserving the privacy of individuals in statistical databases...

  9. PriBots: Conversational Privacy with Chatbots

    OpenAIRE

    Harkous, Hamza; Fawaz, Kassem; Shin, Kang G.; Aberer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for delivering notice and enabling choice have so far failed to protect users’ privacy. Users are continuously frustrated by complex privacy policies, unreachable privacy settings, and a multitude of emerging standards. The miniaturization trend of smart devices and the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs) will exacerbate this problem further. In this paper, we propose Conversational Privacy Bots (PriBots) as a new way of delivering notice and choice through a two...

  10. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a...

  11. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...... data is anonymized in the system using data cloaking and data swapping techniques. Finally, the paper empirically demonstrates that the proposed system is effective and feasible....

  12. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol......, or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  13. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece...... is a literature review on the topic of privacy. It addresses key privacy challenges for different stakeholders in the sharing economy. Throughout, we use the term "consumers" to refer to users on the receiving end (e.g., Airbnb guests, Uber passengers), "providers" to refer to users on the providing end (e.......g., Airbnb hosts, Uber drivers) and "platforms" to refer to the mediating sites, apps and infrastructures matching consumers and providers (e.g., Airbnb, Uber)....

  14. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP. GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals’ private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP’s performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical statistical dataset models: (a the binary data model; and (b the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  15. Sexiled: Privacy Acquisition Strategies of College Roommates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how roommates make privacy bids in college residence halls. The results indicate that privacy for sexual activity is a problem for students living in college residence halls, as almost all participants (82%) reported having dealt with this issue. Two sets of responses were collected and analyzed: privacy acquisition…

  16. 31 CFR 0.216 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act. 0.216 Section 0.216... RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.216 Privacy Act. Employees involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any system of records or in maintaining records subject to the Privacy Act of...

  17. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chong; Kairouz, Peter; Chen, Xiao; Sankar, Lalitha; Rajagopal, Ram

    2017-12-01

    Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP). GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs) to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals' private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP's performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical) statistical dataset models: (a) the binary data model, and (b) the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion) match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  18. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title Privacy... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13...

  19. Enhancing Privacy for Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Conrado, C.; Schrijen, G.J.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter addresses privacy issues in DRM systems. These systems provide a means of protecting digital content, but may violate the privacy of users in that the content they purchase and their actions in the system can be linked to specific users. The chapter proposes a privacy-preserving DRM

  20. Access to Information and Privacy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a Crown corporation, IDRC is subject to Canada's laws on access to information and privacy protection. The following resources will help you learn more about IDRC and the access to information and privacy acts, including instructions for submitting an access to information or privacy act (ATIP) request. IDRC and ATIP ...

  1. Children's Privacy in the Big Data Era: Research Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff; Milosevic, Tijana

    2017-11-01

    This article focuses on the privacy implications of advertising on social media, mobile apps, and games directed at children. Academic research on children's privacy has primarily focused on the safety risks involved in sharing personal information on the Internet, leaving market forces (such as commercial data collection) as a less discussed aspect of children's privacy. Yet, children's privacy in the digital era cannot be fully understood without examining marketing practices, especially in the context of "big data." As children increasingly consume content on an ever-expanding variety of digital devices, media and advertising industries are creating new ways to track their behaviors and target them with personalized content and marketing messages based on individual profiles. The advent of the so-called Internet of Things, with its ubiquitous sensors, is expanding these data collection and profiling practices. These trends raise serious concerns about digital dossiers that could follow young people into adulthood, affecting their access to education, employment, health care, and financial services. Although US privacy law provides some safeguards for children younger than 13 years old online, adolescents are afforded no such protections. Moreover, scholarship on children and privacy continues to lag behind the changes taking place in global media, advertising, and technology. This article proposes collaboration among researchers from a range of fields that will enable cross-disciplinary studies addressing not only the developmental issues related to different age groups but also the design of digital media platforms and the strategies used to influence young people. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Smartdata privacy meets evolutionary robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Inman; Tomko, George

    2013-01-01

    Privacy by Design and the Promise of SmartData.- SmartData: the Need, the Goal and the Challenge.- Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence.- Context dependent information processing entails scale-free dynamics.- Philosophy and SmartData.- Relevance Realization and the Neurodynamics and Neural Connectivity of General Intelligence.- What Matters: Real Bodies and Virtual Worlds.- The development of autonomous virtual agents.- Patterns of Attractors in the "Brain"".- A Privacy-Enabled Mobile Computing Model Using Intelligent Cloud-Based Services.- Unconstraint the Population: the Benefits of Horiz

  3. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  4. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  5. Rooting of healthy and CVC-affected 'Valência' sweet orange stem cuttings, through the use of plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Habermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Using different concentrations of plant regulators, such as auxins (indole-3-butyric acid and gibberellic acid biosynthesis-inhibitor (paclobutrazol, physiological rooting capacity of healthy and CVC-affected stem cuttings were evaluated in order to investigate the importance of plant hormone imbalance and xylem occlusion in plants with CVC. The percentages of dead, alive and rooted cuttings, cuttings with callus and mean number of roots per cuttings did not show statistical differences in response to the distinct concentrations of synthetic plant regulators. There were differences only between healthy and CVC-affected cuttings. This showed the importance of xylem occlusion and diffusive disturbances in diseased plants, in relation to root initiation capacity and hormonal translocation in the plant tissue.Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença causada por Xylella fastidiosa, podendo determinar oclusão do xilema e desbalanço hormonal, o que por fim está relacionado ao processo de iniciação radicial em estacas. Usando diferentes concentrações de fitorreguladores, como auxinas (ácido 3-indol butírico e inibidores da biossíntese de ácido giberélico (paclobutrazol, que são promotores do enraizamento de estacas, verificou-se a capacidade fisiológica de enraizamento de estacas sadias e com CVC, a fim de investigar a importância do desbalanço hormonal e oclusão do xilema em plantas doentes. As porcentagens de estacas mortas, vivas, enraizadas e com calo e o número médio de raízes por estaca não mostraram diferenças estatísticas em resposta às diferentes concentrações dos reguladores vegetais sintéticos. Houve diferenças apenas entre estacas sadias e doentes. Isto aponta a importância da oclusão do xilema e distúrbios difusivos em plantas doentes, em relação à capacidade de iniciação radicial e à translocação hormonal no tecido

  6. Pain-mediated affect regulation is reduced after dialectical behavior therapy in borderline personality disorder: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-05-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, but self-injurious behavior appears to have an emotion-regulating effect. We investigated whether pain-mediated affect regulation can be altered at the neural level by residential Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), providing adaptive emotion regulation techniques. Likewise, we investigated whether pain thresholds or the appraisal of pain change after psychotherapy. We investigated 28 patients with BPD undergoing DBT (self-referral), 15 patients with treatment as usual and 23 healthy control subjects at two time points 12 weeks apart. We conducted an fMRI experiment eliciting negative emotions with picture stimuli and induced heat pain to investigate the role of pain in emotion regulation. Additionally, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds.At first measurement, patients with BPD showed amygdala deactivation in response to painful stimulation, as well as altered connectivity between left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These effects were reduced after DBT, as compared with patients with treatment as usual. Pain thresholds did not differ between the patient groups. We replicated the role of pain as a means of affect regulation in BPD, indicated by increased amygdala coupling. For the first time, we could demonstrate that pain-mediated affect regulation can be changed by DBT. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Privacy context model for dynamic privacy adaptation in ubiquitous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Koenings, Bastian; Dietzel, Stefan; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Ubiquitous computing is characterized by the merger of physical and virtual worlds as physical artifacts gain digital sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. Maintaining an appropriate level of privacy in the face of such complex and often highly dynamic systems is challenging. We argue

  8. Salinity reduces 2,4-D efficacy in Echinochloa crusgalli by affecting redox balance, nutrient acquisition, and hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Xie, Yuan; Farooq, Muhammad A; Wang, Jian; Yang, Chong; Gill, Rafaqat A; Zhu, Jinwen; Zhou, Weijun

    2018-05-01

    Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H 2 O 2 , O 2 ·- ) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that 2,4-D induced severe damage to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and thylakoids. Severe saline stress (8 dS m -1 ) followed by mild saline stress treatments (4 dS m -1 ) also reduced the E. crusgalli growth, but had the least impact as compared to the 2,4-D alone treatment. Surprisingly, under combined treatments (salinity + 2,4-D), the phytotoxic effect of 2,4-D was reduced on saline-stressed E. crusgalli plants, especially under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This stimulated growth of E. crusgalli is related to the higher activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and dynamic regulation of IAA, ABA under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This shows that 2,4-D efficacy was affected by salinity in a stress intensity-dependent manner, which may result in the need for greater herbicide application rates, additional application times, or more weed control operations required for controlling salt-affected weed.

  9. Online Privacy as a Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollach, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Information technology and the Internet have added a new stakeholder concern to the corporate social responsibility agenda: online privacy. While theory suggests that online privacy is a corporate social responsibility, only very few studies in the business ethics literature have connected...... of the companies have comprehensive privacy programs, although more than half of them voice moral or relational motives for addressing online privacy. The privacy measures they have taken are primarily compliance measures, while measures that stimulate a stakeholder dialogue are rare. Overall, a wide variety...

  10. Adding Query Privacy to Robust DHTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket

    2011-01-01

    intermediate peers that (help to) route the queries towards their destinations. In this paper, we satisfy this requirement by presenting an approach for providing privacy for the keys in DHT queries. We use the concept of oblivious transfer (OT) in communication over DHTs to preserve query privacy without...... of obtaining query privacy over robust DHTs. Finally, we compare the performance of our privacy-preserving protocols with their more privacy-invasive counterparts. We observe that there is no increase in the message complexity and only a small overhead in the computational complexity....

  11. Disclosure 'downunder': misadventures in Australian genetic privacy law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonython, Wendy; Arnold, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    Along with many jurisdictions, Australia is struggling with the unique issues raised by genetic information in the context of privacy laws and medical ethics. Although the consequences of disclosure of most private information are generally confined to individuals, disclosure of genetic information has far-reaching consequences, with a credible argument that genetic relatives have a right to know about potential medical conditions. In 2006, the Privacy Act was amended to permit disclosure of an individual's genetic information, without their consent, to genetic relatives, if it was to avoid or mitigate serious illness. Unfortunately, additional amendments required for operation of the disclosure amendment were overlooked. Public Interest Determinations (PIDs)-delegated legislation issued by the privacy commissioner-have, instead, been used to exempt healthcare providers from provisions which would otherwise make disclosure unlawful. This paper critiques the PIDs using documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act-specifically the impact of both the PIDs and the disclosure amendment on patients and relatives-and confidentiality and the procedural validity of subordinate laws regulating medical privacy.

  12. GlmS and NagB regulate amino sugar metabolism in opposing directions and affect Streptococcus mutans virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis and cell wall synthesis in several other bacteria, their roles in S. mutans remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of GlmS and NagB in S. mutans sugar metabolism and determined whether they have an effect on virulence. NagB expression increased in the presence of GlcNAc while GlmS expression decreased, suggesting that the regulation of these enzymes, which functionally oppose one another, is dependent on the concentration of environmental GlcNAc. A glmS-inactivated mutant could not grow in the absence of GlcNAc, while nagB-inactivated mutant growth was decreased in the presence of GlcNAc. Also, nagB inactivation was found to decrease the expression of virulence factors, including cell-surface protein antigen and glucosyltransferase, and to decrease biofilm formation and saliva-induced S. mutans aggregation, while glmS inactivation had the opposite effects on virulence factor expression and bacterial aggregation. Our results suggest that GlmS and NagB function in sugar metabolism in opposing directions, increasing and decreasing S. mutans virulence, respectively.

  13. Simulated microgravity, Mars gravity, and 2g hypergravity affect cell cycle regulation, ribosome biogenesis, and epigenetics in Arabidopsis cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Khaled Y; Herranz, Raúl; van Loon, Jack J W A; Medina, F Javier

    2018-04-23

    Gravity is the only component of Earth environment that remained constant throughout the entire process of biological evolution. However, it is still unclear how gravity affects plant growth and development. In this study, an in vitro cell culture of Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to different altered gravity conditions, namely simulated reduced gravity (simulated microgravity, simulated Mars gravity) and hypergravity (2g), to study changes in cell proliferation, cell growth, and epigenetics. The effects after 3, 14, and 24-hours of exposure were evaluated. The most relevant alterations were found in the 24-hour treatment, being more significant for simulated reduced gravity than hypergravity. Cell proliferation and growth were uncoupled under simulated reduced gravity, similarly, as found in meristematic cells from seedlings grown in real or simulated microgravity. The distribution of cell cycle phases was changed, as well as the levels and gene transcription of the tested cell cycle regulators. Ribosome biogenesis was decreased, according to levels and gene transcription of nucleolar proteins and the number of inactive nucleoli. Furthermore, we found alterations in the epigenetic modifications of chromatin. These results show that altered gravity effects include a serious disturbance of cell proliferation and growth, which are cellular functions essential for normal plant development.

  14. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  15. Review of the model of technological pragmatism considering privacy and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of technological pragmatism assumes awareness that technological development involves both benefits and dangers. Most modern security technologies represent citizens' mass surveillance tools, which can lead to compromising a significant amount of personal data due to the lack of institutional monitoring and control. On the other hand, people are interested in improving crime control and reducing the fear of potential victimization which this framework provides as a rational justification for the apparent loss of privacy, personal rights and freedoms. Citizens' perception on the categories of security and privacy, and their balancing, can provide the necessary guidelines to regulate the application of security technologies in the actual context. The aim of this paper is to analyze the attitudes of students at the University of Belgrade (N = 269 toward the application of security technology and identification of the key dimensions. On the basis of the relevant research the authors have formed assumptions about the following dimensions: security, privacy, trust in institutions and concern about the misuse of security technology. The Prise Questionnaire on Security Technology and Privacy was used for data collection. Factor analysis abstracted eight factors which together account for 58% of variance, with the highest loading of the four factors that are identified as security, privacy, trust and concern. The authors propose a model of technological pragmatism considering security and privacy. The data also showed that students are willing to change their privacy for the purpose of improving security and vice versa.

  16. Student Data Privacy Communications Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Excellence in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Parents expect school districts and schools to keep their children safe while they are in school. That expectation of safety and security also extends to the protection of their children's learning data. Therefore, it is critical that school districts and schools are open and transparent about their student data privacy practices, and that those…

  17. Privacy proof in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessen, Veerle; Weigand, Hans; Mouratidis, Haris

    Cloud computing has been a frequently researched subject as it brings many advantages, such as the ability to store data remotely and scale rapidly, but also comes with several issues, including privacy, trust and security. The decision whether it is best to go `into the cloud' or to `stay inside'

  18. Patient privacy and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, Amy L; Brown, Evan D

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare providers using social media must remain mindful of professional boundaries and patients' privacy rights. Facebook and other online postings must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), applicable facility policy, state law, and AANA's Code of Ethics.

  19. Facebook: When Education Meets Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Steven; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) has become commonplace amongst students. In this research, we aim to shed light upon the educational use and privacy issues on Facebook from the perspective of role theory and reference group theory. 15 bachelor students of the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) in Flanders, Belgium, were interviewed in…

  20. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  1. Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, Michael; Jeckmans, Arjan; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Abraham, A.

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become part of daily life for millions of users. Users building explicit networks that represent their social relationships and often share a wealth of personal information to their own benefit. The potential privacy risks of such behavior are often underestimated

  2. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  3. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  4. Protecting Your Child's Privacy Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Up With Kids' Apps infographic Kids and Computer Security Kids and Mobile Phones Kids and Socializing Online ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  5. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  6. Maternal stress and diet may influence affective behavior and stress-response in offspring via epigenetic regulation of central peptidergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell, Annika; Nätt, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that maternal stress and malnutrition, or experience of other adverse events, during the perinatal period may alter susceptibility in the adult offspring in a time-of-exposure dependent manner. The mechanism underlying this may be epigenetic in nature. Here, we summarize some recent findings on the effects on gene-regulation following maternal malnutrition, focusing on epigenetic regulation of peptidergic activity. Numerous neuropeptides within the central nervous system are crucial components in regulation of homeostatic energy-balance, as well as affective health (i.e. health events related to affective disorders, psychiatric disorders also referred to as mood disorders). It is becoming evident that expression, and function, of these neuropeptides can be regulated via epigenetic mechanisms during fetal development, thereby contributing to the development of the adult phenotype and, possibly, modulating disease susceptibility. Here, we focus on two such neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), both involved in regulation of endocrine function, energy homeostasis, as well as affective health. While a number of published studies indicate the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in CRH-dependent regulation of the offspring adult phenotype, NPY has been much less studied in this context and needs further work.

  7. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  8. Privacy in wireless sensor networks using ring signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmita Debnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The veracity of a message from a sensor node must be verified in order to avoid a false reaction by the sink. This verification requires the authentication of the source node. The authentication process must also preserve the privacy such that the node and the sensed object are not endangered. In this work, a ring signature was proposed to authenticate the source node while preserving its spatial privacy. However, other nodes as signers and their numbers must be chosen to preclude the possibility of a traffic analysis attack by an adversary. The spatial uncertainty increases with the number of signers but requires larger memory size and communication overhead. This requirement can breach the privacy of the sensed object. To determine the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the location estimate of a sensor node by an adversary and enhancement in the location uncertainty with a ring signature was evaluated. Using simulation studies, the ring signature was estimated to require approximately four members from the same neighbor region of the source node to sustain the privacy of the node. Furthermore, the ring signature was also determined to have a small overhead and not to adversely affect the performance of the sensor network.

  9. Leaking privacy and shadow profiles in online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David

    2017-08-01

    Social interaction and data integration in the digital society can affect the control that individuals have on their privacy. Social networking sites can access data from other services, including user contact lists where nonusers are listed too. Although most research on online privacy has focused on inference of personal information of users, this data integration poses the question of whether it is possible to predict personal information of nonusers. This article tests the shadow profile hypothesis, which postulates that the data given by the users of an online service predict personal information of nonusers. Using data from a disappeared social networking site, we perform a historical audit to evaluate whether personal data of nonusers could have been predicted with the personal data and contact lists shared by the users of the site. We analyze personal information of sexual orientation and relationship status, which follow regular mixing patterns in the social network. Going back in time over the growth of the network, we measure predictor performance as a function of network size and tendency of users to disclose their contact lists. This article presents robust evidence supporting the shadow profile hypothesis and reveals a multiplicative effect of network size and disclosure tendencies that accelerates the performance of predictors. These results call for new privacy paradigms that take into account the fact that individual privacy decisions do not happen in isolation and are mediated by the decisions of others.

  10. 17 CFR 248.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examples to illustrate the types of third parties in each category: (i) Financial service providers; (ii) Non-financial companies; and (iii) Others. (4) Disclosures under exception for service providers and... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and...

  11. The Models of Applying Online Privacy Literacy Strategies: A Case Study of Instagram Girl Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Bicharanlou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networks affect remarkably in the lives of virtual space users. These networks like most human relations involve compromising between self-disclosure and privacy protection. A process which is realized through improving privacy and empowering the user at the personal level. This study aimed to assess strategies based on online privacy literacy. In particular, strategies that Instagram young girls users should employ to achieve the optimum level of privacy. For this purpose, firstly the paradox of privacy, benefits and risks of self-disclosure are explained, then according to online privacy literacy, some social and technological strategies are introduced by which users can solve the “paradox of privacy.” In the result section, after describing the main benefits and risks of self-disclosure by girl users, the current models of using these social and technological strategies to solve the mentioned paradox are discussed. The research method is ethnography based on non-collaborative observation of Instagram pages and semi-structured interviews with 20 girl users of social networks.

  12. Self-perceived successful weight regulators are less affected by self-regulatory depletion in the domain of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Engeler, Michèle; Florack, Arnd

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss and maintenance goals are highly prevalent in many affluent societies, but many weight regulators are not successful in the long term. Research started to reveal psychological mechanisms that help successful weight regulators in being successful. In the present study, we tested the assumption that these mechanisms facilitate successful self-regulation particularly under conditions of self-regulatory depletion. Participants exerted or did not exert self-control in a first task before engaging in a taste test of a tempting but unhealthy food. Participants who had initially exerted self-control ate more than participants in the control condition. This effect was reduced in self-perceived successful weight regulators as compared to perceived unsuccessful self-regulators. A reduced susceptibility to self-regulatory depletion may be an important contributor to long-term weight regulation success in successful weight regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  14. Information privacy fundamentals for librarians and information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Givens, Cherie L

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces library and information professionals to information privacy, provides an overview of information privacy in the library and information science context, U.S. privacy laws by sector, information privacy policy, and key considerations when planning and creating a privacy program.

  15. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  16. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  17. Location-Related Privacy in Geo-Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Vicente, Carmen; Freni, Dario; Bettini, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    -ins." However, this ability to reveal users' locations causes new privacy threats, which in turn call for new privacy-protection methods. The authors study four privacy aspects central to these social networks - location, absence, co-location, and identity privacy - and describe possible means of protecting...... privacy in these circumstances....

  18. Protecting Privacy in Shared Photos via Adversarial Examples Based Stealth

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yujia; Zhang, Weiming; Yu, Nenghai

    2017-01-01

    Online image sharing in social platforms can lead to undesired privacy disclosure. For example, some enterprises may detect these large volumes of uploaded images to do users’ in-depth preference analysis for commercial purposes. And their technology might be today’s most powerful learning model, deep neural network (DNN). To just elude these automatic DNN detectors without affecting visual quality of human eyes, we design and implement a novel Stealth algorithm, which makes the automatic det...

  19. Tutoring and Mentoring: An A.R.C. Model for Future Teachers: Affective, Reflexive and Cognitive Orientation to Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    With a specific focus on tutoring among future teachers this article proposes a model of self-regulated learning. The focus on different mechanisms inherent to the tutoring relationship will consider Affective impacts or motivation, Reflexive or metacognitive and Cognitive resolutions. The ARC combination proposes that personal skills will be…

  20. The Use of Gestural Modes to Enhance Expressive Conducting at All Levels of Entering Behavior through the Use of Illustrators, Affect Displays and Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the use of illustrators, affect displays and regulators, which I consider to be non-verbal communication categories through which conductors can employ a more varied approach to body use, gesture and non-verbal communication. These categories employ the use of a conductor's hands and arms, face, eyes and body in a way…