WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulation supplement government

  1. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 78 FR 30233 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Number 0750-AG38 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access... Government support contractors to have access to proprietary technical data belonging to prime contractors and other third parties, provided that the technical data owner may require the support contractor to...

  3. 75 FR 54527 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...-AG50 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels.... Section 825 clarifies the Government's rights in technical data in the designs of a DoD vessel, boat... cite DFARS Case 2008-D039. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background This final rule implements section...

  4. 77 FR 30998 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., Government Property, DFARS section 211.274, Reporting of Government-Furnished Equipment in the DoD Item... surplus Government property. Under paragraph (b), a contractor may be directed by the plant clearance... plant clearance officer to purchase or retain Government property at less than cost if the plant...

  5. 75 FR 75444 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.245-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b... Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property. As prescribed in 245.107(a), use the following...

  6. 76 FR 11363 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... the recipient to decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the software, or use software decompiled... engineer the software, or use software decompiled, disassembled, or reverse engineered by the Government... Government shall not permit the recipient to decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the software, or use...

  7. 76 FR 6006 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... rarely occurs. Similarly, a respondent stated the need to address the materiality of the loss and that... pertaining to Government property losses. It does not require reporting of the estimated harm or materiality... assigned by the Government and identified in the contract; and adds the method for determining the...

  8. 76 FR 12666 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security number for each person.../dars/government_furnished_property.html and submit the following information: (1) Company or...

  9. 76 FR 6003 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b) Use the clause at 252.245-7001, Tagging...

  10. 75 FR 35684 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership or Control by a Foreign Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence. Additionally, subparagraph (a)(4) of DFARS 252.209-7002, Disclosure... Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., because it only impacts companies that are owned or controlled by a... or controlled by a foreign government. DoD invites comments from small business concerns and other...

  11. 75 FR 80426 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... data base for capturing records of Government-furnished property sent on a non-reimbursable basis to a... number. (vii) Medium code; how the data is recorded, e.g., barcode, contact memory button. (viii) Value... January 1, 2004, for unique item identifier pedigree data established at delivery, as defined by DFARS 252...

  12. 76 FR 52139 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government; Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... responsibility for compliance with export control law and regulations a ``due diligence responsibility.'' DoD... clearance officer suspects data integrity issues; however, 245.602-1(2) has been clarified to specify... that the supplier name and part number be required for all items in Federal condition code A1 being...

  13. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  14. 48 CFR 731.205-71 - Salary supplements for Host Government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary supplements for... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 731.205-71 Salary supplements for Host Government employees. (a... fifty percent of its financial support from the government. (b) General. Salary supplement occurs when...

  15. 78 FR 68829 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DFARS 252.232-7007, Limitation of Government's Obligation. DFARS subpart 232.7, Contract [[Page 68830...; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract Financing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... and OMB Number: Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Part 232, Contract Financing...

  16. 48 CFR 1845.407 - Non-Government use of plant equipment. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use and Rental of Government Property 1845.407 Non-Government use of plant equipment. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)). For NASA, the coverage in FAR 45.407, applies to all equipment, not just plant... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Non-Government use of plant...

  17. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  18. Government regulation of gambling business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepasyuk S.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the problems of modern gambling business in the Russian Federation, political and legal, civil and economic aspects of state politics development in the field of activities regulation. The Federal Law regulating the activity of gambling business has been analyzed. The author has offered some developments of gambling business in the Russian Federation in order to increase the revenues to the budgets of the regions; to increase the attractiveness of the Russian resorts; to create more job opportunities and to eradicate unemployment.

  19. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...... transformation of company law and corporate governance regulation. Her findings about the marketization of corporate control are at the core to a better understanding of the broader context of capitalist restructuring in the European Union....

  20. 2 CFR 2700.930 - Debarring official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930). 2700.930 Section 2700.930 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 2700.930 Debarring official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930). For...

  1. 2 CFR 2700.1010 - Suspending official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 2700.1010 Section 2700.1010 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 2700.1010 Suspending official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR...

  2. Performance, corporate governance and new regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Garcia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the adoption of the Corporate Governance Code (Code in Mexico, many companies increased financial performance and the leveraged during the following five years; we investigated the effect of how those firms improved the corporate governance practices and how was translated into better risk return company. We analyzed how and where better corporate governance practices affects performance and what was the relationship with Transparency, New Regulation and Governance Practices. Also we explored the gaps between transparency and information disclosure of Mexican Firms listed in U.S stock exchange and non U.S listed firms our findings were related to the potential growth of the Mexico Financial Market, Law and Finance.

  3. 76 FR 75875 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... initiate a dialogue with industry regarding the use of open source software in DoD contracts. DATES: Public... to the risks to the contractors and the Government associated with using open source software on DoD...

  4. 76 FR 71465 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Management of Manufacturing Risk in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Government procurement. Mary Overstreet, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. Interim Rule Adopted... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Management of Manufacturing Risk in Major Defense Acquisition...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting as final, without change, an interim rule amending the...

  5. 75 FR 3178 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Lead System Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Government procurement. Amy G. Williams, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Accordingly, the..., without change, an interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to... limitations on the award of new contracts for lead system integrator functions in the acquisition of major DoD...

  6. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the United States... 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...

  7. Problems and Prospects: Public Health Regulation of Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Andy H

    2018-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Supplements may directly cause toxic reactions or may interact with other supplements or pharmaceuticals. Some supplements are found to have been contaminated with heavy metals, and others do not contain the expected quantities of active ingredients. In general, supplements are not needed except in cases of established deficiencies, and excess of some nutrients can increase cancer rates. There are important public health reasons for taking some supplements, including folate and iodine in pregnancy. This review discusses the public health concerns associated with dietary supplements and suggests directions for further regulation.

  8. 2 CFR 2700.995 - Principal (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definition at 2 CFR 180.995). 2700.995 Section 2700.995 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 2700.995 Principal (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.995). Principal means— (a...

  9. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  10. 76 FR 14588 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Nonavailability Exception for Procurement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Nonavailability Exception for Procurement of Hand or Measuring... Subjects in 48 CFR Part 225 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition... requirement at 10 U.S.C. 2533a (Berry Amendment) to acquire only domestic hand or measuring tools. DATES...

  11. Balancing government-regulated participation with community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore the nature and extent of community participation and support for the Taung Skull World Heritage Site (TSWHS) scheme. Utilising the social exchange theory, the paper's central argument suggests meaningful community involvement in government-sponsored participation as a prerequisite to ...

  12. Bank governance, regulation, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.; Levine, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts the first empirical assessment of theories concerning risk taking by banks, their ownership structures, and national bank regulations. We focus on conflicts between bank managers and owners over risk, and we show that bank risk taking varies positively with the comparative power

  13. Economics of Philanthropic Institutions, Regulation and Governance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Babacan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper merges the literature on regulation, specifically private provision of public goods, and governance with the literature on philanthropic institutions (awqaf) in Turkey. Traditionally, awqaf (plural for the waqf) have been very functional regarding the socioeconomic realms in Muslim societies. On the other hand, the provision of public goods is one of the core discussions under the literature on regulation and governance, particularly the property rights. This paper analyzes the rol...

  14. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  15. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  16. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robbin S.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product’s development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  17. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REGULATION IN EMERGING COUNTRIES. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on corporate governance emphasizes that firms should be run in the interests of shareholders. This is a suitable objective function when markets are perfect and complete. In many emerging economies this is not the case: markets are imperfect and incomplete. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance issues and the extra obstacles they have to overcome due to a lack of regulations. Romanian case study is examined.

  18. Corporate Governance Convergence : Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the research on corporate governance by predicting the effects of European takeover regulation.In particular, we investigate whether the recent reforms of takeover regulation in Europe are leading to a harmonization of the national legislations.With the help of 150

  19. SIGNALS AND REGULATORS THAT GOVERN STREPTOMYCES DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joseph R.; Flärdh, Klas

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is the genetically best characterized species of a populous genus belonging to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes are filamentous soil organisms, well known for the production of a plethora of biologically active secondary metabolic compounds. The Streptomyces developmental life cycle is uniquely complex, and involves coordinated multicellular development with both physiological and morphological differentiation of several cell types, culminating in production of secondary metabolites and dispersal of mature spores. This review presents a current appreciation of the signaling mechanisms used to orchestrate the decision to undergo morphological differentiation, and the regulators and regulatory networks that direct the intriguing development of multigenomic hyphae, first to form specialized aerial hyphae, and then to convert them into chains of dormant spores. This current view of S. coelicolor development is destined for rapid evolution as data from “-omics” studies shed light on gene regulatory networks, new genetic screens identify hitherto unknown players, and the resolution of our insights into the underlying cell biological processes steadily improve. PMID:22092088

  20. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and (e...

  1. 2 CFR 601.1010 - Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SUSPENSION Definitions § 601.1010 Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 601.1010 Section 601.1010 Grants and Agreements...

  2. Corporate Governance in Crisis? The Politics of EU Corporate Governance Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    on the transformation of company law and corporate governance in the last decade. Here, the article illustrates how company law has become increasingly focused on the rights of shareholders, while worker rights have been relegated to the area of social policies and labour law. The study also traces the shift from...... a legislative programme centred on company law harmonisation towards a regulatory approach based on minimum requirements and mutual recognition, increasingly geared at adjusting the governance of corporations to the demands of liberalised capital markets. The second section then reflects on the current...... developments in corporate governance regulation in the context of financial and economic crisis....

  3. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J K; Iwankow, C [Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada`s perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs.

  4. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  5. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... 215 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability... adding a section at 215.300 with a reference to Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy...

  6. The Role of Self-Regulation in Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); D.V. DeJong; G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); C. Wasley

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper assesses the effectiveness of self-regulation to promote investor interests. The Netherlands provides an excellent opportunity to gather such evidence for two reasons. First, characteristics of the Dutch corporate governance structure have made it the recent focus of attention

  7. Data-driven Regulation and Governance in Smart Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Klop, Abram; Mak, Vanessa; Berlee, Anna; Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the concept of data-driven regulation and governance in the context of smart cities by describing how these urban centres harness these technologies to collect and process information about citizens, traffic, urban planning or waste production. It describes how several smart

  8. Government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the domestic experience in government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier.Compared the degree of economic freedom in Ukraine. The emphasis is on the need to develop a national strategy of institutional development of domestic entrepreneurship.

  9. Risk regulation and deliberation in EU administrative governance: GMO regulation and its reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not

  10. The role of government and regulation in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W

    2017-08-01

    The world population is ageing and increasing in size. As a result, the numbers of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Cancer is also a growing problem in developing countries. Government, be it local, state, provincial, national, or even a union of nations, has clear roles in the control of cancer. It is widely appreciated that much of the research that has defined the causes and treatment of cancer was, and is, government funded. Less appreciated, the body of work about how to control cancer shows the importance of an environment that encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviours, and government has a vitally important role. Through regulation, education, and support programmes, governments can create an environment in which tobacco use is reduced and citizens maintain good levels of physical activity, healthy bodyweight, and good nutrition. Cancer prevention and the creation of a culture of health is an essential mission of government, beyond that of the traditional health-focused departments such as health ministries; it is in the domain of governmental agencies involved in environmental protection, occupational safety, and transportation. Cancer prevention and health promotion are also in the realm of the zoning board, the board of education, and the board of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 2 CFR 801.930 - Debarring official (Department of Veterans Affairs supplement to government-wide definition at 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debarring official (Department of Veterans Affairs supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930). 801.930 Section 801.930 Grants and... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 801.930 Debarring official (Department of Veterans Affairs supplement...

  12. 76 FR 71468 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Accelerate Small Business Payments (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... all small business concerns. In combination with the change to the regulations, DoD immediately began... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Accelerate Small Business Payments (DFARS Case 2011-D008... Regulation Supplement to accelerate payments to all small business concerns. DATES: Effective Date: November...

  13. 77 FR 2680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update text addressing the definition of cost or pricing data... update the DFARS for consistency with FAR changes addressing the definition of cost or pricing data...

  14. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. The science and regulations of probiotic food and supplement product labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Levy, Dan D

    2011-02-01

    Presented by the New York Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, the symposium "Probiotic Foods and Supplements: The Science and Regulations of Labeling," was held on June 12, 2010 at the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, the goals of which were to facilitate the exchange of ideas regarding labeling and substantiation of claims for probiotics among academic, industry, and regulatory professionals, and to discuss ways to translate and communicate research results in a truthful way to the consumer and to such health professionals as physicians, pharmacists, and dieticians. The target audience for this symposium included academicians interested in conducting research on the health benefits of probiotics; scientists; communications personnel, and regulatory specialists from companies involved in, or interested in, the marketing of probiotics; U.S. government regulatory experts tasked with oversight of probiotic foods and dietary supplement products; and other experts in the field interested in the development of probiotics for the U.S. market. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Telecommunications in South Africa: Governance of who is actually regulating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-F Pau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Republic of South Africa telecommunications market is a maturing one with a large customer base to serve, it has been repeatedly been observed over the past few years that many good intentions were formulated in the regulatory sphere with sometimes poor outcomes and unclear governance. A number of surprising observations have been made on the outcomes, the delays or other process related events linked to regulatory measures. The paper thus researches first, from a governance point of view, who is actually regulating the telecommunications industry; it identifies next opportunities and bottlenecks whereby a change might happen to reach the expected outcomes. A political economy methodology is taken, backed up by extensive field work over 2010 and 2011, leading to a web of conjectures providing answers to the first question, based on an extensive analysis of key stakeholders goals, positions and interactions. Finally, a number of measures are proposed to improve the governance, regulatory impact and efficiency, and evolve the South African telecommunications eco-system.

  17. The European Energy Regulators Group. A panacea for good governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses how the European Energy Regulators Group (ERGEG) may promote good governance in the EU. It is concluded that the ERGEG to some extent can stimulate national regulatory authorities into implementing European law more consistently, effectively and proportionally. Since the European Commission has a special responsibility as regards the functioning of the ERGEG, the future role of the ERGEG will depend on whether or not the Commission will leave it some autonomy to develop its advisory-, benchmarking- and coordinating role. Since the European legal framework does not include clear procedural good governance norms, there is a danger that the interests of the market parties are inadequately represented and protected at the European level. Although the ERGEG cannot take legally binding decisions, it is argued that its decisions or common standards may have legal effects. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the European legal framework regulates the right of access to ERGEG documents, the exchange and use of information within the ERGEG, the protection of confidential information, the right of participation and the involvement of the European Parliament [nl

  18. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... also asked what allowance is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not... RIN 0750-AG46 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address DoD Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major...

  19. 75 FR 18041 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...-AG35 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address requirements for minimizing the use of hexavalent chromium in... of items containing hexavalent chromium under DoD contracts unless an exception applies. DATES...

  20. 75 FR 33237 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025) AGENCY: Defense.../Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information to the Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement..., February 23, 2006, moved requirements for Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (CIPR) from DFARS 242.7302 to...

  1. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ..., et al. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and... Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) AGENCY: Defense.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  2. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of...

  3. 77 FR 4632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to require major contractors to report independent research and development (IR... 11414 on March 2, 2011, to revise requirements for reporting IR&D projects to the Defense Technical...

  4. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation required to be filed by §§ 221.20 and 221.30 and/or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air...

  5. 75 FR 32640 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Finland- Public Interest Exception to the Buy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... procurement memorandum of understanding (RDP MOU) between the government of Finland and the Government of the United States has been in effect since 1991. The governments have negotiated and concluded a new RDP MOU... Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Therefore, 48...

  6. 78 FR 13543 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ..., 204, 215, 225, 227, 242, 245 and 252 Government procurement. Manuel Quinones, Editor, Defense...) shall be conducted only when-- (i) A contractor has $50 million of qualifying sales to the Government... circumstance(s) may result in a material impact on Government contract costs: (1) Information or data reveals a...

  7. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...

  8. Regulating the South African sport supplement industry: 'Whey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune improvement claims, the exact benefits of sport supplements have not been ... Among those that ranked highest were Dis-Chem's house brand,. Biogen ... the establishment of the SA Health Products Regulatory Authority. (SAHPRA) ...

  9. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance

  10. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance...

  11. How can we characterize nano-specific soft regulation? Lessons from occupational health and safety governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichow, Aline; Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Konrad, Kornelia; Coenen, Christopher; Dijkstra, Anne; Milburn, Colin; van Lente, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Soft regulation is a widely used instrument in the governance of emerging technologies, especially in the governance of nanotechnologies. So far, evaluations on the effects of nano-specific soft regulation cannot build on a coherent and consistent typology. Characterization of soft regulation is

  12. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Binder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD, supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3 in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation

  13. 76 FR 59623 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer (DFARS Case 2011-D013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ..., 215, 216, and 252 RIN 0750-AH11 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer... Supplement (DFARS) to address acquisitions using competitive procedures in which only one offer is received... days, if the solicitation allowed fewer than 30 days for receipt of proposals and only one offer is...

  14. 78 FR 65218 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions... Supplement (DFARS) to implement a section of the National Defense Authorization Act regarding private sector... section 938 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 regarding private sector...

  15. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-AI02 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates--Contract Financing... Supplement (DFARS) to create an overarching prescription for the set of contract financing related clauses... amend the DFARS to create an overarching prescription for the contract financing clause with one...

  16. 2 CFR 901.1010 - Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.1010 Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). The suspending official for the Department of Energy... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending official (Department of Energy...

  17. 2 CFR 801.1010 - Suspending official (Department of Veterans Affairs supplement to government-wide definition at 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending official (Department of Veterans Affairs supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 801.1010 Section 801.1010 Grants and... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 801.1010 Suspending official (Department of Veterans Affairs...

  18. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  19. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Test Program for Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...DoD is issuing a final rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to extend the program period for the DoD Test Program for Negotiation of Comprehensive Small Business Subcontracting Plans.

  20. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... prescribes policies prohibiting interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel, as required by section... ancillary positions, including as trainers of, and advisors to, interrogations, if the contractor personnel...

  1. Review: Efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...

  2. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...D published an initial proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS... the definition and administration of contractor business systems as follows: A. Contractor business..., 245, and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems...

  3. 75 FR 66686 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial... Balance of Payments Program for construction material that is commercial information technology. DATES... the Balance of Payments Program for commercial information technology to be used in overseas...

  4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. Supplement 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Following a six-year effort, a major revision to the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (Safety Series No. 6) was issued in 1985. In order to address minor problems with the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, a panel of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency met from 13 to 17 January 1986. This panel considered minor inconsistencies, omissions or errors that had occurred in the course of preparing the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, and recommended that two types of change be made. First, changes which will correct errors in the presentation of the text, translation errors (in the French, Russian and Spanish versions of the 1985 Edition), and drafting which failed to express the intent of the panels which reviewed the previous edition of the Regulations; these minor changes are promulgated herewith by the authority of the Director General. Secondly, changes of detail which can only be introduced in accordance with the procedure approved by the Board of Governors on 22 September 1972, which authorizes the Director General to promulgate such changes after giving Governments not less than ninety days' notice and taking into account any comments that they make. Three changes of this second type were recommended by the panel, and were circulated according to the 'ninety-day rule' amendment procedure on 3 February 1986. Those changes which received unanimous support by Member States are included in this Supplement. Corrected text to the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6 (paragraphs, tables, etc.) is provided in this Supplement, and this corrected text supersedes the corresponding portions of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6.

  5. The history of efforts to regulate dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, John P

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the emergence of dietary supplements and how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempted to regulate these, beginning with the arrival of vitamins and how these were managed under the 1906 Food and Drugs Act, and ending with the seismic influence of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Included are the impact of major laws, key court decisions, and the construction of the FDA's supplement actions and rules from the 1920s to the 1990s for products that were neither drugs nor typical foods. Stiff resistance to the regulations by supplement manufacturers, trade associations, politicians, and especially the public at large is an important part of this story. The paper closes with the passage of DSHEA and how it literally changed the definition and parameters of control of dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  7. Analysis of combinatorial regulation: scaling of partnerships between regulators with the number of governed targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Bhardwaj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Through combinatorial regulation, regulators partner with each other to control common targets and this allows a small number of regulators to govern many targets. One interesting question is that given this combinatorial regulation, how does the number of regulators scale with the number of targets? Here, we address this question by building and analyzing co-regulation (co-transcription and co-phosphorylation networks that describe partnerships between regulators controlling common genes. We carry out analyses across five diverse species: Escherichia coli to human. These reveal many properties of partnership networks, such as the absence of a classical power-law degree distribution despite the existence of nodes with many partners. We also find that the number of co-regulatory partnerships follows an exponential saturation curve in relation to the number of targets. (For E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, only the beginning linear part of this curve is evident due to arrangement of genes into operons. To gain intuition into the saturation process, we relate the biological regulation to more commonplace social contexts where a small number of individuals can form an intricate web of connections on the internet. Indeed, we find that the size of partnership networks saturates even as the complexity of their output increases. We also present a variety of models to account for the saturation phenomenon. In particular, we develop a simple analytical model to show how new partnerships are acquired with an increasing number of target genes; with certain assumptions, it reproduces the observed saturation. Then, we build a more general simulation of network growth and find agreement with a wide range of real networks. Finally, we perform various down-sampling calculations on the observed data to illustrate the robustness of our conclusions.

  8. Outsourcing Technology in Government: Owned, Controlled, or Regulated Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mark L.; Walsh, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the growing trend toward and objectives of government outsourcing of information technology (IT) both in the United States and around the world. Describes representative outsourcing arrangements; highlights steps governments should take to ensure that objectives are met; and discusses factors influencing management of public sector…

  9. A Corporate Governance Index : Convergence and Diversity of National Corporate Governance Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of appropriate corporate governance framework has been a focal point of recent reforms in many countries. This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their evolution over the last 15 years in 30 European countries and the US. It

  10. 77 FR 76936 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...; List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 201, 203, 204, 215, 219, 245, and 252 Government procurement. Manuel... clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, is the DoD Office of Inspector General...

  11. 75 FR 52650 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items (2008-D011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule; delay in... rule that amended the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement sections... comments on the interim rule were located, which had not been addressed in finalization of the interim rule...

  12. 75 FR 65439 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Accounting Service or Missile Defense Agency. (2) For DoD, the authority to acknowledge receipt or reject... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 219 and 252 [DFARS Case 2009-D002] Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...

  13. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestmann, Earle R.; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  14. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  15. The Regulation and Improvement of Suburban Landless Peasants’ Community in the Charge of the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suburban landless peasants’ communities are both the transfiguration in the passive urbanization and transformation in the leading of governments. The specificity of suburban landless peasants community-generated determines the specificity in governing. The deficiency of well governance mechanisms, the scarcity of citizen spirit, the low level of self-organization and the deficiency of social capital in suburban landless peasants’ community in the charge of the government bring about a serious of developing dilemma. The regulation and improvement of government should embark on reconstructive governance mechanisms, straighten out organizational system; Cultivating citizen spirit, promoting public participation; Remodeling social capital, tamping autonomy foundation.

  16. The relation between external governance environment and over-investment: Evidence from industry regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Law and Finance theory, and the regulatory capture theory, external governance environment and industrial regulations can exert a certain influence on corporate over-investment. On the basis of qualitative analysis of the relationship between external governance environment and corporate over-investment under different industrial regulation conditions, this paper, using data of non-financial companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in the period 2001-2010, describes the regional distribution characteristics of over-investment of Chinese listed companies, and establishes an OLS regression model of the relationship between external governance environment and over-investment. The study respectively groups data from regulated and non-regulated industries as a sample and empirically tests the OLS regression model. Results show that: from the perspective of economic geography, there exists a local spatial cluster phenomenon in the distribution of over-investment of listed companies in regulated industries, while non-regulated industries conform to no regularity. In regulated industries, external governance environment factors (level of government intervention, rule of law and financial development may exert a significant negative influence on the degree of over-investment of listed companies, but on non-regulated industries, their effect is reversed. Also, government intervention, legal enforcement and financial development are positively correlated to over-investment. Further research indicates that, compared with government intervention and financial development, legal enforcement influences over-investment the most.

  17. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... procurement programs, it must provide written notice of the determination to the GSA Suspension and Debarment Official. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 209 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense... suspended from procurement programs, it must provide written notice of the determination to the General...

  18. 77 FR 12937 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... from ``30 days'' to ``60 days or such other time frame agreed to by the PLCO.'' FAR 52.245-1: Add a... Government will not bear any of the costs incident to such donations, regardless of who incurred them. ``As..., public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance...

  19. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations... language in the final paragraph of the 2003 regulations dealt with the transition of special purpose permit... regulations is to remove all of the language under paragraph (i). This change is simply a ministerial...

  20. GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE ECONOMY: RISKS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rjahovskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of state regulation of the economy by the example of the Russian power industry and utilities, the reasons for the negative results, the validity of the concepts, analyzes the conceptual elements of the reform, the expected and the resulting effect, the reasons for failure and return to the state in the housing sector. Particular attention is given to certain aspects of the functioning of self-regulation institute inRussia. 

  1. Government regulations and other influences on the medical use of computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishelevich, D J; Grams, R R; Mize, S G; Smith, J P

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents points brought out in a panel discussion held at the 12th Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences, January 1979. The session was attended by approximately two dozen interested parties from various segments of the academic, government, and health care communities. The broad categories covered include the specific problems of government regulations and their impact on specific clinical information systems installed at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, opportunities in a regulated environment, problems in a regulated environment, vendor-related issues in the marketing and manufacture of computer-based information systems, rational approaches to government control, and specific issues related to medical computer science.

  2. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unified Solar PV Tariff The Chinese Government has set a unified national solar photovoltaic(PV) benchmarking on-grid tariff in order to improve its PV tariff policy to standardize solar PV tariff management and promote sustainable development of solar PV industry. Power grid operators will be required to pay solar energy producers 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kwh of electricity,according to

  3. 48 CFR 1845.505-14 - Reports of Government property. (NASA supplements paragraphs (b))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (NASA supplements paragraphs (b)) (b) When the clause at 1852.245-73, Financial Reporting of NASA... contractor acquired property for purposes of reporting the acquisition cost in the property classifications...

  4. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  5. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  6. Getting the right balance between regulation and governance in the non-bank financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Mayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of the collapse of the finance company sector in New Zealand in 2006-2010 to illustrate the problems with light touch regulation and a reliance on good governance to ensure financial stability. It shows two major governance failures, the first in the governance of the sector by the authorities and the second, serious failures in corporate governance by the firms involved. While a light touch may assist economic development it also increases fragility. New Zealand has now switched to a greater emphasis on regulation and to a better alignment of incentives to ensure good governance. While other countries might consider implementing aspects of its new bank resolution regime most are opting for considerably more regulation and compliance costs.

  7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. Supplement 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A major revision of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6, was undertaken during a period of several years, culminating in the publication of the 1985 Edition. In order to consider minor problems in the new edition, the Agency convened a panel of experts in January 1986. This panel recommended some amendments which were subsequently published as Supplement 1986 to the Regulations. A further review panel meeting took place in June 1987. The amendments which were recommended for early adoption were themselves divided into two kinds. The first of these are designated as minor changes. The second kind of amendment recommended for early adoption comprises actual changes to regulatory provisions. Several changes of this second type were recommended by the panel and are included in this Supplement. The Supplement also contains the amended texts of the supporting documents, Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80, which are necessary to correct minor errors as well as to provide complementary information for the changes introduced to the Regulations themselves. In addition, the Supplement embodies the contents of Supplement 1986, which is consequently superseded.

  8. 77 FR 30368 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... arrangement, the Government would take title to the devices during contract performance or at the conclusion... rule will promote utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices, even when the Government does not take... Devices (DFARS Case 2011-D046) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD...

  9. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...., because the changes are to internal Government organization and operating procedures only. The rule... 48 CFR Part 207 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations... Life Cycle of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (DFARS Case 2009-D014) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  10. 75 FR 38765 - Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ..., facility assessment services, certifications of quantity and quality, import product inspections, and... control number. These include export certification, inspection of section 8e import products, and...] Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of...

  11. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  12. 75 FR 38675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... contractor to use the property on an independent research and development (IR&D) program rent free, if-- (a... Government for all property acquired or fabricated by the Contractor in accordance with the financing...-0029; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL41 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property...

  13. 75 FR 33734 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) The Director publishes a special edition of the Federal Register called ``The United States Government... its regulations the requirement that the United States Government Manual (Manual) be published and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy P. Bunk, Director of Legal Affairs and Policy, Office of the Federal Register, at...

  14. The Use of Government Funding and Taxing Power to Regulate Religious Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Kline; Esbeck, Carl H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the concept of governmental funding of private schools and whether this would be the means whereby unwanted and obstrusive regulations would be applied to those schools. Government funding in Spain, Malta, and France was the mechanism by which those governments extended control over church-related schools. (MD)

  15. Is More Government Regulation Needed to Promote E-commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    Layne-Farrar, Anne; Hahn, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    E-commerce has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years. Nonetheless, senators, privacy watchdog groups, and the Federal Trade Commission have argued that e-commerce is being held back by consumer worries about online privacy and security. Some privacy advocates are calling for additional regulations, specifically new online privacy rules aimed at providing consumers with more information and customer choice. And Congress has tried to answer that call, most recently with a bill i...

  16. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unified Solar PV Tariff The Chinese Government has set a unified national solar photovoltaic (PV) benchmarking on grid tariff in order to improve its PV tariffpolicy to standardize solar PV tariff management and promote sustain able development of solar PV industry.Power grid operators will be required to pay solar energy producers 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kwh of electricity,according to a notice posted on the website of the National Development and Reform Commission.The notice also stated that the prices only apply to solar power project that were approved before July 1.Electricity generated by projects that were approved after July 1 will be priced at 1 yuan ($0.15) per kwh,the notice said.

  17. 75 FR 59103 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge (DFARS Case 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...-AG30 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge (DFARS Case 2008... comments is provided below: 1. Comment. One respondent stated that it is customary in the motor carrier freight industry to assume a fixed cost of diesel fuel with a cost recovery mechanism (fuel surcharge) for...

  18. 78 FR 63462 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Relating to Organizational Conflict of Interest-Major Defense Acquisition Program; OMB Control Number 0704...] Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflict... submit comments, identified by OMB Control Number 0704-0477, using any of the following methods: [cir...

  19. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  20. 76 FR 58122 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Material Inspection and Receiving Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... acceptance point and replacing it with more specific data entries for inspection, acceptance, and ship to Do..., acceptance, and ship-to fields but kept the source, destination, and other inspection and acceptance points... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Material Inspection and Receiving Report (DFARS Case 2009-D023) AGENCY...

  1. 76 FR 58155 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Construction and Architect-Engineer Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Construction and Architect-Engineer Services Performance... performance evaluations for construction and architect-engineer services. DATES: Effective Date: September 20... past performance for construction and Architect- Engineer services. On April 19, 2011, DoD published a...

  2. 75 FR 67632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Pub. L. 111-84) prohibits the interrogation of..., to add DFARS 237.173, Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel, adding a...

  3. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... provisional payment and sent to the disbursing office after a pre- payment review. Interim vouchers not... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to...] RIN 0750-AH52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY...

  4. 76 FR 57677 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Increase the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ...] RIN 0750-AH15 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Increase the Use of Fixed-Price...-price incentive (firm target) contracts, with particular attention to share lines and ceiling prices... the use of fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts, especially for acquisitions moving from...

  5. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  6. 76 FR 9680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration... the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program. DATES: Effective Date: February 22, 2011...-656) by striking title VII (15 U.S.C. 644 note). The repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...

  7. 76 FR 38053 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles (DFARS Case 2011... ``designated country'' due to the change in the political status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands..., 2010, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire...

  8. 75 FR 71564 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025... conducting a Contractor Insurance/Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information (PGI) to the... This final rule relocates requirements for Contractor Insurance/ Pension Review to DFARS 242.7302 from...

  9. 76 FR 14589 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-AH18 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...). Section 222 repeals the restriction on purchase of Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation that was required by section 222 of...

  10. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ...; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration; Interim Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 96...-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration... an initial proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038...

  11. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition... for Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal Register on... improve the effectiveness of DoD oversight of contractor business systems. The comment period is being...

  12. 76 FR 38051 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD Contractors During Contingency Operations,'' dated April 16, 2010... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY... employees accompanying U.S. Armed Forces are made aware of the DoD definition of sexual assault as defined...

  13. 75 FR 73997 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Inspector General audit D-2010-052, entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense..., to ensure contractor employees are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in Do...

  14. 77 FR 14490 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor Personnel (DFARS Case... (DFARS) to expand coverage on contractor requirements and responsibilities relating to alleged crimes by or against contractor personnel. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed rule should be...

  15. 78 FR 59851 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Enhancement of Contractor Employee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...-AH97 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Enhancement of Contractor Employee... contractor and subcontractor employees. DATES: Effective date: September 30, 2013. In accordance with FAR 1... Whistleblower Protections for Contractor Employees) made extensive changes to 10 U.S.C. 2409, entitled...

  16. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Continuation of Essential Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ...-AG52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Continuation of Essential Contractor... that contractors providing essential contractor services, as determined by the requiring activity..., implementing the requirements of DoDI 3020.37, Continuation of Essential DoD Contractor Services During Crises...

  17. 76 FR 14590 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... makes it unlikely that a small business could afford to sustain the infrastructure required to perform...-AG73 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and... facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that are intended for use by military or civilian personnel of the...

  18. 76 FR 11414 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions (DFARS Case... (DFARS) to require contractors to report independent research and development (IR&D) projects generating... to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Beginning in the 1990s, DoD reduced its technical...

  19. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  20. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  1. Normative Regulation of Anti-Corruption in the System of Local Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya F. Kupcha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors attempt to analyze normative acts aimed at regulating relations in the sphere of counteracting corruption at the level of local self-government. In the conclusion authors summarize that despite criticism, in the Russian Federation, a system of regulatory regulation to counteract corruption (including at the local level is formed. Further improvements of this system should be made in the legal regulation at the local level.

  2. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  3. 25 CFR 1000.429 - What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or compacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.429 What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What statutes and regulations govern resolution of...

  4. The Implementation of Government Regulation No 19/2008 about Sub District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasoloan Nadeak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the implementation of the policy of districts in the city of Bogor; to determine and analyze the technical and operational guidelines support the tasks assigned to the sub-district and the districts in the city of Bogor; and to determine and analyze the performance of the policy after the implementation of the district and sub-district in each region. Implementation of Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2008 concerning the sub-district is a must, because of government regulation in question is the implementing regulations that apply nationally and mandated by Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Government. The approach used to look at the problem in question is descriptive qualitative content analysis or document analysis. Based approach is known that the City Government has implemented PP No. 19 of 2008 in the form of Mayor Regulation No. 54 Year 2010 on Main Duties, Functions, Duties Work Procedures and structural positions within the District and No. 10 of 2010 on Delegation of Authority. The implementation of policy shall include: (1 Common Tasks Government, and (2 Some tasks are delegated by the Mayor of the District Head in terms of regional autonomy.

  5. Lagged impacts of reforms of government regulations of business on nations’ gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arch G. Woodside

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article develops theory and examines relationships among reforms in government regulation of business, competitiveness, and national economic development in term of GDP per capita. The findings shed light on the ongoing debate of supporting versus refuting reducing/eliminating government regulations of business. Applying Campbell’s (1968, 1969 seminal contributions in examining the impact of reforms as quasi-experiments and Mill’s (1872/1973 method of differences, the study shows that the reforms in reductions and eliminations of government regulations of business help to increase national economic growth the lagged impact (e.g., 2, 3 years after introduction of reforms should be expected. Also, medium-to-large reductions in the ranking of government regulations of business (increase in competitiveness associate with increases in GDP per capita in comparison to a large increase in the ranking (decrease in competitiveness. The results also provide insights into the different regulatory environments (i.e., high vs. low government corruption and media-freedom vs. highly ethical behavior and lack of media-freedom may condition the impact of the reforms.

  6. Recent hospital charity care controversies highlight ambiguities and outdated features of government regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKelvie, Charles; Apolskis, Michael; Unland, James J

    2005-01-01

    For years the hospital industry has been embroiled in controversies involving pricing, charity care, and collection practices. Unfortunately, Medicare regulations and policies governing hospital charge-setting and collection practices have not helped bring much clarity to the situation, nor has related CMS and OIG guidance. Coordinated effort by hospitals and regulatory bodies can help clarify unclear government regulation of charity care, pricing, and collections and end potentially destructive controversies that sap valuable time, energy, and resources from efforts addressing much graver long-term threats to hospital viability.

  7. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  8. 76 FR 25566 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Electronic Ordering Procedures (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... officials to specify e-mail as an ``electronic commerce method'' so long as it is authorized in the schedule... recognized electronic commerce method. The respondent recommended, in the alternative, that the Government... stated that electronic commerce is a term specifically identified in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR...

  9. 77 FR 39125 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... market research/industry communication. In 2008, the Office of Management and Budget and Office of... unique or brand name specifications, and enhancing acquisition planning. In 2010, the Government... strategic defense capabilities, because of a shift to ``lowest price possible.'' Further, according to this...

  10. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  11. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The National Science Board (NSB) National Science Foundation...

  12. 78 FR 62362 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ...] Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic Tariff... under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 or the Natural Gas Act.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective November 12, 2013, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing...

  13. 76 FR 17762 - Regulations Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... receipt of a bachelor's or higher degree in either actuarial mathematics or another area which include at..., actuarial mathematics, and other areas determined by the Joint Board. These regulations provide that an... Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...

  14. The meta-governance of organic seed regulation in the USA, European Union and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, Erica; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith; Jiggins, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Seed governance in agriculture is a challenging global issue. This paper analyses the evolution of organic seed regulation in the USA, the European Union and Mexico as model cases of how these challenges are being addressed, based on a study conducted between 2007 and 2014. It highlights how

  15. The Role of Self-Regulation in Corporate Governance : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Mertens, G.M.H.; Wasley, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gather evidence on the success of market forces in promoting investor interests through self-regulation.Corporate governance is a complex mechanism design problem that is both economic and legal/political based.As such there is great interest in whether (and when)

  16. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  19. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  1. 2 CFR 901.950 - Federal agency (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.950).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.950 Federal agency (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.950). DOE means the U.S. Department of Energy, including the NNSA. NNSA... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency (Department of Energy...

  2. 2 CFR 901.930 - Debarring official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.930 Debarring official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930). The Debarring Official for the Department of Energy, exclusive... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debarring official (Department of Energy...

  3. Do regulators pay attention? An assessment of IT governance implementation in systemically important banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sepahvand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of Information Technology systems in systematically important banks raise the need for creating an IT governance architecture that could make IT strategy aligned with business strategy and delivers value while it effectively identifies and manages IT risk. This study traces the links between IT governance and two more applied risk management frameworks, COSO and BCBS’s principles for managing IT risk. Then it argues due to the magnitude of potential losses caused by any weakness in IT governance in D-SIBs, the assessment of IT governance in these banks should be one of the main concerns of local regulators and supervisors. As a case study, it assesses the relative rank of D-SIBs in Iranian banking system to see where these banks would stand in an ordered list of the banks including both private and public banks in terms of IT governance implementation. The application of the Fuzzy AHP technique shows that IT governance practice in Iranian D-SIBs is not as good as the private banks while it outperforms some state-owned banks.

  4. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...

  5. [Radiation protection. Implications for clinical practice on the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-08-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effect of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  6. TERRITORIAL REGULATION OF THE DUTCH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN NEDERLANDS NIEUW GUINEA 1898-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmaida Sinaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed about the regulation of the Dutch colonial administration for its expansion in Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG between 1898 and 1962.  The arrangement covered the expansion area, uniting and abolition of the government. This process began with the exploration activities, construction of infrastructure facilities and transportation/communication and recruitment of government officials. Construction of transportation and communication made local economy was increase. Government officials who stationed in the region must meet the specific requirements such as familiar with the area and experienced in their duties as well as having a high spirit of devotion. Territorial structuring was based on consideration of geographic/transportation access, culture, economic and political values of such area. Government policy on regional growth aims to shorten the span of colonial government control over territory and population of NNG and government's services that closer to the territory’s population.Key words: Territorial regulation, expansion, NNG  Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang peraturan pemerintahan kolonial Belanda atas segala bentuk ekspansi di Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG pada tahun 1898 dan 1962. Peraturan ini meliputi perluasan wilayah, menyatukan dan penghapusan pemerintah. Proses ini dimulai dengan kegiatan eksplorasi, pembangunan fasilitas infrastruktur dan transportasi / komunikasi dan perekrutan pejabat pemerintah. Pembangunan transportasi dan komunikasi membuat perekonomian lokal meningkat. Pejabat pemerintah yang ditempatkan di wilayah tersebut harus memenuhi persyaratan tertentu seperti akrab dengan daerah dan berpengalaman dalam tugas-tugas mereka serta memiliki semangat  pengabdian tinggi. Penataan wilayah didasarkan pada pertimbangan geografis / akses transportasi, budaya, ekonomi dan nilai-nilai politik daerah tersebut. Kebijakan pemerintah mengenai pertumbuhan regional bertujuan untuk memperpendek

  7. 76 FR 57671 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... the title of the applicable Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fraud hotline poster and Web site(s... General Fraud Hotline Posters AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to require contractors to display the DoD fraud hotline poster in common work...

  8. Governance strategies for living technologies: bridging the gap between stimulating and regulating technoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Est, Rinie; Stemerding, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The life sciences present a politically and ethically sensitive area of technology development. NBIC convergence-the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive technology-presents an increased interaction between the biological and physical sciences. As a result the bio-debate is no longer dominated by biotechnology, but driven by NBIC convergence. NBIC convergence enables two bioengineering megatrends: "biology becoming technology" and "technology becoming biology." The notion of living technologies captures the latter megatrend. Accordingly, living technology presents a politically and ethically sensitive area. This implies that governments sooner or later are faced with the challenge of both promoting and regulating the development of living technology. This article describes four current political models to deal with innovation promotion and risk regulation. Based on two specific developments in the field of living technologies-(psycho)physiological computing and synthetic biology-we reflect on appropriate governance strategies for living technologies. We conclude that recent pleas for anticipatory and deliberative governance tend to neglect the need for anticipatory regulation as a key factor in guiding the development of the life sciences from a societal perspective. In particular, when it is expected that a certain living technology will radically challenge current regulatory systems, one should opt for just such a more active biopolitical approach.

  9. Government regulation of gambling advertising: Replacing vice prevention with consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, M; Robbins, H

    1991-12-01

    From 1895 to 1975, federal law forbade gambling advertising by use of the mail, interstate commerce, and the broadcast media. Congress exempted state lotteries in 1975 and charitable gambling (including casino games) in 1988. However, the Supreme Court requires a significant government interest, directly applied and narrowly tailored, in order to justify a commercial speech regulation. The exemptions for private charity casino games has arguably destroyed any constitutionally defensible government interest in restricting for-profit casinos. Casinos in new gambling jurisdictions (such as Iowa or Illinois) will probably push the hardest for an exemption for all legal gambling, as they have the most to gain from the freedom to advertise. Federal regulation of gambling advertising will fall to the Federal Trade Commission under prohibitions against "unfair or deceptive" trade practices. But as State regulations are not well developed even in states that permit casino gambling, there is a pressing need for new research to review state laws regulating gambling advertising and to propose a model statute.

  10. 76 FR 11985 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...) Company or organization name; (2) Full names of persons attending; (3) Identity if desiring to speak; limit to a 10-minute presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security...

  11. 76 FR 71823 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Responsibility and Liability for Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    .... The purpose of the DFARS rule is to standardize policy for negotiated fixed-price contracts, whether.... Response: The intent of this rule is to standardize policy treatment for negotiated FAR part 15 fixed-price... (``assumption of risk''). The current exception to this policy (see FAR 45.104) is for negotiated fixed-price...

  12. 75 FR 22727 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government-Assigned Serial Number Marking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... 252.211-7003, Item Identification and Valuation, and that require the contractor to mark major end... existing DoD property management, logistics, and maintenance systems. This regulatory action was subject to... operational necessity. The latest version of MIL-STD-130, Marking of U.S. Military Property, shall be used for...

  13. 75 FR 59102 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government-Assigned Serial Number Marking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... version of MIL-STD-130, Marking of U.S. Military Property, shall be used for the marking of human-readable... Valuation; and (2) Require the contractor to mark major end items under the terms and conditions of the... revising the introductory text to read as follows: 252.211-7003 Item identification and valuation. As...

  14. 76 FR 21852 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Responsibility and Liability for Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health... substantial cash reserves may be in a financial position that enables those firms to select a high insurance deductible in order to garner lower premiums by electing to become self-insuring for potential property loss...

  15. 75 FR 22729 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...-based processes to greater use of automation. This proposed rule revises requirements for all DoD... identified in the contract, or in the absence of such identification, the item's fair-market value... of material, equipment, special tooling, special test equipment, and real property. (b) Policy for...

  16. 77 FR 52254 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... comments in the development of the final rule. A discussion of the comments and the changes made to the... eventual demise of other, existing property management systems. The respondent specifically recommended...

  17. 75 FR 25160 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... to track and trace property items throughout their lifecycle (in acquisition and logistics business... entities to which this rule will apply. DoD invites comments from small business concerns and other...

  18. 76 FR 64885 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Accounting Procedures manual, along with a hyperlink to the URL. It is not necessary to add condition code...D items and will be available to users in the logistics, financial, and property accountability... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules...

  19. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A.B. Pedroso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss.

  20. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  1. Algorhythmic governance: Regulating the ‘heartbeat’ of a city using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Coletta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, research examining the socio-spatial effects of smart city technologies have charted how they are reconfiguring the production of space, spatiality and mobility, and how urban space is governed, but have paid little attention to how the temporality of cities is being reshaped by systems and infrastructure that capture, process and act on real-time data. In this article, we map out the ways in which city-scale Internet of Things infrastructures, and their associated networks of sensors, meters, transponders, actuators and algorithms, are used to measure, monitor and regulate the polymorphic temporal rhythms of urban life. Drawing on Lefebvre, and subsequent research, we employ rhythmanalysis in conjunction with Miyazaki’s notion of ‘algorhythm’ and nascent work on algorithmic governance, to develop a concept of ‘algorhythmic governance’. We then use this framing to make sense of two empirical case studies: a traffic management system and sound monitoring and modelling. Our analysis reveals: (1 how smart city technologies computationally perform rhythmanalysis and undertake rhythm-making that intervenes in space-time processes; (2 distinct forms of algorhythmic governance, varying on the basis of adaptiveness, immediacy of action, and whether humans are in-, on-, or, off-the-loop; (3 and a number of factors that shape how algorhythmic governance works in practice.

  2. Evaluation of the audit committees of government ministries in Namibia: Their compositions, functions and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Winnie Kandandu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the underlying study to this paper is to evaluate the audit committees in the government ministries in Namibia; by assessing their composition, the function and regulations that govern committees. The study used a qualitative approach of inquiry. A purposive sampling method was used as the researcher selected ministries with audit committees. Thematic and content analysis was used in this study. Both primary and secondary and data were used. On primary data, interviews were conducted and recorded with a voice recorder. Secondary data was during the review of existing literature on the subject. The study found that from the 4 government ministries with audit committees, only one ministry consisted of independent members as well as an independent chairperson, while 3 ministries are chaired by members within their organisations. There was clear evidence of lack of accounting / financial /auditing competence among the committee members. This trend is contrary to the best practice which requires that the chairperson of the audit committees be independent of the ministry as well as the members of the audit committee. The finding indicates possibility of lack of capacity to carry out the functions of audit committees; weak internal control systems; chances of conflict of interest and complacency due to the lack of independence. There is avenue for further research as more ministries in Namibia are now establishing their audit committees, especially as the Namibian Code of Corporate Governance (the NamCode gains more popularity among the public sector.

  3. Transparency and Accountability of Government Regulations as an Integral Part of Social Responsibility Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Frolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author's view on the role of government in promoting social responsibility of business and the individual is described. The main features of the socio-economic situation in Russia today are presented (horizontal and vertical mobility of the population, a small number of organizations and the extra-centralized public authorities, the predominance of personal relations between economic agents. The necessity of increasing the role of individuals and businesses in the social system is substantiated and the basic directions of activity are suggested (prosocial preferences, interpersonal trust, redistribution of social responsibility. Transparency and accountability of public authorities are very powerful tool to improve the quality of governance and it is one of the important conditions for the social responsibility, as well as to economic performance in modern Russia. The legitimacy of government is a multidimensional issue. And if we take into account the Russian features it is necessary to point out public control and enforcement, quality of formal institutions, and effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. Also governance is important to enhance quality of regulation.

  4. Governance of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: principles, regulation, and renegotiating the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, George A

    2009-01-01

    Good governance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials is predicated on principles of general good governance. This paper discusses on what lessons we can learn from the oversight of past emerging technologies in formulating these principles. Nanotechnology provides us a valuable opportunity to apply these lessons and a duty to avoid repeating past mistakes. To do that will require mandatory regulation, grounded in precaution, that takes into account the uniqueness of nanomaterials. Moreover, this policy dialogue is not taking place in a vacuum. In applying the lessons of the past, nanotechnology provides a window to renegotiate our public's social contract on chemicals, health, the environment, and risks. Emerging technologies illuminate structural weaknesses, providing a crucial chance to ameliorate lingering regulatory inadequacies and provide much needed updates of existing laws.

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  6. The Government Incentive Regulation Model and Pricing Mechanism in Power Transmission and Distribution Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power transmission and distribution (T&D market’s natural monopoly and individual information have been the impediment to improving the energy efficiency in the whole T&D market. In order to improve the whole social welfare, T&D market should be controlled by government. An incentive regulation model with the target of maximizing social welfare has been studied. A list of contracts with transferring payment and quantity of T&D are given to motivate the corporation to reveal the true technical parameter and input the optimal investment. The corporate revenue, optimal investment, and effort are proved to depend on its own technical parameter. The part of incentive regulation model ends with the optimal pricing mechanism of T&D market. At the end of this paper, we give a numerical example to explain our research and confirm its function graphically.

  7. Risk regulation, GMOs, and the challenges to deliberation in EU governance: politicisation and scientification as co-producing trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Joerges, C.; Glinski, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to

  8. Risk regulation, GMOs, and the challenges to deliberation in EU governance - politicization and scientification as co-producing trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to

  9. [Changes in the regulation and government of the health system. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo, José R

    2014-06-01

    The economic and fiscal crisis of 2008 has erupted into the debate on the sustainability of health systems; some countries, such as Spain, have implemented strong policies of fiscal consolidation and austerity. The institutional framework and governance model of the national health system (NHS) after its devolution to regions in 2002 had significant weaknesses, which were not apparent in the rapid growth stage but which have been clearly visible since 2010. In this article, we describe the changes in government regulation from the national and NHS perspective: both general changes (clearly prompted by the economic authorities), and those more specifically addressed to healthcare. The Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 represents the centerpiece of austerity policies in healthcare but also implies a rupture with existing political consensus and a return to social security models. Our characterization of austerity in healthcare explores impacts on savings, services, and on the healthcare model itself, although the available information only allows some indications. The conclusions highlight the need to change the path of linear, rapid and radical budget cuts, providing a time-frame for implementing key reforms in terms of internal sustainability; to do so, it is appropriate to restore political and institutional consensus, to emphasize "clinical management" and divestment of inappropriate services (approach to the medical profession and its role as micro-manager), and to create frameworks of good governance and organizational innovations that support these structural reforms. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. AMPK governs lineage specification through Tfeb-dependent regulation of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan P; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Van Nostrand, Jeanine L; Eichner, Lillian J; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Dayn, Yelena; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-03-01

    Faithful execution of developmental programs relies on the acquisition of unique cell identities from pluripotent progenitors, a process governed by combinatorial inputs from numerous signaling cascades that ultimately dictate lineage-specific transcriptional outputs. Despite growing evidence that metabolism is integrated with many molecular networks, how pathways that control energy homeostasis may affect cell fate decisions is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central metabolic regulator, plays critical roles in lineage specification. Although AMPK-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were normal in the pluripotent state, these cells displayed profound defects upon differentiation, failing to generate chimeric embryos and preferentially adopting an ectodermal fate at the expense of the endoderm during embryoid body (EB) formation. AMPK(-/-) EBs exhibited reduced levels of Tfeb, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomes, leading to diminished endolysosomal function. Remarkably, genetic loss of Tfeb also yielded endodermal defects, while AMPK-null ESCs overexpressing this transcription factor normalized their differential potential, revealing an intimate connection between Tfeb/lysosomes and germ layer specification. The compromised endolysosomal system resulting from AMPK or Tfeb inactivation blunted Wnt signaling, while up-regulating this pathway restored expression of endodermal markers. Collectively, these results uncover the AMPK pathway as a novel regulator of cell fate determination during differentiation. © 2016 Young et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. 76 FR 13327 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ..., Washington, DC 22202-2884. (ii) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fraud hotline poster identified in... _________ _________ _________ _________ (Contracting Officer shall insert-- (i) Title of applicable Department of Homeland Security fraud hotline...-AG98 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...

  12. 75 FR 71563 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Services of Senior Mentors (DFARS Case 2010-D025)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... mentoring, teaching, training, advice, and recommendations to senior military officers, staff, and students... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Services of Senior Mentors (DFARS Case 2010-D025) AGENCY: Defense... policy on the services of senior mentors. DATES: Effective: November 24, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  13. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  14. 75 FR 33195 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; New Designated Country-Taiwan-DFARS Case 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Organization Government Procurement Agreement. DATES: Effective date: June 11, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION..., Taiwan became a designated country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement... World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement countries in the trade agreement provisions...

  15. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aantjes, J.C.

    2007-05-01

    To explain the unforeseen ascendancy of biofuels in the transport sector, a thorough understanding of the biofuel industry (i.e. the value chain) is crucial. Next to the industry structure, it seems that the regulatory framework surrounding the chain also contributes to the formation and structure of the biofuel industry in Europe. This assumption rests on the 2003 European Union (EU) biofuel directives for the promotion of biofuels in EU member states. With tax exemptions and reference values, the European Commission (EC) achieves to raise the amount of biofuels in transportation. The hypothesis in this thesis is that the European biofuel industry reflects a correlation between external regulation and value chain structure. More specifically, it is expected to be a mutual relation. The proposition is that value chain actors not only anticipate to the regulatory environment, they are also likely to influence decision-making on regulations in their advantage. Simply stated, value chain actors are concerned with the regulatory framework in order to enhance their position in the chain. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, this is an interesting proposition since the interaction between regulations and value chain governance receive little attention in theory. For the food industry, this approach contributes to understand the development in biofuel regulations and the European biofuel industry. Chapter Two reports the theoretical foundation of this study. The research framework rests on two rather independent streams of literature. The first part discusses 'value chain theory' and enables to examine how the biofuel value chains in Europe looks like. Among the analytical instruments of this research tradition, the role of powerful actors in controlling the value chain is elaborated in depth. The second stream is rooted in political theory and is characterized as 'political decision-making theory'. Its focus is on the formulation of governmental regulation. A

  16. From Hippocrates to Commodities: three models of NHS governance: NHS governance, regulation, Mid Staffordshire inquiry, health care as a commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A series of inquiries and reports suggest considerable failings in the care provided to some patients in the NHS. Although the Bristol Inquiry report of 2001 led to the creation of many new regulatory bodies to supervise the NHS, they have never enjoyed consistent support from government and the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry in 2013 suggests they made little difference. Why do some parts of the NHS disregard patients' interests and how we should we respond to the challenge? The following discusses the evolution of approaches to NHS governance through the Hippocratic, Managerial and Commercial models, and assesses their risks and benefits. Apart from the ethical imperative, the need for effective governance is driven both by the growth in information available to the public and the resources wasted by ineffective systems of care. Appropriate solutions depend on an understanding of the perverse incentives inherent in each model and the need for greater sensitivity to the voices of patients and the public. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. permissions@oup.com.

  17. Governance and regulation of the tourism industry: An internet marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebambo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to establish governance and regulation issues pertaining to Internet marketing approaches within the South African tourism sector. The study focuses on the norms and practices of Internet marketing among small-scale lodging establishments in Bushbuckridge – a small tourist town in northeast South Africa. In-depth interviews were collected from eight participating bed and breakfast (B&B owners. Findings revealed that, while Internet awareness was quite high, only a few B&Bs utilised the Internet for marketing. Participants cited lack of clear industry guidelines on Internet marketing approaches as well as limited Internet experience, among others, as barriers to adoption. Implications and recommendations of the study are presented within the ambit of the existing literature

  18. EFFECTS OF THE NEW REGULATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF THE AUDIT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Timea FÜLÖP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility, firm performance and their part in fraud and error detection. The audit firms play an important role in the capital markets by verifying that auditors provide reliable information to the decision makers. The characteristic elements of the new economy require economic entities new performance standards that go beyond economics. These works’ aim is to explore the implication of the new regulation and corporate governance on the audit profession and audit quality. This study contributes to the literature as it provides a better understanding on how the auditor and audit firms react toward the additional requirements.

  19. The role of government in a competitive power market : strategic behaviors and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Restructuring in the Korean power industry has fundamentally changed the role of government. The role of government in a new environment may include : (1) promoting competition (2) prohibiting collusion or unfair trade practices (3) securing uninterrupted power supply (4) providing universal services to consumers (5) implementing appropriate price regulation. Focusing on the first two issues, this report has analyzed anti-competitive strategic behaviors and an impact of market power and tried to provide regulatory guidelines. This report surveyed three types of theoretical models analyzing a bidding behavior in an electric power market. The Cournot model is applied to the Korean electricity market. The following policy implications are derived. (1) The Cournot-Nash equilibrium price can be regarded as a threshold in market surveillance. (2) Had the fossil stations been divided among six instead of five companies, then market power would have been weakened in a reasonable degree. This finding also renders some implications with respect to business permission, divestiture, and merger. Among those, it is argued that a large new entrant rather than small IPPs contributes to increasing competition and lowering market power. (3) Increase in responsiveness of final demand to wholesale price fluctuation is an important factor to lower the Cournot equilibrium price and so market power. Therefore, appropriate regulatory system should be arranged to make power demand more elastic. (4) Activating contract markets such as CfD and introducing the capacity credit market can greatly help to lower market power. (author). 36 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  1. National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research? On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves? On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP? Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP

  2. Carotenoid supplementation and retinoic acid in immunoglobulin A regulation of the gut microbiota dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yi; Wu, Lei; Wang, Fang; Shen, Xinchun; Lin, Dingbo

    2018-04-01

    Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota. The present minireview summarizes the recent findings in the gut microbiota dysbiosis and dysfunction of immunoglobulin A induced by the imbalance of pathogenic bacteria and commensal microbiota. We also propose the potentials of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and astaxanthin, in the improvement of the gut immune system maturation and immunoglobulin A production, and the consequent promotion of the gut health. Impact statement The concept of carotenoid metabolism in the gut health has not been well established in the literature. Here, we review and discuss the roles of retinoic acid and carotenoids, including pro-vitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls in the maturation of the gut immune system and IgA production. This is the first review article about the carotenoid supplements and the metabolites in the regulation of the gut microbiome. We hope this review would provide a new direction for the management of the gut microbiota dysbiosis by application of bioactive carotenoids and the metabolites.

  3. [Labeling of vitamin and mineral supplements: a revision of the federal normative regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Patricia Borges; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, there is a steadily increasing offer and demand for products on the basis of vitamins and minerals. According to Brazilian law, the differences in the dosages offered to the consumer in each product are the parameter for its classification as alimentary supplement or medicament. The limit between these two concepts, however, is confusing and lacks clearness. Considering the risk posed by imprudent consumption of such products and seeking to facilitate the interpretation and consolidation of the norms dealing with vitamin and mineral products as well as to create the basis for a master's degree dissertation, a bibliographical survey and evaluation of the entire juridical basis regarding the labeling of these products was conducted. It was concluded that the normative regulations are extensive, complex and of difficult understanding, with a great number of norms dealing with the same subject issued by different authorities. These norms are not consolidated leading to difficult interpretation by retailers, health professionals and consumers and even to failures in the application of these norms by the control authorities. Suggestions are made for helping to correct the failures identified in the study.

  4. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement...) Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to the... 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Government procurement. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  5. Oil on the water: Government regulation of a carcinogen in the twentieth-century Lancashire cotton spinning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, mule spinners were prone to a chronic and sometimes fatal skin cancer (often affecting the groin). The disease had reached epidemic proportions by the 1920s, which necessitated action by the government, employers, and trade unions. In contrast to previous accounts, this article focuses on the government's reaction to mule spinners' cancer. Using official records in the National Archives, the slow introduction of health and safety measures by the government is explored in detail. Although obstructionism by the employers played a key role, one of the reasons for government inaction was the ambiguity of scientific research on engineering oils. On the other hand, prolonged scientific research suited a government policy that was framed around self regulation - a policy that had proved largely ineffective by the 1950s.

  6. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  7. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: A framework based on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Patrick; Fernandes da Silva, Miguel; Pettman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  8. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  9. Comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective within the German and united states legal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remmer Sassen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the main corporate governance components or management tasks. This paper details a comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective of listed stock corporations in Germany and the United States (U.S.. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between the national legal norms and the regulatory levels of risk management in both countries. The comparison helps to understand different traditions and practices in terms of how significant corporate governance rules are for risk management. Therefore, this article intends to inspire future research on the regulation of risk management across different regions and explore the relevance of national interests in the regulation of risk management. A principal finding of the comparison is that the U.S. corporate governance system seems to be more strongly regulated than the German system. This results from the powerful and coordinating role of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Thus, the seemingly more liberal system of non-binding standards in the U.S. has a higher impact on the regulation of risk management than in Germany.

  10. 78 FR 65220 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Croatia (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... as a new designated country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO..., 2012, the WTO Committee on Government Procurement accepted the European Union notification indicating..., this rule adds Croatia to the list of World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement...

  11. 75 FR 81915 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... prescriptions. Amends 225.1101(6)(i) to reference the World Trade Organization (WTO) Government Procurement... Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition... paragraph (c)(iii) to read as follows: 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and...

  12. 76 FR 78858 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech... of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 212, 225, and 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor... (see FAR 25.4). (2) World Trade Organization--Government Procurement Agreement. For covered contracts...

  13. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... already a designated country under the WTO GPA. Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to... Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement. DATES... note)). The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement...

  14. 77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Advertising, Agricultural research, Cotton, Marketing agreements, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements... supplemental assessments collected for use by the Cotton Research and Promotion Program. An amendment is..., Chief, Research and Promotion Staff, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, AMS, USDA, 100 Riverside Parkway...

  15. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property. Government property includes both Government... to the Plant Clearance Officer. (l) FAR 52.245-9(d) requires a contractor to identify the property...; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  16. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  17. Preliminary study for understanding the moderating role of government regulations in telecom sector of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Beenish; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik

    2017-10-01

    Telecommunication sector of Pakistan is a significant contributor toward the economic development of Pakistan. However, telecommunication sector of Pakistan underwent a lot of changes from regulatory and marketing perspective in 2015, resulting in decreased cellular penetration, dropped down the cellular subscribers and decreased telecommunication revenue. Hence, this research paper is designed to validate the constructs used in addressing the moderating role of government regulations based on Oliver's four-stage loyalty model in telecom sector of Pakistan. This preliminary study has mainly employed the quantitative method (i.e. survey questionnaire), consisting of a total of 72 items related to eight constructs under study and used 7 points Likert scale. The main analysis method used is the reliability test of the constructs. The results reveal that the Cronbach alpha readings were between 0.756 and 0.932, indicating internally consistent and reliable measures of the constructs used. This result enables the constructs to be included in the actual data collection without change.

  18. 77 FR 51957 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clarification of “F” Orders in the Procurement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... multi-agency contracts, or basic ordering agreements. The proposed text also directs that a... agreements, or blanket purchase agreements. As a result of the proposed rule, new awards under the AbilityOne... Part 204 Government procurement. Manuel Quinones, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...

  19. 75 FR 18029 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Export-Controlled Items (DFARS Case 2004-D010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... regulations and prescribes a contract clause to address those responsibilities. DATES: Effective Date: April 8... activities and communication between the parties to a potential contract, and to have the resulting contract... Government needs to convey to the universities the information that certain work is export-controlled. DoD...

  20. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Linear Modeling and Regulation Quality Analysis for Hydro-Turbine Governing System with an Open Tailrace Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the state–space method (SSM, a novel linear mathematical model of the unsteady flow for the tailrace system with an open channel is proposed. This novel model is an elastic linearized model of water hammer. The validity of the model has been verified by several examples of numerical simulation, which are based on a finite difference technique. Then, the complete mathematical model for the hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with an open tailrace channel, which is used for simulating the transient process of the hydro-turbine governing system under load disturbance, is established by combining the models of hydro-turbine, generator, governor and open tailrace channel. Finally, according to the complete model, the regulation quality for hydro-turbine governing system with an open tailrace channel under load disturbance is studied, and the effects of open tailrace channel and tailrace surge tank on regulation quality are analyzed. The results indicate that: The open tailrace channel has a strong influence on the regulation quality by observing the water level fluctuations in tailrace surge tank. The surge shows a piecewise periodical change along with the variation in the length of an open channel. The open tailrace channel can be used to improve the regulation quality of hydro-turbine governing system.

  2. Health and social care regulation in Wales: an integrated system of political, corporate and professional governance for improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane

    2008-11-01

    Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.

  3. 78 FR 56127 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...-AD61 Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban... Government Ethics (OGE), amends its Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct, which are regulations for HUD officers and employees that supplement the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive...

  4. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    González, Laura; Echevarría, Andrés; Morales, Dahiana; Ruggia, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have ...

  5. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  6. 76 FR 64902 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership of Offeror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... the ability to understand the corporate structure and affiliations of its suppliers. DoD is seeking... dialogue with industry and Government agencies about developing a method by which offerors, if owned or controlled by another business entity, can identify to DoD the Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code...

  7. 77 FR 4637 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Shipping Instructions (DFARS Case 2011-D052)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    .... origin contracts, Export Traffic Release regardless of f.o.b. terms, or foreign military sales shipments... use the DD Form 1659 when using the clauses at FAR 52.242-10, F.o.b. Origin--Government Bills of Lading or Prepaid Postage, or 52.242-11, F.o.b. Origin-- Government Bills of Lading or Indicia Mail...

  8. 75 FR 76297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Restriction on Ball and Roller Bearings (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... does not have enough market leverage for it to be in the business interest of the manufacturers and... reason for changing the rule is statutory change. 10 U.S.C. 2534(a)(5) is no longer in effect because... Government leverage with regard to acquisition of commercial bearings. The Government continues to issue more...

  9. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  10. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  11. 76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... requirements previously approved. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 1205 Advertising, Agricultural research... purpose of calculating supplemental assessments collected for use by the Cotton Research and Promotion...: Effective Date: September 30, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shethir M. Riva, Chief, Research and...

  12. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion...--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. No respondents submitted public comments in response to the interim... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...

  13. The Effect of Concrete Supplements on Metacognitive Regulation during Learning and Open-Book Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Rakefet; Leiser, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that when reading texts, lower achievers are more sensitive than their stronger counterparts to surface-level cues, such as graphic illustrations, and that even when uninformative, such concrete supplements tend to raise the text's subjective comprehensibility. Aims: We examined how being led astray…

  14. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... indirect cost is expressly unallowable under a cost principle in the FAR, or an executive agency supplement... economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563... have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities within the meaning of the...

  15. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  16. Positive muscle protein net balance and differential regulation of atrogene expression after resistance exercise and milk protein supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean...... body mass), or a non-caloric control after heavy resistance exercise on protein turnover and mRNA expressions of forkhead homeobox type O (FOXO) isoforms, muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), and Atrogin1 in young healthy males. Methods Protein turnover was determined by stable isotope-labeled leucine...

  17. 78 FR 53055 - Regulations Governing Fees for Services Performed in Connection With Licensing and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... request for waiver of $1,900. filing requirements for abandonment application proceedings. (25) An offer... properties or franchises (or a part thereof) into one corporation for ownership, management, and operation of... requirements. (78) The filing of tariffs, $1 per page, including supplements, or ($26 min. charge). contract...

  18. Encouraging Maternal Sacrifice: How Regulations Governing the Consumption of Pharmaceuticals During Pregnancy Prioritize Fetal Safety over Maternal Health and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Greer

    Pregnant women are routinely faced with the stressful decision of whether to consume needed medications during their pregnancies. Because the risks associated with pharmaceutical drug consumption during pregnancy are largely unknown, pregnant women both inadvertently consume dangerous medications and avoid needed drugs. Both outcomes are harmful to pregnant women and their fetuses. This unparalleled lack of drug safety information is a result of ill-conceived, paternalistic regulations in two areas of the law: regulations governing ethical research in human subjects and regulations that dictate the required labels on drugs. The former categorizes pregnant women as "vulnerable" and thus precludes them from most medical research. The result is that ninety-one percent of drugs lack any reliable safety information for pregnant consumers. The latter currently requires all drug labels to encourage drug avoidance during pregnancy, despite ample evidence that avoiding needed medications can harm pregnant women. On June 30, 2015, new pregnancy labeling regulations took effect. Though these regulations make important improvements, they continue to treat pregnant women unlike any population, including other unique subpopulations, such as children. As a result, the new regulations do not fix the problem of over-warning pregnant women about the risks of drug consumption. This article questions the legitimacy of both regulations and suggests three reforms for how to improve access to vital safety information: (1) amend the regulations governing ethical research in human subjects to reclassify pregnant women as non-vulnerable adults; (2) create incentives to generate safety data in pregnant women by granting a period of market exclusivity for drug companies that invest in this research; and (3) make the FDA pregnancy labeling regulations consistent with the routine FDA practice of requiring the display of balanced, human data on risk.

  19. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Trust in government and support for governmental regulation: the case of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herian, Mitchel N; Shank, Nancy C; Abdel-Monem, Tarik L

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results from a public engagement effort in Nebraska, USA, which measured public opinions about governmental involvement in encouraging the use of electronic health records (EHRs). We examine the role of trust in government in contributing to public support for government involvement in the development of EHR technologies. We hypothesize that trust in government will lead to support for federal and state governmental encouragement of the use of EHRs among doctors and insurance companies. Further, because individual experiences with health-care professionals will reduce perceptions of risk, we expect that support for governmental involvement will be tempered by greater personal experience with the health-care industry. Examining a small survey of individuals on the issue, we find general support for both of our hypotheses. The findings suggest that trust in government does have a positive relationship with support for government involvement in the policy domain, but that the frequency of personal experiences with health-care providers reduces the extent to which the public supports governmental involvement in the development of EHR technology. This inquiry contributes to our understanding of public attitudes towards government involvement in EHRs in the United States specifically and contributes to social science examining links between trust in government and support for governmental activity in the emerging policy domain regarding electronic health records systems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... alternate, and to include in the regulation the full text of the alternate clause. DATES: Comment date... provide each alternate clause in full text in the regulation. The inclusion of the full text of the... from from the basic clause. Placing the alternate clause in full text in the regulation will clarify...

  2. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... relating to wear and tear or deterioration, or to the extent the loss or damage is caused by negligence of... negligence of Government personnel; or (ii) Twenty percent of the price or estimated cost of this contract...

  3. 76 FR 25565 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement; Guidance on Personal Services (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... program manager, or equivalent, certification that the service contract requirement does not include an... a boundary separating contractor and government employees in all workplace environments.'' Response... potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity...

  4. Review of the bases for regulations governing the transport of fissile and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The outstanding record of transport of radioactive materials prompted this brief review of the history of the regulations. IAEA as well as DOT regulations are discussed, as are all classes of shipments and materials (Class I, II, III)

  5. [Radiation protection in orthopaedics: implications for clinical practice of the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-05-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effects of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  6. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have developed some sort of legislation focusing on data protection. This paper proposes solutions for monitoring and enforcing data protection laws within an E-government Interoperability Platform. In particular, the proposal addresses requirements posed by the Uruguayan Data Protection Law and the Uruguayan E-government Platform, although it can also be applied in similar scenarios. The solutions are based on well-known integration mechanisms (e.g. Enterprise Service Bus as well as recognized security standards (e.g. eXtensible Access Control Markup Language and were completely prototyped leveraging the SwitchYard ESB product.

  7. 77 FR 2679 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Order of Application for Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... following methods: [cir] Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments via the Federal e... contract. In order to determine the sequence of modifications to a contract or order, a method for... the numeric order of the modifications to a contract is not the order in which the changes to the...

  8. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ..., Newport, RI. Mississippi Flyway Council: July 22-23, Crowne Plaza, Little Rock, AR. Central Flyway Council... with two splits or four zones) for use during the 2011-12 regulations cycle season (see the April 8... configurations through the 2012 regulations cycle. The Central and Pacific Flyway Councils recommended extending...

  9. 77 FR 76938 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Contracting Activity Updates (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Security Cooperation Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Missile... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 202 RIN 0750-AH81 Defense...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is...

  10. 76 FR 71922 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ..., using any of the following methods: [cir] Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments... Training 252.209-7003, Reserve Officer Corps and Military Recruiting on Training Corps and Military Campus. Recruiting on Campus-- Representation. 252.216-7000, Economic Price 252.216-70XX, Economic Price Adjustment...

  11. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  12. Athletes and Supplements: Prevalence and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J

    2018-03-01

    In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.

  13. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Guidance on Personal Services (DFARS Case 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... parts 211 and 237 are being amended to (1) require that statements of work or performance work statements clearly distinguish between Government employees and contractor employees and (2) ensure that... Department, including several checklists currently used. This interim rule adopts best practices and...

  14. 75 FR 60690 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Electronic Ordering Procedures (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... event of conflict between a delivery order or task order and this contract, the contract shall control.... This change will ultimately help improve the management and promotion of electronic Government services... impose any information collection requirements that require the approval of the Office of Management and...

  15. 78 FR 65244 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Contractor Personnel Supporting U.S. Armed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... it with the changes in applicability, terminology, and other revisions made by Department of Defense..., terminology aid in determining which groups qualify for different types of Government support and are based on.... In the past, the provision of non-emergency medical and dental care to CAAF personnel has generated...

  16. 76 FR 32839 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Agency Office of the Inspector General (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. This final rule corrects two omissions in... Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 203 and 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition... clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. * * * * * PART 252--SOLICITATION...

  17. 78 FR 63461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... 252.225-7010, Commercial Derivative Military Article-- Specialty Metals Compliance Certificate, as... commercial derivative military articles to the Government. DFARS 252.225-7013, Duty-Free Entry, as prescribed... of origin. DFARS 252.225-7020, Trade Agreements Certificate, as prescribed in 225.1101(5), requires...

  18. 77 FR 35883 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractors Performing Private Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    .... The essence of the definition cannot be changed substantially in the DFARS from that in the... recommended that the final rule define the contractor's obligation to cooperate, as in the mandatory... define the scope and limitations of the contractor's obligation to cooperate with Government...

  19. 75 FR 69360 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Award-Fee Reductions for Health and Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... acts with gross negligence or reckless disregard for health or safety, causing serious bodily injury or... which actions of gross negligence or reckless disregard of health or safety by the contractor or its... or death of any civilian or military personnel of the Government through gross negligence or with...

  20. 76 FR 57674 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Award Fee Reduction or Denial for Health or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... the contractor's or subcontractor's gross negligence or with reckless disregard for the safety of... that jeopardize the health and safety of Government personnel, through gross negligence or reckless... injury through gross negligence or with reckless disregard for the safety of such personnel, this final...

  1. 75 FR 51416 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... provided clarification regarding situations under which the procurement of a major weapon system..., et seq. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 202, 212, and 234 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin...: DoD is adopting as final, without change, the interim rule that amended the Defense Federal...

  2. 75 FR 18034 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501, et seq. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 234 and 235 Government procurement...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting as final, without change, an interim rule that requires the Milestone Decision Authority (MDA) for a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) to select the contract...

  3. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .... 601, et seq. Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to the goods and services of Panama... Applicability of specified procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness in the acquisition of supplies and... as the WTO GPA threshold, no new clause alternates are required for the Balance of Payments Program...

  4. 78 FR 28756 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: System for Award Management Name Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Management Name Changes, Phase 1 Implementation (DFARS Case 2012- D053) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... Excluded Parties Listing System (EPLS) databases into the System for Award Management (SAM) database. DATES... enacted in an effort to improve the management and promotion of electronic Government services and...

  5. 76 FR 52131 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Nonavailability Exception for Procurement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Performing Private Security Functions (DFARS Case 2011-D023), Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS.... companies could then do a better job of planning, including the ramp-up of supply to ensure availability..., Government demand planners are able to produce a 12-month forecast in order to assist the industry in...

  6. 76 FR 33166 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... traceability of items to a warranty will assist all members of the supply chain to manage risk appropriately. This traceability also leads to ensuring the Government receives the supplies purchased, reducing the... Acquisition, Technology and Logistics dated February 6, 2007, which required definition of the requirements to...

  7. Internet governance and global self regulation: theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vey Mestdagh, C.; Rijgersberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The following exposition sets out to identify the basic theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self-regulation. It uses the Internet as an empirical basis since its global reach and technical characteristics create interdependencies between actors that transcend national

  8. 76 FR 81362 - Regulations Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES 20 CFR Part 901 [TD 9517] RIN 1545-BC82 Regulations...; Correction AGENCY: Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. ACTION: Correction to final regulations... Federal Register on Thursday, March 31, 2011 (76 FR 17762) relating to the enrollment of actuaries. DATES...

  9. Regulando o regulador: a proposta do governo e a Anatel Regulating the regulator: the government's proposal and Anatel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Costa Alves de Mattos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a proposta do governo Lula para a reformulação do marco regulatório no Brasil e em particular o caso da Anatel. A proposta é detalhada e analisada com relação aos seus prováveis efeitos sobre o processo regulatório. Estes efeitos são analisados à luz de um modelo espacial que ressalta o papel do risco regulatório e custo de credibilidade. Dado este modelo, o trabalho analisa quais preferências, percepções e motivações por parte do novo governo seriam compatíveis com a proposta apresentada. A análise enfatiza o papel central das instituições políticas na compreensão das escolhas de políticas econômicas e sua performance.This paper analyzes the proposal of the new Lula government for changing the Brazilian regulatory system and the case of Anatel in particular. The proposal is described and analyzed regarding its probable effects on the functioning of the regulatory process. These effects are analyzed using a spatial model that focuses on regulatory risk and credibility costs. Taking the model as given, the paper then analyzes which preferences, perceptions and motivations by the government are compatible with the proposal. The analysis emphasizes the importance of considering political institutions when assessing policy choices and their performance.

  10. Availability of Japanese Government's supplemental texts on radiation reflecting the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for elementary and secondary education from dental students' understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Midori; Honda, Eiichi; Dashpuntsag, Oyunbat; Maeda, Naoki; Hosoki, Hidehiko; Sakama, Minoru; Tada, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Following the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the Japanese government created two supplemental texts about radiation reflecting the accident for elementary, middle school, and high school students. These texts were made to explain radiation and consequently to obtain public consent for the continuation of the nuclear program. The present study aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of the content of the texts and to collect the basic data on the level of understanding necessary to improve radiation education. Lectures on radiology including nuclear energy and the Fukushima accident were given to 44 fourth-year dental students in 2013. The questionnaire was administered in 2014 when these students were in their sixth-year. The survey was also administered to 40 first-year students and 41 fourth-year students who hadn't any radiology lectures. Students rated their level of understanding of 50 phrases used in the texts on a four-point scale (understanding = 3, a little knowledge = 2, having heard = 1, no knowledge = 0). Questions on taking an advanced physics course in high school and means of learning about radiation in daily life were also asked. The level of understanding of phrases in the supplemental text for middle and high school students was significantly higher among sixth-year students (mean = 1.43) than among first-year (mean = 1.12) or fourth-year (mean = 0.93) students (p radiation from television but four-year and six-year students learning about radiation from newspaper scored significantly higher (p radiation education should be improved by using visual material and preparing educators to teach the material for improving the public's understanding of radiation use-especially nuclear power generation because the phrases used in the supplementary texts are very difficult for students to understand. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Small Molecule Supplements Improve Cultured Megakaryocyte Polyploidization by Modulating Multiple Cell Cycle Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaojing; Qu, Mingyi; Fang, Fang; Fan, Zeng; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Xie, Xiaoyan; Pei, Xuetao

    2017-01-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs) that completed differentiation and endomitosis. Endomitosis is an important process in which the cell replicates its DNA without cytokinesis and develops highly polyploid MK. In this study, to gain a better PLTs production, four small molecules (Rho-Rock inhibitor (RRI), nicotinamide (NIC), Src inhibitor (SI), and Aurora B inhibitor (ABI)) and their combinations were surveyed as MK culture supplements for promoting polyploidization. Three leukemia cell lines as well as primary mononuclear cells were chosen in the function and mechanism studies of the small molecules. In an optimal culture method, cells were treated with different small molecules and their combinations. The impact of the small molecules on megakaryocytic surface marker expression, polyploidy, proliferation, and apoptosis was examined for the best MK polyploidization supplement. The elaborate analysis confirmed that the combination of SI and RRI together with our MK induction system might result in efficient ploidy promotion. Our experiments demonstrated that, besides direct downregulation on the expression of cytoskeleton protein actin, SI and RRI could significantly enhance the level of cyclins through the suppression of p53 and p21. The verified small molecule combination might be further used in the in vitro PLT manufacture and clinical applications.

  12. Small Molecule Supplements Improve Cultured Megakaryocyte Polyploidization by Modulating Multiple Cell Cycle Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets (PLTs are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs that completed differentiation and endomitosis. Endomitosis is an important process in which the cell replicates its DNA without cytokinesis and develops highly polyploid MK. In this study, to gain a better PLTs production, four small molecules (Rho-Rock inhibitor (RRI, nicotinamide (NIC, Src inhibitor (SI, and Aurora B inhibitor (ABI and their combinations were surveyed as MK culture supplements for promoting polyploidization. Three leukemia cell lines as well as primary mononuclear cells were chosen in the function and mechanism studies of the small molecules. In an optimal culture method, cells were treated with different small molecules and their combinations. The impact of the small molecules on megakaryocytic surface marker expression, polyploidy, proliferation, and apoptosis was examined for the best MK polyploidization supplement. The elaborate analysis confirmed that the combination of SI and RRI together with our MK induction system might result in efficient ploidy promotion. Our experiments demonstrated that, besides direct downregulation on the expression of cytoskeleton protein actin, SI and RRI could significantly enhance the level of cyclins through the suppression of p53 and p21. The verified small molecule combination might be further used in the in vitro PLT manufacture and clinical applications.

  13. Hyaluronan supplementation as a mechanical regulator of cartilage tissue development under joint-kinematic-mimicking loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yabin; Stoddart, Martin J; Wuertz-Kozak, Karin; Grad, Sibylle; Alini, Mauro; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    Articular cartilage plays an essential role in joint lubrication and impact absorption. Through this, the mechanical signals are coupled to the tissue's physiological response. Healthy synovial fluid has been shown to reduce and homogenize the shear stress acting on the cartilage surfaces due to its unique shear-thinning viscosity. As cartilage tissues are sensitive to mechanical changes in articulation, it was hypothesized that replacing the traditional culture medium with a healthy non-Newtonian lubricant could enhance tissue development in a cartilage engineering model, where joint-kinematic-mimicking mechanical loading is applied. Different amounts of hyaluronic acid were added to the culture medium to replicate the viscosities of synovial fluid at different health states. Hyaluronic acid supplementation, especially at a physiologically healthy concentration (2.0 mg ml -1 ), promoted a better preservation of chondrocyte phenotype. The ratio of collagen II to collagen I mRNA was 4.5 times that of the control group, implying better tissue development (however, with no significant difference of measured collagen II content), with a good retention of collagen II and proteoglycan in the mechanically active region. Simulating synovial fluid properties by hyaluronic acid supplementation created a favourable mechanical environment for mechanically loaded constructs. These findings may help in understanding the influence of joint articulation on tissue homeostasis, and moreover, improve methods for functional cartilage tissue engineering. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. 26 CFR 1.892-3T - Income of foreign governments (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... traded partnerships within the meaning of section 7704) or trust interests. The term also does not... similar instrument in a functional or nonfunctional currency (see section 985(b) for the definition of functional currency) or in precious metals when held by a foreign government or central bank of issue (as...

  15. Towards sustainability. Major challenges for corporate law, corporate governance and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten-Boddin, C.; de Hoo, S.C.; Renssen, S.; Schwarz, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the presentations held at the launching event of the Institute for Corporate Law, Governance and Innovation Policies (ICGI) at Maastricht University. Contributions are provided by Willem Lageweg (Director of MVO Nederland), Prof. Dr. Jacqueline Cramer (Director of the Utrecht

  16. CSR as value attunement within governance processes : stakeholder dialogue, corporate principles and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2016-01-01

    I argue that a governance perspective on corporate social responsibility (CSR) makes it possible to explain why the concept will always be under-defined, is normative and thus political by nature, and is and should be difficult to measure. The perspective also makes it possible to understand the

  17. 75 FR 52459 - Regulations Governing Agencies for Issue of United States Savings Bonds; Offering of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... eliminate the option to purchase paper savings bonds through payroll deductions for United States government... savings bonds purchased through payroll sales; individuals will still be able to purchase paper savings bonds at financial institutions for themselves and as gifts. Payroll savers will be encouraged to...

  18. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR part 230... to applicable cost principles for grants and cooperative agreements with State and Local Governments...

  19. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... materials. The Office of the Federal Register's official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:45 a... government officials to easily download the Manual for storage on their computers in an easy-to-use format... opportunity to order copies before printing at the rider rate. A rider rate is available before the start of...

  20. 76 FR 49650 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... governing of practice before the IRS and the standards with respect to tax returns. DATES: This correction... Part 10 Accountants, Administrative practice and procedure, Lawyers, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Taxes. Correction of Publication Accordingly, 31 CFR part 10 is corrected by making the following...

  1. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances (BImSchG) and supplementing regulations. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    This handy booklet contains the BImSchG and related implementing regulations as well as the Technical Codes Clean Air and Noise Abatement. The contribution on the BImSchG explains the origin of the Act, the scope of application, its concept and principles. The contents of the Act is portrayed by emphasizing subject-related connections. Dealt with are also regulations for installations requiring licensing, the measurement of airborne pollution, stipulations concerning the area of installations and transport, as well as the regulation concerning the monitoring of airborne pollution in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  2. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances (BImSchG) and supplementing regulations. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1992-01-01

    This handy booklet contains the BImSchG and related implementing regulations as well as the Technical Codes Clean Air and Noise Abatement. The contribution on the BImSchG explains the origin of the Act, the scope of application, its concept and principles. The contents of the Act is portrayed by emphasizing subject-related connections. Dealt with are also regulations for installations requiring licensing, the measurement of airborne pollution, stipulations concerning the area of installations and transport, as well as the regulation concerning the monitoring of airborne pollution in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  3. Royalty rules : Alberta producers are now beholden to formal regulations for reporting royalty payments to government levy collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Regulation was established by the Alberta Department of Energy in July 2005 in order to clarify the rules governing conventional crude oil royalties. The regulation provides an incentive for industry to comply with the long-existing oil royalty reporting requirements through the addition of non-compliance penalties. An initial shadow billing system has been implemented to give industry the opportunity to understand their responsibilities and implement procedures to correct reporting and delivery inaccuracies. Battery operators in Alberta must now submit a royalty report to the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission on a monthly basis. The regulation provides provisions for interest charges on outstanding invoiced amounts, and formalizes existing eligibility requirements for the reimbursement of trucking costs associated with transporting the Crown's share. Penalties will be incurred if royalty reports contain erroneous information, or if the actual deliveries made are less than the prescribed royalty quantity. All penalties levied by the commission will now be sent to the battery operator in a monthly statement. Battery operators who wish to appeal their penalties may do so within 2 months after the date of the monthly statement. It was concluded that industry is not expected to experience any significant problems when the regulation comes into effect, as the 6 month shadow billing period will allow companies to make a smooth transition to the requirements of the new regulation. Details of information sessions for the new regulation were provided, as well as details of various non-compliance penalties. 1 fig

  4. 76 FR 23505 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Accelerate Small Business Payments (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs... Regulations System. Therefore, 48 CFR part 232 is amended as follows: PART 232--CONTRACT FINANCING 0 1. The...

  5. Gene regulation is governed by a core network in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zuguang; Zhang, Chenyu; Wang, Jin

    2012-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, and the mechanisms that lead to the disease are still relatively unclear. However, with the development of high-throughput technologies it is possible to gain a systematic view of biological systems to enhance the understanding of the roles of genes associated with HCC. Thus, analysis of the mechanism of molecule interactions in the context of gene regulatory networks can reveal specific sub-networks that lead to the development of HCC. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important gene regulations that are dysfunctional in HCC generation. Our method for constructing gene regulatory network is based on predicted target interactions, experimentally-supported interactions, and co-expression model. Regulators in the network included both transcription factors and microRNAs to provide a complete view of gene regulation. Analysis of gene regulatory network revealed that gene regulation in HCC is highly modular, in which different sets of regulators take charge of specific biological processes. We found that microRNAs mainly control biological functions related to mitochondria and oxidative reduction, while transcription factors control immune responses, extracellular activity and the cell cycle. On the higher level of gene regulation, there exists a core network that organizes regulations between different modules and maintains the robustness of the whole network. There is direct experimental evidence for most of the regulators in the core gene regulatory network relating to HCC. We infer it is the central controller of gene regulation. Finally, we explored the influence of the core gene regulatory network on biological pathways. Our analysis provides insights into the mechanism of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control in HCC. In particular, we highlight the importance of the core gene regulatory network; we propose that it is highly related to HCC and we believe further

  6. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 74-Rules and Regulations Governing Conduct on Federal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from— (a) Being under the influence, using or possessing any narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines. Alcoholic... the GSA Regional Administrator, which will have the same force and effect as these regulations; (e...

  7. Chromatographic fingerprinting as a strategy to identify regulated plants in illegal herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, D; Van Praag, N; Courselle, P; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently rigid erection. Despite the availability of non-invasive oral treatment options, many patients turn to herbal alternatives. Furthermore, herbal supplements are increasingly gaining popularity in industrialized countries and, as a consequence, quality control is a highly important issue. Unfortunately, this is not a simple task since plants are often crushed and mixed with other plants, which complicates their identification by usage of classical approaches such as microscopy. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of chromatographic fingerprinting to identify plants present in herbal preparations intended for the treatment of ED. To achieve this goal, a HPLC-PDA and a HPLC-MS method were developed, using a full factorial experimental design in order to acquire characteristic fingerprints of three plants which are potentially beneficial for treating ED: Epimedium spp., Pausinystalia yohimbe and Tribulus terrestris. The full factorial design demonstrated that for all three plant references a C8 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5µm particle size) is best suited; methanol and an ammonium formate buffer (pH 3) were found to be the best constituents for the mobile phase. The suitability of this strategy was demonstrated by analysing several self-made triturations in three different botanical matrices, which mimic the influential effects that could be expected when analysing herbal supplements. To conclude, this study demonstrates that chromatographic fingerprinting could provide a useful means to identify plants in a complex herbal mixture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Birthrate, Sovereignty and Development: The Restrictive Regulations to Family Planning in the Third Peronist Government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the “population bomb” became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  9. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  10. The legal regime governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. II. International Regulations. Pt.1. Regulations on peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The first volume on atomic energy law published by CNEN reproduced national laws and regulations in that field. This book constitutes part one of the second volume and deals with international nuclear conventions and cooperation as at 30 June 1978. It reproduces the instruments and conventions which set up the international nuclear agencies, recommendations in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety, the nuclear third party liability conventions, the international instruments concerning technical and scientific cooperation and finally, the bilateral cooperation agreements between Italy and other nations and its agreements with international organizations (NEA) [fr

  11. 'No, the government doesn't need to, it's already self-regulated': a qualitative study among vape shop operators on perceptions of electronic vapor product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pratibha; Barker, Dianne C; Huang, Jidong; Kemp, Catherine B; Wagener, Theodore L; Chaloupka, Frank

    2018-03-26

    While the market share of electronic vapor products (EVPs), sold primarily through vape shops and other outlets, has increased rapidly, these products remained largely unregulated until 2016. This study, conducted prior to announcement of the deeming regulations, provides insights into vape shop operator attitudes toward potential government regulations of EVPs. In 2015, we conducted 37 in-person interviews of vape shop operators across nine US cities. Shops were identified through extensive web-searches. We used QSR International's NVivo 11 qualitative data analysis software to analyze the transcripts. Many vape shop operators viewed regulations requiring safe production of e-liquids, child-resistant bottles and listing e-juice ingredients as acceptable. They disagreed with the elimination of free samples and bans on flavored e-liquid sales, which generate significant revenue for their stores. Many held negative perceptions of pre-market review of new product lines and EVP-specific taxes. All agreed that EVPs should not be sold to minors, but most felt that owners should not be fined if minors visited vape shops. Findings from this study offer insights into the acceptability of proposed regulations, as well as barriers to effective regulation implementation.

  12. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  13. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  14. Governance, violence and the struggle for economic regulation in South Sudan: the case of Budi County (Eastern Equatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walraet

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Budi County in Eastern Equatoria State (South Sudan was governed during the 1990s and up to mid-2007. Because its capital Chukudum was the SPLM/A headquarters almost throughout that period, it provides us with an interesting case from which to explore how the SPLM/A governed during the war and how this impacts on the post-war peace. One observation is that the war, besides a period of devastation and human suffering, was also a time of economic opportunities and social differentiation. For that reason this article will also explore livestock trade as a new mode of wealth appropriation and the changing nature of cattle raiding, and how this interferes with the struggle for regulatory power and governable “spaces”. This means that we comprehend the economy as a political terrain. At the same time we leave room for sociological perspectives, to complement the more restricted “competition for resources and gains” approach to conflict and violence. The article is written in three sections. In the first section we briefly clarify why in 1999 there was an uprising in Budi County against SPLM/A rule and why it engendered massive local support. In the second section we examine one of the most destructive manifestations of violence that affect Budi county: cattle raiding. We look at it from a perspective that has been under-researched in the eld: that of trans-border trade. In the last section we look at how, after the peace of 2005, newly appointed local government authorities are (reclaiming do- mains of state regulation that previously lay rmly in the hands of the military. Particular attention is given to the capacity of the local authorities to guarantee security and provide protection. Key words: governance, violent conflict, regulatory power, trans-border trade, South Sudan Eastern Equatoria

  15. Embedding the logic of the Paris Agreement into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss-Stemping, Judith; Sartor, Oliver; Colombier, Michel

    2017-10-01

    To safeguard the climate and to keep the temperatures targets of the Paris Agreement within reach, determined climate action of global players, such as the European Union (EU) and its Member States, is needed more than ever. The Paris Agreement sets out a clear process to review and raise ambition embarking on a long-term transformation of the global economy. To ensure that this process and the logic of the Paris Agreement is adequately embedded in the into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union, IDDRI identifies the long-term strategies, iterative process and inherent time-line of the Paris Agreement as points of vigilance

  16. 78 FR 20624 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Identification Advance Shipment Notices AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (Do...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of... at 252.211; Radio Frequency Identification Advance Shipment Notices, OMB Control Number 0704-0434...

  17. 76 FR 21851 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Construction and Architect-Engineer Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...://regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. To confirm receipt of your comment, please... impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and... terminated for default regardless of contract value. For Architect and Engineer (A&E) services, past...

  18. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and for foreign firms in their supply chains. The U.S. concluded the DTC Treaties with Australia and... respondent commended the Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) Council on recognizing the importance of the... established a Management Board to resolve such issues, adopted a detailed management plan, and conducted...

  19. 78 FR 32686 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... special regulations. (5) Management scale for the harvest of migratory birds. We define management scale... comments in revising the document. The SEIS analyzes a range of management alternatives for addressing the... Representative, Division of Migratory Bird Management, (503) 231-6162; or Brad Bortner, Chief, Division of...

  20. 75 FR 33271 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Certain Contracts with Foreign Entities for the Conduct of Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development..., development, test, or evaluation in connection with the Ballistic Missile Defense Program. The provision... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System [OMB Control Number 0704-0229...

  1. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications; or (2) Is protected at all times by... recommendation from the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) and the... assess all costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and, if regulation is necessary, to...

  2. 78 FR 15935 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. The Office of Management and... construction contract in Spain has adequate insurance coverage. Affected Public: Businesses or other for profit... construction contract in Spain. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. [FR Doc. 2013...

  3. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ..., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The Committee will also develop regulations recommendations for September waterfowl seasons in designated States, special sea duck seasons in the Atlantic Flyway, and... usually commence at 8 a.m. on the days indicated. Atlantic Flyway Council: July 18-19, Mystic Hilton...

  4. 78 FR 13547 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Contractor Personnel AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... (FY) 2009 and expand coverage on contractor requirements and responsibilities relating to alleged crimes by or against contractor personnel. DATES: Effective February 28, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. 77 FR 38736 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Czech Republic (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... consistent with national laws, regulations, policies, and international obligations. The agreement does not... Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland * * * * * 252.225-7012 [Amended] 0 7. Amend section 252.225... Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland * * * * * 252.225-7021 [Amended] 0 9...

  6. 75 FR 33752 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Conflicts of Interest in Major Defense Acquisition Programs AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... extended an additional 30 days to provide additional time for interested parties to review the proposed... interested parties to review the proposed DFARS changes. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  7. 77 FR 20598 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... commercial items, that includes the clause at 252.225-7001, Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program... Acquisitions of Commercial Items AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... acquisition of commercial items and to specify flowdown of clauses to commercial subcontracts. DATES: Comments...

  8. 75 FR 26739 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Part 244...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Control Number 0704-0253) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense. ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  9. 78 FR 70025 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... and Procedures AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  10. 77 FR 76939 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Definition of Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... cost or pricing data'' in its place. PART 217--SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS 217.7401 [Amended] 0 11... Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case 2011-D040) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department... ``certified cost or pricing data'' and ``data other than certified cost or pricing data.'' The DFARS changes...

  11. Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne Kristin; Bünemann, E.K.; Cooper, J.

    2017-01-01

    -farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal. The recent proposed revision of EU regulations for organic production (2014) puts less emphasis on closing nutrient cycles...... as means are taken to ensure the quality and safety of these inputs. Awareness of the need to close nutrient cycles may contribute to adapting regulations and private standards to support recycling of nutrients from society to organic agriculture. A better definition of the term “natural substance...

  12. From networks to hybrids : Strategic behaviour and crisis-driven change in the regulation and governance of the European financial and economic system,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; Mijs, A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.; Meeuwen, B.; Van der Puil, J.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge that European decision-makers struggle with today is regulating and governing the European financial and economic system in a way that is both effective and legitimate. To help address this challenge, this paper asks why regulatory gaps occurred and European governance has been weak,

  13. How do government regulations influence the ability to practice Chinese herbal medicine in western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Tom; Su, Yi-Chang; Lin, Sunny Jui-Shan

    2017-01-20

    The regulation policies of substances used in Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), have a direct influence on the ability of health providers to practice in the clinic. We set out to assess the truth behind the assumption that practice of CHM in the west is constrained by the regulations imposed by authorities in western countries. For the first part of our study we surveyed and compiled lists of banned and restricted Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) from six countries: USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Canada and Australia. Afterwards, we estimated the relevant importance of the 300 CMM most-commonly-prescribed to the practice of CHM according to prescriptions from 2,000,000 randomly selected patients, from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We then compared both lists and determined the clinical importance of the banned and restricted CMM. Except for regulations from Canada, most of the information of banned CMM proved to be difficult to organize. The USA was found to have the least amount of banned herbs, with 9 substances. Canada had the highest amount, with 98. In Germany, Australia, the UK, and Israel 10, 29, 36, 68 banned CMM were found, respectively. Apart from aristolochic acid containing substances, ma huang (, Ephedra sinica) was the only CMM banned in all countries. Most of the banned CMM were not found to be among the most-commonly-prescribed according to the NHIRD. Authorities should make this information more accessible. No clear relation exists between CHM regulations and any 'Western' common denominator, and the amount of banned CMM varied greatly among the surveyed countries. However, even among countries with a larger amount of banned CMM, the majority of these were in the bottom two-thirds in respect to the frequency of their use. Thus, regulations in some western countries surely influence the practice of CHM, however, the variability of CMM have been influenced by regulations only to a limited extent. Copyright © 2016 The

  14. Availability of Japanese Government's supplemental texts on radiation reflecting the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for elementary and secondary education from dental students' understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Midori; Honda, Eiichi; Dashpuntsag, Oyunbat; Maeda, Naoki; Hosoki, Hidehiko; Sakama, Minoru; Tada, Toshiko

    2016-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the Japanese government created two supplemental texts about radiation reflecting the accident for elementary, middle school, and high school students. These texts were made to explain radiation and consequently to obtain public consent for the continuation of the nuclear program. The present study aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of the content of the texts and to collect the basic data on the level of understanding necessary to improve radiation education. Lectures on radiology including nuclear energy and the Fukushima accident were given to 44 fourth-year dental students in 2013. The questionnaire was administered in 2014 when these students were in their sixth-year. The survey was also administered to 40 first-year students and 41 fourth-year students who hadn't any radiology lectures. Students rated their level of understanding of 50 phrases used in the texts on a four-point scale (understanding = 3, a little knowledge = 2, having heard = 1, no knowledge = 0). Questions on taking an advanced physics course in high school and means of learning about radiation in daily life were also asked. The level of understanding of phrases in the supplemental text for middle and high school students was significantly higher among sixth-year students (mean = 1.43) than among first-year (mean = 1.12) or fourth-year (mean = 0.93) students (p < 0.05). Overall, the level of understanding was low, with scores indicating that most students knew only a little. First-year students learning about radiation from television but four-year and six-year students learning about radiation from newspaper scored significantly higher (p < 0.05). It was concluded that radiation education should be improved by using visual material and preparing educators to teach the material for improving the public's understanding of radiation use—especially nuclear power generation because the phrases used in the supplementary

  15. 78 FR 21861 - Tribal Consultation on the Draft Regulations Governing the Tribal Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Welcome and Introductions. 9:15 a.m.-9:30 a.m Brief history of 25 CFR part 170 and process for updating... following dates, at the following locations: Meeting date Location Time May 14, 2013 Anchorage, AK 9 a.m.-4... result of the enactment of SAFETEA-LU but the regulation was not revised at that time. MAP-21 effectively...

  16. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  17. Excited, Proud, and Accomplished: Exploring the Effects of Feedback Supplemented with Web-Based Peer Benchmarking on Self-Regulated Learning in Marketing Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, David

    2014-01-01

    This research explores and tests the effect of an innovative performance feedback practice--feedback supplemented with web-based peer benchmarking--through a lens of social cognitive framework for self-regulated learning. The results suggest that providing performance feedback with references to exemplary peer output is positively associated with…

  18. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  19. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  20. Liberalising Dutch Energy Markets. Champions and governance, rules and regulations. The 1995-2005 stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.

    2006-09-01

    Liberalisation of Dutch energy markets was not a sudden change of policy direction, but rather the result of policy evaluations and discussions which had already been going on for quite some time when the Minister of Economic Affairs issued an Energy White Paper in early 1996, and the EU Directives for the electricity market (1996) and the gas market (1998) were introduced. The Dutch followed a two-way track, aiming at a phased market liberalisation for gas and electricity with full legal electricity network unbundling and a merger of the four large power generators into a national champion. For gas, the Dutch position as a major natural gas producer led to the proposition of a structure that was much more careful, following the EU Directive to the millimetre. Some ten years since the White Paper was issued, Dutch decision-making, legislation and regulation of the energy market has gone through a fascinating, burdensome and complex, and sometimes chaotic and frustrating process. This study highlights the importance of market dynamics and the almost unbearable and unsolvable balance between policy, legislation and regulation. Further attention is given to the role of Dte ( Office of Energy Regulation) and its evolution into a full merger with the NMa (Netherlands Competition Authority), and ownership and privatisation discussions against the backdrop of the developments in the wider European energy markets. Overall, the study concludes that it appears to be too early to tell whether energy market policies of the last decade have delivered the expected results in either quantitative or monetary terms. What the process did deliver, however, was a lot of turbulence and dynamics, a boost for innovation in marketing and technology drives, and increased awareness about consumer power in which the threat to switch in itself produces results of improved service, more transparency and increased accountability

  1. ADAMTS9-Regulated Pericellular Matrix Dynamics Governs Focal Adhesion-Dependent Smooth Muscle Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Mead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Focal adhesions anchor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM and direct assembly of a pre-stressed actin cytoskeleton. They act as a cellular sensor and regulator, linking ECM to the nucleus. Here, we identify proteolytic turnover of the anti-adhesive proteoglycan versican as a requirement for maintenance of smooth muscle cell (SMC focal adhesions. Using conditional deletion in mice, we show that ADAMTS9, a secreted metalloprotease, is required for myometrial activation during late gestation and for parturition. Through knockdown of ADAMTS9 in uterine SMC, and manipulation of pericellular versican via knockdown or proteolysis, we demonstrate that regulated pericellular matrix dynamics is essential for focal adhesion maintenance. By influencing focal adhesion formation, pericellular versican acts upstream of cytoskeletal assembly and SMC differentiation. Thus, pericellular versican proteolysis by ADAMTS9 balances pro- and anti-adhesive forces to maintain an SMC phenotype, providing a concrete example of the dynamic reciprocity of cells and their ECM. : Mead et al. identify a proteolytic mechanism that actively maintains a pericellular microenvironment conducive to uterine smooth muscle activation prior to parturition. They show that pericellular matrix proteolysis by the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is crucial for maintenance of focal adhesions in uterine smooth muscle cells, and its absence impairs parturition. Keywords: metalloprotease, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, proteoglycan, myometrium, parturition, uterus, focal adhesion, proteolysis, interference reflection microscopy

  2. Regulation of carnitine status in ruminants and efficacy of carnitine supplementation on performance and health aspects of ruminant livestock: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, Robert; Keller, Janine; Eder, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Carnitine has long been known to play a critical role for energy metabolism. Due to this, a large number of studies have been carried out to investigate the potential of supplemental carnitine in improving performance of livestock animals including ruminants, with however largely inconsistent results. An important issue that has to be considered when using carnitine as a feed additive is that the efficacy of supplemental carnitine is probably dependent on the animal's carnitine status, which is affected by endogenous carnitine synthesis, carnitine uptake from the gastrointestinal tract and carnitine excretion. The present review aims to summarise the current knowledge of the regulation of carnitine status and carnitine homeostasis in ruminants, and comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of carnitine supplementation on performance and/or health in ruminant livestock by comparing the outcomes of studies with carnitine supplementation in dairy cattle, growing and finishing cattle and sheep. While most of the studies show that supplemental carnitine, even in ruminally unprotected form, is bioavailable in ruminants, its effect on either milk or growth performance is largely disappointing. However, supplemental carnitine appears to be a useful strategy to offer protection against ammonia toxicity caused by consumption of high levels of non-protein N or forages with high levels of soluble N both, in cattle and sheep.

  3. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alexandra; Shill, Jane; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Lawrence, Mark; Loff, Bebe; Crammond, Bradley; Sacks, Gary; Allender, Steven; Peeters, Anna

    2012-12-28

    In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children should ideally occur under the direction

  4. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22 were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of

  5. ANTI-CRISIS REGULATION OF AN INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX AS A MEAN TO INCREASE GOVERNMENT DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Игоревна Ометова

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The article contains analysis of the procedure of income tax assessment using flat and progressive tax rate that is directed to accomplish stable economic growth. Periodical press and statistical data of salary in the Ulyanovsk region have been used as the information source. It is shown that modern income tax assessment in Russia fails to deal with the pressing problem of national economics – excess income inequality. The main ways to regulate the process of individual income tax collection are offered in order to find means to maintain economic growth and improve the welfare of Russian citizens.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-10

  6. Bifurcation Regulations Governed by Delay Self-Control Feedback in a Stochastic Birhythmic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhidan; Ning, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    We aim to investigate bifurcation behaviors in a stochastic birhythmic van der Pol (BVDP) system subjected to delay self-control feedback. First, the harmonic approximation is adopted to drive the delay self-control feedback to state variables without delay. Then, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation and stationary probability density function (SPDF) for amplitude are obtained by applying stochastic averaging method. Finally, dynamical scenarios of the change of delay self-control feedback as well as noise that markedly influence bifurcation performance are observed. It is found that: the big feedback strength and delay will suppress the large amplitude limit cycle (LC) while the relatively big noise strength facilitates the large amplitude LC, which imply the proposed regulation strategies are feasible. Interestingly enough, the inner LC is never destroyed due to noise. Furthermore, the validity of analytical results was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics.

  7. The importance of disclosure in corporate governance self-regulation across Europe: A review of the Winter Report and the EU Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough self-regulation has proven to be effective for the development of voluntary corporate-governance codes, the results of this study indicate that leading European companies are not yet too concerned about compliance with these codes. While self-regulation appears to be ineffective

  8. Transport mechanisms and their pathology-induced regulation govern tyrosine kinase inhibitor delivery in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt-Lauber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are effective in treating malignant disorders and were lately suggested to have an impact on non-malignant diseases. However, in some inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA the in vivo effect seemed to be moderate. As most TKIs are taken up actively into cells by cell membrane transporters, this study aimed to evaluate the role of such transporters for the accumulation of the TKI Imatinib mesylates in RA synovial fibroblasts as well as their regulation under inflammatory conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transport and accumulation of Imatinib was investigated in transporter-transfected HEK293 cells and human RA synovial fibroblasts (hRASF. Transporter expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. In transfection experiments, hMATE1 showed the highest apparent affinity for Imatinib among all known Imatinib transporters. Experiments quantifying the Imatinib uptake in the presence of specific transporter inhibitors and after siRNA knockdown of hMATE1 indeed identified hMATE1 to mediate Imatinib transport in hRASF. The anti-proliferative effect of Imatinib on PDGF stimulated hRASF was quantified by cell counting and directly correlated with the uptake activity of hMATE1. Expression of hMATE1 was investigated by Western blot and immuno-fluorescence. Imatinib transport under disease-relevant conditions, such as an altered pH and following stimulation with different cytokines, was also investigated by HPLC. The uptake was significantly reduced by an acidic extracellular pH as well as by the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, which all decreased the expression of hMATE1-mRNA and protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The regulation of Imatinib uptake via hMATE1 in hRASF and resulting effects on their proliferation may explain moderate in vivo effects on RA. Moreover, our results suggest that investigating transporter mediated drug processing under normal and pathological conditions is important

  9. Why do private governance organizations not converge? A political-institutional analysis of transnational labor standards regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary governance arrangements focusing on responsible business behavior have proliferated over the past decades, and in many sectors of industry, different governance organizations now compete for business participation. This private governance competition has negative consequences for the

  10. Glycolysis is governed by growth regime and simple enzyme regulation in adherent MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Markus; Ritter, Joachim B; Reichl, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Due to its vital importance in the supply of cellular pathways with energy and precursors, glycolysis has been studied for several decades regarding its capacity and regulation. For a systems-level understanding of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell metabolism, we couple a segregated cell growth model published earlier with a structured model of glycolysis, which is based on relatively simple kinetics for enzymatic reactions of glycolysis, to explain the pathway dynamics under various cultivation conditions. The structured model takes into account in vitro enzyme activities, and links glycolysis with pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Using a single parameterization, metabolite pool dynamics during cell cultivation, glucose limitation and glucose pulse experiments can be consistently reproduced by considering the cultivation history of the cells. Growth phase-dependent glucose uptake together with cell-specific volume changes generate high intracellular metabolite pools and flux rates to satisfy the cellular demand during growth. Under glucose limitation, the coordinated control of glycolytic enzymes re-adjusts the glycolytic flux to prevent the depletion of glycolytic intermediates. Finally, the model's predictive power supports the design of more efficient bioprocesses.

  11. The Microbiological Memory, an Epigenetic Regulator Governing the Balance Between Good Health and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Devaux

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available If the transmission of biological information from one generation to the next is based on DNA, most heritable phenotypic traits such as chronic metabolic diseases, are not linked to genetic variation in DNA sequences. Non-genetic heritability might have several causes including epigenetic, parental effect, adaptive social learning, and influence of the ecological environment. Distinguishing among these causes is crucial to resolve major phenotypic enigmas. Strong evidence indicates that changes in DNA expression through various epigenetic mechanisms can be linked to parent-offspring resemblance in terms of sensitivity to metabolic diseases. Among non-genetic heritable traits, early nutrition could account for a long term deviant programming of genes expression responsible for metabolic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition could shape an inadequate gut microbiota (dysbiosis, triggering epigenetic deregulation of transcription which can be observed in chronic metabolic diseases. We review herein the evidence that dysbiosis might be a major cause of heritable epigenetic patterns found to be associated with metabolic diseases. By taking into account the recent advances on the gut microbiome, we have aggregated together different observations supporting the hypothesis that the gut microbiota could promote the molecular crosstalk between bacteria and surrounding host cells which controls the pathological epigenetic signature. We introduce for the first time the concept of “microbiological memory” as the main regulator of the epigenetic signatures, thereby indicating that different causes of non-genetic heritability can interact in complex pathways to produce inheritance.

  12. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  13. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  14. The Regulation and Expression of the Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Schoch, Ryan D; Willoughby, Darryn; Greenwood, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize the increase within the intracellular pool of total creatine (creatin...

  15. Legitimidade e governabilidade na regulação do sistema financeiro Legitimacy and governability in financial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Pereira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre direito e economia pode resultar numa oposição entre governabilidade e legitimidade legal-racional, uma vez que se baseiam em diferentes racionalidades. A revisão judicial da regulação do sistema financeiro evidencia esse conflito, observado neste trabalho sob a perspectiva da jurisprudência constitucional do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF. O objetivo deste trabalho resume-se então em identificar o conflito entre governabilidade e a exigência de legitimidade legal das decisões analisadas pela corte no que concerne à regulação financeira. O estudo de casos evidencia que o STF tem rejeitado argumentos econômicos, entretanto, tem preservado a lógica da governabilidade com decisões contraditórias e incoerentes pautadas em argumentos formais. Dessa forma, possível identificar o papel institucional conferido pelo STF à Constituição Federal de 1988, considerando o contexto das crises econômicas vividas pelo Brasil a partir da metade da década de 1980 e sua nova conformação a partir da Emenda Constitucional n. 40.The relation between law and economics might result in an opposition between governability and legal-rational legitimacy, since they are based in different rationalities. Judicial review of financial regulation shows that coflict, which is here analysed from the viewpoint of the constitutional jurisprudence of the Brazilian Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF. In brief, the purpose of this article is to identify the oppostion between governability and the need for legal-legitimacy in the cases analysed by the court concerning financial regulation. The case studies show that the judicial review by STF has rejected economic aspects of the case, however it has preserved governability rationality with incoherent and contradictory decisions based on formal arguments. Thereby, it is possible to identify the institutional role granted by stf to the Brazilian Constitution dated from 1988, considering

  16. Differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on level of student participation in supplemental instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Ana C.

    This study examined differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on levels of student participation in Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions in two introductory undergraduate biology and chemistry courses offered at University of Central Florida in the Spring 2006 semester. The sample consisted of 282 students enrolled in the biology class and 451 students enrolled in chemistry. Academic performance was measured using students' final course grades and rates of withdrawal from the courses. The self-regulated learning constructs of motivation, cognition, metacognition, and resource management were measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Relationships between students' gender and ethnic background and levels of SI participation were also analyzed in this research. Findings in both biology and chemistry courses revealed a statistically significant decrease in student motivation from beginning to end of semester. In chemistry, frequent SI participants also showed statistically significantly higher levels of motivation at the end of the semester than occasional and non-SI participants. There were no statistically significant gains in cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies from beginning to end of semester. However, statistically significant differences in resource management were observed at the end of the semester among SI attendance groups in both courses. Students in the high SI attendance group were more likely to use learning resources than those who did not participate regularly or did not participate at all. Statistically significant differences in academic performance based on students' SI participation were found in both biology and chemistry courses. Frequent SI participants had significantly higher final percentage grades and were more likely to receive grades of A, B, or C, than those who either did not attend SI regularly of did not participate at all. They were also less

  17. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xuezhi; Wu Yong; Di Yanqiang; Li Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  18. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Xuezhi [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China)], E-mail: daixz9999@126.com; Wu Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Di Yanqiang [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Li Qiaoyan [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  19. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xuezhi; Di, Yanqiang [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Wu, Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Li, Qiaoyan [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system. (author)

  20. ZAKAT MANAGEMENT IN MEDAN: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION NO. 23/2011 ON MANAGEMENT OF ZAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the transformation of the spirit of Islamic law into the National Legal System which can be seen with the birth of the Law on the Development Badan Amil Zakat and Sadaqah Infaq Given the institutional team of zakat, namely Badan Amil Zakat (BAZ and the Institute Amil Zakat (LAZ then by itself have been of a wide space to the public, outside the participating government agencies to develop resources zakat Medan municipality, as one of the biggest cities in Indonesia is one of the parameters of how the regulation of zakat as stated by the law of zakat can run effectively or not. The qualitative research was conducted in Medan City, adopting normative, sociological and anthropological jurisdiction approaches, The source of data included field data as a primary source and documents as a secondary one. Data were collected with non participant observations, a series of struktured interviews with selectedinformants, and document analysis as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1992 which include data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. In responding to the issue of guardian, I applied the theories analysis deskriptif with use methods of analysis. This study concludes Management of Zakat city of Medan after the enactment of Law Number 23 of 2011 has not been significant. problem that is taking place in the city of Medan is a data base that is still weak both within the community and the institution, Management, Human resources zakat manager unprofessional attitude of a lack of public trust in zakat management institutions, lack of exemplary government officials and village leaders, strict sanctions is not yet clear who is responsible for carrying out or take action against violations set forth in Law Number 23 of 2011 For the deficiencies of this institution also led to public institutions is not tithe but they tithe directly to recipients.

  1. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  2. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-New Thresholds (DFARS 2009-D040)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the... of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 225 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  3. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  4. Corporate Governance Scorecards : Assessing and Promoting the Implementation of Codes of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    This is a supplement to second IFC's toolkit: developing Corporate Governance codes of best practice. The focus of second toolkit is the development of codes of corporate governance. This supplement focuses narrowly on how to use scorecards to measure the observance and implementation of such codes. It does not cover the full panoply of governance assessment tools. This supplement provides...

  5. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  6. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  7. 78 FR 78694 - Orders: Supplemental Orders on Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... reporting under section 165(i)(2) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd... testing. II. Orders For the convenience of the affected parties, the text of the Supplemental Orders... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'') requires certain financial companies with total...

  8. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  9. Calcium supplementation decreases BCP-induced inflammatory processes in blood cells through the NLRP3 inflammasome down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Patricia; Balaguer, Thierry; Boukhechba, Florian; Michel, Grégory; Bouvet-Gerbettaz, Sébastien; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Rochet, Nathalie

    2017-07-15

    Interaction of host blood with biomaterials is the first event occurring after implantation in a bone defect. This study aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular consequences arising at the interface between whole blood and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles. We observed that, due to calcium capture, BCP inhibited blood coagulation, and that this inhibition was reversed by calcium supplementation. Therefore, we studied the impact of calcium supplementation on BCP effects on blood cells. Comparative analysis of BCP and calcium supplemented-BCP (BCP/Ca) effects on blood cells showed that BCP as well as BCP/Ca induced monocyte proliferation, as well as a weak but significant hemolysis. Our data showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles had anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP alone that induced an inflammatory response in blood cells. Our results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of calcium supplemented-BCP results from its down-modulating effect on P2X7R gene expression and its capacity to inhibit ATP/P2X7R interactions, decreasing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Considering that monocytes have a vast regenerative potential, and since the excessive inflammation often observed after bone substitutes implantation limits their performance, our results might have great implications in terms of understanding the mechanisms leading to an efficient bone reconstruction. Although scaffolds and biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood during bone defect filling, whole blood-biomaterials interactions have been poorly explored. By studying in 3D the interactions between biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) in microparticulate form and blood, we showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles (BCP/Ca) has anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP-induced inflammation in whole blood cells and provided information related to the molecular mechanisms

  10. [Effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Wen; Li, Fang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each ). A rat model of FGR was established by food restriction throughout pregnancy. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of the specific intracellular markers for neural stem cells fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). The FGR group had significantly lower OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the control group, and the taurine group had significantly higher OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the control group and significantly lower expression than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Rac than the FGR and control groups (Ptaurine group had significantly lower protein expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the FGR group (Ptaurine supplementation can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells in rats with FGR, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the activity of Rho family factors.

  11. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  12. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from outside the quarantined area that are being moved in accordance with the protocols described in a... movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas. Any regulated article may be moved interstate from a quarantined area 3 only if moved under the following conditions: 3 Requirements under all other applicable...

  14. Government regulation versus market orientation in social housing management : Limitations and opportunities of European and Australian landlords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Gruis, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten to twenty years, governments in various countries have introduced or reinforced market principles in their housing systems. As a consequence, social landlords have increased opportunities to adopt a more market-oriented approach towards the management of their housing stock.

  15. Regulation to create environments conducive to physical activity: understanding the barriers and facilitators at the Australian state government level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2012-01-01

    Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. POLICY INTERVENTIONS MOST COMMONLY SUGGESTED BY PARTICIPANTS FELL INTO TWO AREAS: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful 'road lobby', weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful 'road lobby' and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the

  16. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  17. Experimenting with International Collaborative Governance for Climate Change Mitigation by Private Actors: Scaling up Dutch Co-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    TELESETSKY, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    For the past two decades, international climate policy has been handled as a matter for State to State deliberation. Non-state actors have played at best marginal roles in making and implementing international policy. This paper argues that climate change remains an intractable transnational problem because State to State deliberations failed to acknowledge that both climate mitigation and adaptation require ongoing collaborative governance with non-State actors to shift normative behavior. T...

  18. Linear Modeling and Regulation Quality Analysis for Hydro-Turbine Governing System with an Open Tailrace Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandong Yang; Mingjiang Wang; Chao Wang; Wencheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the state–space method (SSM), a novel linear mathematical model of the unsteady flow for the tailrace system with an open channel is proposed. This novel model is an elastic linearized model of water hammer. The validity of the model has been verified by several examples of numerical simulation, which are based on a finite difference technique. Then, the complete mathematical model for the hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with an open tailrace channel, whi...

  19. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  20. Enforceability of institutional investors responsibilities in corporate governance through the Dutch Corporate Governance Code : Are regulators and practitioners on the same page (and to who are institutional investors accountable)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, D.A.M.; Paape, L.; Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2011-01-01

    Corporate governance codes have been drafted to guide listed companies to improve corporate governance. Shareholders, in particular institutional investors, are being asked to play a critical role in safeguarding good corporate governance. However, addressing shareholders of Dutch listed companies

  1. Sirtuin1-regulated lysine acetylation of p66Shc governs diabetes-induced vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santosh; Kim, Young-Rae; Vikram, Ajit; Naqvi, Asma; Li, Qiuxia; Kassan, Modar; Kumar, Vikas; Bachschmid, Markus M.; Jacobs, Julia S.; Kumar, Ajay; Irani, Kaikobad

    2017-01-01

    Many oxidative stimuli engage the 66-kDa Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (p66Shc) to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS regulated by p66Shc promotes aging and contributes to cancer, diabetes, obesity, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis. Here we identify a fundamental mechanism that controls p66Shc and p66Shc-regulated ROS. We show that p66Shc is lysine acetylated when cells are faced with an oxidative stimulus (diabetes), and lysine acetylation of p66Shc is obligatory for p66...

  2. 75 FR 59101 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Office of the Inspector General Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ....203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. DATES: Effective Date: September 27, 2010. FOR... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Case 2007-006, ``Contractor Business Ethics Compliance Program and Disclosure... date of December 12, 2008. The contract clause entitled ``Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 603 - Applicable Federal Statutes, Executive Orders, and Government-wide Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. A Appendix A to Part 603—Applicable Federal.... Prohibitions on discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in Title VI of the Civil Rights... origin. 2. If the RD&D involves human subjects or animals, it is subject to the requirements codified by...

  4. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520 reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%, creatine (36.1%, whey protein (30.6%, iron (29.8%, caffeine (23.8%, and ginseng (8.3% for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%, doctors' advice (24.2%, enhancing endurance (20.0%, ability to train longer (13.3%, and provided by the governing body (3.8%. Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ 2 = 49.14, p 2 = 97.08, p 2 = 97.82, p Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

  5. Legal provisions governing technical installations, especially regulations of the Building Law, Trade-and-Industry Law, and Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    The author first shows the various legal regulation patterns of the German law system with regard to technical installations and in this context discusses the comprehensive clause method which refers to scientific-technical standards. This method is said to be an adequate means of achieving suitable results in the relationship between law and technology. However, three weak points can be seen: (1) The law system uses many different standards. (2) Due to uncertainty about the real meaning and content of these standards, it is not clear how these standards are defined. (3) This in practice puts up the question to what extent statutory works of technology are a suitable tool of making legal regulations more concrete, and whether they are to be given binding force. (HSCH) [de

  6. Cholesterol oxidation in meat products and its regulation by supplementation of sodium nitrite and apple polyphenol before processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, K; Hoshina, S; Nakamura, S; Sugano, M

    2000-09-01

    The levels of cholesterol oxidation derivatives (OxChol) in eight commercial species of meat products were examined. These products contained more than 1 mg/100 g of OxChol, and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol + 5beta-epoxycholesterol (111-1092 microg/100 g), 5alpha-epoxycholesterol (80-712 microg/100 g), cholestanetriol (0-368 microg/100 g), and 7-ketocholesterol (708-1204 microg/100 g) were detected. To know the interaction of sodium nitrite supplementation against cholesterol oxidation in meat products, sausage was produced with or without varying levels of sodium nitrite and stored in the refrigerator for 15 days. As a result, cholesterol oxidation in sausage was inhibited by addition of sodium nitrite in a dose-dependent manner. This observation may be associated with inactivation of O(2)(-) radical and stabilization of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the levels of OxChol in sausage increased, accompanying the decrease of coexisting linoleic acid when sodium nitrite was not added to sausage meat. Thus, cholesterol oxidation in meat products seems to be considarably promoted by the oxidation of coexisting PUFAs. On the other hand, additive apple polyphenol also inhibited linoleic acid oxidation in sausage and then suppressed cholesterol oxidation through its radical scavenging effects. Therefore, apple polyphenol, having a large amount of an oligomer of catechin, may interfere with cholesterol oxidation in meat processing or storage of meat products through its antioxidative action and be useful as a new antioxitant for meat products when it is added to the original meat before processing.

  7. Recent government regulations in the United States seek to ensure the effectiveness of antibiotics by limiting their agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    The development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is viewed as a medical health threat. Because thousands of people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, efforts are underway to reduce antibiotic usage which in turn will reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the United States, the use of antibiotics in the production of food animals to enhance animal growth has been identified as contributing to resistance. In 2015, a veterinary feed directive was adopted by the U.S. federal government prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals that should reduce usage. The continued usage of antibiotics by producers for preventing disease may mean the directive is insufficient to reduce nontherapeutic antibiotic administration. This may lead some consumers to seek meat products from animals raised without antibiotics. A governmentally-sponsored labeling program could encourage reduction in antibiotic usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quorum-sensing regulation governs bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and host colonization in Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoudis, Maria D; Tsaltas, Dimitrios; Minogue, Timothy D; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2006-04-11

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii synthesizes stewartan exo/capsular polysaccharide (EPS) in a cell density-dependent manner governed by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing (QS) system. This study analyzes biofilm development and host colonization of the WT and QS regulatory mutant strains of P. stewartii. First, we show that the cell density-dependent synthesis of stewartan EPS, governed by the EsaI/EsaR QS system, is required for proper bacterial adhesion and development of spatially defined, 3D biofilms. Second, a nonvirulent mutant lacking the esaI gene adheres strongly to surfaces and develops densely packed, less structurally defined biofilms in vitro. This strain appears to be arrested in a low cell density developmental mode. Exposure of this strain to exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactone counteracts this adhesion phenotype. Third, QS mutants lacking the EsaR repressor attach poorly to surfaces and form amorphous biofilms heavily enmeshed in excess EPS. Fourth, the WT strain disseminates efficiently within the xylem, primarily in a basipetal direction. In contrast, the two QS mutant strains remain largely localized at the site of infection. Fifth, and most significantly, epifluorescence microscopic imaging of infected leaf tissue and excised xylem vessels reveals that the bacteria colonize the xylem with unexpected specificity, particularly toward the annular rings and spiral secondary wall thickenings of protoxylem, as opposed to indiscriminate growth to fill the xylem lumen. These observations are significant to bacterial plant pathogenesis in general and may reveal targets for disease control.

  9. Differential filamentation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Is governed by nutrient regulation of UME6 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Leanne

    2010-09-01

    Candida dubliniensis is closely related to Candida albicans; however, it is responsible for fewer infections in humans and is less virulent in animal models of infection. C. dubliniensis forms fewer hyphae in vivo, and this may contribute to its reduced virulence. In this study we show that, unlike C. albicans, C. dubliniensis fails to form hyphae in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) medium supplemented with 10% (vol\\/vol) fetal calf serum (YPDS medium). However, C. dubliniensis filaments in water plus 10% (vol\\/vol) fetal calf serum (WS), and this filamentation is inhibited by the addition of peptone and glucose. Repression of filamentation in YPDS medium could be partly overcome by preculture in synthetic Lee\\'s medium. Unlike C. albicans, inoculation of C. dubliniensis in YPDS medium did not result in increased UME6 transcription. However, >100-fold induction of UME6 was observed when C. dubliniensis was inoculated in nutrient-poor WS medium. The addition of increasing concentrations of peptone to WS medium had a dose-dependent effect on reducing UME6 expression. Transcript profiling of C. dubliniensis hyphae in WS medium identified a starvation response involving expression of genes in the glyoxylate cycle and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, a core, shared transcriptional response with C. albicans could be identified, including expression of virulence-associated genes including SAP456, SAP7, HWP1, and SOD5. Preculture in nutrient-limiting medium enhanced adherence of C. dubliniensis, epithelial invasion, and survival following coculture with murine macrophages. In conclusion, C. albicans, unlike C. dubliniensis, appears to form hyphae in liquid medium regardless of nutrient availability, which may account for its increased capacity to cause disease in humans.

  10. The Government's role in regulating, coordinating, and standardizing the response to Alzheimer's disease: Anticipated international cooperation in the area of intractable and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized that aging of the population is inextricably linked to many other global public health issues, such as universal health coverage, non-communicable diseases, and disability. However, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) estimates that 46.8 million elderly people worldwide were living with dementia in 2015. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is the main cause of cognitive impairment. AD will affect 5-7 out of every 100 older adults who are age 60 years or over. In response to the serious challenge posed by AD, governments are expected to play an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. As specific examples, i ) the Japanese Government has instituted and supported regulations to encourage the development of AD drugs in order to accelerate research and development of innovative drugs; ii ) the United States Government has cooperated with multiple partners such as non-governmental organizations in the response to AD; iii ) Chinese governmental measures have standardized clinical diagnosis and treatment as part of the response to AD, including eligible patients, diagnostic criteria, therapeutic schedules, drug selection, and required inspections; iv ) with political support from member governments, the European Union has issued guidelines and conducted clinical studies on medicines for the treatment of AD in order to ascertain the various stages of the disease and the relevance of biomarkers. AD is an intractable disease, so different countries need to share clinic trial information and cooperate in the conduct of those trials. International cooperation will play a key role in the response to other intractable and rare diseases.

  11. 75 FR 19909 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Housing Finance Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is issuing and seeking comment on a proposed regulation, with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics, which would supplement the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch. To ensure a comprehensive and effective ethics program at FHFA and to address ethical issues unique to FHFA, the proposed regulation would establish prohibitions on the ownership of certain financial interests and restrictions on outside employment and business activities.

  12. 75 FR 52607 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Housing Finance Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is publishing a final regulation, with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics, which supplements the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch. To ensure a comprehensive and effective ethics program at FHFA and to address ethical issues unique to FHFA, the final regulation establishes prohibitions on the ownership of certain financial interests and restrictions on outside employment and business activities.

  13. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  14. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  15. Alterative Expression and Localization of Profilin 1/VASPpS157 and Cofilin 1/VASPpS239 Regulates Metastatic Growth and is Modified by DHA Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Jacob, Naduparambil K.; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2016-01-01

    Profilin 1, cofilin 1, and vasodialator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) are actin binding proteins (ABP) which regulate actin remodelling and facilitate cancer cell metastases. MiR~17–92 is highly expressed in metastatic tumors and profilin1 and cofilin1 are predicted targets. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and adhesion. These studies tested the hypothesis that the metastatic phenotype is driven by changes in ABPs including alternative phosphorylation and/or changes in subcellular localization. Additionally, we tested the efficacy of DHA supplementation to attenuate or inhibit these changes. Human lung cancer tissue sections were analyzed for F-actin content and expression and cellular localization of profilin1, cofilin1 and VASP (S157 or S239 phosphorylation). The metastatic phenotype was investigated in A549 and MLE12 cells lines using 8 Br-cAMP as a metastasis inducer and DHA as a therapeutic agent. Migration was assessed by wound assay and expression measured by western blot and confocal analysis. MiR~17–92 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Results indicated increased expression and altered cellular distribution of profilin1/VASPpS157 but no changes in cofilin1/VASPpS239 in the human malignant tissues compared to normal tissues. In A549 and MLE12 cells, the expression patterns of profilin1/VASPpS157 or cofilin1/VASPpS239 suggested an interaction in regulation of actin dynamics. Furthermore, DHA inhibited cancer cell migration and viability, ABP expression and cellular localization, and modulated expression of miR~17–92 in A549 cells with minimal effects in MLE12 cells. Further investigations are warranted to understand ABP interactions, changes in cellular localization, regulation by miR~17–92, and DHA as a novel therapeutic. PMID:27496138

  16. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  17. Rac1 governs exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ida L.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Møller, Lisbeth L. V.; Ploug, Thorkil; Schjerling, Peter; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    Key point Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood.The GTPase Rac1 can be activated by muscle contraction and has been found to be necessary for insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake, although its role in exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake is unknown.We show that Rac1 regulates the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle during exercise.We find that Rac1 knockout mice display significantly reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle during exercise. Abstract Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signalling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood, although the GTPase Rac1 is a candidate molecule. The present study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise‐induced uptake of radiolabelled 2‐deoxyglucose at 65% of maximum running capacity was blocked in soleus muscle and decreased by 80% and 60% in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle‐specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wild‐type littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 mKO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. PMID:27061726

  18. Future Trends: Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose

    The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.

  19. 75 FR 57657 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Special Inspector General for Iraq...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction AGENCY: Special... Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR), with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is... of Ethical Conduct (Standards) issued by OGE. With certain exceptions, this supplemental regulation...

  20. Adapting to extreme events related to natural variability and climate change: the imperative of coupling technology with strong regulation and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kythreotis, A P; Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2013-09-03

    In recent years there has been an increase in extreme events related to natural variability (such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes) and climate change (such as flooding and more extreme weather). Developing innovative technologies is crucial in making society more resilient to such events. However, little emphasis has been placed on the role of human decision-making in maximizing the positive impacts of technological developments. This is exacerbated by the lack of appropriate adaptation options and the privatization of existing infrastructure, which can leave people exposed to increasing risk. This work examines the need for more robust government regulation and legislation to complement developments and innovations in technology in order to protect communities against such extreme events.

  1. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2009-01-01

    with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P exposures was available. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel allergy decreased among young female patients with dermatitis between 1985 and 2007 whereas it increased among older patients, probably......BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...

  2. Herbal Supplements for Prostate Enlargement: Current State of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Reza; Zangi, Mahdi; Kim, Michelle M; Yavari Bejestani, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Shahin

    2018-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current state of herbal supplement market for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and correlate the ingredients of each product with available scientific evidence. Twenty-seven products from Amazon.com that were advertised as herbal supplements for LUTS and had listed their active ingredients were selected. Active ingredients were reviewed on Google Scholar. Product price, warranty, and consumer review information were also collected. A total of 58 unique active ingredients were identified. The mean number of ingredients was 8.26 (standard deviation 5.25). Whereas 17 (63%) products had an ingredient with a systematic review to support their use, 20 (74%) had an ingredient with conflicting evidence based on systematic reviews. Out of the supplements that contained ingredients supported by literature, all (100%) products simultaneously had other ingredients with no, conflicting, or refuting evidence. There was no (0%) product that contained only scientifically proven ingredients. There is no scientific study to evaluate these supplements as a whole. Despite the widespread use of herbal supplements for LUTS, there is scant scientific evidence to support their safety and efficacy. Lack of adequate regulation and government support for research and development are some of the factors that disincentivize researchers to study safety and efficacy of these products. We encourage physicians to warn their patients on the lack of adequate evidence to support the safety and efficacy of many of these supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 55171 - Removal of Standards of Ethical Conduct Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Ethical Conduct Regulations AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. ACTION: Final rule... concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), issued a final rule for employees of the SIGIR that supplemented the executive-branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct (Standards) issued by OGE. With certain...

  4. Supplemental and highly-elevated tocopherol doses differentially regulate allergic inflammation: reversibility of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol's effects

    OpenAIRE

    McCary, Christine A.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that supplemental doses of the α- and γ-tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E decrease and increase, respectively, allergic lung inflammation. We have now assessed whether these effects of tocopherols are reversible. For these studies, mice were treated with antigen and supplemental tocopherols in a first phase of treatment followed by a 4 week clearance phase and then the mice received a second phase of antigen and tocopherol treatments. The pro-inflammatory effects of supplement...

  5. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  6. Algoritmos, regulação e governança: uma revisão de literatura / Algorithms, regulation, and governance: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Felix de Souza Machado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To offer a curated mapping of the recent academic production on the topic of algorithmic governance and regulation to understand its connection to the theoretical traditions of regulation and governance. Methodology/approach/design – Exploratory literature review focusing on the detection of themes and theoretical approaches in publications that define their field of investigation through expressions such as “algorithmic regulation”, “algorithmic governance”, “algorithmic governmentality”, and “govern by algorithm”. Findings – Despite their appearance from 2013 onwards, surveyed papers tend to carry on older research traditions that also appear in governance and regulation studies. Research topics and theoretical approaches vary, with Foucauldian, regulatory and actor-network approaches being the most common. Possibility due to the novelty of the field, there is a stronger presence of theoretical endeavors. Originality/value – This is the first organized survey with this scope and it maps a host of foreign studies to the Portuguese language, serving as a starting point for those interested in the field. Resumo Propósito – Oferecer um mapeamento selecionado da recente produção acadêmica sobre o tema de governança e regulação algorítmica, de modo a compreender como ela se conecta com as tradições teóricas de governança e regulação. Metodologia/abordagem/design – Revisão exploratória de literatura focada na detecção de temas e marcos teóricos das publicações que definem seu campo de investigação por meio de expressões como “regulação algorítmica”, “governança algorítmica”, “governamentalidade algorítmica” e “governo por algoritmo”. Resultados – Apesar de surgirem de 2013 em diante, os artigos mapeados tendem a continuar tradições de pesquisa mais antigas que também figuram nos estudos de regulação e governança. Os temas e abordagens teóricas são variados

  7. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  8. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids in protein-restricted diets modulates the expression levels of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism associated regulators in the adipose tissue of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplemented in protein-restricted diets on the growth performance and the expression profile of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism related regulators in the white adipose tissue (WAT of different regional depots including dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA and abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA. A total of 24 crossbred barrows (7.40 ± 0.70 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups and were fed the following isocaloric diets for 33 days: 1 a recommended adequate protein diet (AP, 20% CP, as a positive control; 2 a low protein diet (LP, 17% CP; 3 the LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B, 17% CP to reach the same level of the AP diet group; 4 the LP diet supplemented with 2 times the amount of BCAA (LP + 2B, 17% CP. The daily gain and daily feed intake of the LP diet group were the lowest among all the treatments (P  0.05. Moreover, BCAA supplementation down-regulated the expression levels of amino acid transporters including L-type amino acid transporter 1 and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in DSA, but up-regulated the expression level of L-type amino acid transporter 4 in ASA (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase α was activated in the DSA of pigs fed LP diet and in the ASA of the pigs fed AP or LP + 2B diets (P < 0.05. The mRNA expression profile of the selected mitochondrial component and mitochondrial biogenesis associated regulators in DSA and ASA also responded differently to dietary BCAA supplementation. These results suggested that the growth performance of growing pigs fed protein restricted diets supplemented with BCAA could catch up to that of the pigs fed AP diets. The results also partly demonstrated that the regulation mechanisms of BCAA are different in the adipose tissues of different depots.

  9. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  10. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ulucanlar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardised packaging (SP of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP.We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach.The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better

  11. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J; Hatchard, Jenny L; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-03-01

    Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better Regulation

  12. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  13. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural importance...

  14. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  15. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of...

  16. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  17. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  18. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  19. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  20. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  1. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  2. Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation: A Review of Tobacco Industry Submissions to the UK Government Consultation on Standardised Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Hatchard, Jenny L.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for ‘more evidence’, but four months later a second ‘independent review’ was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. Methods and Findings We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, ‘mimicked scientific critique’ was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in ‘evidential landscaping’, promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. Conclusions The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely

  3. Uruguay - Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementa...

  4. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementation including: Improving corporate information, particularly ownership disclosure, related party transac...

  5. Supplemental and highly-elevated tocopherol doses differentially regulate allergic inflammation: reversibility of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol's effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCary, Christine A.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that supplemental doses of the α- and γ-tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E decrease and increase, respectively, allergic lung inflammation. We have now assessed whether these effects of tocopherols are reversible. For these studies, mice were treated with antigen and supplemental tocopherols in a first phase of treatment followed by a 4 week clearance phase and then the mice received a second phase of antigen and tocopherol treatments. The pro-inflammatory effects of supplemental levels of γ-tocopherol in phase 1 were only partially reversed by supplemental α-tocopherol in phase 2 but were completely reversed by raising α-tocopherol levels 10-fold in phase 2. When γ-tocopherol levels were increased 10-fold (highly-elevated tocopherol) so that the lung tissue γ-tocopherol levels were equal to the lung tissue levels of supplemental α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol reduced leukocyte numbers in the lung lavage fluid. In contrast to the lung lavage fluid, highly-elevated levels of γ-tocopherol increased inflammation in the lung tissue. These regulatory effects of highly-elevated tocopherols on tissue inflammation and lung lavage fluid were reversible in a second phase of antigen challenge without tocopherols. In summary, the pro-inflammatory effects of supplemental γ-tocopherol on lung inflammation were partially reversed by supplemental levels of α-tocopherol but were completely reversed by highly-elevated-levels of α-tocopherol. Also, highly-elevated levels of γ-tocopherol were inhibitory and reversible in lung lavage but, importantly, were pro-inflammatory in lung tissue sections. These results have implications for future studies with tocopherols and provide a new context in which to review vitamin E studies in the literature. PMID:21317387

  6. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  7. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  8. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  9. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  10. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  11. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  12. Nuclear Law Bulletin: Index + supplement no.56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This book deals with the status of legislation governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Central and Eastern European Countries. Readers are informed about regulatory and institutional developments in these countries. The Supplement to this Bulletin reproduces the Ukraine fundamental nuclear law of the 8 february 1995 on the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety. It shall establish the priority of human and environmental safety and the rights and responsibilities of citizens with regard to the use of nuclear energy, it shall regulate activities connected with the use of nuclear installations and ionizing radiation sources, and, as well, establish the legal basis for Ukraine's international commitments with respect to the use of nuclear energy. (authors). 71 refs

  13. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  14. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  15. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  16. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  17. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  18. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  19. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  20. Herbal Supplements: What to Know Before You Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Regulations ensure that herbal supplements meet manufacturing standards but don't guarantee that ... of herbal remedies goes on and on. Herbal supplements, sometimes called botanicals, are one type of dietary ...

  1. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... regulations, Federal acquisition regulations, Government procurement, Government contracts, Procurement, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 48 CFR Part 1302 Definitions, Government procurement, Terms. 48 CFR Part 1303 Antitrust, Conflict of interests, Ethical conduct, Government procurement, Reporting and...

  2. Factors Which Influenced the Success of the Implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 59 of 2007 in North Sumatera Provincial Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Rinanda Lubis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test empirically and analyze the influence of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting devices to the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No.59 Year 2007. Population in this study is SKPD Officer of North Sumatra Province (108 people which was sampled for 93 people. Simultaneous F test and partial t test were used to studies effects of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting facilities to the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59, year 2007. These results prove that the regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting devices simultaneously influenced the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59 Year 2007. In partial, regulation, commitment and human resources affected successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59 Year 2007, while the supporting facilities did not have an effect. These results showed that 48% variations of successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No.59 Year 2007, depended on variable of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting facilities and the remaining 52% depended on other uninvestigated variables.

  3. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  4. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  5. Financing of sports clubs from the budget of local self-government units – ways to support and the study the interpretation of regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Rzeszowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises alternative methods of financing sports clubs. The text also presents the concept of a sports club as well as legal and organizational forms. The possibilities of raising funds were also discussed. The article highlights an importance of resources obtained by sports clubs from budgets of local self-government units. The summary concludes that sports clubs play a significant role and that without an appropriate financial support from local government units, the activities of these clubs would be constricted.

  6. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-08-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×10{sup 7} cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2{sup -ΔΔCT} method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  7. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  8. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  9. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  10. Shareholder engagement in The Netherlands : Balacing between self-regulation through the Dutch Corporate Governance Code and international capital market practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, D.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents recent empirical evidence about institutional investors' compliance with the amended Dutch Corporate Governance Code and key factors influencing their real life voting- and engagement behaviour with Dutch investee companies. The data comes from 39 surveys among Dutch and

  11. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.

  12. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...

  13. The atomic energy regulations, 2012: Statutory instruments supplement no. 4 to the Uganda gazette no. 5 volume CV dated 27 January, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The regulations specifies minimum requirements for the protection of individuals, society and environment from the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation. It also provides for the safety and security of radiation sources

  14. Reaching Outside the Comfort Zone: Realising the FCTC's Potential for Public Health Governance and Regulation in the European Union Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteletti, Florence

    2017-09-13

    In their paper, Nikogosian and Kickbusch show how the effects of the adoption by the World Health Organization (WHO) of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and its first Protocol extend beyond tobacco control and contribute to public health governance more broadly, by revealing new processes, institutions and instruments. While there are certainly good reasons to be optimistic about the impact of these instruments in the public health sphere, the experience of the FCTC's implementation in the context of the European Union (EU) shows that further efforts are still necessary for its full potential to be realised. Indeed, one of the main hurdles to the FCTC's success so far has been the difficulty in developing and maintaining comprehensive multisectoral measures and involving sectors beyond the sphere of public health. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  17. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  18. Corporate Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...

  19. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    over industrial capitalism, which is nothing more than, on the one hand, to lean towards the maximum profitability for the shareholders, to raise the value of everything on the market without moral considerations, to, force the actors to look for permanent risk and to adapt more flexible hierarchical relations in the administration of the company; and on the other, the marginalization of the working class. Governance has reached the political matters turning itself into the model of public management par excellence, it means that the government, diminished to it’s basic form guides a civil society, which acquires an important role in the creation and follow-up of the different policies, that is to say, that the government acquires a flexible form of regulation, it is there where political governance leads us, to the alleged self-regulation of private interests that added-together are able to shape the general interest. Indeed it is a question of a new form of domination marked by a political failing, where the civil society plays in opposition to the State. Governance is leaning towards a fearsome trap to the democracy, insofar as it is presented as an extension of democracy embodied in a better participation of civil society, destroying the public person formed by the union of all others and the becoming representative of particular interests.

  20. Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with l-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Schjolden, J.; Krogdahl, A.

    2013-01-01

    . Previous studies in teleosts demonstrate that 7 d of dietary administration with l-tryptophan (Trp), the direct precursor of 5-HT, suppresses the endocrine stress response. The present study investigated how long the suppressive effects of a Trp-enriched feed regimen, at doses corresponding to two, three......The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates...... or four times the Trp levels in commercial feed, last in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when the fish are reintroduced to a diet with standard amino acid composition. We also wanted to determine whether Trp supplementation induced changes in brain monoaminergic neurochemistry in those forebrain...

  1. Corporate Governance Quality in Selected Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Djokic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Important questions that concern the notion of good corporate governance focus on what good corporate governance is, who benefits from good corporate governance, and how corporate governance quality can be measured. The aim of our study was to broaden our understanding of the role of standards and codes of good corporate governance in improving governance practices.We found that not only formal regulations, standards, and governance codes, but also corporate governance indices-which make the assessment of companies’ governance practices possible-are important in measuring and improving governance quality. The results of the research based on the SEECGAN Index methodology indicated that mandatory requirements and voluntary recommendations of high governance standards had a positive impact on the corporate governance practice in Slovenia.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  3. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  4. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  5. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  6. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  7. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  8. Ketamine and international regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Yi-Lang; Hao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic commonly used in low-income countries and has recently been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant depression. However, the illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and nonmedical use of ketamine are increasing globally, and its illicit use poses major public health challenges in many countries. To review the nonmedical use of ketamine in selected countries and its regulatory control. We conducted a review of literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2016) and PubMed databases, supplemented by additional references identified by the authors. Special attention was given to the regulation of ketamine. Illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and use of ketamine appear to have begun on a large scale in several Asian nations, and it has subsequently spread to other regions. Regulations governing availability of ketamine vary across countries, but there is a clear trend toward tighter regulations. As nonmedical use of ketamine and its harmful consequences have worsened globally, stricter controls are necessary. Appropriate regulation of ketamine is important for international efforts to control ketamine's cross-border trafficking and its nonmedical use.

  9. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  10. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit D: Government Regulations and Small Businesses. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit D focuses on business regulations at…

  11. MicroRNA-302/367 Cluster Governs hESC Self-Renewal by Dually Regulating Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available miR-302/367 is the most abundant miRNA cluster in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and can promote somatic cell reprogramming. However, its role in hESCs remains poorly understood. Here, we studied functional roles of the endogenous miR-302/367 cluster in hESCs by employing specific TALE-based transcriptional repressors. We revealed that miR-302/367 cluster dually regulates hESC cell cycle and apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Gene profiling and functional studies identified key targets of the miR-302/367 cluster in regulating hESC self-renewal and apoptosis. We demonstrate that in addition to its role in cell cycle regulation, miR-302/367 cluster conquers apoptosis by downregulating BNIP3L/Nix (a BH3-only proapoptotic factor and upregulating BCL-xL expression. Furthermore, we show that butyrate, a natural compound, upregulates miR-302/367 cluster expression and alleviates hESCs from apoptosis induced by knockdown of miR-302/367 cluster. In summary, our findings provide new insights in molecular mechanisms of how miR-302/367 cluster regulates hESCs.

  12. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-10-01

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers' health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights.

  13. The roles of government in improving health care quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Eisenberg, John M; Meyer, Gregg S

    2004-01-01

    Discussions surrounding the role of government have been and continue to be a favorite American pastime. A framework is provided for understanding the 10 roles that government plays in improving health care quality and safety in the United States. Examples of proposed federal actions to reduce medical errors and enhance patient safety are provided to illustrate the 10 roles: (1) purchase health care, (2) provide health care, (3) ensure access to quality care for vulnerable populations, (4) regulate health care markets, (5) support acquisition of new knowledge, (6) develop and evaluate health technologies and practices, (7) monitor health care quality, (8) inform health care decision makers, (9) develop the health care workforce, and (10) convene stakeholders from across the health care system. Government's responsibility to protect and advance the interests of society includes the delivery of high-quality health care. Because the market alone cannot ensure all Americans access to quality health care, the government must preserve the interests of its citizens by supplementing the market where there are gaps and regulating the market where there is inefficiency or unfairness. The ultimate goal of achieving high quality of care will require strong partnerships among federal, state, and local governments and the private sector. Translating general principles regarding the appropriate role of government into specific actions within a rapidly changing, decentralized delivery system will require the combined efforts of the public and private sectors.

  14. Radiation Protection Ordinance 1989. Supplement with Radiation Protection Register Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. radiation passport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The addendum contains regulations issued supplementary to the Radiation Protection Ordinance: The Radiation Protection Register as of April 3, 1990 including the law on the setting up of a Federal Office on Radiation Protection; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of February 21, 1990; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of May 3, 1990 (AVV Radiation passport). The volume contains, apart from the legal texts, the appropriate decision by the Bundesrat, the official explanation from the Bundestag Publications as well as a comprehensive introduction into the new legal matter. (orig.) [de

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Decree No 90-222 of 9 March 1990 supplementing the general regulations on extractive industries set by Decree No 80-331 of 7 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This Decree completes the transfer into national legislation of Euratom Directive No. 80-836 on radiation protection. It inserts in the General Regulations on extractive industries laid down by a Decree No. 80-331 of 1980 a Part 2 relating to environmental protection. Its provisions determine the annual permissible exposure limits to ionizing radiation during management of radioactive products, the monitoring of releases and the environment and the controls set up by the authorities [fr

  12. Local forms of governance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    of representative democracy. The supplement is taking its revenge as the interactive policy arenas are expanding and the role of elected politicians is being transformed from sovereign rulers to meta-governors. This development poses important challenges to the demand for effective and democratic governing......The proliferation of local forms of governance problematizes the well-established and highly normative idea that power and democracy in Denmark are organized in terms of a 'parliamentary chain of government', according to which the sovereign people elect the parliament, which in turn controls...... the government that governs the public administration through bureaucratic control. Consecutive waves of devolution have decentralized the Danish welfare state, and the power of local governments is now being challenged by the emergence of new forms of local governance that involve a plethora of private...

  13. Supplement to the approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Material by Rail Regulations 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ADR and RID Framework Directives require EC member states' arrangements for the carriage of dangerous goods on domestic road and rail journeys to align with the existing ADR and RID agreements which cover international journeys by road and rail. Because ADR and RID are updated every two years in line with technical and scientific developments, the ADR/RID Framework Directives are also revised on a two-year cycle, to require member states to amend their implementing legislation accordingly. In Great Britain, these two Directives were initially implemented on 1 September 1996 via regulations (usually referred to as the 'carriage regulations'), containing the general legal duties, supported by approved documents, and an Approved Code of Practice containing the detailed technical requirements. The following approved documents have been updated: (a) Approved Vehicle Requirements (AVR) - L89; (b) Approved Requirements and test methods for the classification and packaging of dangerous goods for carriage (ARTM) - L88; (c) Approved Requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail (ARCRR) - L94; (d) Approved Requirements for the construction of vehicles intended for the carriage of explosives by road (AEVR) - L92; and (e) Approved Carriage List (ACL) - L90

  14. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  15. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  16. Innate signals overcome acquired TCR signaling pathway regulation and govern the fate of human CD161(hi) CD8α⁺ semi-invariant T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Cameron J; Delrow, Jeff; Joslyn, Rochelle C; Swanson, Hillary M; Basom, Ryan; Tabellini, Laura; Delaney, Colleen; Heimfeld, Shelly; Hansen, John A; Riddell, Stanley R

    2011-09-08

    Type 17 programmed CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells contribute to mucosal immunity to bacteria and yeast. In early life, microbial colonization induces proliferation of CD161(hi) cells that is dependent on their expression of a semi-invariant Vα7.2(+) TCR. Although prevalent in adults, CD161(hi)CD8α(+) cells exhibit weak proliferative and cytokine responses to TCR ligation. The mechanisms responsible for the dichotomous response of neonatal and adult CD161(hi) cells, and the signals that enable their effector function, have not been established. We describe acquired regulation of TCR signaling in adult memory CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells that is absent in cord CD161(hi) cells and adult CD161(lo) cells. Regulated TCR signaling in CD161(hi) cells was due to profound alterations in TCR signaling pathway gene expression and could be overcome by costimulation through CD28 or innate cytokine receptors, which dictated the fate of their progeny. Costimulation with IL-1β during TCR ligation markedly increased proinflammatory IL-17 production, while IL-12-induced Tc1-like function and restored the response to TCR ligation without costimulation. CD161(hi) cells from umbilical cord blood and granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized leukaphereses differed in frequency and function, suggesting future evaluation of the contribution of CD161(hi) cells in hematopoietic stem cell grafts to transplant outcomes is warranted.

  17. New Elements in Corporate Governance of the Credit Institutions from the Perspective of National Bank of Romania Regulation no. 5/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Ioana MOISE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has stretched its harmful effects including banking activity, this being one of the severely affected economic domains where the greatest efforts of resuscitation were done, sometimes with serious consequences over public money. In this context, restoring the credit institutions’ activity on actual basis, through a more efficient organizational system and re-editing the attributions of the management organs, so that to be able to guarantee for an effective and fast risk management framework, represented a globally assumed goal. Romanian law cannot remain outside this framework especially considering the obligation to join the model imposed by the European legislator by taking over the domestic law of the European directive CRD IV. This paper proposes a comparative study between the current and the previous legislation in order to highlight the main elements of novelty brought by Basel III, CRD IV and GL Guide 44/2011 on the internal governance of credit institutions elaborated by the European Banking Authority.

  18. Some considerations on the legal regulation of the process for public licitation, contracts and agreements on the establishment of educational partnerships between the government and the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Dragone Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the joint between the public administration and the private sector assumes new contours in function of the of the Brazilian State reform, configuring itself as a trend that if it has accented in the educational area, in the São Paulo’s cities, from the municipalization (municipal ownership of elementary school education, with the consolidation of partnerships and agreements involving the purchase of educational private system’s for municipal education net’s, the vacant subvention in private entities and the hiring of private institutions, aiming at the elaboration of educational politics for the management municipal. (ADRIÃO, BORGHI, 2008. Thus being, this article to look for introduce and to analyze, from the national legislation, the procedures for the establishment of these different partnership’s modalities between the municipal government and private institutions, physical or corporation body, discussing the rules for the licitation process for the services and works hiring, property and consumer goods acquisition, for the contracts celebration and the accords establishment with social organizations to transfer it of public resources, to look for understand the legal possibilities for the introduction of the privatizations mechanisms in the education.

  19. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governance. 301.607-77 Section 301.607-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS... Governance. The Departmental ACM, in ASFR/OGAPA/DA, serves as the Departmental FAC-P/PM Program Manager and...

  20. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 836.572 Section 836.572 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shal...

  1. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and blueberry extracts supplementation improves spatial memory and regulates hippocampal ERK expression in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  3. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  4. Dangerous Liaisons? Governments, companies and Internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Private actors in the information technology sector are currently playing an increasingly important role in content mediation, as well as in regulation of online forms of expression, with implications for both internet rights and economic freedom. The “privatisation of internet governance” (DeNardis, 2010, is not a new dynamic; however, in a scenario in which users are taking advantage of increasingly sophisticated technology, the centralisation and concentration characterising today’s most widespread internet services are contributing to the accentuation of this tendency. The 'inherently political' qualities of search engine algorithm development, video content removals, blocking of domain names – actions that originate and rest with the private sector’s handling of the internet’s infrastructure – should not be neglected in our assessment of the field of internet governance today.

  5. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  6. Ablation of an Ovarian Tumor Family Deubiquitinase Exposes the Underlying Regulation Governing the Plasticity of Cell Cycle Progression in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Animesh; de Paula Baptista, Rodrigo; Kissinger, Jessica C; Snow, E Charles; Sinai, Anthony P

    2017-11-21

    The Toxoplasma genome encodes the capacity for distinct architectures underlying cell cycle progression in a life cycle stage-dependent manner. Replication in intermediate hosts occurs by endodyogeny, whereas a hybrid of schizogony and endopolygeny occurs in the gut of the definitive feline host. Here, we characterize the consequence of the loss of a cell cycle-regulated o varian tu mor (OTU family) deubiquitinase, OTUD3A of Toxoplasma gondii (TgOTUD3A; TGGT1_258780), in T. gondii tachyzoites. Rather than the mutation being detrimental, mutant parasites exhibited a fitness advantage, outcompeting the wild type. This phenotype was due to roughly one-third of TgOTUD3A-knockout (TgOTUD3A-KO) tachyzoites exhibiting deviations from endodyogeny by employing replication strategies that produced 3, 4, or 5 viable progeny within a gravid mother instead of the usual 2. We established the mechanistic basis underlying these altered replication strategies to be a dysregulation of centrosome duplication, causing a transient loss of stoichiometry between the inner and outer cores that resulted in a failure to terminate S phase at the attainment of 2N ploidy and/or the decoupling of mitosis and cytokinesis. The resulting dysregulation manifested as deviations in the normal transitions from S phase to mitosis (S/M) (endopolygeny-like) or M phase to cytokinesis (M/C) (schizogony-like). Notably, these imbalances are corrected prior to cytokinesis, resulting in the generation of normal progeny. Our findings suggest that decisions regarding the utilization of specific cell cycle architectures are controlled by a ubiquitin-mediated mechanism that is dependent on the absolute threshold levels of an as-yet-unknown target(s). Analysis of the TgOTUD3A-KO mutant provides new insights into mechanisms underlying the plasticity of apicomplexan cell cycle architecture. IMPORTANCE Replication by Toxoplasma gondii can occur by 3 distinct cell cycle architectures. Endodyogeny is used by asexual

  7. 48 CFR 752.231-71 - Salary supplements for HG employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary supplements for HG....231-71 Salary supplements for HG employees. As prescribed in 731.205-71, for use in all contracts with... sub-contracts. Salary Supplements for HG Employees (OCT 1998) (a) Salary supplements are payments made...

  8. Governance and regulation in the Venezuelan petroleum industry: an analysis of the evolution of the relations between the State and the oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, A.A.

    2008-12-01

    Oil is an extremely desired strategic resource which is in the center of the cooperation, the tensions and the conflicts between the producing States and the consumers, between the owners of deposits and oil companies and also between oil companies and consumers. The preoccupation of the political economy is exactly to report the interweaving of the economic and political factors in the formation and in the evolution of the structures of the national petroleum industries. Any change concerning the access to the oil resource and to its rent engenders a redefining of the behaviour, the strategies and the objectives of the main actors. So, by analyzing the process of structuralization of the industry of hydrocarbons in Venezuela, the author attempts to explain the evolution of his mode of organization according to his strategy of regulation. The functional relation which stands out from it becomes identified as a balance of power enters the Venezuelan State, the leaders of the national oil company PDVSA, the international oil companies, the consumers and the international organizations. The thesis reconstitutes the interaction between the maximization of the profits pursued by the oil companies and the forms of appropriation of the rents by the State. The control of the mechanisms of creation and appropriation of the rents allows then the main actors of the oil system to direct the oil Venezuelan policy according to their own interests. (author)

  9. Fission Yeast SCYL1/2 Homologue Ppk32: A Novel Regulator of TOR Signalling That Governs Survival during Brefeldin A Induced Stress to Protein Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Katarzyna M; Petersen, Janni

    2016-05-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling allows eukaryotic cells to adjust cell growth in response to changes in their nutritional and environmental context. The two distinct TOR complexes (TORC1/2) localise to the cell's internal membrane compartments; the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and lysosomes/vacuoles. Here, we show that Ppk32, a SCYL family pseudo-kinase, is a novel regulator of TOR signalling. The absence of ppk32 expression confers resistance to TOR inhibition. Ppk32 inhibition of TORC1 is critical for cell survival following Brefeldin A (BFA) induced stress. Treatment of wild type cells with either the TORC1 specific inhibitor rapamycin or the general TOR inhibitor Torin1 confirmed that a reduction in TORC1 activity promoted recovery from BFA induced stress. Phosphorylation of Ppk32 on two residues that are conserved within the SCYL pseudo-kinase family are required for this TOR inhibition. Phosphorylation on these sites controls Ppk32 protein levels and sensitivity to BFA. BFA induced ER stress does not account for the response to BFA that we report here, however BFA is also known to induce Golgi stress and impair traffic to lysosomes. In summary, Ppk32 reduce TOR signalling in response to BFA induced stress to support cell survival.

  10. Development and validation of analytical methods for dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Darryl; Crowley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of innovative botanical ingredients in dietary supplements and foods has resulted in a flurry of research aimed at the development and validation of analytical methods for accurate measurement of active ingredients. The pressing need for these methods is being met through an expansive collaborative initiative involving industry, government, and analytical organizations. This effort has resulted in the validation of several important assays as well as important advances in the method engineering procedures which have improved the efficiency of the process. The initiative has also allowed researchers to hurdle many of the barricades that have hindered accurate analysis such as the lack of reference standards and comparative data. As the availability for nutraceutical products continues to increase these methods will provide consumers and regulators with the scientific information needed to assure safety and dependable labeling

  11. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  12. Achieving Accelerated Cleanup of Cesium Contaminated Stream at the Savannah River Site; Collaboration between Stakeholders, Regulators, and the Federal Government - 13182

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary; Socha, Ron; Burch, Joseph [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Freeman, Candice; Hennessey, Brian [United States Department of Energy, Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    's stakeholders including the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and the public including local property owners and the SRS Citizens Advisory Board. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the up-front planning in order to achieve this challenging cleanup. (authors)

  13. Achieving Accelerated Cleanup of Cesium Contaminated Stream at the Savannah River Site; Collaboration between Stakeholders, Regulators, and the Federal Government - 13182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary; Socha, Ron; Burch, Joseph; Freeman, Candice; Hennessey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    's stakeholders including the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and the public including local property owners and the SRS Citizens Advisory Board. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the up-front planning in order to achieve this challenging cleanup. (authors)

  14. Governing cryptocurrencies through forward guidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmann, Matthias; Pustovit, Grygoriy

    2018-01-01

    While the debate about the needs and merits of cryptocurrency regulation is ongoing, the unprecedented price hikes of cryptocurrencies towards the end of 2017 triggered a somewhat unexpected sort of regulation in the form of public statements by governments and financial supervisors. It kicked in rather quickly and turned out to be much more effective than imagined. These interventions can be identified as one of the main factors that drove asset prices down, thereby preventing destabilizing ...

  15. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order ...

  16. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  17. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  18. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  19. Climatic change and world governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of international agreements about the greenhouse effect gases control. Even if the prejudice covers the whole world, the implementing of pollution regulations generate conflicts of interest. Solidarity, equity and not historical responsibilities have to govern the discussions. This involves to take into account the place of the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND STAKEHOLDERS’ ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIȚIMUȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is the system through which companies are directed and controlled but until today academic environment, regulators, corporations couldn’t reach a unanimous definition. Corporate governance provisions suffered changes after several largely covered financial scandals. Entities incur costs when complying with new regulations but not complying impacts the reputation and investors might think twice before bringing their money into the company. Accountability for business decisions, risk management, control that set the economic path of the company is mandatory for proving that the company is run in a fairly and smart way. This study aims to investigate how corporate governance relates to accountability of all parties involved in the current business of companies as any conflict of interest is detrimental to the company and affects in a negative way its performance.