WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulation supplement cost

  1. 77 FR 2680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update text addressing the definition of cost or pricing data... update the DFARS for consistency with FAR changes addressing the definition of cost or pricing data...

  2. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... also asked what allowance is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not... RIN 0750-AG46 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address DoD Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major...

  3. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... indirect cost is expressly unallowable under a cost principle in the FAR, or an executive agency supplement... economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563... have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities within the meaning of the...

  4. 77 FR 76939 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Definition of Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... cost or pricing data'' in its place. PART 217--SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS 217.7401 [Amended] 0 11... Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case 2011-D040) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department... ``certified cost or pricing data'' and ``data other than certified cost or pricing data.'' The DFARS changes...

  5. 78 FR 73451 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... contract. Penalties may be waived in accordance with FAR 42.709-5(c). 9. Exceeding the Actual Costs of... not face the possibility of False Claims Act prosecutions, Civil False Claims Act damages, qui tam... possibility of False Claims Act prosecutions, Civil False Claims Act damages, qui tam lawsuits or debarment...

  6. 48 CFR 252.231-7000 - Supplemental cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles. 252.231-7000 Section 252.231-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.231-7000 Supplemental cost principles. As prescribed in 231.100-70, use the following clause: Supplemental Cost Principles (DEC 1991) When the allowability of costs under...

  7. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis

  8. Costs of the multimicronutrient supplementation program in Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Paulini, Javier; de Romaã, Daniel López

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the cost parameters of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs. To assess the cost parameters and cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in an urban population of Peru. Data from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]), which distributed capsules and foodlets to women and adolescent girls and to children under five, were extrapolated to a population of 100,000 inhabitants. The annual cost per community member was US$1.51. The cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.12 per 1% of prevented anemia per community member. These costs are in the upper margin of iron supplementation alone. They will decrease notably when weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are integrated into health packages and participation by women increases. Focusing on micronutrient deficiencies would prevent these problems, and food-distribution programs would be effectively targeted to food-deficient populations.

  9. Problems and Prospects: Public Health Regulation of Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Andy H

    2018-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Supplements may directly cause toxic reactions or may interact with other supplements or pharmaceuticals. Some supplements are found to have been contaminated with heavy metals, and others do not contain the expected quantities of active ingredients. In general, supplements are not needed except in cases of established deficiencies, and excess of some nutrients can increase cancer rates. There are important public health reasons for taking some supplements, including folate and iodine in pregnancy. This review discusses the public health concerns associated with dietary supplements and suggests directions for further regulation.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, MJ; Londeman, J; Veenstra, M; de Walle, HEK; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Background: Supplementation of folic acid prior to and in the beginning of pregnancy may prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns - such as spina bifida - and possibly other congenital malformations. Objective. To estimate cost effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folk: acid

  11. 75 FR 59103 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge (DFARS Case 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...-AG30 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge (DFARS Case 2008... comments is provided below: 1. Comment. One respondent stated that it is customary in the motor carrier freight industry to assume a fixed cost of diesel fuel with a cost recovery mechanism (fuel surcharge) for...

  12. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  13. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the costs to the Canadian nuclear industry of the present Atomic Energy Control Board regulatory activities was carried out to provide a framework for a socio-economic impact analysis of AECB regulations. Regulaory costs in uranium mining and milling, fuel fabrication, power generation, the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, and radioisotope use are studied. The cost of safety measures which industry would still undertake in the absence of government regulations ('prudent operator' costs) are not included. (L.L.)

  15. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  16. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The amendments to the AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations have been made with a view to simplifying the registration procedure for obtaining such a certificate or approval under the above Transport Regulations. In effect there will no longer be a need for a separate fee system for registered users of certified package designs. (NEA)

  17. 78 FR 68829 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DFARS 252.232-7007, Limitation of Government's Obligation. DFARS subpart 232.7, Contract [[Page 68830...; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract Financing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... and OMB Number: Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Part 232, Contract Financing...

  18. Cost of childhood diarrhoea in rural South Africa: exploring cost-effectiveness of universal zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhagan, Meera K; Van den Broeck, Jan; Luabeya, Kany-Kany Angelique; Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Bennish, Michael L

    2014-09-01

    To describe the cost of diarrhoeal illness in children aged 6-24 months in a rural South African community and to determine the threshold prevalence of stunting at which universal Zn plus vitamin A supplementation (VAZ) would be more cost-effective than vitamin A alone (VA) in preventing diarrhoea. We conducted a cost analysis using primary and secondary data sources. Using simulations we examined incremental costs of VAZ relative to VA while varying stunting prevalence. Data on efficacy and societal costs were largely from a South African trial. Secondary data were from local and international published sources. The trial included children aged 6-24 months. The secondary data sources were a South African health economics survey and the WHO-CHOICE (CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective) database. In the trial, stunted children supplemented with VAZ had 2·04 episodes (95 % CI 1·37, 3·05) of diarrhoea per child-year compared with 3·92 episodes (95 % CI 3·02, 5·09) in the VA arm. Average cost of illness was $Int 7·80 per episode (10th, 90th centile: $Int 0·28, $Int 15·63), assuming a minimum standard of care (oral rehydration and 14 d of therapeutic Zn). In simulation scenarios universal VAZ had low incremental costs or became cost-saving relative to VA when the prevalence of stunting was close to 20 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were sensitive to the cost of intervention and coverage levels. This simulation suggests that universal VAZ would be cost-effective at current levels of stunting in parts of South Africa. This requires further validation under actual programmatic conditions.

  19. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  20. 76 FR 71468 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Accelerate Small Business Payments (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... all small business concerns. In combination with the change to the regulations, DoD immediately began... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Accelerate Small Business Payments (DFARS Case 2011-D008... Regulation Supplement to accelerate payments to all small business concerns. DATES: Effective Date: November...

  1. The predicted lifetime costs and health consequences of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for fracture preventio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, G.; Wisløff, T.; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Some studies indicate that calcium supplementation increases cardiovascular risk. We assessed whether such effects could counterbalance the fracture benefits from supplementation. Accounting for cardiovascular outcomes, calcium may cause net harm and would not be cost-effective. Clinicians...... and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such supplementation. Methods: We created a probabilistic Markov simulation model that was analysed at the individual patient level. We analysed 65-year-old Norwegian women with a 2.3 % 10-year risk of hip fracture and a 9.3 % risk of any major fracture according......-, and high-risk scenario. Results: Assuming no cardiovascular effects, CaD supplementation produces improved health outcomes resulting in an incremental gain of 0.0223 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and increases costs by €322 compared with no treatment (cost-effectiveness ratio €14,453 per QALY gained...

  2. 75 FR 18041 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...-AG35 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address requirements for minimizing the use of hexavalent chromium in... of items containing hexavalent chromium under DoD contracts unless an exception applies. DATES...

  3. 75 FR 33237 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025) AGENCY: Defense.../Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information to the Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement..., February 23, 2006, moved requirements for Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (CIPR) from DFARS 242.7302 to...

  4. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ..., et al. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and... Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) AGENCY: Defense.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  5. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of...

  6. 77 FR 4632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to require major contractors to report independent research and development (IR... 11414 on March 2, 2011, to revise requirements for reporting IR&D projects to the Defense Technical...

  7. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA... requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of...- 0088, Travel Costs by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov...

  8. Albumin supplementation for hypoalbuminemia following burns: unnecessary and costly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinyshyn, Alex; Callum, Jeannie; Jeschke, Marc C; Cartotto, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Following fluid resuscitation, patients with major burns frequently develop prolonged hypoalbuminemia. It is not known whether this should be corrected by albumin supplementation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are any benefits associated with albumin supplementation to correct hypoalbuminemia in burned adults. We conducted a retrospective comparison of patients with burns ≥ 20% TBSA admitted to an adult regional American Burn Association-verified burn center, from May 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010, where we did not routinely supplement albumin (control group), with patients admitted from October 1, 2010, to May 30, 2011, where we had instituted a protocol in which 5% human albumin was provided to maintain serum albumin levels >20 g/L (albumin group). Comparisons were made from postburn (PB) day 2 to day 30 inclusive. There were no significant differences between control (n = 26) and albumin (n = 17) in age (48 ± 15 vs 45 ± 21 years; P = .56), burn size (33 ± 13 vs 34 ± 13 %TBSA; P = .831), or full thickness burn size (19 ± 19 vs 23 ± 19 %TBSA; P = .581). Inhalation injury was significantly more frequent in the albumin group than in controls (71% vs 31%; P = .01). The groups did not differ significantly in need for admission escharotomy, admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, number of surgical procedures/first 30 days, or 24 and 48 hours fluid resuscitation volume requirements. The overall mean daily serum albumin level from PB day 2 to 30 in the albumin group (26.9 ± 3.0 g/L) was significantly greater than in controls (21.9 ± 4.4 g/L; P patient per day). We conclude that routine supplementation of 5% human albumin to maintain a serum albumin level ≥ 20 g/L in burn patients is expensive and provides no benefit.

  9. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  10. Preventing the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Australia: cost-effectiveness of thiamin-supplementation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, L; Price, J

    1996-04-01

    Alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy has been commonplace in Australia for many years and, as this syndrome is attributed to a deficiency in the diet, it should be preventable. This study employs conventional cost-effectiveness methodology to compare the economic efficiency of several thiamin-supplementation alternatives that have been proposed for the prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy. A series of rankings of these measures is derived from an estimated cost per case averted for each of the alternatives studied. These rankings identify the least cost-effective thiamin-supplementation alternative as that of enriching bread-making flour with thiamin.

  11. Regulating the South African sport supplement industry: 'Whey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune improvement claims, the exact benefits of sport supplements have not been ... Among those that ranked highest were Dis-Chem's house brand,. Biogen ... the establishment of the SA Health Products Regulatory Authority. (SAHPRA) ...

  12. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Binder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD, supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3 in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation

  13. 76 FR 59623 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer (DFARS Case 2011-D013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ..., 215, 216, and 252 RIN 0750-AH11 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer... Supplement (DFARS) to address acquisitions using competitive procedures in which only one offer is received... days, if the solicitation allowed fewer than 30 days for receipt of proposals and only one offer is...

  14. 78 FR 65218 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions... Supplement (DFARS) to implement a section of the National Defense Authorization Act regarding private sector... section 938 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 regarding private sector...

  15. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-AI02 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates--Contract Financing... Supplement (DFARS) to create an overarching prescription for the set of contract financing related clauses... amend the DFARS to create an overarching prescription for the contract financing clause with one...

  16. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Test Program for Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...DoD is issuing a final rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to extend the program period for the DoD Test Program for Negotiation of Comprehensive Small Business Subcontracting Plans.

  17. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... prescribes policies prohibiting interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel, as required by section... ancillary positions, including as trainers of, and advisors to, interrogations, if the contractor personnel...

  18. Review: Efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...

  19. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...D published an initial proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS... the definition and administration of contractor business systems as follows: A. Contractor business..., 245, and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems...

  20. 75 FR 66686 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial... Balance of Payments Program for construction material that is commercial information technology. DATES... the Balance of Payments Program for commercial information technology to be used in overseas...

  1. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    An attempt is made to answer questions relating to the feasibility of determining costs imposed by regulatory activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board, and to provide a conceptual and methodological framework for an actual cost study of existing AECB requirments. (L.L.)

  2. The history of efforts to regulate dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, John P

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the emergence of dietary supplements and how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempted to regulate these, beginning with the arrival of vitamins and how these were managed under the 1906 Food and Drugs Act, and ending with the seismic influence of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Included are the impact of major laws, key court decisions, and the construction of the FDA's supplement actions and rules from the 1920s to the 1990s for products that were neither drugs nor typical foods. Stiff resistance to the regulations by supplement manufacturers, trade associations, politicians, and especially the public at large is an important part of this story. The paper closes with the passage of DSHEA and how it literally changed the definition and parameters of control of dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  4. 12 CFR 1206.4 - Increased costs of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increased costs of regulation. 1206.4 Section 1206.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS ASSESSMENTS § 1206... regulation of a Regulated Entity due to its classification as other than adequately capitalized, or as a...

  5. 78 FR 71558 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Mazyck, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and... Transportation prescribe regulations requiring passenger motor vehicle dealers to distribute to prospective... vehicle dealers to distribute this information to prospective buyers. The House of Representatives...

  6. 77 FR 11191 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Carlita Ballard, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs... distribute to prospective customers information that compares differences in insurance costs of different... of the 2012 booklet to each dealer that the Department of Energy uses to distribute the ``Gas Mileage...

  7. 76 FR 6516 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... automobiles to distribute to prospective customers information that compares differences in insurance costs of... booklet to each dealer that the Department of Energy uses to distribute the ``Gas Mileage Guide.'' Dealers...

  8. 75 FR 5169 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... automobiles to distribute to prospective customers information that compares differences in insurance costs of... booklet to each dealer that the Department of Energy uses to distribute the ``Gas Mileage Guide.'' Dealers...

  9. 75 FR 52650 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items (2008-D011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule; delay in... rule that amended the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement sections... comments on the interim rule were located, which had not been addressed in finalization of the interim rule...

  10. 75 FR 65439 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Accounting Service or Missile Defense Agency. (2) For DoD, the authority to acknowledge receipt or reject... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 219 and 252 [DFARS Case 2009-D002] Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...

  11. 76 FR 75875 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... initiate a dialogue with industry regarding the use of open source software in DoD contracts. DATES: Public... to the risks to the contractors and the Government associated with using open source software on DoD...

  12. 76 FR 71465 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Management of Manufacturing Risk in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Government procurement. Mary Overstreet, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. Interim Rule Adopted... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Management of Manufacturing Risk in Major Defense Acquisition...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting as final, without change, an interim rule amending the...

  13. 75 FR 3178 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Lead System Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Government procurement. Amy G. Williams, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Accordingly, the..., without change, an interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to... limitations on the award of new contracts for lead system integrator functions in the acquisition of major DoD...

  14. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestmann, Earle R.; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  15. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the United States... 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...

  16. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  17. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  18. Rationalizing regulation could help cut US O and M costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.; Koppe, R.; Waage, J.

    1990-01-01

    Rationalizing safety regulation could dramatically reduce the contractor costs which have become such a large component of rising operating and maintenance costs at nuclear power plants in the United States. Multi-plant operating companies are also a possibility - attractive to utilities because of the economies of scale that they bring and the greater influence that they wield. (author)

  19. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  20. SOR/93-163 AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (Cost Recovery Fees Regulations 1990 and subsequent amendments have been revoked and replaced by those new Regulations of 30 march 1993 which entered into force on 1 April 1993. The regulations were first made in 1990 in order to carry out the Government's policy of introducing the principle of ''user pay'' for the cost incurred by the AECB in its regulatory activities. The objective of the policy was to shift the cost of Government regulatory efforts for the taxpayer at large to those who most benefited from or whose activities were the reason for such effort. This new version of the Regulations reflects licensees' comments, e.g. extension of the period for review of proposed fees, and sets out increases in the fees. (NEA)

  1. 78 FR 13543 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ..., 204, 215, 225, 227, 242, 245 and 252 Government procurement. Manuel Quinones, Editor, Defense...) shall be conducted only when-- (i) A contractor has $50 million of qualifying sales to the Government... circumstance(s) may result in a material impact on Government contract costs: (1) Information or data reveals a...

  2. 77 FR 52253 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-7017(a) to add Armenia to the definition of ``Designated country'', which was inadvertently omitted... other limitations on their use. * * * * * PART 230--COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION 0 7. The...) definition of ``Designated country'' at paragraph (i) by adding the country of Armenia within the parentheses...

  3. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  4. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... 215 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability... adding a section at 215.300 with a reference to Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy...

  5. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J K; Iwankow, C [Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada`s perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs.

  6. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. Supplement 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A major revision of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6, was undertaken during a period of several years, culminating in the publication of the 1985 Edition. In order to consider minor problems in the new edition, the Agency convened a panel of experts in January 1986. This panel recommended some amendments which were subsequently published as Supplement 1986 to the Regulations. A further review panel meeting took place in June 1987. The amendments which were recommended for early adoption were themselves divided into two kinds. The first of these are designated as minor changes. The second kind of amendment recommended for early adoption comprises actual changes to regulatory provisions. Several changes of this second type were recommended by the panel and are included in this Supplement. The Supplement also contains the amended texts of the supporting documents, Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80, which are necessary to correct minor errors as well as to provide complementary information for the changes introduced to the Regulations themselves. In addition, the Supplement embodies the contents of Supplement 1986, which is consequently superseded.

  8. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion...--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. No respondents submitted public comments in response to the interim... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...

  9. 78 FR 63462 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Relating to Organizational Conflict of Interest-Major Defense Acquisition Program; OMB Control Number 0704...] Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflict... submit comments, identified by OMB Control Number 0704-0477, using any of the following methods: [cir...

  10. 76 FR 14588 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Nonavailability Exception for Procurement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Nonavailability Exception for Procurement of Hand or Measuring... Subjects in 48 CFR Part 225 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition... requirement at 10 U.S.C. 2533a (Berry Amendment) to acquire only domestic hand or measuring tools. DATES...

  11. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  12. 76 FR 58122 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Material Inspection and Receiving Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... acceptance point and replacing it with more specific data entries for inspection, acceptance, and ship to Do..., acceptance, and ship-to fields but kept the source, destination, and other inspection and acceptance points... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Material Inspection and Receiving Report (DFARS Case 2009-D023) AGENCY...

  13. 76 FR 58155 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Construction and Architect-Engineer Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Construction and Architect-Engineer Services Performance... performance evaluations for construction and architect-engineer services. DATES: Effective Date: September 20... past performance for construction and Architect- Engineer services. On April 19, 2011, DoD published a...

  14. 75 FR 67632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Pub. L. 111-84) prohibits the interrogation of..., to add DFARS 237.173, Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel, adding a...

  15. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... provisional payment and sent to the disbursing office after a pre- payment review. Interim vouchers not... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to...] RIN 0750-AH52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY...

  16. 76 FR 57677 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Increase the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ...] RIN 0750-AH15 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Increase the Use of Fixed-Price...-price incentive (firm target) contracts, with particular attention to share lines and ceiling prices... the use of fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts, especially for acquisitions moving from...

  17. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  18. 76 FR 9680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration... the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program. DATES: Effective Date: February 22, 2011...-656) by striking title VII (15 U.S.C. 644 note). The repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...

  19. 76 FR 38053 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles (DFARS Case 2011... ``designated country'' due to the change in the political status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands..., 2010, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire...

  20. 75 FR 71564 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025... conducting a Contractor Insurance/Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information (PGI) to the... This final rule relocates requirements for Contractor Insurance/ Pension Review to DFARS 242.7302 from...

  1. 76 FR 14589 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-AH18 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...). Section 222 repeals the restriction on purchase of Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation that was required by section 222 of...

  2. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ...; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration; Interim Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 96...-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration... an initial proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038...

  3. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition... for Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal Register on... improve the effectiveness of DoD oversight of contractor business systems. The comment period is being...

  4. 76 FR 38051 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD Contractors During Contingency Operations,'' dated April 16, 2010... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY... employees accompanying U.S. Armed Forces are made aware of the DoD definition of sexual assault as defined...

  5. 75 FR 73997 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Inspector General audit D-2010-052, entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense..., to ensure contractor employees are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in Do...

  6. 78 FR 30233 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Number 0750-AG38 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access... Government support contractors to have access to proprietary technical data belonging to prime contractors and other third parties, provided that the technical data owner may require the support contractor to...

  7. 77 FR 14490 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor Personnel (DFARS Case... (DFARS) to expand coverage on contractor requirements and responsibilities relating to alleged crimes by or against contractor personnel. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed rule should be...

  8. 78 FR 59851 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Enhancement of Contractor Employee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...-AH97 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Enhancement of Contractor Employee... contractor and subcontractor employees. DATES: Effective date: September 30, 2013. In accordance with FAR 1... Whistleblower Protections for Contractor Employees) made extensive changes to 10 U.S.C. 2409, entitled...

  9. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Continuation of Essential Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ...-AG52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Continuation of Essential Contractor... that contractors providing essential contractor services, as determined by the requiring activity..., implementing the requirements of DoDI 3020.37, Continuation of Essential DoD Contractor Services During Crises...

  10. 76 FR 14590 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... makes it unlikely that a small business could afford to sustain the infrastructure required to perform...-AG73 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and... facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that are intended for use by military or civilian personnel of the...

  11. 76 FR 11414 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions (DFARS Case... (DFARS) to require contractors to report independent research and development (IR&D) projects generating... to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Beginning in the 1990s, DoD reduced its technical...

  12. Systemwide Report on Value of Supplemental Pension Obligations and Cost of Post-Employment Benefits Other Than Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    This report provides financial data on the value of obligations of any supplemental pension plans and the annual cost of any post-employment benefits for employees of state universities, colleges, and community colleges in Oklahoma. Attachment 1 summarizes information on supplemental pension plans that have been reported by state system…

  13. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm.

  14. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  15. Potential impact of legislation mandating breast density notification: benefits, harms, and cost effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Schechter, Clyde; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Lee, Christoph I.; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; de Koning, Harry J.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Lehman, Constance D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background At least nineteen states have laws that require telling women with dense breasts and a negative screening mammogram to consider supplemental screening. The most readily available supplemental screening modality is ultrasound, yet little is known about its effectiveness. Objective To evaluate the benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts. Design Comparative modeling with 3 validated simulation models. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium; the medical literature. Target Population A contemporary cohort of women eligible for routine screening. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Payer. Interventions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts following a negative screening mammogram. Outcome Measures Breast cancer deaths averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, false positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations, costs, costs per QALY gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Supplemental ultrasound screening after a negative mammogram for women aged 50–74 with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts averted 0.36 additional breast cancer deaths (range across models: 0.14–0.75), gained 1.7 QALYs (0.9–4.7), and resulted in 354 false-positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations (345–421) per 1000 women with dense breasts compared with biennial screening by mammography alone. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $325,000 per QALY gained ($112,000-$766,000). Restricting supplemental ultrasound screening to women with extremely dense breasts cost $246,000 per QALY gained ($74,000-$535,000). Results of Sensitivity Analysis The conclusions were not sensitive to ultrasound performance characteristics, screening frequency, or starting age. Limitations Provider costs for coordinating supplemental ultrasound were not considered. Conclusions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts undergoing

  16. 76 FR 23505 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Accelerate Small Business Payments (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs... Regulations System. Therefore, 48 CFR part 232 is amended as follows: PART 232--CONTRACT FINANCING 0 1. The...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of elderly women and men with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Bruyère, Olivier; Evers, Silvia M; Rabenda, Véronique; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women and men with osteoporosis and therefore to assess if this recommendation is justified in terms of cost-effectiveness. A validated model for economic evaluations in osteoporosis was used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation compared with no treatment. The model was populated with cost and epidemiological data from a Belgian health-care perspective. Analyses were conducted in women and men with a diagnosis of osteoporosis (i.e. bone mineral density T-score ≤-2.5). A literature search was conducted to describe the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in terms of fracture risk reduction. The cost per QALY gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation was estimated at €40 578 and €23 477 in women and men aged 60 years, respectively. These values decreased to €7912 and €10 250 at the age of 70 years and vitamin D and calcium supplementation was cost-saving at the age of 80 years, meaning that treatment cost was less than the costs of treating osteoporotic fractures of the no-treatment group. This study suggests that vitamin D and calcium supplementation is cost-effective for women and men with osteoporosis aged over 60 years. From an economic perspective, vitamin D and calcium should therefore be administrated in these populations including those also taking other osteoporotic treatments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. The hidden cost of investment. The impact of adjustment costs on firm performance measurement and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick, Sebastian; Wetzel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we address a major problem in the measurement of firm performance and the regulation of natural monopolies, namely the intertemporal character of long-term investment decisions. In specific, we focus on the impact of adjustment costs of investments on estimates of firms' technical and cost inefficiency. We apply nonparametric dynamic data envelopment analysis to investigate the dynamic inefficiency of electricity distribution and transmission companies in the US during the years 2004 to 2011 and compare our results with their static counterparts. Our empirical findings reveal that ignoring long-term investments and their corresponding adjustment costs does significantly distort both firm-specific and industrial inefficiency estimates and may thus create misleading incentives for the regulated firms to cut investments.

  19. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: A framework based on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Patrick; Fernandes da Silva, Miguel; Pettman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  20. The effect of costs and regulation on electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaf, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct econometric tests were performed to determine if state price regulation of public utilities has had a measurable impact on retail electricity prices. The results of both tests agree that, during the 1971-1985 period, average national electricity prices in each of the three major consuming sectors and the four Census regions were below the level which would have been preferred by profit-maximizing monopolists. Electricity consumers received price benefits during the sample period as a result of regulation. The first test of the effectiveness of state price regulation used a 'revealed preference' approach by comparing the actual prices set by regulatory commissioners with prices and outcomes predicted by three competing theories of regulatory motivation. The second test of the effectiveness of price regulation combined traditional cost function inputs with regulatory variables in reduced-form price equations to determine whether the amount of regulatory intensity, as measured by the number of staff members per regulated utility, is associated with declining electricity prices and whether appointed commissioners allow higher prices than elected commissioners

  1. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of astaxanthin rich feed supplement for animals from Phaffia rhodozyma yeast at low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtiza, Ayesha; Shatunova, Svetlana; Glukhareva, Tatiana; Kovaleva, Elena

    2017-09-01

    Dietary nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants can play a significant role in determining meat quality and also the growth rate of poultry or animal. Phaffia rhodozyma was grown on waste from brewery industry to produce astaxanthin rich feed supplements at a very low cost. Phaffia rhodozyma is yeast specie that has ability to produce carotenoids and approximately 80% of its total carotenoid content is astaxanthin, which is highly valuable carotenoid for food, feed and aquaculture industry. This study was carried out to test yeast extract of spent yeast from brewing industry waste (residual yeast) as potential nitrogen source for growth of Phaffia rhodozyma. Cultivation was carried out in liquid media prepared by yeast extracts and other components (glucose and peptone). Carotenoids from the biomass were released into biomass by suspending cells in DMSO for destruction of cells followed by extraction with petroleum ether. The extracted carotenoids were studied by spectrophotometry to identify and quantify astaxanthin and other carotenoids produced.

  3. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The science and regulations of probiotic food and supplement product labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Levy, Dan D

    2011-02-01

    Presented by the New York Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, the symposium "Probiotic Foods and Supplements: The Science and Regulations of Labeling," was held on June 12, 2010 at the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, the goals of which were to facilitate the exchange of ideas regarding labeling and substantiation of claims for probiotics among academic, industry, and regulatory professionals, and to discuss ways to translate and communicate research results in a truthful way to the consumer and to such health professionals as physicians, pharmacists, and dieticians. The target audience for this symposium included academicians interested in conducting research on the health benefits of probiotics; scientists; communications personnel, and regulatory specialists from companies involved in, or interested in, the marketing of probiotics; U.S. government regulatory experts tasked with oversight of probiotic foods and dietary supplement products; and other experts in the field interested in the development of probiotics for the U.S. market. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. 76 FR 35218 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Pricing Data, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit...; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost or Pricing Data... concerning cost or pricing data requirements and information other than cost or pricing data. Public comments...

  7. 76 FR 21851 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Construction and Architect-Engineer Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...://regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. To confirm receipt of your comment, please... impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and... terminated for default regardless of contract value. For Architect and Engineer (A&E) services, past...

  8. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications; or (2) Is protected at all times by... recommendation from the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) and the... assess all costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and, if regulation is necessary, to...

  9. 76 FR 57671 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... the title of the applicable Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fraud hotline poster and Web site(s... General Fraud Hotline Posters AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to require contractors to display the DoD fraud hotline poster in common work...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of food, supplement and environmental interventions to address malnutrition in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Cherie; Isenring, Elisabeth; Miller, Michelle; Marshall, Skye

    2018-05-01

    observational studies have shown that nutritional strategies to manage malnutrition may be cost-effective in aged care; but more robust economic data is needed to support and encourage translation to practice. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to compare the cost-effectiveness of implementing nutrition interventions targeting malnutrition in aged care homes versus usual care. residential aged care homes. systematic literature review of studies published between January 2000 and August 2017 across 10 electronic databases. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE were used to evaluate the quality of the studies. eight included studies (3,098 studies initially screened) reported on 11 intervention groups, evaluating the effect of modifications to dining environment (n = 1), supplements (n = 5) and food-based interventions (n = 5). Interventions had a low cost of implementation (<£2.30/resident/day) and provided clinical improvement for a range of outcomes including weight, nutritional status and dietary intake. Supplements and food-based interventions further demonstrated a low cost per quality adjusted life year or unit of physical function improvement. GRADE assessment revealed the quality of the body of evidence that introducing malnutrition interventions, whether they be environmental, supplements or food-based, are cost-effective in aged care homes was low. this review suggests supplements and food-based nutrition interventions in the aged care setting are clinically effective, have a low cost of implementation and may be cost-effective at improving clinical outcomes associated with malnutrition. More studies using well-defined frameworks for economic analysis, stronger study designs with improved quality, along with validated malnutrition measures are needed to confirm and increase confidence with these findings.

  11. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y

    2003-02-01

    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  12. Two wind power prognosis criteria and regulating power costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus S.; Ravn, Hans F.; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    . Basically, the choice is between focusing on predicting the energy content of the wind and focusing on the cost of buying regulating power to compensate for the prognosis errors. It will be shown that it can be expected that the two power curves thus estimated will differ, and that therefore also the hourly......The objective of the present work is to investigate the consequences of the choice of criterion in short-term wind power prognosis. This is done by investigating the consequences of choice of objective function in relation to the estimation of the power curve that is applied in the prognoses...... wind power production predicted will differ. In turn this will influence the operation and economics of the system. The consequences of this are illustrated by application to the integration of wind power in the Danish parts of the Nordpool area, using recent data. Using a regression analysis...

  13. The European Commission's light bulb decree: Another costly regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs-often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consumed will not only lead to lower energy cost for private households and industrial consumers, but at the same time lead to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. This article discusses possible reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs and shows that the investment in energy-efficient light bulbs does not necessarily lead to significant cost reductions. Drawing on some illustrative examples, we demonstrate that the use of cheaper incandescent bulbs instead of energy-saving light bulbs can be economically rational in cases of rather low usage times, in which the higher initial purchasing price might only pay off after very long time spans. Furthermore, due to the coexistence with the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), this regulation attains no additional emission reductions beyond those achieved by the ETS alone. We thus conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs is inappropriate and should be abolished by the Commission. - Research highlights: → This article discusses reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs. → We show that using incandescent bulbs can be rational in cases of rather low usage times. → We conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs should be abolished by the Commission.

  14. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A.B. Pedroso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss.

  15. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ...] RIN 9000-AL58 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices... Regulation (FAR) to align it with a Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency... the use of the clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices--Foreign Concerns, in...

  16. 77 FR 27550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ...] RIN 9000-AM25 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold AGENCY... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to revise the threshold for applicability of cost accounting standards in order to implement a recent rule of the Cost Accounting Standards Board and statutory...

  17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. Supplement 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Following a six-year effort, a major revision to the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (Safety Series No. 6) was issued in 1985. In order to address minor problems with the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, a panel of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency met from 13 to 17 January 1986. This panel considered minor inconsistencies, omissions or errors that had occurred in the course of preparing the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, and recommended that two types of change be made. First, changes which will correct errors in the presentation of the text, translation errors (in the French, Russian and Spanish versions of the 1985 Edition), and drafting which failed to express the intent of the panels which reviewed the previous edition of the Regulations; these minor changes are promulgated herewith by the authority of the Director General. Secondly, changes of detail which can only be introduced in accordance with the procedure approved by the Board of Governors on 22 September 1972, which authorizes the Director General to promulgate such changes after giving Governments not less than ninety days' notice and taking into account any comments that they make. Three changes of this second type were recommended by the panel, and were circulated according to the 'ninety-day rule' amendment procedure on 3 February 1986. Those changes which received unanimous support by Member States are included in this Supplement. Corrected text to the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6 (paragraphs, tables, etc.) is provided in this Supplement, and this corrected text supersedes the corresponding portions of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6.

  18. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  19. 76 FR 13327 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ..., Washington, DC 22202-2884. (ii) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fraud hotline poster identified in... _________ _________ _________ _________ (Contracting Officer shall insert-- (i) Title of applicable Department of Homeland Security fraud hotline...-AG98 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...

  20. 75 FR 71563 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Services of Senior Mentors (DFARS Case 2010-D025)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... mentoring, teaching, training, advice, and recommendations to senior military officers, staff, and students... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Services of Senior Mentors (DFARS Case 2010-D025) AGENCY: Defense... policy on the services of senior mentors. DATES: Effective: November 24, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. 75 FR 54527 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...-AG50 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels.... Section 825 clarifies the Government's rights in technical data in the designs of a DoD vessel, boat... cite DFARS Case 2008-D039. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background This final rule implements section...

  2. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012-2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Living in a higher-cost county-particularly one with high rent costs-was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living.

  3. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  4. A study of impact of cost-effective nutritional supplement in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rangarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis is always of concern as malnutrition predisposes to excess morbidity and mortality. Most of the nutritional supplements available in the market are expensive. We explored the possibility of improving nutrition of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis by supplementation of calories and proteins that can be given in the form of a palatable and economical gruel in this prospectively designed, open labeled study. Patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis (twice a week for a period of at least 6 months were divided into two groups. The study group was given the gruel supplement and the control group was not given the gruel supplement. Nutritional status was assessed in the study group and controls at 0 and 3 months by the following parameters: percentage body fat, mid arm muscle circumference and serum albumin. Analysis of results revealed that there was a significant decline in the protein intake at the end of the 3 rd month in the control group (P = 0.01. Other parameters did not show significant change at the end of the study period in both groups. The nutritional supplement can be assumed to have helped at least in the maintenance of protein intake over this short period and could possibly in the long run contribute to improvement of nutritional parameters.

  5. 76 FR 14543 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ..., Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement... other than firm-fixed-price contracts (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and-material, and labor-hour...-reimbursement contracts and identifies the following three areas that the Defense Acquisition Regulation Council...

  6. Carotenoid supplementation and retinoic acid in immunoglobulin A regulation of the gut microbiota dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yi; Wu, Lei; Wang, Fang; Shen, Xinchun; Lin, Dingbo

    2018-04-01

    Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota. The present minireview summarizes the recent findings in the gut microbiota dysbiosis and dysfunction of immunoglobulin A induced by the imbalance of pathogenic bacteria and commensal microbiota. We also propose the potentials of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and astaxanthin, in the improvement of the gut immune system maturation and immunoglobulin A production, and the consequent promotion of the gut health. Impact statement The concept of carotenoid metabolism in the gut health has not been well established in the literature. Here, we review and discuss the roles of retinoic acid and carotenoids, including pro-vitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls in the maturation of the gut immune system and IgA production. This is the first review article about the carotenoid supplements and the metabolites in the regulation of the gut microbiome. We hope this review would provide a new direction for the management of the gut microbiota dysbiosis by application of bioactive carotenoids and the metabolites.

  7. [Labeling of vitamin and mineral supplements: a revision of the federal normative regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Patricia Borges; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, there is a steadily increasing offer and demand for products on the basis of vitamins and minerals. According to Brazilian law, the differences in the dosages offered to the consumer in each product are the parameter for its classification as alimentary supplement or medicament. The limit between these two concepts, however, is confusing and lacks clearness. Considering the risk posed by imprudent consumption of such products and seeking to facilitate the interpretation and consolidation of the norms dealing with vitamin and mineral products as well as to create the basis for a master's degree dissertation, a bibliographical survey and evaluation of the entire juridical basis regarding the labeling of these products was conducted. It was concluded that the normative regulations are extensive, complex and of difficult understanding, with a great number of norms dealing with the same subject issued by different authorities. These norms are not consolidated leading to difficult interpretation by retailers, health professionals and consumers and even to failures in the application of these norms by the control authorities. Suggestions are made for helping to correct the failures identified in the study.

  8. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  9. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... protein) synthesis by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kurstaki HD-73 and indigenous Bt JSc1 harboring potential ... The cost of raw materials is one of the principal costs involved .... t- test analysis, the final formulation of the medium was 10% ..... ratio interacts with initial concentration of total solids on insecticidal.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of age-related macular degeneration study supplements in the UK: combined trial and real-world outcomes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Y; Butt, Thomas; Chew, Emily; Agron, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E; Egan, Catherine A; Lee, Cecilia S; Tufail, Adnan

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 1 & 2 supplements in patients with either bilateral intermediate age-related macular degeneration, AREDS category 3, or unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration AMD (nAMD), AREDS category 4. A patient-level health state transition model based on levels of visual acuity in the better-seeing eye was constructed to simulate the costs and consequences of patients taking AREDS vitamin supplements. UK National Health Service (NHS). The model was populated with data from AREDS and real-world outcomes and resource use from a prospective multicentre national nAMD database study containing 92 976 ranibizumab treatment episodes. Two treatment approaches were compared: immediate intervention with AREDS supplements or no supplements. quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs were accrued for each strategy, and incremental costs and QALYs were calculated for the lifetime of the patient. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were employed to test the uncertainty of the model. For AREDS category 3, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £30 197. For AREDS category 4 compared with no intervention, AREDS supplements are more effective (10.59 vs 10.43 QALYs) and less costly (£52 074 vs 54 900) over the lifetime of the patient. The recommendation to publicly fund AREDS supplements to category 3 patients would depend on the healthcare system willingness to pay. In contrast, initiating AREDS supplements in AREDS category 4 patients is both cost saving and more effective than no supplement use and should therefore be considered in public health policy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards... include pertinent rules and regulations related to the Cost Accounting Standards along with necessary... impact estimates and descriptions in cost accounting practices and also to provide information on CAS...

  12. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. A notice was published in the...- 0129, Cost Accounting Standards Administration by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http...

  13. Costs for frequency reserve and regulation power options in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The price for ancillary services that ensures an efficient use of resources is equal to the marginal costs of providing these services. In an expanding hydro power system there are two optimal designs for expansion; one design is optimal when ancillary services are not to be provided and another design is optimal when these services are to be provided. The right price for ancillary services cover the net difference in costs between the two designs. The difference in design in an expanding system is specific for that particular system and hence no general number can be specified. In an expanding hydro power system, the efficient price typically covers parts of the marginal investment costs for excess capacity in turbine and generator, but no investment costs for waterways and reservoirs

  14. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Rubilar, Rafael; Balmelli, Gustavo; Olmos, Virginia Morales; De La Torre, Rafael; Murara, Mauro; Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso; Kotze, Heynz; Frey, Gregory; Adams, Thomas; Turner, James; Lord, Roger; Huang, Jin; McGinley, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  15. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  16. Regulating financial markets: Costs and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Górnicka, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the interactions between the institutional design of financial systems, and the financial agents that regulatory institutions supervise. It explores the channels through which financial regulation affects financial agents’ lending, funding, and risk-taking decisions. By

  17. Commercial Vessel Safety. Economic Costs. Appendix A. Estimation Procedures for Costs and Cost Impacts of Marine Safety Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Subsistence: Includes the cost of all edibles , sales taxes, delivery charges, and loading costs. Stores, Supplies, and Equipment: The cost of all...consumable stores, supplies, and expendable equipment other than edibles , fuel, and water. 89 Insurance: Annual cost for H&M, P&I, and port risk for the...Products (50) 3441 3442 3444 3446 3449 105 Screw Machine Products (51) 3450 106 Metal Stampings (51) 3460 107 Cutlery , Hand Tools, Hardware (52) 3420

  18. Cost-effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in parenteral nutrition therapy in hospitals: a discrete event simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradelli, Lorenzo; Eandi, Mario; Povero, Massimiliano; Mayer, Konstantin; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Heller, Axel R; Fries-Schaffner, Eva

    2014-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in parenteral nutrition (PN) regimens is associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in infection rate, and length of hospital stay (LOS) in medical and surgical patients admitted to the ICU and in surgical patients not admitted to the ICU. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of omega-3 fatty acids to standard PN regimens in four European countries (Italy, France, Germany and the UK) from the healthcare provider perspective. Using a discrete event simulation scheme, a patient-level simulation model was developed, based on outcomes from the Italian ICU patient population and published literature. Comparative efficacy data for PN regimens containing omega-3 fatty acids versus standard PN regimens was taken from the meta-analysis of published randomised clinical trials (n = 23 studies with a total of 1502 patients), and hospital LOS reduction was further processed in order to split the reduction in ICU stay from that in-ward stays for patients admitted to the ICU. Country-specific cost data was obtained for Italian, French, German and UK healthcare systems. Clinical outcomes included in the model were death rates, nosocomial infection rates, and ICU/hospital LOS. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the reliability of results. PN regimens containing omega-3 fatty acids were more effective on average than standard PN both in ICU and in non-ICU patients in the four countries considered, reducing infection rates and overall LOS, and resulting in a lower total cost per patient. Overall costs for patients receiving PN regimens containing omega-3 fatty acids were between €14 144 to €19 825 per ICU patient and €5484 to €14 232 per non-ICU patient, translating into savings of between €3972 and €4897 per ICU patient and savings of between €561 and €1762 per non

  19. The Hidden Cost of Regulation: The Administrative Cost of Reporting Serious Reportable Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Acharya, Bijay; Mort, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    More than half of the 50 states (27) and the District of Columbia require reporting of Serous Reportable Events (SREs). The goal is to hold providers accountable and improve patient safety, but there is little information about the administrative cost of this reporting requirement. This study was conducted to identify costs associated with investigating and reporting SREs. This qualitative study used case study methods that included interviewing staff and review of data and documents to investigate each SRE occurring at one academic medical center during fiscal year 2013. A framework of tasks and a model to categorize costs was created. Time was summarized and costs were estimated for each SRE. The administrative cost to process 44 SREs was estimated at $353,291, an average cost of $8,029 per SRE, ranging $6,653 for an environmental-related SRE to $21,276 for a device-related SRE. Care management SREs occurred most frequently, costing an average $7,201 per SRE. Surgical SREs, the most expensive on average, cost $9,123 per SRE. Investigation of events accounted for 64.5% of total cost; public reporting, 17.2%; internal reporting, 10.2%; finance and administration, 6.0%; and 2.1%, other. Even with 26 states mandating reporting, the 17.2% incremental cost of public reporting is substantial. Policy makers should consider the opportunity costs of these resources, averaging $8,029 per SRE, when mandating reporting. The benefits of public reporting should be collectively reviewed to ensure that the incremental costs in this resource-constrained environment continue to improve patient safety and that trade-offs are acknowledged. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Advertising, Agricultural research, Cotton, Marketing agreements, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements... supplemental assessments collected for use by the Cotton Research and Promotion Program. An amendment is..., Chief, Research and Promotion Staff, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, AMS, USDA, 100 Riverside Parkway...

  1. Cost regulation on the inspection of plants requiring supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    According to annexes I to VI of this regulation, TUeVs (technical control authorities) (2nd sentence of para. 1 of sect. 24 c of the trade law) collect fees for inspections ordered by the authorities for the following plants and installations: 1. steam boiler plants, 2. pressure vessels, high-pressure gas vessels, feeders, 3. lifts, 4. acetylene plants, 5. plants for the storage, racking and transport of combustile liquids, 6. electrical installations on hazardous location. (orig.) [de

  2. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  4. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training, and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. CONCLUSION: The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.

  5. Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hon, G.; Wang, H. [The International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT, Beijing (China); Tsimplis, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate

  6. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF A 3-MONTH INTERVENTION WITH ORAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS IN DISEASE RELATED MALNUTRITION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Norman , Kristina; Pirlich , Matthias; Smoliner , Christine; Kilbert , Anne; Schulzke , Jörg-Dieter; Ockenga , Johann; Lochs , Herbert; Reinhold , Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nutritional intervention with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) has been shown to increase quality of life in malnourished patients. We investigated whether post-hospital supplementation with ONS is cost-effective according to international benchmarks in malnourished patients. Methods: 114 malnourished patients (50.6?16.1 years, 63 female) with benign gastrointestinal disease were included and randomised to receive either ONS for three months and dietary co...

  7. 76 FR 61296 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Contracting With the Canadian Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... rule implements a recommendation of a bilateral integrated product team on cost or pricing data..., redefined ``cost or pricing data'' to mean all cost or pricing data and added a new term for ``certified... pricing data'' was generally replaced with the new term ``certified cost or pricing data.'' The same final...

  8. Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Jongeneel, R.; Brouwer, F.M.; Dillen, K.; Meister, A.; Winsten, J.; Roest, de K.; Demont, M.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAPreform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm

  9. 78 FR 6189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor Excise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... 9000-AM13 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor... contractor in order to reimburse the tax imposed (26 U.S.C. 5000C Note). On February 22, 2012, DoD, GSA, and... with the statute, FAR 31.205-41 is amended to inform the Government and contractors that the costs of...

  10. SOR 90-190, 22 March 1990, AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    These Regulations entered into force on 1 April 1990. They were made pursuant to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and prescribe the legal obligations to pay fees imposed on applicants for and holders of licences from the Atomic Energy Control Board - AECB. The purpose of the Regulations is to shift the cost of government service from the general taxpayer to the users and to those who specifically benefit from the services. (NEA) [fr

  11. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  12. [International reference prices and cost minimization analysis for the regulation of medicine prices in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Caludia; Acosta, Angela; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    To suggest a scheme of decision making on pricing for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime, a regulation way of the pharmaceutical pricing policy in Colombia. It includes two regulation tools: international reference prices and a cost minimization analysis methodology. Following the current pricing policy, international reference prices were built with data from five countries for selected medicines, which are under Free Regulated Regime. The cost minimization analysis methodology includes selection of those medicines under Free Regulated Regime with possible comparable medicines, selection of comparable medicines, and treatment costs evaluation. As a result of the estimate of International Reference Prices, four medicines showed in the domestic pharmaceutical market a bigger price than the Reference Price. A scheme of decision-making was design containing two possible regulation tools for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime: estimate of international reference prices and cost minimization analysis methodology. This diagram would be useful to assist the pricing regulation of Free Regulated Regime in Colombia. As present results shows, international reference prices make clear when domestic prices are higher than those of reference countries. In the current regulation of pharmaceutical prices in Colombia, the international reference price has been applied for four medicines. Would be suitable to extend this methodology to other medicines of high impact on the pharmaceutical expenditure, in particular those covered by public funding. The availability of primary sources about treatment costs in Colombia needs to be improved as a requirement to develop pharmaco-economic evidence. SISMED is an official database that represents an important primary source of medicines prices in Colombia. Nevertheless, having into account that SISMED represents an important advantage of transparency in medicines prices, it needs to be improved in quality and data

  13. Cost estimation using ministerial regulation of public work no. 11/2013 in construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumsari, Putri; Juliastuti; Khalifah Al'farisi, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    One of the first tasks in starting a construction project is to estimate the total cost of building a project. In Indonesia there are several standards that are used to calculate the cost estimation of a project. One of the standards used in based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. However in a construction project, contractor often has their own cost estimation based on their own calculation. This research aimed to compare the construction project total cost using calculation based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013 against the contractor’s calculation. Two projects were used as case study to compare the results. The projects were a 4 storey building located in Pantai Indah Kapuk area (West Jakarta) and a warehouse located in Sentul (West Java) which was built by 2 different contractors. The cost estimation from both contractors’ calculation were compared to the one based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. It is found that there were differences between the two calculation around 1.80 % - 3.03% in total cost, in which the cost estimation based on Ministerial Regulation was higher than the contractors’ calculations.

  14. 76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... requirements previously approved. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 1205 Advertising, Agricultural research... purpose of calculating supplemental assessments collected for use by the Cotton Research and Promotion...: Effective Date: September 30, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shethir M. Riva, Chief, Research and...

  15. The Effect of Concrete Supplements on Metacognitive Regulation during Learning and Open-Book Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Rakefet; Leiser, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that when reading texts, lower achievers are more sensitive than their stronger counterparts to surface-level cues, such as graphic illustrations, and that even when uninformative, such concrete supplements tend to raise the text's subjective comprehensibility. Aims: We examined how being led astray…

  16. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  17. 78 FR 73472 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Application of Certain Clauses to Acquisitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    .... 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of... WorkFlow Payment Instructions, as prescribed in 232.7004(b). * * * * * PART 232--CONTRACT FINANCING 0 4...

  18. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  19. Estimates and implications of the costs of compliance with biosafety regulations in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Zepeda, Jose; Yorobe, Jose; Husin, Bahagiawati Amir; Manalo, Abraham; Lokollo, Erna; Ramon, Godfrey; Zambrano, Patricia; Sutrisno

    2012-01-01

    Estimating the cost of compliance with biosafety regulations is important as it helps developers focus their investments in producer development. We provide estimates for the cost of compliance for a set of technologies in Indonesia, the Philippines and other countries. These costs vary from US $100,000 to 1.7 million. These are estimates of regulatory costs and do not include product development or deployment costs. Cost estimates need to be compared with potential gains when the technology is introduced in these countries and the gains in knowledge accumulate during the biosafety assessment process. Although the cost of compliance is important, time delays and uncertainty are even more important and may have an adverse impact on innovations reaching farmers.

  20. Positive muscle protein net balance and differential regulation of atrogene expression after resistance exercise and milk protein supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean...... body mass), or a non-caloric control after heavy resistance exercise on protein turnover and mRNA expressions of forkhead homeobox type O (FOXO) isoforms, muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), and Atrogin1 in young healthy males. Methods Protein turnover was determined by stable isotope-labeled leucine...

  1. 78 FR 18865 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Proposal Adequacy Checklist (DFARS Case 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... inconsistencies with your established estimating and accounting principles and procedures?'' Checklist item 4 is... costs?'' and now includes the list of eight sample factors that appear in the definition of ``cost or... 10 has added the phrase ``including breakdown by year'' after ``consistent with your cost accounting...

  2. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... alternate, and to include in the regulation the full text of the alternate clause. DATES: Comment date... provide each alternate clause in full text in the regulation. The inclusion of the full text of the... from from the basic clause. Placing the alternate clause in full text in the regulation will clarify...

  3. Regional differences in electricity distribution costs and their consequences for yardstick regulation of access prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wild, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 59 Swiss local and regional electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Shleifer (1985) proposed yardstick competition in terms of price to regulate local monopolies producing a homogeneous good. The regulated price for the individual firms depends on the average costs of identical firms. The yardstick competition concept can also be applied to firms that produce heterogeneous goods if these goods differ only in observable characteristics. To correct the yardstick for heterogeneity the regulator can use a multivariate estimation of an average-cost function. In the case of electricity distribution, the heterogeneity of output consists mainly of different characteristics of the distribution service areas. In this paper we follow Shleifer's suggestion to estimate a multivariate average-cost function that can be employed by the regulatory commission to benchmark network access prices at the distribution level. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the cost model specification. We find that the regional differences of the service areas - e.g. area shares of forests, agricultural areas or unproductive land and population density - significantly influence electricity distribution costs

  4. Timing growth and development of Campanula by daily light integral and supplemental light level in a cost-efficient light control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    light control system (DynaLight desktop) automatically defines the most cost-efficient use of supplemental light based on predefined setpoints for daily photosynthesis integral (DPI), forecasted solar irradiance and the market price on electricity. It saves energy in high-cost periods of electricity......Two campanula species Campanula portenschlagiana (‘Blue Get Mee’) and Campanula cochlearifolia (‘Blue Wonder’) were grown in a cost-efficient light control system and the effect of supplemental light level and daily light integral (DLI) on growth and development was quantified. The alternative...... the number of flowers and buds and CLI in ‘Blue Get Mee’. The results demonstrate that DLI was the main limiting factor for prediction of growth and development when two campanula species were grown in a cost-efficient light control system where the number of daily light hours was often below the critical...

  5. 78 FR 28780 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... clause at FAR 52.244-2, Subcontracts. (1) Unallowability of costs of rework and corrective action. A new... cost of rework or corrective action that may be required to remedy the use or inclusion of such parts... such products and for any rework or corrective action that may be required to remedy the use or...

  6. 78 FR 28793 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules... contractors, and therefore require relocation to the DFARS. The objective of this rule is to provide direction... of noncompetitive contract awards to small business entities that exceed $10,000 and use FMS funds...

  7. 76 FR 38048 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Pilot Program for Acquisition of Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... under the cost accounting standards prescribed pursuant to section 26 of the Office of Federal... conflict with this rule. There are no known significant alternatives to the rule. Accordingly, DoD does not... pricing data; (2) Exempt from the cost accounting standards under section 26 of the Office of Procurement...

  8. 76 FR 38047 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Restrictions on the Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... work) in excess of $1 million, if the contractor restricts its employees to arbitration for claims... both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules, and of promoting flexibility. This is... rule under 5 U.S.C. 804. III. Regulatory Flexibility Act The Regulatory Flexibility Act does not apply...

  9. 76 FR 72327 - NASA Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Responsibility, Suspension and Debarment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    .... 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of..., was not subject to review under section 6(b) of E.O. 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, dated... require the approval of the Office of Management and Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C...

  10. 76 FR 23504 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Multiple-Award Contract (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of..., was not subject to review under Section 6(b) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review... collection requirements that require the approval of the Office of Management and Budget under the Paperwork...

  11. 78 FR 28785 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Only One Offer-Further Implementation (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... certified cost or pricing data from the Canadian Commercial Corporation. DATES: Comment date: Comments on... than certified cost or pricing data from the Canadian Commercial Corporation. This case is a follow-on... & Logistics in a memorandum dated November 3, 2010, Implementation Directive for Better Buying Power...

  12. 76 FR 75512 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Proposal Adequacy Checklist (DFARS Case 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... of certified cost or pricing data. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule should be submitted in... of DoD's Better Buying Power initiatives by incorporating the requirement for a proposal adequacy... require the submission of certified cost or pricing data. II. Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 Executive...

  13. 76 FR 14587 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Multiyear Contract Authority for Electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... cost effectiveness of the proposed purchase has been made based upon a business case analysis, and (2... determined, on the basis of a business case analysis prepared by DoD, that-- (1) The proposed purchase of electricity under such contract is cost effective; and (2) It would not be possible to purchase electricity...

  14. 78 FR 76067 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules...) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply chain integrity, enhance cyber security, and combat counterfeiting. 0 3. Section 211.274-2 is amended by-- 0 a. Revising the section...

  15. 76 FR 64885 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Accounting Procedures manual, along with a hyperlink to the URL. It is not necessary to add condition code...D items and will be available to users in the logistics, financial, and property accountability... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules...

  16. Inefficient national environmental regulation as a signal of high abatement costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyses the importance of informational asymmetries in international environmental regulation by use of a game theoretic approach of signaling games. More specific it analysis whether it is possible for a government to try to extract higher compensation in an international unidirectoral environmental problem. This may be possible when the national environmental regulation carries a signal of the cost of the regulated industry. In this case the government e.g. by means of inefficient environmental regulation on a national level may try to signal high abatement costs. In spite of the fact that many international environmental problems seem to be solvable by the use of financial payments there are only few examples that compensation payment arrangements have been implemented. As many countries and especially many polluting firms possess better information about abatement costs than the countries that receive the pollution, it is worthwhile to include asymmetric information. Consequently, this paper analyses whether the introduction of asymmetric information about abatement costs may bring forward incentives to misrepresent the true abatement cost in order to capture more compensation. If these incentives turn out to be present, it may explain some of the suspicion against using financial payment in order to induce other countries to join an agreement. The analysis shows that it may indeed be the case that the expected gain from cheating is so large that it gives incentives to use an inefficient national environmental policy. (au) 13 refs.

  17. Storage of oil above ground for underground: Regulations, costs, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Driscoll, W.; Ameer, P.; Watson, S.

    1993-01-01

    Some owners of underground storage tank systems (USTs) appear to be replacing their systems with aboveground storage tank systems (ASTs) without full knowledge of the US Government environmental regulations that apply to facilities with ASTs, and their associated costs. This paper discusses the major federal regulatory requirements for USTs and ASTS, and presents the compliance costs for new tank systems that range in capacity from 1,000 to 10,000 gallons. The costs of two model UST system and two model AST systems are considered for new oil storage capacity, expansion of existing capacity, and replacement of an existing UST or AS T. For new capacity, ASTs are less expensive than USTs, although ASTs do have significant regulatory compliance costs that range from an estimated $8,000 to $14,000 in present value terms, depending on the size and type of system. For expanded or replacement capacity, ASTs are in all but one case less expensive than USTS; the exception is the expansion of capacity at an existing UST facility. In this case, the cost of a protected steel tank UST system is comparable to the cost of an AST system. Considering the present value of all costs over a 30 year useful life, the cost for an AST with a concrete dike is less than the cost of an AST with an earthen dike, for the tank sizes considered. This is because concrete dikes are cost competitive for small tanks, and the costs to clean up a release are higher for earthen dikes, due to the cost of disposal and replacement of oil-contaminated soil. The cost analyses presented here are not comprehensive, and are intended primarily for illustrative purposes. Only the major costs of tank purchase, installation, and regulatory compliance were considered

  18. 77 FR 2679 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Order of Application for Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... following methods: [cir] Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments via the Federal e... contract. In order to determine the sequence of modifications to a contract or order, a method for... the numeric order of the modifications to a contract is not the order in which the changes to the...

  19. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ..., Newport, RI. Mississippi Flyway Council: July 22-23, Crowne Plaza, Little Rock, AR. Central Flyway Council... with two splits or four zones) for use during the 2011-12 regulations cycle season (see the April 8... configurations through the 2012 regulations cycle. The Central and Pacific Flyway Councils recommended extending...

  20. 77 FR 76938 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Contracting Activity Updates (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Security Cooperation Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Missile... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 202 RIN 0750-AH81 Defense...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is...

  1. 76 FR 71922 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ..., using any of the following methods: [cir] Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments... Training 252.209-7003, Reserve Officer Corps and Military Recruiting on Training Corps and Military Campus. Recruiting on Campus-- Representation. 252.216-7000, Economic Price 252.216-70XX, Economic Price Adjustment...

  2. Report on Contractual Flow Down Provisions in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Each subcontract required non- disclosure agreements (NDAs) with the prime. 5 2. Flow-Down Clauses FAR/DFARS flow-down clauses derive from the...unusual for the prime contractor to only account for 10–20 percent of the total MDAP cost. Subcontractors—inclusive of basic parts and material suppliers...that feed the upper tiers of the supply chain— account for the bulk of the defense industrial base.7 MDAP prime contractors are often viewed as

  3. Small Molecule Supplements Improve Cultured Megakaryocyte Polyploidization by Modulating Multiple Cell Cycle Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaojing; Qu, Mingyi; Fang, Fang; Fan, Zeng; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Xie, Xiaoyan; Pei, Xuetao

    2017-01-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs) that completed differentiation and endomitosis. Endomitosis is an important process in which the cell replicates its DNA without cytokinesis and develops highly polyploid MK. In this study, to gain a better PLTs production, four small molecules (Rho-Rock inhibitor (RRI), nicotinamide (NIC), Src inhibitor (SI), and Aurora B inhibitor (ABI)) and their combinations were surveyed as MK culture supplements for promoting polyploidization. Three leukemia cell lines as well as primary mononuclear cells were chosen in the function and mechanism studies of the small molecules. In an optimal culture method, cells were treated with different small molecules and their combinations. The impact of the small molecules on megakaryocytic surface marker expression, polyploidy, proliferation, and apoptosis was examined for the best MK polyploidization supplement. The elaborate analysis confirmed that the combination of SI and RRI together with our MK induction system might result in efficient ploidy promotion. Our experiments demonstrated that, besides direct downregulation on the expression of cytoskeleton protein actin, SI and RRI could significantly enhance the level of cyclins through the suppression of p53 and p21. The verified small molecule combination might be further used in the in vitro PLT manufacture and clinical applications.

  4. Small Molecule Supplements Improve Cultured Megakaryocyte Polyploidization by Modulating Multiple Cell Cycle Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets (PLTs are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs that completed differentiation and endomitosis. Endomitosis is an important process in which the cell replicates its DNA without cytokinesis and develops highly polyploid MK. In this study, to gain a better PLTs production, four small molecules (Rho-Rock inhibitor (RRI, nicotinamide (NIC, Src inhibitor (SI, and Aurora B inhibitor (ABI and their combinations were surveyed as MK culture supplements for promoting polyploidization. Three leukemia cell lines as well as primary mononuclear cells were chosen in the function and mechanism studies of the small molecules. In an optimal culture method, cells were treated with different small molecules and their combinations. The impact of the small molecules on megakaryocytic surface marker expression, polyploidy, proliferation, and apoptosis was examined for the best MK polyploidization supplement. The elaborate analysis confirmed that the combination of SI and RRI together with our MK induction system might result in efficient ploidy promotion. Our experiments demonstrated that, besides direct downregulation on the expression of cytoskeleton protein actin, SI and RRI could significantly enhance the level of cyclins through the suppression of p53 and p21. The verified small molecule combination might be further used in the in vitro PLT manufacture and clinical applications.

  5. Hyaluronan supplementation as a mechanical regulator of cartilage tissue development under joint-kinematic-mimicking loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yabin; Stoddart, Martin J; Wuertz-Kozak, Karin; Grad, Sibylle; Alini, Mauro; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    Articular cartilage plays an essential role in joint lubrication and impact absorption. Through this, the mechanical signals are coupled to the tissue's physiological response. Healthy synovial fluid has been shown to reduce and homogenize the shear stress acting on the cartilage surfaces due to its unique shear-thinning viscosity. As cartilage tissues are sensitive to mechanical changes in articulation, it was hypothesized that replacing the traditional culture medium with a healthy non-Newtonian lubricant could enhance tissue development in a cartilage engineering model, where joint-kinematic-mimicking mechanical loading is applied. Different amounts of hyaluronic acid were added to the culture medium to replicate the viscosities of synovial fluid at different health states. Hyaluronic acid supplementation, especially at a physiologically healthy concentration (2.0 mg ml -1 ), promoted a better preservation of chondrocyte phenotype. The ratio of collagen II to collagen I mRNA was 4.5 times that of the control group, implying better tissue development (however, with no significant difference of measured collagen II content), with a good retention of collagen II and proteoglycan in the mechanically active region. Simulating synovial fluid properties by hyaluronic acid supplementation created a favourable mechanical environment for mechanically loaded constructs. These findings may help in understanding the influence of joint articulation on tissue homeostasis, and moreover, improve methods for functional cartilage tissue engineering. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... relating to wear and tear or deterioration, or to the extent the loss or damage is caused by negligence of... negligence of Government personnel; or (ii) Twenty percent of the price or estimated cost of this contract...

  7. 76 FR 58150 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement; Discussions Prior to Contract Award (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... addressing valid industry concerns and a constructive alternative to protests resulting from industry... able to avoid the costs associated with protesting. The rule does not duplicate, overlap, or conflict...

  8. 75 FR 8272 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... limited to, cost-effective measures intended to achieve the following: (i) Competitive prototyping. (ii... subsystems. (v) Use of modular, open architectures to enable competition for upgrades. (vi) Use of build-to...

  9. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances (BImSchG) and supplementing regulations. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    This handy booklet contains the BImSchG and related implementing regulations as well as the Technical Codes Clean Air and Noise Abatement. The contribution on the BImSchG explains the origin of the Act, the scope of application, its concept and principles. The contents of the Act is portrayed by emphasizing subject-related connections. Dealt with are also regulations for installations requiring licensing, the measurement of airborne pollution, stipulations concerning the area of installations and transport, as well as the regulation concerning the monitoring of airborne pollution in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  10. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances (BImSchG) and supplementing regulations. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1992-01-01

    This handy booklet contains the BImSchG and related implementing regulations as well as the Technical Codes Clean Air and Noise Abatement. The contribution on the BImSchG explains the origin of the Act, the scope of application, its concept and principles. The contents of the Act is portrayed by emphasizing subject-related connections. Dealt with are also regulations for installations requiring licensing, the measurement of airborne pollution, stipulations concerning the area of installations and transport, as well as the regulation concerning the monitoring of airborne pollution in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  11. Cost-benefit comparison of nuclear and nonnuclear health and safety protective measures and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.P.; Mauro, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This article compares the costs and benefits of health and safety measures and regulations in the nuclear and nonnuclear fields. A cost-benefit methodology for nuclear safety concerns is presented and applied to existing nuclear plant engineered safety features. Comparisons in terms of investment costs to achieve reductions in mortality rates are then made between nuclear plant safety features and the protective measures and regulations associated with nonnuclear risks, particularly with coal-fired power plants. These comparisons reveal a marked inconsistency in the cost effectiveness of health and safety policy, in which nuclear regulatory policy requires much greater investments to reduce the risk of public mortality than is required in nonnuclear areas where reductions in mortality rates could be achieved at much lower cost. A specific example of regulatory disparity regarding gaseous effluent limits for nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants is presented. It is concluded that a consistent health and safety regulatory policy based on uniform risk and cost-benefit criteria should be adopted and that future proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory requirements should be critically evaluated from a cost-benefit viewpoint

  12. 78 FR 65214 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Only One Offer-Further Implementation (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... exclusions. In accordance with FAR 19.805-1, an acquisition offered to the SBA shall be awarded on the basis... certified cost or pricing data is covered in FAR 15.4 and associated clauses in 52.215, OMB clearance 9000... 15.4 and associated clauses in FAR 52.215, and in OMB clearance 9000-013, Cost or Pricing Data...

  13. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  14. Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

  15. 77 FR 10461 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor Excise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor Excise Tax AGENCIES.... Additionally, the law stipulates that no funds are to be disbursed to any foreign contractor in order to... payment. Additionally, the law stipulates that no funds are to be disbursed to any foreign contractor in...

  16. Chromatographic fingerprinting as a strategy to identify regulated plants in illegal herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, D; Van Praag, N; Courselle, P; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently rigid erection. Despite the availability of non-invasive oral treatment options, many patients turn to herbal alternatives. Furthermore, herbal supplements are increasingly gaining popularity in industrialized countries and, as a consequence, quality control is a highly important issue. Unfortunately, this is not a simple task since plants are often crushed and mixed with other plants, which complicates their identification by usage of classical approaches such as microscopy. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of chromatographic fingerprinting to identify plants present in herbal preparations intended for the treatment of ED. To achieve this goal, a HPLC-PDA and a HPLC-MS method were developed, using a full factorial experimental design in order to acquire characteristic fingerprints of three plants which are potentially beneficial for treating ED: Epimedium spp., Pausinystalia yohimbe and Tribulus terrestris. The full factorial design demonstrated that for all three plant references a C8 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5µm particle size) is best suited; methanol and an ammonium formate buffer (pH 3) were found to be the best constituents for the mobile phase. The suitability of this strategy was demonstrated by analysing several self-made triturations in three different botanical matrices, which mimic the influential effects that could be expected when analysing herbal supplements. To conclude, this study demonstrates that chromatographic fingerprinting could provide a useful means to identify plants in a complex herbal mixture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detailed analysis of costs of historical providers to be taken into account in natural gas regulated prices from the 1 July 2017. Report, 24 May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication first proposes an analysis of Engie costs regarding gas sale regulated prices. This comprises a presentation of the Engie cost structure, an analysis of coverage of costs by sales incomes, a presentation of supply costs and conditions for Engie, an analysis of supply-excluded provisional costs (distribution costs, transport costs, storage costs, commercial costs). The second part proposes a brief cost analysis for 5 other historical providers regarding regulated prices

  18. Capital Regulation, the Cost of Financial Intermediation and Bank Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to the recent global financial crisis, the regulatory authorities in many countries have imposed stringent capital requirements in the form of the BASEL III Accord to ensure financial stability. On the other hand, bankers have criticized new regulation on the ground that it would enhance the cost of funds for bank borrowers and deteriorate the bank profitability. In this study, we examine the impact of capital requirements on the cost of financial intermediation and bank profitability using a panel dataset of 32 Bangladeshi banks over the period from 2000 to 2015. By employing a dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM estimator, we find robust evidence that higher bank regulatory capital ratios reduce the cost of financial intermediation and increase bank profitability. The results hold when we use equity to total assets ratio as an alternative measure of bank capital. We also observe that switching from BASEL I to BASEL II has no measurable impact on the cost of financial intermediation and bank profitability in Bangladesh. In the empirical analysis, we further observe that higher bank management and cost efficiencies are associated with the lower cost of financial intermediation and higher bank profitability. These results have important implications for bank regulators, academicians, and bankers.

  19. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs... prospective contractors, and therefore require relocation to the DFARS. The objective of this rule is to...,000 and use FMS funds. There is no required reporting or recordkeeping. The rule requires the...

  20. 77 FR 30998 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., Government Property, DFARS section 211.274, Reporting of Government-Furnished Equipment in the DoD Item... surplus Government property. Under paragraph (b), a contractor may be directed by the plant clearance... plant clearance officer to purchase or retain Government property at less than cost if the plant...

  1. 76 FR 33170 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion of Option Amounts in Limitations on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ..., distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs... 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, dated September 30, 1993. This rule is not a major rule under 5 U... Management and Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. chapter 35). List of Subjects in 48 CFR...

  2. 76 FR 71467 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Defense Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2011-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... applications under the DoD Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program for new mentor-prot[eacute]g[eacute] agreements and the date mentors may incur costs and/or receive credit towards fulfilling their small business...

  3. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Defense Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2012-D024) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... applications under the DoD Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program for new mentor-prot[eacute]g[eacute] agreements and the date mentors may incur costs and/or receive credit towards fulfilling their small business...

  4. 78 FR 20624 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Identification Advance Shipment Notices AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (Do...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of... at 252.211; Radio Frequency Identification Advance Shipment Notices, OMB Control Number 0704-0434...

  5. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and for foreign firms in their supply chains. The U.S. concluded the DTC Treaties with Australia and... respondent commended the Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) Council on recognizing the importance of the... established a Management Board to resolve such issues, adopted a detailed management plan, and conducted...

  6. 76 FR 52139 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government; Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... responsibility for compliance with export control law and regulations a ``due diligence responsibility.'' DoD... clearance officer suspects data integrity issues; however, 245.602-1(2) has been clarified to specify... that the supplier name and part number be required for all items in Federal condition code A1 being...

  7. 75 FR 32640 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Finland- Public Interest Exception to the Buy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... procurement memorandum of understanding (RDP MOU) between the government of Finland and the Government of the United States has been in effect since 1991. The governments have negotiated and concluded a new RDP MOU... Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Therefore, 48...

  8. 78 FR 32686 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... special regulations. (5) Management scale for the harvest of migratory birds. We define management scale... comments in revising the document. The SEIS analyzes a range of management alternatives for addressing the... Representative, Division of Migratory Bird Management, (503) 231-6162; or Brad Bortner, Chief, Division of...

  9. 75 FR 33271 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Certain Contracts with Foreign Entities for the Conduct of Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development..., development, test, or evaluation in connection with the Ballistic Missile Defense Program. The provision... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System [OMB Control Number 0704-0229...

  10. 78 FR 15935 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. The Office of Management and... construction contract in Spain has adequate insurance coverage. Affected Public: Businesses or other for profit... construction contract in Spain. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. [FR Doc. 2013...

  11. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ..., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The Committee will also develop regulations recommendations for September waterfowl seasons in designated States, special sea duck seasons in the Atlantic Flyway, and... usually commence at 8 a.m. on the days indicated. Atlantic Flyway Council: July 18-19, Mystic Hilton...

  12. 78 FR 13547 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Contractor Personnel AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... (FY) 2009 and expand coverage on contractor requirements and responsibilities relating to alleged crimes by or against contractor personnel. DATES: Effective February 28, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  13. 77 FR 30368 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... arrangement, the Government would take title to the devices during contract performance or at the conclusion... rule will promote utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices, even when the Government does not take... Devices (DFARS Case 2011-D046) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD...

  14. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...., because the changes are to internal Government organization and operating procedures only. The rule... 48 CFR Part 207 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations... Life Cycle of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (DFARS Case 2009-D014) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  15. 77 FR 38736 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Czech Republic (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... consistent with national laws, regulations, policies, and international obligations. The agreement does not... Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland * * * * * 252.225-7012 [Amended] 0 7. Amend section 252.225... Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland * * * * * 252.225-7021 [Amended] 0 9...

  16. 75 FR 33752 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Conflicts of Interest in Major Defense Acquisition Programs AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... extended an additional 30 days to provide additional time for interested parties to review the proposed... interested parties to review the proposed DFARS changes. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  17. 77 FR 20598 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... commercial items, that includes the clause at 252.225-7001, Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program... Acquisitions of Commercial Items AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... acquisition of commercial items and to specify flowdown of clauses to commercial subcontracts. DATES: Comments...

  18. 75 FR 26739 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Part 244...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Control Number 0704-0253) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense. ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  19. 78 FR 70025 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... and Procedures AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  20. 76 FR 25566 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Electronic Ordering Procedures (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... officials to specify e-mail as an ``electronic commerce method'' so long as it is authorized in the schedule... recognized electronic commerce method. The respondent recommended, in the alternative, that the Government... stated that electronic commerce is a term specifically identified in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR...

  1. Tobacco Regulation and Cost-Benefit Analysis: How Should We Value Foregone Consumer Surplus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen G.; Norton, Edward C.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent tobacco regulations proposed by the Food and Drug Administration have raised a thorny question: how should the cost-benefit analysis accompanying such policies value foregone consumer surplus associated with regulation-induced reductions in smoking? In a model with rational and fully informed consumers, this question is straightforward. There is disagreement, however, about whether consumers are rational and fully informed, and the literature offers little practical guidance about what approach the FDA should use if they are not. In this paper, we outline the history of the FDA’s recent attempts to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products and how they have valued foregone consumer surplus in cost-benefit analyses. We advocate replacing the approach used in most of this literature, which first calculates health gains associated with regulation and then “offsets” them by some factor reflecting consumer surplus losses, with a more general behavioral public finance framework for welfare analysis. This framework applies standard tools of welfare analysis to consumer demand that may be “biased” (that is, not necessarily rational and fully informed) without requiring specific assumptions about the reason for the bias. This framework would require estimates of both biased and unbiased consumer demand; we sketch an agenda to help develop these in the context of smoking. The use of this framework would substantially reduce the confusion currently surrounding welfare analysis of tobacco regulation. PMID:29404381

  2. Energy abatement in Chinese industry: Cost evaluation of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X.H.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    For Chinese industry, the costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated by the method of directional distance function. These scenarios are based on the combinations of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives—the former are sectors and provinces, and the latter include the five principles of average, intensity share, absolute share, discriminatory absolute and discriminatory intensity. For all the scenarios, the quantitative impacts in terms of output potential loss are calculated and compared. Due to less output potential loss for all the allocation alternatives, the sector regulation strategy is shown to be more effective than the province regulation strategy. It is also demonstrated that, among all the scenarios considered, the sector regulation based on the intensity share principle and the province regulation based on the absolute share principle are the two optimal. The performances of energy abatement allocation of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans of China are assessed against the simulated scenarios. - Highlights: ► The costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated for Chinese industry. ► The impacts on all entities under all allocation alternatives are calculated and compared. ► The optimal scenarios for the different strategies are identified. ► The performances of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans are assessed.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrients on infant survival: analysis of data from MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Persson, Lars Åke; Ahmed, Shakil; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2015-05-28

    Absence of cost-effectiveness (CE) analyses limits the relevance of large-scale nutrition interventions in low-income countries. We analyzed if the effect of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) on infant survival represented value for money compared to invitation to food supplementation at usual time in pregnancy combined with iron-folic acid. Outcome data, infant mortality (IM) rates, came from MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, ISRCTN16581394). In MINIMat, women were randomized to early (E around 9 weeks of pregnancy) or usual invitation (U around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μgm of folic acid. In MINIMat, EMMS significantly reduced IM compared to UFe60F (U plus 60 mg iron 400 μgm Folic acid). We present incremental CE ratios for incrementing UFe60F to EMMS. Costing data came mainly from a published study. By incrementing UFe60F to EMMS, one extra IM could be averted at a cost of US$907 and US$797 for NGO run and government run CNCs, respectively, and at US$1024 for a hypothetical scenario of highest cost. These comparisons generated one extra life year (LY) saved at US$30, US$27, and US$34, respectively. Incrementing UFe60F to EMMS in pregnancy seems worthwhile from health economic and public health standpoints. Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab; ISRCTN16581394 ; Date of registration: Feb 16, 2009.

  4. Excited, Proud, and Accomplished: Exploring the Effects of Feedback Supplemented with Web-Based Peer Benchmarking on Self-Regulated Learning in Marketing Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, David

    2014-01-01

    This research explores and tests the effect of an innovative performance feedback practice--feedback supplemented with web-based peer benchmarking--through a lens of social cognitive framework for self-regulated learning. The results suggest that providing performance feedback with references to exemplary peer output is positively associated with…

  5. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and exercise in preventing injurious falls among older home-dwelling women: findings from an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R; Kolu, P; Raitanen, J; Valvanne, J; Kannus, P; Karinkanta, S; Sievänen, H; Uusi-Rasi, K

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and exercise, separately and combined, in preventing medically attended injurious falls among older home-dwelling Finnish women. Given a willingness to pay of €3,000 per injurious fall prevented, the exercise intervention had an 86 % probability of being cost-effective in this population. The costs of falling in older persons are high, both to the individual and to society. Both vitamin D and exercise have been suggested to reduce the risk of falls. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and exercise, separately and combined, in preventing medically attended injurious falls among older Finnish women. Economic evaluation was based on the results of a previously published 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) where 409 community-dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years were recruited into four groups: (1) no exercise + placebo (D-Ex-), (2) no exercise + vitamin D 800 IU/day (D+Ex-), (3) exercise + placebo (D-Ex+), and (4) exercise + vitamin D 800 IU/day (D+Ex+). The outcomes were medically attended injurious falls and fall-related health care utilization costs over the intervention period, the latter evaluated from a societal perspective based on 2011 unit costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated for the number of injurious falls per person-year prevented and uncertainty estimated using bootstrapping. Incidence rate ratios (95 % CI) for medically attended injurious falls were lower in both Ex+ groups compared with D-Ex-: 0.46 (0.22 to 0.95) for D-Ex+, 0.38 (0.17 to 0.81) for D+Ex+. Step-wise calculation of ICERs resulted in exclusion of D+Ex- as more expensive and less effective. Recalculated ICERs were €221 for D-Ex-, €708 for D-Ex+, and €3,820 for D+Ex+; bootstrapping indicated 93 % probability that each injurious fall avoided by D-Ex+ per person year costs €708. At a willingness to pay €3,000 per injurious fall prevented

  6. Organ acquisition cost centers Part I: medicare regulations--truth or consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, M

    2006-12-01

    Organ Acquisition Cost Centers (OACC) were designed to encourage and incentivize hospitals to provide transplantation services. The purpose of this article (Part I) is to familiarize transplant professionals and transplant center administrators with the regulations that govern OACC. An historical perspective of the evolution of these regulations is necessary to better understand the basic principles underlying this complex area of transplant finance. There is a wide variation in transplant center OACC reporting, suggesting under-reporting by some and overreporting by others. Correct reporting is essential since OACC are auditable. We have surveyed 13 audits by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of transplant center OACC in an attempt to identify trends in reporting practices by transplant centers that are not deemed acceptable by the OIG. We discuss these findings in the context of some basic definitions that refer specifically to cost accounting principles necessary for accurate reporting of OACC.

  7. Modeling the cost and benefit of proteome regulation in a growing bacterial cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; Pratim Pandey, Parth; Jain, Sanjay

    2018-07-01

    Escherichia coli cells differentially regulate the production of metabolic and ribosomal proteins in order to stay close to an optimal growth rate in different environments, and exhibit the bacterial growth laws as a consequence. We present a simple mathematical model of a growing-dividing cell in which an internal dynamical mechanism regulates the allocation of proteomic resources between different protein sectors. The model allows an endogenous determination of the growth rate of the cell as a function of cellular and environmental parameters, and reproduces the bacterial growth laws. We use the model and its variants to study the balance between the cost and benefit of regulation. A cost is incurred because cellular resources are diverted to produce the regulatory apparatus. We show that there is a window of environments or a ‘niche’ in which the unregulated cell has a higher fitness than the regulated cell. Outside this niche there is a large space of constant and time varying environments in which regulation is an advantage. A knowledge of the ‘niche boundaries’ allows one to gain an intuitive understanding of the class of environments in which regulation is an advantage for the organism and which would therefore favour the evolution of regulation. The model allows us to determine the ‘niche boundaries’ as a function of cellular parameters such as the size of the burden of the regulatory apparatus. This class of models may be useful in elucidating various tradeoffs in cells and in making in-silico predictions relevant for synthetic biology.

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Financial Regulation: Case Studies and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, John

    2015-01-01

    Some members of Congress, the D.C. Circuit, and legal academia are promoting a particular, abstract form of cost-benefit analysis for financial regulation: judicially enforced quantification. How would CBA work in practice, if applied to specific, important, representative rules, and what is the alternative? Detailed case studies of six rules – (1) disclosure rules under Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404, (2) the SEC’s mutual fund governance reforms, (3) Basel III’s heightened capital requirements f...

  9. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  10. 75 FR 34283 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-025, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Regulation (FAR) to align the FAR with the revised Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure....230-4 is replaced in its entirety and re-titled ``Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting...) Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-- Foreign Concerns. (1) The contracting officer shall...

  11. Regulation of carnitine status in ruminants and efficacy of carnitine supplementation on performance and health aspects of ruminant livestock: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, Robert; Keller, Janine; Eder, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Carnitine has long been known to play a critical role for energy metabolism. Due to this, a large number of studies have been carried out to investigate the potential of supplemental carnitine in improving performance of livestock animals including ruminants, with however largely inconsistent results. An important issue that has to be considered when using carnitine as a feed additive is that the efficacy of supplemental carnitine is probably dependent on the animal's carnitine status, which is affected by endogenous carnitine synthesis, carnitine uptake from the gastrointestinal tract and carnitine excretion. The present review aims to summarise the current knowledge of the regulation of carnitine status and carnitine homeostasis in ruminants, and comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of carnitine supplementation on performance and/or health in ruminant livestock by comparing the outcomes of studies with carnitine supplementation in dairy cattle, growing and finishing cattle and sheep. While most of the studies show that supplemental carnitine, even in ruminally unprotected form, is bioavailable in ruminants, its effect on either milk or growth performance is largely disappointing. However, supplemental carnitine appears to be a useful strategy to offer protection against ammonia toxicity caused by consumption of high levels of non-protein N or forages with high levels of soluble N both, in cattle and sheep.

  12. Can re-regulation reservoirs and batteries cost-effectively mitigate sub-daily hydropeaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Nowak, W.; Anindito, Y.; Olivares, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    To compensate for mismatches between generation and load, hydropower plants frequently operate in strong hydropeaking schemes, which is harmful to the downstream ecosystem. Furthermore, new power market structures and variable renewable systems may exacerbate this behavior. Ecological constraints (minimum flows, maximum ramps) are frequently used to mitigate hydropeaking, but these stand in direct tradeoff with the operational flexibility required for integrating renewable technologies. Fortunately, there are also physical methods (i.e. re-regulation reservoirs and batteries) but to date, there are no studies about their cost-effectiveness for hydropeaking mitigation. This study aims to fill that gap. For this, we formulate an hourly mixed-integer linear optimization model to plan the weekly operation of a hydro-thermal-renewable power system from southern Chile. The opportunity cost of water (needed for this weekly scheduling) is obtained from a mid-term programming solved with dynamic programming. We compare the current (unconstrained) hydropower operation with an ecologically constrained operation. The resulting cost increase is then contrasted with the annual payments necessary for the physical hydropeaking mitigation options. For highly constrained operations, both re-regulation reservoirs and batteries show to be economically attractive for hydropeaking mitigation. For intermediate constrained scenarios, re-regulation reservoirs are still economic, whereas batteries can be a viable solution only if they become cheaper in future. Given current cost projections, their break-even point (for hydropeaking mitigation) is expected within the next ten years. Finally, less stringent hydropeaking constraints do not justify physical mitigation measures, as the necessary flexibility can be provided by other power plants of the system.

  13. The Regulation and Expression of the Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Schoch, Ryan D; Willoughby, Darryn; Greenwood, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize the increase within the intracellular pool of total creatine (creatin...

  14. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  15. Differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on level of student participation in supplemental instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Ana C.

    This study examined differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on levels of student participation in Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions in two introductory undergraduate biology and chemistry courses offered at University of Central Florida in the Spring 2006 semester. The sample consisted of 282 students enrolled in the biology class and 451 students enrolled in chemistry. Academic performance was measured using students' final course grades and rates of withdrawal from the courses. The self-regulated learning constructs of motivation, cognition, metacognition, and resource management were measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Relationships between students' gender and ethnic background and levels of SI participation were also analyzed in this research. Findings in both biology and chemistry courses revealed a statistically significant decrease in student motivation from beginning to end of semester. In chemistry, frequent SI participants also showed statistically significantly higher levels of motivation at the end of the semester than occasional and non-SI participants. There were no statistically significant gains in cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies from beginning to end of semester. However, statistically significant differences in resource management were observed at the end of the semester among SI attendance groups in both courses. Students in the high SI attendance group were more likely to use learning resources than those who did not participate regularly or did not participate at all. Statistically significant differences in academic performance based on students' SI participation were found in both biology and chemistry courses. Frequent SI participants had significantly higher final percentage grades and were more likely to receive grades of A, B, or C, than those who either did not attend SI regularly of did not participate at all. They were also less

  16. Relationship between degree of risk, cost and level of compliance to occupational health and safety regulations in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Olukemi Windapo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of statutory health and safety (H&S regulations in managing construction project risks. The study examines whether the decision made by contractors to comply with the regulations, the cost of compliance and savings of H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the degree or level of risk, which the regulations are trying to prevent. The rationale for the examination stems from previous studies which establish that building designers and contractors perceive the cost of complying with regulations as additional burdens, which they have to conform to, and which are in some cases unnecessary, and also the fact that construction related injuries and fatalities are on the increase. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a descriptive survey and H&S site audit by the Master Builder Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC were used as the measurements of risk, level of compliance to regulations, cost of compliance and savings. By correlating the quantitative and qualitative data, there is empirical evidence to support a negative relationship between the degree of risk, level and cost of compliance and cost savings. Based on the study’s findings, this paper concludes that the decision made by contractors to comply with H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the perceived cost saving on account of compliance and that cost savings are influenced by the probability of accident occurrence which is an element of the degree of risk which the regulation is trying to prevent or control. 

  17. Relationship between degree of risk, cost and level of compliance to occupational health and safety regulations in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Olukemi Windapo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of statutory health and safety (H&S regulations in managing construction project risks. The study examines whether the decision made by contractors to comply with the regulations, the cost of compliance and savings of H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the degree or level of risk, which the regulations are trying to prevent. The rationale for the examination stems from previous studies which establish that building designers and contractors perceive the cost of complying with regulations as additional burdens, which they have to conform to, and which are in some cases unnecessary, and also the fact that construction related injuries and fatalities are on the increase. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a descriptive survey and H&S site audit by the Master Builder Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC were used as the measurements of risk, level of compliance to regulations, cost of compliance and savings. By correlating the quantitative and qualitative data, there is empirical evidence to support a negative relationship between the degree of risk, level and cost of compliance and cost savings. Based on the study’s findings, this paper concludes that the decision made by contractors to comply with H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the perceived cost saving on account of compliance and that cost savings are influenced by the probability of accident occurrence which is an element of the degree of risk which the regulation is trying to prevent or control.

  18. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  19. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  20. Worldwide Anti-Money Laundering: Regulation: Estimating the Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    D. Masciandaro; R. Barone

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a simple framework for estimating the benefits and costs of anti-ML regulation, based on a prudent estimation of the economic value of worldwide money laundering. Using the multiplier model of the relationship between criminal markets revenues and money laundering activities and data for 2004, the value of money laundering is equal to US$1.2 trillion (2.7% of the world GDP), while the maximum theoretical benefit in combating money laundering using financial...

  1. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: a preliminary survey in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management

  2. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 4. Supplement 1: Cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.S.; Thompson, S.N.

    1978-05-01

    The costs for injecting 3 million gallons of waste/grout mix in 200,000-gallon batches over 2 years are estimated to be 9.75 million dollars (including direct, indirect, operational, and decommissioning costs)

  3. Early malnutrition screening and low cost protein supplementation in elderly patients admitted to a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Krystal M; Dyo, Melissa; Goebel, Joy R; Gorman, Nik; Levine, Julia

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition among skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients can lead to hospital readmissions and multiple complications. To evaluate the effect of an existing malnutrition screening and management program on prealbumin levels of patients in skilled nursing facilities. A retrospective design was used to evaluate baseline admission data including a prealbumin level. Patients with malnutrition received an oral protein supplement according to protocol. A comparison prealbumin level was obtained at 30days. Nearly half of the patients were severely malnourished on admission. Patients receiving the prescribed protocol had significantly increased prealbumin levels at 30days than those patients that did not receive the protocol as prescribed. A prealbumin level upon admission at a SNF could represent a reliable tool to evaluate malnutrition. Initiation of an early malnutrition screening and protein supplement program in this setting is essential to identifying and treating at-risk patients before complications occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple low cost differentiation of Candida auris from Candida haemulonii complex using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Sachu, Arun; Mohan, Karthika; Vinod, Vivek; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, Shamsul

    Candida auris is unique due to its multidrug resistance and misidentification as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Its correct identification is important to avoid inappropriate treatments. To develop a cheap method for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Fifteen C. auris isolates, six isolates each of C. haemulonii and Candida duobushaemulonii, and one isolate of Candida haemulonii var. vulnera were tested using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for better differentiation. On CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar all C. auris strains showed confluent growth of white to cream colored smooth colonies at 37°C and 42°C after 24 and 48h incubation and did not produce pseudohyphae. The isolates of the C. haemulonii complex, on the contrary, showed poor growth of smooth, light-pink colonies at 24h while at 48h the growth was semiconfluent with the production of pseudohyphae. C. haemulonii complex failed to grow at 42°C. We report a rapid and cheap method using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Audit report on GDF Suez supply costs in natural gas sale regulated tariffs. 4 April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation or CRE (legal framework, previously published opinion), this report first presents and comments the main evolutions of the European supply portfolio of GDF Suez in 2012: long term contracts to be negotiated again on significant volumes, a diversified portfolio with 30 per cent of short term purchases. In the second part, it analyses the adequacy between noticed and provisional supply costs on the one hand, and those estimated by means of the tariff formula for the calculation of natural gas sale regulated tariffs on the other hand. The third part gives recommendations regarding future decisions on the evolution of GDF-Suez natural gas regulated sale tariffs: discussion of the relevance of the formula used since January 2013, of perspectives for reviewing this tariff formula, of market share to be integrated, should the occasion occur, in the modified formula, and of the supply range to be taken into account

  6. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  7. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  8. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  9. Social cost-efficient service quality. Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation. Evidence from the case of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany); Jamasb, Tooraj [University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities. (author)

  10. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian, E-mail: c.growitsch@wik.or [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany); Jamasb, Tooraj [University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics (United Kingdom); Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  11. Audit report on GDF Suez's supply costs and non-supply related costs in natural gas regulated sale tariffs - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    After having recalled the legal context of objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), this report proposes an analysis of GDF Suez's dissociated accounting which showed that costs are covered by natural gas regulated sale tariffs. In the second part, it comments the current market indexing used in tariff formula, comments current and present negotiations and their consequences for the market indexing share in long term contracts, discusses the issue of tariff volatility related to an increased market indexing share, discusses the possible re-examination of indices at the occasion of formula reviewing, and outlines that the diversified supplier portfolio allows optimisation operations. The third part addresses non-supply related costs: evolution of different infrastructure costs (related to distribution, transport, and storage) to be taken into account in regulated sale tariffs, evolution of commercial costs. Some recommendations are then made regarding the perspective of a tariff formula revision, and the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  12. Economic benefits, external costs and the regulation of unconventional gas in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, Ian; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    We review the economic benefits and external costs of unconventional gas production (UCG) in the United States from a policy perspective. Based on an overview of state regulation in Pennsylvania, a state that has witnessed very rapid growth of gas production over the past 5 years, and global experiences we present 10 key principles that are proposed to reduce the risks and to increase the net rewards of UCG. Application of these principles has the potential to reduce the risks of UCG, especially at a local level, while maximizing the benefits of gas developments. - Highlights: • SWOT summary of unconventional gas developments. • Risks and returns of unconventional gas highlighted. • 10 principles given to reduce risks and increase rewards of gas extraction.

  13. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  14. The European Commission's light bulb decree: Another costly regulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel, E-mail: frondel@rwi-essen.de [Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), Ruhr-Graduate School in Economics (RGS Econ) (Germany); Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Lohmann, Steffen [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Tinbergen Institute (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs-often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consumed will not only lead to lower energy cost for private households and industrial consumers, but at the same time lead to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. This article discusses possible reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs and shows that the investment in energy-efficient light bulbs does not necessarily lead to significant cost reductions. Drawing on some illustrative examples, we demonstrate that the use of cheaper incandescent bulbs instead of energy-saving light bulbs can be economically rational in cases of rather low usage times, in which the higher initial purchasing price might only pay off after very long time spans. Furthermore, due to the coexistence with the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), this regulation attains no additional emission reductions beyond those achieved by the ETS alone. We thus conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs is inappropriate and should be abolished by the Commission. - Research Highlights: > This article discusses reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs. > We show that using incandescent bulbs can be rational in cases of rather low usage times. > We conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs should be abolished by the Commission.

  15. Future wind power forecast errors, need for regulating power, and costs in the Swedish system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Power Technology

    2011-07-01

    Wind power is one of the renewable energy sources in the electricity system that grows most rapid in Sweden. There are however two market challenges that need to be addressed with a higher proportion of wind power - that is variability and predictability. Predictability is important since the spot market Nord Pool Spot requires forecasts of production 12 - 36 hours ahead. The forecast errors must be regulated with regulating power, which is expensive for the actors causing the forecast errors. This paper has investigated a number of scenarios with 10 - 55 TWh of wind power installed in the Swedish system. The focus has been on a base scenario with 10 TWh new wind power consisting of 3,5 GW new wind power and 1,5 GW already installed power, which gives 5 GW. The results show that the costs for the forecast errors will increase as more intermittent production is installed. However, the increase can be limited by for instance trading on intraday market or increase quality of forecasts. (orig.)

  16. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  17. Multidimensional Screening with Complementary Activities: Regulating a Monopolist with Unknown Cost and Unknown Preference for Empire Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Laussel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal regulation of a monopolist when intrinsic efficiency (intrinsic cost and empire building tendency (marginal utility of output are private information, but actual cost (the difference between intrinsic cost and effort level is observable. This is a problem of multidimensional screening with complementary activities. Results are not only driven by the prior probabilities of the four possible types, but also by the relative magnitude of the uncertainty along the two dimensions of private information. If the marginal utility of output varies much more (less across managers than the intrinsic marginal cost, there is empire building (efficiency dominance. In that case, an inefficient empire builder produces more (less and at lower (higher marginal cost than an efficient money-seeker. It is only when variabilities are similar that there may be the natural ranking of activities (empire builders produce more, while efficient managers produce at a lower cost.

  18. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?-How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, Silja; Krishna, Sandeep; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC) depends crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size. If, e.g., the public...... good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size. By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost) we are able to determine how the two......Many bacteria secrete compounds which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS) regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation. Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell...

  19. 77 FR 69441 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0129, Cost Accounting Standards Administration by any of the following methods...

  20. 78 FR 78694 - Orders: Supplemental Orders on Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... reporting under section 165(i)(2) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd... testing. II. Orders For the convenience of the affected parties, the text of the Supplemental Orders... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'') requires certain financial companies with total...

  1. Calcium supplementation decreases BCP-induced inflammatory processes in blood cells through the NLRP3 inflammasome down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Patricia; Balaguer, Thierry; Boukhechba, Florian; Michel, Grégory; Bouvet-Gerbettaz, Sébastien; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Rochet, Nathalie

    2017-07-15

    Interaction of host blood with biomaterials is the first event occurring after implantation in a bone defect. This study aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular consequences arising at the interface between whole blood and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles. We observed that, due to calcium capture, BCP inhibited blood coagulation, and that this inhibition was reversed by calcium supplementation. Therefore, we studied the impact of calcium supplementation on BCP effects on blood cells. Comparative analysis of BCP and calcium supplemented-BCP (BCP/Ca) effects on blood cells showed that BCP as well as BCP/Ca induced monocyte proliferation, as well as a weak but significant hemolysis. Our data showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles had anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP alone that induced an inflammatory response in blood cells. Our results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of calcium supplemented-BCP results from its down-modulating effect on P2X7R gene expression and its capacity to inhibit ATP/P2X7R interactions, decreasing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Considering that monocytes have a vast regenerative potential, and since the excessive inflammation often observed after bone substitutes implantation limits their performance, our results might have great implications in terms of understanding the mechanisms leading to an efficient bone reconstruction. Although scaffolds and biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood during bone defect filling, whole blood-biomaterials interactions have been poorly explored. By studying in 3D the interactions between biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) in microparticulate form and blood, we showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles (BCP/Ca) has anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP-induced inflammation in whole blood cells and provided information related to the molecular mechanisms

  2. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... derived from 41 U.S.C. 1501. Cost Accounting Standards are rules governing the measurement, assignment... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP Policy...

  3. 75 FR 53135 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration... ``certified cost or pricing data'' and ``data other than certified cost or pricing data'', and to clarify requirements for submission of cost or pricing data. DATES: Effective Date: October 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  4. [Effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Wen; Li, Fang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each ). A rat model of FGR was established by food restriction throughout pregnancy. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of the specific intracellular markers for neural stem cells fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). The FGR group had significantly lower OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the control group, and the taurine group had significantly higher OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the control group and significantly lower expression than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Rac than the FGR and control groups (Ptaurine group had significantly lower protein expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the FGR group (Ptaurine supplementation can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells in rats with FGR, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the activity of Rho family factors.

  5. 78 FR 27307 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction AGENCY...

  6. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  7. The use of innovation action research approach in the preparation of a regulation on costing standard 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Raulinajtys-Grzybek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the applicability of the innovation action research method for activities related to the preparation of a concept of a costing standard for healthcare providers which is subject to legal regula- tion. This legislation regulates the way providers, reporting data for the purpose of the regulated pricing of health services, identify and calculate costs. A 39-month long research project was carried out in ac- cordance with the innovation action research approach, which resulted in the creation of a novel concept of a costing model. The generation of new knowledge occurred as a result of a collaboration between researchers and practitioners, which is a basic assumption of action research. The consecutive steps of the research have been characterized in order to present the influence of the research method on the devel- opment and modification of the initial concept.

  8. Retrospective Study of the Costs of EPA Regulations: A Report of Four Case Studies (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report discusses the factors that may account for differences between projected and actual regulatory costs and presents the findings of four case studies that attempt to assess compliance cost retrospectively.

  9. 77 FR 63804 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... cost accounting information normally prepared by organizations under sound management and accounting...; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and...

  10. 78 FR 31550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 67366..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any...

  11. 78 FR 25443 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Indirect Cost Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... supporting cost data are the cost accounting information normally prepared by organizations under sound management and accounting practices. The proposal and supporting data is used by the contracting official and...; Submission for OMB Review; Indirect Cost Rates AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  12. Prevailing Wage Regulations and School Construction Costs: Evidence from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilginsoy, Cihan; Philips, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Examines effects of prevailing wage laws on school construction costs, using final cost data from six British Columbia school districts. When controlling for factors such as construction business cycle, number of competitors, and school type, there was no significant unit cost change following the Skill Development and Fair Wage Policy Act.…

  13. Self-Regulation and Economic Stress in Children of Hispanic Immigrants and Their Peers: Better Regulation at a Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa Schlueter; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Stiles, Allison A.; Mendoza, Marina M.; Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Although there is a well-established relationship between economic stress and children's self-regulation, few studies have examined this relationship in children of Hispanic immigrants (COHIs), a rapidly growing population. In a sample of preschool children (N = 165), we examined whether economic stress predicted teacher…

  14. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing? - How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja eHeilmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria secrete compounds, which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation.Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC depend crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size.If, e.g., the public good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size.By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost we are able to determine how the two different categories of OPSs, can best be matched by production regulated through a QS signal feeding back on its own production. We find that the optimal QS parameters are different for the two categories and specifically that public goods, which provide accelerating returns, call for stronger positive signal feedback.

  15. 76 FR 58137 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Positive Law Codification of Title 41 U.S.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and... FINANCING 232.803 [Amended] 0 8. Amend section 232.803(d) by removing ``Section 3737(e) of the Revised...

  16. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  17. Nationwide expansion of a financial incentive program on fruit and vegetable purchases among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2015-12-01

    High prices remain a formidable barrier for many people, especially those of low socioeconomic status, to adopt a healthier diet. The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 mandated the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to conduct a pilot study to assess the impact of making fruits and vegetables more affordable for households in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Based on the USDA final report of the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP), a large-scale randomized trial in 2011-2012 that provided 30% rebate on targeted fruits and vegetables to 7500 study participants enrolled in the SNAP, we constructed a decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an expansion of the HIP to all SNAP households nationwide. The estimated life-time per capita costs of the HIP to the Federal government is $1323 in 2012 U.S. dollars, and the average gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy to a SNAP participant is 0.082 quality-adjusted life year (QALY), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $16,172 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations indicates a 94.4% and 99.6% probability that the estimated ICER would be lower than the cost-effective threshold of $50,000 and $100,000 per QALY gained, respectively. Moreover, the estimated ICER of the HIP expansion tends to be competitive in comparison to other interventions that aimed at promoting fruit/vegetable intake among adult population. Findings from this study suggest that a nationwide expansion of the HIP is likely to nudge SNAP households towards purchasing and consuming more targeted fruits and vegetables. However, diet behavior modification is proportional to price change. When people's actual eating behaviors and what dietary guidelines recommend differ by several folds, even a 30% rebate closes just a small fraction of that gap and has limited beneficial impact on participants' weight management, disease prevention, and health-related quality of life

  18. A randomized trial found online questionnaires supplemented by postal reminders generated a cost-effective and generalizable sample but don't forget the reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loban, Amanda; Mandefield, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Bradburn, Mike

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the response rates, data completeness, and representativeness of survey data produced by online and postal surveys. A randomized trial nested within a cohort study in Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Participants were randomized to receive either an electronic (online) survey questionnaire with paper reminder (N = 2,982) or paper questionnaire with electronic reminder (N = 2,855). Response rates were similar for electronic contact and postal contacts (50.9% vs. 49.7%, difference = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval: -1.3% to 3.8%). The characteristics of those responding to the two groups were similar. Participants nevertheless demonstrated an overwhelming preference for postal questionnaires, with the majority responding by post in both groups. Online survey questionnaire systems need to be supplemented with a postal reminder to achieve acceptable uptake, but doing so provides a similar response rate and case mix when compared to postal questionnaires alone. For large surveys, online survey systems may be cost saving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent advances in microbial production of mannitol: utilization of low-cost substrates, strain development and regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gu, Lei; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Xin, Fengxue; Liu, Junli; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2018-02-26

    Mannitol has been widely used in fine chemicals, pharmaceutical industries, as well as functional foods due to its excellent characteristics, such as antioxidant protecting, regulation of osmotic pressure and non-metabolizable feature. Mannitol can be naturally produced by microorganisms. Compared with chemical manufacturing, microbial production of mannitol provides high yield and convenience in products separation; however the fermentative process has not been widely adopted yet. A major obstacle to microbial production of mannitol under industrial-scale lies in the low economical efficiency, owing to the high cost of fermentation medium, leakage of fructose, low mannitol productivity. In this review, recent advances in improving the economical efficiency of microbial production of mannitol were reviewed, including utilization of low-cost substrates, strain development for high mannitol yield and process regulation strategies for high productivity.

  20. 77 FR 58103 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... is determined that an upward adjustment is not required at this time. The historical estimates remain...; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning corporate aircraft costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 20012...

  1. 77 FR 12925 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-Reimbursement Contracts AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and... addresses the use and management of cost- reimbursement contracts. DATES: Effective Date: April 2, 2012 FOR...-reimbursement contracts in the following three areas: 1. Circumstances when cost-reimbursement contracts are...

  2. Effects of SO2 emission regulations and fuel prices on levellized energy costs for industrial steam generation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdogan, Sibel; Arikol, Mahir

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the impacts of SO 2 emission regulations and fuel prices on levellized energy costs of industrial steam generation options. A computer model called INDUSTEAM has been utilized. The steam-supply options comprise conventional grate-firing, bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, fuel-oil, and natural-gas-fired systems. Fuels of different SO 2 pollution potential have been evaluated assuming six environmental scenarios and varying fuel prices. A capacity range of 10-90 MW th is covered. (author)

  3. 77 FR 51957 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clarification of “F” Orders in the Procurement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... multi-agency contracts, or basic ordering agreements. The proposed text also directs that a... agreements, or blanket purchase agreements. As a result of the proposed rule, new awards under the AbilityOne... Part 204 Government procurement. Manuel Quinones, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...

  4. 75 FR 18029 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Export-Controlled Items (DFARS Case 2004-D010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... regulations and prescribes a contract clause to address those responsibilities. DATES: Effective Date: April 8... activities and communication between the parties to a potential contract, and to have the resulting contract... Government needs to convey to the universities the information that certain work is export-controlled. DoD...

  5. 75 FR 59101 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Office of the Inspector General Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ....203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. DATES: Effective Date: September 27, 2010. FOR... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Case 2007-006, ``Contractor Business Ethics Compliance Program and Disclosure... date of December 12, 2008. The contract clause entitled ``Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  6. The development of the risk-based cost-benefit analysis framework for risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z. A.; Hwang, M. J.; Lee, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Committee) introduces the Risk-informed Regulation (RIR) to allocate the resources of NRC effectively and to reduce the unnecessary burden of utilities. This approach inherently includes the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) concept. The CBA method has been widely used for many problems in order to support the decision making by analyzing the effectiveness of the proposed plan and/or activity in the aspect of cost and benefit. However, in general, the conventional CBA method does not use the information such as risk that is the essential element of RIR. So, we developed a revised CBA framework that incorporates the risk information in analyzing the cost and benefit of the regulatory and/or operational activities in nuclear industry

  7. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...

  8. 75 FR 22630 - Draft 2010 Report to Congress on the Benefits and Costs of Federal Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ..., wages, and economic growth. Chapter II offers recommendations for regulatory reform. Chapter III... recommends consideration of certain low-cost approaches to the problem of childhood obesity. [[Page 22631

  9. Federal Regulations: Efforts to Estimate Total Costs and Benefits of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-07

    the Chamber of Commerce , academicians, the media, and others, and is sometimes cited with a high degree of certainty ." For example, some articles...House of Representatives, Feb . 25,2004; and testimony of William P . Kovacs, Vice President, U .S. Chamber of Commerce , before the Subcommittee on Energy...estimated the annual cost to employers of the Family and Medical Leave Act at $825 million, but that the Chamber of Commerce estimated the cost at between $3

  10. Report on ENGIE's regulated tariffs for gas sale - Audit supply costs and non-supply related costs. Deliberation of the Commission for energy regulation on the 25 May 2016 bearing approval of the audit report on supply costs and non-supply related costs as basis for the calculation of the evolution of ENGIE's regulated tariffs for natural gas sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe De; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of the analysis performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2015 by discussing the share of consumptions provided under the regulated tariff with respect to those provided on the retail market, the evolution of these tariffs, by noticing that ENGIE costs have been covered by income associated with sales at regulated tariffs. The second part addresses perspectives of evolution for supply costs by outlining the existence of market indexing, the lack of factors which would justify an evolution of gas price indexing level, and a possible reviewing of indices at the moment of revision of the indexing formula. The third part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs. It notices the impact of recent evolution of infrastructure costs, some lack of information regarding provisional trade costs, and a significant decrease of these costs for 2016

  11. Cholesterol oxidation in meat products and its regulation by supplementation of sodium nitrite and apple polyphenol before processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, K; Hoshina, S; Nakamura, S; Sugano, M

    2000-09-01

    The levels of cholesterol oxidation derivatives (OxChol) in eight commercial species of meat products were examined. These products contained more than 1 mg/100 g of OxChol, and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol + 5beta-epoxycholesterol (111-1092 microg/100 g), 5alpha-epoxycholesterol (80-712 microg/100 g), cholestanetriol (0-368 microg/100 g), and 7-ketocholesterol (708-1204 microg/100 g) were detected. To know the interaction of sodium nitrite supplementation against cholesterol oxidation in meat products, sausage was produced with or without varying levels of sodium nitrite and stored in the refrigerator for 15 days. As a result, cholesterol oxidation in sausage was inhibited by addition of sodium nitrite in a dose-dependent manner. This observation may be associated with inactivation of O(2)(-) radical and stabilization of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the levels of OxChol in sausage increased, accompanying the decrease of coexisting linoleic acid when sodium nitrite was not added to sausage meat. Thus, cholesterol oxidation in meat products seems to be considarably promoted by the oxidation of coexisting PUFAs. On the other hand, additive apple polyphenol also inhibited linoleic acid oxidation in sausage and then suppressed cholesterol oxidation through its radical scavenging effects. Therefore, apple polyphenol, having a large amount of an oligomer of catechin, may interfere with cholesterol oxidation in meat processing or storage of meat products through its antioxidative action and be useful as a new antioxitant for meat products when it is added to the original meat before processing.

  12. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  13. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  14. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  15. Report on gas sales regulated tariffs of GDF Suez. Audit of supply costs and of non-supply related costs - May 2015. Deliberation of the Commission for Energy Regulation of the 13 May 2015 bearing approval of the report of analysis of supply and non-supply related costs used as a basis for the calculation of the evolution of natural gas sales regulated tariffs of GDF Suez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre; Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-05-01

    After a presentation of the context and objectives of works performed by the CRE (the French commission for energy regulation), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2014 by presenting and discussing the fact that regulated tariffs have followed a downward trend since the beginning of 2014, that sales at regulated tariffs have strongly decreased, and that GDF Suez costs have been covered by revenues from sales at regulated tariffs. The second part proposes an analysis of the evolution perspectives for supply costs by commenting the calculation formula, the difference between gas market price and LT contract prices, the always stronger indexing of contracts on gas market prices. The last part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs by commenting the taking of infrastructure cost evolution into account, the steadiness of provisional commercial costs, and the consequence of the customer portfolio evolution on the distribution of commercial force costs. Some recommendations are made on the evolution perspectives for supply and non-supply related costs, and on the modalities of assignment of commercial costs among the different types of customers (regulated tariffs or market price)

  16. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  17. Alterative Expression and Localization of Profilin 1/VASPpS157 and Cofilin 1/VASPpS239 Regulates Metastatic Growth and is Modified by DHA Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Jacob, Naduparambil K.; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2016-01-01

    Profilin 1, cofilin 1, and vasodialator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) are actin binding proteins (ABP) which regulate actin remodelling and facilitate cancer cell metastases. MiR~17–92 is highly expressed in metastatic tumors and profilin1 and cofilin1 are predicted targets. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and adhesion. These studies tested the hypothesis that the metastatic phenotype is driven by changes in ABPs including alternative phosphorylation and/or changes in subcellular localization. Additionally, we tested the efficacy of DHA supplementation to attenuate or inhibit these changes. Human lung cancer tissue sections were analyzed for F-actin content and expression and cellular localization of profilin1, cofilin1 and VASP (S157 or S239 phosphorylation). The metastatic phenotype was investigated in A549 and MLE12 cells lines using 8 Br-cAMP as a metastasis inducer and DHA as a therapeutic agent. Migration was assessed by wound assay and expression measured by western blot and confocal analysis. MiR~17–92 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Results indicated increased expression and altered cellular distribution of profilin1/VASPpS157 but no changes in cofilin1/VASPpS239 in the human malignant tissues compared to normal tissues. In A549 and MLE12 cells, the expression patterns of profilin1/VASPpS157 or cofilin1/VASPpS239 suggested an interaction in regulation of actin dynamics. Furthermore, DHA inhibited cancer cell migration and viability, ABP expression and cellular localization, and modulated expression of miR~17–92 in A549 cells with minimal effects in MLE12 cells. Further investigations are warranted to understand ABP interactions, changes in cellular localization, regulation by miR~17–92, and DHA as a novel therapeutic. PMID:27496138

  18. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... these no-loss rules and of the overall profit percentage limitation of paragraph (c)(2) of this section... 120.00 Total (220.00) Combined taxable income (loss) 80.00 F's profit under the full costing combined... 100.00 F's expenses 170.00 Total (270.00) Combined taxable income (loss) 30.00 F's profit under the...

  19. 78 FR 43203 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract Funding-Limitation of Costs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... information collection would violate the fundamental purposes of the Paperwork Reduction Act because of the... notification typically involves an observation of the contractors accounting and financial reporting system... probable cost overruns carries with it a duty to maintain an accounting and financial reporting system...

  20. The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, R. J.; Mueller, S.

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates financial and emissions accounting for dry-mill corn ethanol plants. Three policy options are modeled: (1) a charge per unit of life cycle CO2 emissions, (2) a charge per unit of direct biorefinery emissions only, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production costs by between 0.005 and 0.008 l-1 per 10 Mg-1 CO2 price increment, across all modeled plant energy systems, with increases under direct emissions somewhat lower in all cases. In contrast, a LCFS increases the cost of production for selected plant energy systems only: a LCFS requiring reductions in average fuel global warming intensity (GWI) with a target of 10% below the 2005 baseline increases the production costs for coal-fired plants only. For all other plant types, the LCFS operates as a subsidy. The findings depend strongly on the magnitude of a land use change adder. Some land use change adders currently discussed in the literature will push the GWI of all modeled production systems above the LCFS target, flipping the CO2 price from a subsidy to a tax.

  1. Economic Costs and Adaptations for Alternative Regulations of California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy K. Tanaka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stacy K. Tanaka, Christina R. Connell–Buck, Kaveh Madani, Josue Medellín-Azuara, Jay R. Lund, and Ellen Hanakdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v9iss2art4Water exports from California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta are an environmental concern because they reduce net outflows of fresh water from the Delta, and can entrain fish and disrupt flows within the Delta. If exports were no longer pumped from within the Delta, the regulatory issue becomes one of maintaining appropriate flows into and out of the Delta. This paper presents the results of two sets of hydro-economic optimization modeling runs, which were developed to represent a range of modified Delta operations and their economic and operational effects on California’s water supply system. The first set of runs represents decreasing export capacity from the Delta. The second set increases minimum net Delta outflow (MNDO requirements. The hydro-economic model seeks the least–cost statewide water management scheme for water supply, including a wide range of resources and water management options. Results show that reducing exports or increasing MNDO requirements increase annual average statewide water scarcity, scarcity costs, and operating costs (from greater use of desalination, wastewater recycling, water treatment, and pumping. Effects of reduced exports are especially concentrated in agricultural communities in the southern Central Valley because of their loss of access to overall water supply exports and their ability to transfer remaining water to southern California. Increased outflow requirements increase water scarcity and associated costs throughout California. For an equivalent amount of average Delta outflows, statewide costs increase more rapidly when exports alone are reduced than when minimum outflow requirements are increased and effects are more widely distributed statewide.

  2. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  3. The costs of uncertainty: regulating health and safety in the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.

    1982-04-01

    Federalism, and particularly federal/provincial jurisdictional relationships, have led to considerable uncertainty in the regulation of occupational health and safety and of environmental protection in the Canadian uranium mining industry. The two principal uranium producing provinces in Canada are Saskatchewan and Ontario. Since 1978, in an attempt to avoid constitutional issues, both these provinces and the federal government as well have proceeded unilaterally with health and safety reforms for the industry. In Saskatchewan this has resulted in areas of overlapping jurisdiction, which have led to uncertainty over the legal enforceability of the provincial regulations. In Ontario, the province has left significant gaps in the protection of both workers and the environment. Little progress can be expected in eliminating these gaps and overlaps until the current administrative and jurisdictional arrangements are understood

  4. Health economic potential of early nutrition programming: a model calculation of long-term reduction in blood pressure and related morbidity costs by use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; von Kries, Rüdiger; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The reported effect sizes of early nutrition programming on long-term health outcomes are often small, and it has been questioned whether early interventions would be worthwhile in enhancing public health. We explored the possible health economic consequences of early nutrition programming by performing a model calculation, based on the only published study currently available for analysis, to evaluate the effects of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on lowering blood pressure and lowering the risk of hypertension-related diseases in later life. The costs and health effects of LC-PUFA-enriched and standard infant formulas were compared by using a Markov model, including all relevant direct and indirect costs based on German statistics. We assessed the effect size of blood pressure reduction from LC-PUFA-supplemented formula, the long-term persistence of the effect, and the effect of lowered blood pressure on hypertension-related morbidity. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed an increased life expectancy of 1.2 quality-adjusted life-years and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -630 Euros (discounted to present value) for the LC-PUFA formula in comparison with standard formula. LC-PUFA nutrition was the superior strategy even when the blood pressure-lowering effect was reduced to the lower 95% CI. Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding practice, but infants who are not breastfed should receive an appropriate infant formula. Following this model calculation, LC-PUFA supplementation of infant formula represents an economically worthwhile prevention strategy, based on the costs derived from hypertension-linked diseases in later life. However, because our analysis was based on a single randomized controlled trial, further studies are required to verify the validity of this thesis.

  5. An estimated cost of lost climate regulation services caused by thawing of the Arctic cryosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Goodstein, Eban S; Huntington, Henry P

    2013-12-01

    Recent and expected changes in Arctic sea ice cover, snow cover, and methane emissions from permafrost thaw are likely to result in large positive feedbacks to climate warming. There is little recognition of the significant loss in economic value that the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, snow, and permafrost will impose on humans. Here, we examine how sea ice and snow cover, as well as methane emissions due to changes in permafrost, may potentially change in the future, to year 2100, and how these changes may feed back to influence the climate. Between 2010 and 2100, the annual costs from the extra warming due to a decline in albedo related to losses of sea ice and snow, plus each year's methane emissions, cumulate to a present value cost to society ranging from US$7.5 trillion to US$91.3 trillion. The estimated range reflects uncertainty associated with (1) the extent of warming-driven positive climate feedbacks from the thawing cryosphere and (2) the expected economic damages per metric ton of CO2 equivalents that will be imposed by added warming, which depend, especially, on the choice of discount rate. The economic uncertainty is much larger than the uncertainty in possible future feedback effects. Nonetheless, the frozen Arctic provides immense services to all nations by cooling the earth's temperature: the cryosphere is an air conditioner for the planet. As the Arctic thaws, this critical, climate-stabilizing ecosystem service is being lost. This paper provides a first attempt to monetize the cost of some of those lost services.

  6. When renewable energy met sustainable growth. Regulation, cost reduction, and the rise of renewable energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Historically and famously fossil-fuel dependent, the U.S. energy and electricity mixes are evolving quickly as costs fall for renewables, regulations mandate their implementation, and fiscal policy incentivizes their installation. The investment and production tax credits (ITC and PTC) as well as power purchase agreements (PPAs) are well-known for their contributions to the development of solar and wind capacity, and the recent extensions of these credits has led to a positive outlook for continued growth in installations and generation. In addition, the green power market is experiencing record participation, as tracking the positive environmental externalities of renewable power has become important to meet renewable portfolio standards, which mandate implementation of renewable energy by state. Cost reduction is further taking place globally due to technological advances and economies of scale, which serves as another key driver for development. Of course, challenges are still present, particularly due to a plentiful and inexpensive domestic fossil fuel supply, uneven application of regulation and incentives state-by-state, and the uncertainty of continued political support. Even so, a progressive lowering of traditional barriers is leading to the potential for widespread deployment of renewables across the American landscape. (author)

  7. Supplemental and highly-elevated tocopherol doses differentially regulate allergic inflammation: reversibility of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol's effects

    OpenAIRE

    McCary, Christine A.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that supplemental doses of the α- and γ-tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E decrease and increase, respectively, allergic lung inflammation. We have now assessed whether these effects of tocopherols are reversible. For these studies, mice were treated with antigen and supplemental tocopherols in a first phase of treatment followed by a 4 week clearance phase and then the mice received a second phase of antigen and tocopherol treatments. The pro-inflammatory effects of supplement...

  8. Report on gas sales regulated tariffs of historical providers (others than GDF Suez). Analysis of supply costs and of non-supply related costs - May 2015. Deliberation of the Commission for Energy Regulation of the 27 May 2015 bearing approval of the report of analysis of supply and non-supply related costs used as a basis for the calculation of the evolution of natural gas sales regulated tariffs of historical providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwige, Catherine; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    After a presentation of the context and objectives of works performed by the CRE (the French commission for energy regulation), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2014 by presenting and discussing the distribution of costs taken into account in regulated tariffs of historic providers, and by noticing that the CRE is able to give its opinion on cost coverage by revenues only for a limited number of providers. The second part proposes an analysis of provider supply conditions and their evolution perspectives. The last part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  9. Case study of the effects of public safety regulation on the construction costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations intended to reduce the number of accidents at nuclear plants and the discharge of sulfur and particulate wastes at coal-fired power plants have become an important cause of construction cost escalation. Measuring the costs of these regulatory interventions is a difficult research task. The three-unit Bruce Mansfield coal-fired plant and the two-unit Beaver Valley nuclear power station located in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity for a case study of the costs of regulation in the construction of both kinds of plants. The units of each plant were built sequentially over a period of intensifying regulation. The method used to measure the costs of public safety regulation in the construction of each kind of plant is to determine the connections between the issuances of the regulatory agencies (EPA and NRC) and cost escalations of succeeding units. The small cost escalations of the Mansfield 3 unit, in comparison to the massive costs of the Beaver Valley 2 unit, suggest that the design and construction of new coal-fired plants are not disrupted by regulatory interventions nearly as extensively as are nuclear units. Certain technical features of Beaver Valley 2, especially its small size and a design that is identical to the first unit's, further contribute to its cost escalations

  10. The marginal cost of operation: a parameter for evaluating and regulating of the generation work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.M.; Mendes, L.N.F.; Almeida Gattass, E. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Generator System is predominantly hydroelectric, with some reservoirs having a pluri annual regularization, providing a large storage capacity of potential power for the system. This water storage allows the reduction of the alertly effect from the natural flow over the hydraulic resources for electric power production. Due to this structural characteristic, the main operation problem of the system refers to a strategical determination of storage energy utilization and, consequently, the thermal generation level. This paper examines the theoretical concepts referring to the survey of this operation strategies and analyses the factors for improving. These concepts are also extended for the interconnected electric subsystems case, mainly the interchange effect over the operation strategies of each subsystem. Finally, the natural flow sample influence over the marginal cost is analysed, comparing the obtained values with the historical sample and synthetical series of affluence. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  12. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids in protein-restricted diets modulates the expression levels of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism associated regulators in the adipose tissue of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplemented in protein-restricted diets on the growth performance and the expression profile of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism related regulators in the white adipose tissue (WAT of different regional depots including dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA and abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA. A total of 24 crossbred barrows (7.40 ± 0.70 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups and were fed the following isocaloric diets for 33 days: 1 a recommended adequate protein diet (AP, 20% CP, as a positive control; 2 a low protein diet (LP, 17% CP; 3 the LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B, 17% CP to reach the same level of the AP diet group; 4 the LP diet supplemented with 2 times the amount of BCAA (LP + 2B, 17% CP. The daily gain and daily feed intake of the LP diet group were the lowest among all the treatments (P  0.05. Moreover, BCAA supplementation down-regulated the expression levels of amino acid transporters including L-type amino acid transporter 1 and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in DSA, but up-regulated the expression level of L-type amino acid transporter 4 in ASA (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase α was activated in the DSA of pigs fed LP diet and in the ASA of the pigs fed AP or LP + 2B diets (P < 0.05. The mRNA expression profile of the selected mitochondrial component and mitochondrial biogenesis associated regulators in DSA and ASA also responded differently to dietary BCAA supplementation. These results suggested that the growth performance of growing pigs fed protein restricted diets supplemented with BCAA could catch up to that of the pigs fed AP diets. The results also partly demonstrated that the regulation mechanisms of BCAA are different in the adipose tissues of different depots.

  13. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural importance...

  14. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  15. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  16. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  17. Supplemental and highly-elevated tocopherol doses differentially regulate allergic inflammation: reversibility of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol's effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCary, Christine A.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that supplemental doses of the α- and γ-tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E decrease and increase, respectively, allergic lung inflammation. We have now assessed whether these effects of tocopherols are reversible. For these studies, mice were treated with antigen and supplemental tocopherols in a first phase of treatment followed by a 4 week clearance phase and then the mice received a second phase of antigen and tocopherol treatments. The pro-inflammatory effects of supplemental levels of γ-tocopherol in phase 1 were only partially reversed by supplemental α-tocopherol in phase 2 but were completely reversed by raising α-tocopherol levels 10-fold in phase 2. When γ-tocopherol levels were increased 10-fold (highly-elevated tocopherol) so that the lung tissue γ-tocopherol levels were equal to the lung tissue levels of supplemental α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol reduced leukocyte numbers in the lung lavage fluid. In contrast to the lung lavage fluid, highly-elevated levels of γ-tocopherol increased inflammation in the lung tissue. These regulatory effects of highly-elevated tocopherols on tissue inflammation and lung lavage fluid were reversible in a second phase of antigen challenge without tocopherols. In summary, the pro-inflammatory effects of supplemental γ-tocopherol on lung inflammation were partially reversed by supplemental levels of α-tocopherol but were completely reversed by highly-elevated-levels of α-tocopherol. Also, highly-elevated levels of γ-tocopherol were inhibitory and reversible in lung lavage but, importantly, were pro-inflammatory in lung tissue sections. These results have implications for future studies with tocopherols and provide a new context in which to review vitamin E studies in the literature. PMID:21317387

  18. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  19. Peak Load Regulation and Cost Optimization for Microgrids by Installing a Heat Storage Tank and a Portable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of electricity demands, many traditional distributed networks cannot cover their peak demands, especially in the evening. Additionally, with the interconnection of distributed electrical and thermal grids, system operational flexibility and energy efficiency can be affected as well. Therefore, by adding a portable energy system and a heat storage tank to the traditional distributed system, this paper proposes a newly defined distributed network to deal with the aforementioned problems. Simulation results show that by adding a portable energy system, fossil fuel energy consumption and daily operation cost can be reduced by 8% and 28.29%, respectively. Moreover, system peak load regulating capacity can be significantly improved. However, by introducing the portable energy system to the grid, system uncertainty can be increased to some extent. Therefore, chance constrained programming is proposed to control the system while considering system uncertainty. By applying Particle Swarm Optimization—Monte Carlo to solve the chance constrained programming, results show that power system economy and uncertainty can be compromised by selecting appropriate confidence levels α and β. It is also reported that by installing an extra heat storage tank, combined heat and power energy efficiency can be significantly improved and the installation capacity of the battery can be reduced.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  1. Ganho de peso e custos em bovinos de corte submetidos a dois tipos de suplementos minerais Daily weight gain and costs of beef cattle receiving two types of mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Malafaia

    2004-09-01

    mixture was used, and to the other group a selective mineral mixture containing only Na, P, Cu and Co was offered. The cattle were weighed every 30 days, and the mineral supplement intake was measured monthly. The daily weight gain of the animals receiving the selective mineral mixture was greater in three farms. Only on the second farm the group receiving the commercial mineral mixture had a superior daily weight gain. The daily intake of the selective mineral mixture was lower in all groups and was attributed to the high amount of NaCl in these mixtures. The selective mineral supplementation was 3 up to 7 times more economic than the conventional supplementation with a "complete" mineral mix. Throughout the experimental period the animals did not show any direct or indirect clinical signs of mineral deficiency. The results of these experiments confirms the hypothesis that selective mineral supplementation - i.e. supplementation of the mineral element(s deficient - was correct and results in expressive reduction of the cost with the mineral supplementation for beef cattle.

  2. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  3. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  4. Investigation of Truck Size and Weight Limits - Technical Supplement. Vol. 7. Carrier, Market and Regional Cost and Energy Tradeoffs (pt. 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This study applied a systematic investigation of the range of benefits and costs to the U.S. economy and society as a whole, as well as to individual interest groups, resulting from a set of alternative changes to current Federal limits on truck size...

  5. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  6. Herbal Supplements: What to Know Before You Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Regulations ensure that herbal supplements meet manufacturing standards but don't guarantee that ... of herbal remedies goes on and on. Herbal supplements, sometimes called botanicals, are one type of dietary ...

  7. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  8. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  9. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  10. Good things do not always come in threes: On the excess cost of overlapping regulation in EU climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Keller, Andreas; Bortolamedi, Markus; Rahmeier Seyffarth, Anelise

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's the European Union (EU) aims at pushing global climate policy. The objective is to promote international cooperation by the adoption of substantial EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and their least-cost implementation. Our quantitative impact assessment of the EU Climate and Energy Package shows that the myriad of instruments used in the EU to curb greenhouse gas emissions is doomed to generate substantial excess cost. We conclude that EU climate and energy policy should better disentangle its choices of objectives, targets, and policy instruments on rigorous economic grounds in order to improve the coherence and overall cost-effectiveness of policy initiatives. - Highlights: •EU Climate and Energy Package almost quintuples costs for EU-wide emission abatement. •The main source of excess cost of EU climate policy are energy efficiency mandates.

  11. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-08-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×10{sup 7} cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2{sup -ΔΔCT} method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  12. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.

  13. The atomic energy regulations, 2012: Statutory instruments supplement no. 4 to the Uganda gazette no. 5 volume CV dated 27 January, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The regulations specifies minimum requirements for the protection of individuals, society and environment from the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation. It also provides for the safety and security of radiation sources

  14. Regulating Market Entry of Low-Cost Private Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards a Theory of Private Education Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Donald R.; Cooper, Rachel; Lusk-Stover, Oni

    2018-01-01

    This study provides a comparative assessment of policies governing private schools in twenty countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest that current regulatory systems are failing to adequately address the negative externalities and failures of private schooling markets. Insufficient capacity on the part of governments is a contributor to uneven policy implementation and creates opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Onerous market entry regulations offer constraints on the gro...

  15. Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with l-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Schjolden, J.; Krogdahl, A.

    2013-01-01

    . Previous studies in teleosts demonstrate that 7 d of dietary administration with l-tryptophan (Trp), the direct precursor of 5-HT, suppresses the endocrine stress response. The present study investigated how long the suppressive effects of a Trp-enriched feed regimen, at doses corresponding to two, three......The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates...... or four times the Trp levels in commercial feed, last in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when the fish are reintroduced to a diet with standard amino acid composition. We also wanted to determine whether Trp supplementation induced changes in brain monoaminergic neurochemistry in those forebrain...

  16. A high efficiency, high quality and low cost internal regulated bioanalytical laboratory to support drug development needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Dhodda, Raj; Zhang, Jun; Sydor, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In the recent past, we have seen an increase in the outsourcing of bioanalysis in pharmaceutical companies in support of their drug development pipeline. This trend is largely driven by the effort to reduce internal cost, especially in support of late-stage pipeline assets where established bioanalytical assays are used to analyze a large volume of samples. This article will highlight our perspective of how bioanalytical laboratories within pharmaceutical companies can be developed into the best partner in the advancement of drug development pipelines with high-quality support at competitive cost.

  17. A survey of costs incurred in U.K. X-ray diffraction research laboratories as a consequence of proposed regulations for radiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blow, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    A small survey of British X-ray diffraction laboratories was undertaken, with the aim of discovering the effects of the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the draft regulations on radiological protection and ionising radiations (1978) on the practice of X-ray crystallography. The responses lead to the conclusion that the average cost incurred in bringing X-ray diffraction equipment to a safety standard compatible with the draft regulations (as judged by the respondents) will exceed Pound2,000 per X-ray generator. The safety costs will represent an overhead charge of at least 15-18% on the purchase of an X-ray generator, requiring additional capital outlay of over Pound5m to maintain the current level of X-ray diffraction activity in the U.K. There seems to be no evidence of a high accident rate with diffraction equipment, and the cost of the safety precautions bears no relation to the risks involved. (author)

  18. 78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service...

  19. Current economic cost, the ARENH (Regulated Access to the Historic (EDF) Nuclear Energy Supplier) price, the differential rent and the scarcity rent of nuclear power: some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)

  20. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  1. Radiation Protection Ordinance 1989. Supplement with Radiation Protection Register Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. radiation passport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The addendum contains regulations issued supplementary to the Radiation Protection Ordinance: The Radiation Protection Register as of April 3, 1990 including the law on the setting up of a Federal Office on Radiation Protection; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of February 21, 1990; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of May 3, 1990 (AVV Radiation passport). The volume contains, apart from the legal texts, the appropriate decision by the Bundesrat, the official explanation from the Bundestag Publications as well as a comprehensive introduction into the new legal matter. (orig.) [de

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Decree No 90-222 of 9 March 1990 supplementing the general regulations on extractive industries set by Decree No 80-331 of 7 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This Decree completes the transfer into national legislation of Euratom Directive No. 80-836 on radiation protection. It inserts in the General Regulations on extractive industries laid down by a Decree No. 80-331 of 1980 a Part 2 relating to environmental protection. Its provisions determine the annual permissible exposure limits to ionizing radiation during management of radioactive products, the monitoring of releases and the environment and the controls set up by the authorities [fr

  19. Athletes and Supplements: Prevalence and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J

    2018-03-01

    In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.

  20. Use of the SSHAC methodology within regulated environments: Cost-effective application for seismic characterization at multiple sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Bommer, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SSHAC processes provide high levels of regulatory assurance in hazard assessments for purposes of licensing and safety review. ► SSHAC projects provide structure to the evaluation of available data, models, and methods for building hazard input models. ► Experience on several nuclear projects in the past 15 years leads to the identification of key essential procedural steps. ► Conducting a regional SSHAC Level 3 study, followed by Level 2 site-specific studies can be time and cost effective. - Abstract: Essential elements of license applications and safety reviews for nuclear facilities are quantifications of earthquake and other natural hazards. A Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 or 4 process provides regulatory assurance that the hazard assessment considers all data and models proposed by members of the technical community and the associated uncertainties have been properly quantified. The SSHAC process has been endorsed as an acceptable hazard assessment methodology in US NRC regulatory guidance. Where hazard studies are required for multiple sites, regional SSHAC Level 3 or 4 studies followed by site-specific Level 2 refinements can provide major benefits in cost and duration.

  1. Supplement to the approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Material by Rail Regulations 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ADR and RID Framework Directives require EC member states' arrangements for the carriage of dangerous goods on domestic road and rail journeys to align with the existing ADR and RID agreements which cover international journeys by road and rail. Because ADR and RID are updated every two years in line with technical and scientific developments, the ADR/RID Framework Directives are also revised on a two-year cycle, to require member states to amend their implementing legislation accordingly. In Great Britain, these two Directives were initially implemented on 1 September 1996 via regulations (usually referred to as the 'carriage regulations'), containing the general legal duties, supported by approved documents, and an Approved Code of Practice containing the detailed technical requirements. The following approved documents have been updated: (a) Approved Vehicle Requirements (AVR) - L89; (b) Approved Requirements and test methods for the classification and packaging of dangerous goods for carriage (ARTM) - L88; (c) Approved Requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail (ARCRR) - L94; (d) Approved Requirements for the construction of vehicles intended for the carriage of explosives by road (AEVR) - L92; and (e) Approved Carriage List (ACL) - L90

  2. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and blueberry extracts supplementation improves spatial memory and regulates hippocampal ERK expression in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  4. The cost of believing emotions are uncontrollable: Youths' beliefs about emotion predict emotion regulation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Lwi, Sandy J; Gentzler, Amy L; Hankin, Benjamin; Mauss, Iris B

    2018-04-05

    As humans, we have a unique capacity to reflect on our experiences, including emotions. Over time, we develop beliefs about the nature of emotions, and these beliefs are consequential, guiding how we respond to emotions and how we feel as a consequence. One fundamental belief concerns the controllability of emotions: Believing emotions are uncontrollable (entity beliefs) should reduce the likelihood of trying to control emotional experiences using effective regulation strategies like reappraisal; this, in turn, could negatively affect core indices of psychological health, including depressive symptoms. This model holds particular relevance during youth, when emotion-related beliefs first develop and stabilize and when maladaptive beliefs could contribute to emerging risk for depression. In the present investigation, a pilot diary study (N = 223, aged 21-60) demonstrated that entity beliefs were associated with using reappraisal less in everyday life, even when controlling for possible confounds (i.e., self-efficacy, pessimism, stress exposure, stress reactivity). Then, two studies examined whether entity beliefs and associated impairments in reappraisal may set youths on a maladaptive trajectory: In a cross-sectional study (N = 136, aged 14-18), youths with stronger entity beliefs experienced greater depressive symptoms, and this link was mediated by lower reappraisal. This pattern was replicated and extended in a longitudinal study (N = 227, aged 10-18), wherein youth- and parent-reported depressive symptoms were assessed 18 months after assessing beliefs. These results suggest that entity beliefs about emotion constitute a risk factor for depression that acts via reappraisal, adding to the growing literature on emotion beliefs and their consequences for self-regulation and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  6. Controlling prescription drug costs: regulation and the role of interest groups in Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Hendricks, Ann M

    2008-12-01

    Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) both finance large outpatient prescription drug programs, though in very different ways. In the ongoing debate on how to control Medicare spending, some suggest that Medicare should negotiate directly with drug manufacturers, as the VA does. In this article we relate the role of interest groups to policy differences between Medicare and the VA and, in doing so, explain why such a large change to the Medicare drug program is unlikely. We argue that key policy differences are attributable to stable differences in interest group involvement. While this stability makes major changes in Medicare unlikely, it suggests the possibility of leveraging VA drug purchasing to achieve savings in Medicare. This could be done through a VA-administered drug-only benefit for Medicare-enrolled veterans. Such a partnership could incorporate key elements of both programs: capacity to accept large numbers of enrollees (like Medicare) and leverage to negotiate prescription drug prices (like the VA). Moreover, it could be implemented at no cost to the VA while achieving savings for Medicare and beneficiaries.

  7. 48 CFR 752.231-71 - Salary supplements for HG employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary supplements for HG....231-71 Salary supplements for HG employees. As prescribed in 731.205-71, for use in all contracts with... sub-contracts. Salary Supplements for HG Employees (OCT 1998) (a) Salary supplements are payments made...

  8. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  9. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  10. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus......The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation...... surplus. The measures in the Plan will have to be supplemented by more measures to meet the targets in the EU's Water Framework Directive....

  12. Ministerial Order of 16 October 1980 supplementing the Ministerial Order of 16 July 1980 providing for regulation of the treatment by ionizing radiation of foodstuffs for human or animal consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Order which supplements the Order of 16 July 1980 concerning the same subject adds further foodstuffs to the authorized list, together with the related licensing requirements and technical specifications. (NEA) [fr

  13. 78 FR 23199 - NASA FAR Supplement Regulatory Review No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... 2700-AE01 NASA FAR Supplement Regulatory Review No. 1 AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NASA is updating the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) with the goal of... existing regulations. The revisions to this rule are part of NASA's retrospective plan under EO 13563...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section 1542.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement 1 to Part 732 - Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision Tree 1 Supplement 1 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 1 Supplement 1 to Part 732—Decision Tree ER06FE04.000 [69 FR 5687, Feb. 6, 2004] ...

  16. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental reserve requirement. 204.7 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.7 Supplemental reserve requirement... reserve requirement on every depository institution of not more than 4 percent of its total transaction...

  17. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user user

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe but common congenital malformations. Neonates who ... malformations that affect the central nervous system. NTDs are costly .... protective effect of folic acid supplementation on NTD.

  18. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood....

  19. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... nutritional needs of the participant. The food packages are as follows: (1) Food Package I—Infants birth...

  20. Rotulagem de suplementos vitamínicos e minerais: uma revisão das normas federais Labeling of vitamin and mineral supplements: a revision of the federal normative regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Borges de Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos à base de vitaminas e minerais têm tido a oferta e o consumo crescentes no Brasil. As diferenças nas dosagens oferecidas ao consumidor em cada produto são o parâmetro para sua classificação como suplementos alimentares ou como medicamentos, de acordo com a legislação sanitária brasileira. Entretanto, este limite entre os conceitos é confuso e pouco claro. Considerando o risco gerado pelo consumo desavisado de tais produtos, e visando facilitar a interpretação e a consolidação das normas que tratam dos produtos à base de vitaminas e minerais e fundamentar a dissertação de mestrado, foram realizados levantamento bibliográfico e avaliação de todo o arcabouço jurídico relacionado à sua rotulagem. Concluiu-se que a normatização é extensa, complexa e de difícil entendimento, com muitas normas de hierarquias diferentes tendo interface com o assunto e que as normas não estão consolidadas, levando a dificuldades de interpretação pelos comerciantes, profissionais de saúde e consumidores e ainda a falhas na aplicação por parte dos órgãos fiscalizadores do Estado. Foram também apresentadas propostas para auxiliar a correção das falhas explicitadas pelo estudo.In Brazil, there is a steadily increasing offer and demand for products on the basis of vitamins and minerals. According to Brazilian law, the differences in the dosages offered to the consumer in each product are the parameter for its classification as alimentary supplement or medicament. The limit between these two concepts, however, is confusing and lacks clearness. Considering the risk posed by imprudent consumption of such products and seeking to facilitate the interpretation and consolidation of the norms dealing with vitamin and mineral products as well as to create the basis for a master's degree dissertation, a bibliographical survey and evaluation of the entire juridical basis regarding the labeling of these products was conducted. It was

  1. Agriculture, trade and the environment: Linkages in the dairy sector - a comparative study of the cost impact of manure management regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, M. S.; Gyldenkærne, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in manure control regulations on the competitiveness of dairy cattle producers, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might influence free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat narrowly as the regulations that concern the storage, disposal and application of manure because nutrient overload is commonly viewed as the key environmental issue of the livestock industry. We identify and c...

  2. Agriculture, trade and the environment: Linkages in the dairy sector - a comparative study of the cost impact of manure management regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Gyldenkærne, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in manure control regulations on the competitiveness of dairy cattle producers, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might influence free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat narrowly...

  3. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  4. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  5. Produção de suínos inteiros com ou sem a suplementação de aminoácidos: desempenho e custo de alimento Production of entire male pigs with or without the supplementation of amino acids: performance and feed cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Valentim Porolnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho e o custo do alimento de suínos machos castrados e inteiros suplementados ou não com aminoácidos. Foram utilizados 48 animais com peso vivo inicial de 38,8±0,2kg, distribuídos num delineamento de blocos ao acaso em três tratamentos, sendo machos castrados (MC, machos inteiros (MI e MI suplementados com 5% de aminoácidos (MI+5%AA. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o peso vivo e o ganho de peso dos suínos. O consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e o custo do alimento diferiram (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and feed cost of barrows and boars fed or not with amino acid supplemented diets. Forty-eight animals were used with initial weight of 38.8±0.2kg distributed in a randomized block design with three treatments, being barrows males (CM, boars males (IM and IM supplemented with 5% of amino acids (IM+5% AA. The treatment had no effect on body weight and weight gain. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost were different (P<0.05 among treatments. Average feed intake was of 2.43kg, and the intake observed on CM (P<0.05 was higher at 5.5 and 5.2% in relation to IM and IM+5%AA, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was of 2.28, and the CM showed the worse conversion (P<0.05 at 6.2 and 11.6% in relation to IM and IM+5%AA, respectively. Average feed cost was of R$ 1,82kg-1, being higher (P<0.05 for the CM in relation to IM and IM+5%AA. The sex category (barrows or boars and amino acid supplementation did not affect body weight and weight gain, but alter feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost.

  6. 48 CFR 731.205-71 - Salary supplements for Host Government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary supplements for... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 731.205-71 Salary supplements for Host Government employees. (a... fifty percent of its financial support from the government. (b) General. Salary supplement occurs when...

  7. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  9. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  10. Making Hay When It Rains: The Effect Prevailing Wage Regulations, Scale Economies, Seasonal, Cyclical and Local Business Patterns Have On School Construction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Rad, Hamid; Philips, Peter; Prus, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Examines several alternative ways for school districts to reduce the construction costs of new facilities. Finds that spacing out the start of facility construction projects and building during economic downturns in the construction industry offer the best options for construction cost savings. (PKP)

  11. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost......-efficient light control system. Plant dry matter production was in all cases linear related to DLI, despite changes in daily light duration and light intensity of supplemental light suggesting that DLI is the main limiting factor for the prediction of production time in optimal temperature conditions. The results......Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...

  12. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  13. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements, making it hard to identify any benefits from the MVMs. Should I take an MVM? MVMs cannot take the place of eating a variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Foods ...

  14. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  18. Development and application of a cost-benefit framework for energy reliability. Using probabilistic methods in network planning and regulation to enhance social welfare. The N-1 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooij, Michiel de; Baarsma, Barbara; Bloemhof, Gabriel; Dijk, Harold; Slootweg, Han

    2010-01-01

    Although electricity is crucial to many activities in developed societies, guaranteeing a maximum reliability of supply to end-users is extremely costly. This situation gives rise to a trade-off between the costs and benefits of reliability. The Dutch government has responded to this trade-off by changing the rule stipulating that electricity networks must be able to maintain supply even if one component fails (known as the N-1 rule), even in maintenance situations. This rule was changed by adding the phrase 'unless the costs exceed the benefits.' We have developed a cost-benefit framework for the implementation and application of this new rule. The framework requires input on failure probability, the cost of supply interruptions to end-users and the cost of investments. A case study of the Dutch grid shows that the method is indeed practicable and that it is highly unlikely that N-1 during maintenance will enhance welfare in the Netherlands. Therefore, including the limitation 'unless the costs exceed the benefits' in the rule has been a sensible policy for the Netherlands, and would also be a sensible policy for other countries. (author)

  19. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  20. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  1. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The information content of supplemental reserve-based replacement measures relative to that of historical cost income and its cash and accrual components of oil and gas producing companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, N.A.

    1992-01-01

    The empirical analysis indicated that two of the three reserve-based quantity replacement measures are very useful, in terms of explaining the security returns of full cost oil and gas producing companies during the release week of the 1982-1986 annual reports or 10-K filings of these companies. The analysis also indicated that two of the three reserve-based value replacement measures are very useful, in terms of explaining the security returns of full cost oil and gas producing companies during the release week of the 1984-1986 annual reports or 10-K filings. For the period 1987-1988, the empirical analysis indicated that all of the reserve-based quantity and value replacement measures are not useful, in terms of explaining the security returns of full cost oil and gas producing companies during the release week of the annual reports or 10-K filings. The empirical analysis showed no consistent evidence to indicate any systematic difference between the implications of the cash and accrual components of earnings of either the full cost or the successful efforts oil and gas producing companies during the release week of the annual report or 10-K filings

  3. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine content in commercially available thyroid health supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Grace Y; Parks, Jonathan R; Fileta, Bader; Chang, Audrey; Abdel-Rahim, Maged M; Burch, Henry B; Bernet, Victor J

    2013-10-01

    As defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act 1997, such substances as herbs and dietary supplements fall under general Food and Drug Administration supervision but have not been closely regulated to date. We examined the thyroid hormone content in readily available dietary health supplements marketed for "thyroid support." Ten commercially available thyroid dietary supplements were purchased. Thyroid supplements were dissolved in 10 mL of acetonitrile and water with 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the presence of both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) using levothyroxine and liothyronine as a positive controls and standards. The amount of T4 and T3 was measured separately for each supplement sample. Nine out of 10 supplements revealed a detectable amount of T3 (1.3-25.4 μg/tablet) and 5 of 10 contained T4 (5.77-22.9 μg/tablet). Taken at the recommended dose, 5 supplements delivered T3 quantities of greater than 10 μg/day, and 4 delivered T4 quantities ranging from 8.57 to 91.6 μg/day. The majority of dietary thyroid supplements studied contained clinically relevant amounts of T4 and T3, some of which exceeded common treatment doses for hypothyroidism. These amounts of thyroid hormone, found in easily accessible dietary supplements, potentially expose patients to the risk of alterations in thyroid levels even to the point of developing iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis. The current study results emphasize the importance of patient and provider education regarding the use of dietary supplements and highlight the need for greater regulation of these products, which hold potential danger to public health.

  4. Access regulation in the next generation access network environment: A comparative study of Hong Kong and Singapore from the transaction cost economics perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Au Man

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted two different models in the regulation of the next generation access (NGA) networks. In Hong Kong, the government has decided that access regulation will not be applied to fibre-based access networks and its strategy will be to rely on facilities-based competition to promote investment in the NGA networks. Singapore, on the other hand, has promoted access/services-based competition over a next generation broadband infrastructure subsidised by public fundin...

  5. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Meher

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12 diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD, vitamin B12 deficient (BD and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO. Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05 levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05 in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05 levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05 SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05 PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01 in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05 by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  6. Inszenierung eines Supplements / Staging a Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-M. Seibert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.

  7. Concentrate supplementation in lambs finished at pasture on cost of production in the dry seasonSuplementação concentrada para cordeiros terminados a pasto sobre custo de produção no período da seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano Moreira da Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluate the levels of concentrate supplementation (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of body weight – BW consisting of cottonseed with ground corn (CSGC in proportion 50% each in lambs finished on pasture (Grass Marandu slaughtered at 31.7 kg BW, on average daily gain (ADG, days of supplementation (DS and cost of production in the dry season. We used 20 lambs with initial BW 19 ± 0.5 kg in four treatments. CSGC supplementation was provided in stalls separated by level of supplementation the eighteen hours daily. We used a completely randomized design to determine ADG and DS lambs supplemented with different levels of CSGC. The data of ADG and DS were evaluated by regression analysis considering 5% significance. The different levels of supplementation CSGC influenced quadratic (p Objetivou-se avaliar os níveis de suplementação concentrada (0,0%; 0,5%; 1,0% e 1,5% do peso corporal – PC constituída de caroço de algodão com grão de milho moído (CAGM na proporção de 50% cada, em cordeiros terminados a pasto (Capim Marandu abatidos com 31,7 kg de PC, sobre ganho médio diário (GMD, dias de suplementação (DS e custo de produção no período da seca. Foram utilizados 20 cordeiros sem raça definida com PC inicial de 19 ± 0,5 kg distribuídos em quatro tratamentos. A suplementação de CAGM foi fornecida em baias separadas por nível de suplementação diariamente as dezoito horas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliação do GMD e DS dos cordeiros suplementados com os diferentes níveis de CAGM. Os dados de GMD e DS foram avaliados por análise de regressão considerando 5 % de significância. Os diferentes níveis de suplementação de CAGM influenciaram de maneira quadrática (p < 0,05 o GMD e DS de cordeiros terminados a pasto. O nível de suplementação de CAGM a 1,0% do PC em cordeiros terminados a pasto no período da seca apresentou o melhor valor da receita total para carcaça quente

  8. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420 Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. ...

  9. Is expanding Medicare coverage cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennig Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proposals to expand Medicare coverage tend to be expensive, but the value of services purchased is not known. This study evaluates the efficiency of the average private supplemental insurance plan for Medicare recipients. Methods Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Death Index, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed to estimate the costs, changes in life expectancy, and health-related quality of life gains associated with providing private supplemental insurance coverage for Medicare beneficiaries. Model inputs included socio-demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics. Parameter estimates from regression models were used to predict quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs associated with private supplemental insurance relative to Medicare only. Markov decision analysis modeling was then employed to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Medicare supplemental insurance is associated with increased health care utilization, but the additional costs associated with this utilization are offset by gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy. The incremental cost-effectiveness of private supplemental insurance is approximately $24,000 per QALY gained relative to Medicare alone. Conclusion Supplemental insurance for Medicare beneficiaries is a good value, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparable to medical interventions commonly deemed worthwhile.

  10. Coal as a supplemental heat source in sludge incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, G J; Bergstedt, D C

    1979-07-01

    The use of coal as a supplemental fuel in multiple hearth sludge incineration was investigated; how sulphur lump coal was added to dewatered sludge being fed to the furnace, reducing incinerator oil requirements by 70%. With full-scale retrofit of the treatment plant total annual costs for coal supplemental feeding would be 161,000 dollars, but oil savings would be 240,000 dollars.

  11. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard...

  12. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  13. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  14. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the...

  15. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs. ...

  16. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs. ...

  17. 48 CFR 231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 231.205... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205 Selected costs. ...

  18. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs. ...

  19. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs. ...

  20. 48 CFR 631.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 631.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts with Commercial Organizations 631.205 Selected costs. ...

  1. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  2. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  3. 7 CFR 352.14 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 352.14 Section 352.14 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.14 Costs. All costs incident to the... assigned hours of duty at the usual places of duty shall be furnished without cost to the person requesting...

  4. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  5. Supplementation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    We therefore designed this study to measure thoracic aortic ring .... contraction obtained from pilot study (1 x 10-6. M for control and 1 x .... muscle cell hyperpolarisation20. Similarly, several reports have suggested that potassium supplementation enhances endothelium- dependent relaxations, increased vascular activity of ...

  6. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  7. A nonrandomized trial of vitamin D supplementation for Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Cummings

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency may increase esophageal cancer risk. Vitamin D affects genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation and induces the tumor suppressor 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH in other cancers. This nonrandomized interventional study assessed effects of vitamin D supplementation in Barrett's esophagus (BE. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation may have beneficial effects on gene expression including 15-PGDH in BE.BE subjects with low grade or no dysplasia received vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol 50,000 international units weekly plus a proton pump inhibitor for 12 weeks. Esophageal biopsies from normal plus metaplastic BE epithelium and blood samples were obtained before and after vitamin D supplementation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured to characterize vitamin D status. Esophageal gene expression was assessed using microarrays.18 study subjects were evaluated. The baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 27 ng/mL (normal ≥30 ng/mL. After vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels rose significantly (median increase of 31.6 ng/mL, p<0.001. There were no significant changes in gene expression from esophageal squamous or Barrett's epithelium including 15-PGDH after supplementation.BE subjects were vitamin D insufficient. Despite improved vitamin D status with supplementation, no significant alterations in gene expression profiles were noted. If vitamin D supplementation benefits BE, a longer duration or higher dose of supplementation may be needed.

  8. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  9. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  10. 48 CFR 970.3102-05 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 970.3102... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05 Selected costs. ...

  11. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  12. 78 FR 56127 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...-AD61 Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban... Government Ethics (OGE), amends its Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct, which are regulations for HUD officers and employees that supplement the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive...

  13. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  14. Cost-effectiveness comparison between pituitary down-regulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist short regimen on alternate days and an antagonist protocol for assisted fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; Franco, José Gonçalves; Setti, Amanda Souza; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2013-05-01

    To compare cost-effectiveness between pituitary down-regulation with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) short regimen on alternate days and GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) multidose protocol on in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. Prospective, randomized. A private center. Patients were randomized into GnRHa (n = 48) and GnRHant (n = 48) groups. GnRHa stimulation protocol: administration of triptorelin on alternate days starting on the first day of the cycle, recombinant FSH (rFSH), and recombinant hCG (rhCG) microdose. GnRHant protocol: administration of a daily dose of rFSH, cetrorelix, and rhCG microdose. ICSI outcomes and treatment costs. A significantly lower number of patients underwent embryo transfer in the GnRHa group. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly lower and miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the GnRHa group. It was observed a significant lower cost per cycle in the GnRHa group compared with the GnRHant group ($5,327.80 ± 387.30 vs. $5,900.40 ± 472.50). However, mean cost per pregnancy in the GnRHa was higher than in the GnRHant group ($19,671.80 ± 1,430.00 vs. $11,328.70 ± 907.20). Although the short controlled ovarian stimulation protocol with GnRHa on alternate days, rFSH, and rhCG microdose may lower the cost of an individual IVF cycle, it requires more cycles to achieve pregnancy. NCT01468441. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization of potentials - regular reduction of costs. An intelligent regulation and control of cooling furniture; Potenziale nutzen - Kosten geregelt senken. Intelligente Regelung und Steuerung von Kuehlmoebeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lieto, Gianluca [Wurm GmbH und Co. KG Elektronische Systeme, Remscheid (Germany). Bereich Vertrieb und Marketing

    2011-02-15

    The trade installs new, energy-efficient refrigerant plants and equips its salesrooms with energy-saving cooling furniture. In order to work in such a way that all potentials are exhausted an intelligent regulation and control is necessary. At the same time these systems help to fulfil legal requirements to a large extent automatically as for example with the security of food by means of a correct storage temperature (HACCP). But in the sense of a positive environmental balance, not all options are used by the users so far. They renounce savings with the energy in the two digit percent area due to an individual adjustment of the plant operation.

  16. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  17. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  18. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Effect of regulation on the rate of adoption of cost saving scale technology in the electric utility industry: a portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheraga, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical framework for examining the relationship between regulation and the investment behavior of electric utilities. The particular kind of investment behavior considered is the adoption of new as well as innovative electrical generation technology. The technologies of interest are large scale coal and nuclear generation plants. The theoretical model used in this study differs from traditional approaches in its utilization of a behavioral framework of analysis. The responsiveness of utilities to the required rate of return demanded by stockholders is demonstrated using an augmented form of the standard Capital Asset Pricing Model. Regulation is viewed as affecting utility investment behavior through the effect of the actions of regulatory commissions on the required rate of return that utilities must earn on equity. The particular regulatory policies considered are modification of existing rate structure, automatic adjustment clauses, and required efficiency standards. These policies are of particular interest both because their effects have not been previously examined in detail, and because they are recommended for adoption in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. It is demonstrated empirically that the above policies do affect the required rate of return for utilities and hence their innovative investment behavior

  20. Training induced decrease in oxygen cost of cycling is accompanied by down-regulation of SERCA expression in human vastus lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Karasinski, J; Zoladz, J A

    2008-09-01

    We have examined the effect of 5 week cycling endurance training program on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoforms (SERCA1 and 2) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle as well as on the oxygen uptake to power output ratio (VO2/PO) during incremental cycling. Fifteen untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after moderate intensity training. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before and after training program. Training resulted in higher (P = 0.048) maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as well as in higher power output reached at VO(2max) (P = 0.0001). Moreover, lower (P = 0.02) VO2/PO ratio determined during incremental moderate intensity cycling (i.e. 30-120 W) as well as lower (P = 0.003) VO2/PO ratio reached at VO(2max) were observed after the training. A significant down regulation of SERCA2 protein (P = 0.03) and tendency (P = 0.055) to lower SERCA1 content accompanied by lower (P<10(-4)) plasma thyroid hormone concentration, with no changes (P = 0.67) in MyHC composition in vastus lateralis muscle were found after training. We have concluded that the increase in mechanical efficiency of cycling occurring during first weeks of endurance training is not related to changes in MyHC composition but it may be due to down-regulation of SERCA pumps.

  1. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations: A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Bleymann, Kayleigh; Lyall, Elaine; Aslam, Fouad; Bam, Tara Singh; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Daouda, Elhadj Adam; Espinosa, Mariana; Romo, Jonathan; Singh, Rana J; Semple, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high. Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day. Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P hospitality venues in LMICs. Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  2. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520 reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%, creatine (36.1%, whey protein (30.6%, iron (29.8%, caffeine (23.8%, and ginseng (8.3% for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%, doctors' advice (24.2%, enhancing endurance (20.0%, ability to train longer (13.3%, and provided by the governing body (3.8%. Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ 2 = 49.14, p 2 = 97.08, p 2 = 97.82, p Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

  3. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jay G; Lam, Fred C W; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-01-01

    Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET), wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each). As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest that its modest

  5. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  6. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  7. 29 CFR 4221.10 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs. 4221.10 Section 4221.10 Labor Regulations Relating... PLANS ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES IN MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS § 4221.10 Costs. The costs of arbitration under... the costs of its own witnesses. (b) Other costs of arbitration. Except as provided in § 4221.6(d) with...

  8. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  9. Vasoprotection by Dietary Supplements and Exercise: Role of TNFα Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanrui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplements, including fish oil, dietary fibers, and various natural products, and exercise training exert vasoprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective benefits of dietary supplements and physical activity demand extensive investigation. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of macrovascular and microvascular function. TNFα induces vascular inflammation, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, vascular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and atherogenic response and participates in the regulation of thrombosis and coagulation through multiple signaling pathways involving NFκB, Sp1, activator protein 1, JNK, p38, STAT3, and so forth. Dietary supplements and exercise training decrease TNFα production and ameliorate TNFα-mediated pathological changes in vasculature. Thus, the inhibitory effects of dietary supplements and physical exercise on TNFα production and TNFα signaling may contribute to their vasoprotective properties.

  10. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  11. Supplements and other changes to an approved application. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on supplements and other changes to an approved application to implement the manufacturing changes provision of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The final rule requires manufacturers to assess the effects of manufacturing changes on the identity, strength, quality, purity, and potency of a drug or biological product as those factors relate to the safety or effectiveness of the product. The final rule sets forth requirements for changes requiring supplement submission and approval before the distribution of the product made using the change, changes requiring supplement submission at least 30 days prior to the distribution of the product, changes requiring supplement submission at the time of distribution, and changes to be described in an annual report.

  12. Effects of the regulating energy levy and energy tariffs on the cost effectiveness of energy efficient production of heat and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the title subject collective and stand-alone systems for house and office buildings were analyzed. For houses a high-efficiency boiler as reference system, and individual micro-cogeneration unit, an individual electric heat pump with a collective aquifer as heat source, an individual gas heat pump with outside air as a heat source, a collective cogeneration system, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. For office buildings a high-efficiency boiler and a cooling machine as a reference system, an individual electric heat pump with an individual aquifer as a heat source, cold storage, collective cogeneration, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. Also an overview is given of the changes that are taking place in the tariffs for natural gas, e.g. the use of so-called Commodity Services. Finally, the impact on prices of natural gas and electricity of the fact that the tax-free threshold of the regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) will disappear is investigated. 5 refs

  13. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement number 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), Supplement No. 16 (September 1995), Supplement No. 17 (October 1995), Supplement No. 18 (October 1995), and Supplement No. 19 (November 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the issues identified in the SER

  15. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Egg Production of Rhode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cost per egg was lower for layers fed on FMD compared with those fed on CD. Keywords: Fishmeal, layers, lysine, sulfur-containing amino acids, supplementation. Introduction. F· ishmeal is a high quality animal feed used to . provide a good balance of essential amino acids, energy, vitamins, minerals and trace elel~1ents ...

  16. 10 CFR 51.92 - Supplement to the final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to the final environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.92 Supplement to the final environmental impact statement. (a) If the proposed action has not been taken, the...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.29 Supplemental financing...

  18. 48 CFR 1845.505-14 - Reports of Government property. (NASA supplements paragraphs (b))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (NASA supplements paragraphs (b)) (b) When the clause at 1852.245-73, Financial Reporting of NASA... contractor acquired property for purposes of reporting the acquisition cost in the property classifications...

  19. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  20. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  1. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  2. Information on nutritional supplement labels: time for legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assist this process, it is important to have specific knowledge and understanding of the claims made on labels of nutritional supplement products used for general, and more specifically, for sports consumers. The industry is not regulated, and therefore the claims that are made may not always be accurate. Method: The ...

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese herb medicine mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... These results indicated that the dietary supplementation of the CHM mixture exerted some positive regulating effects on the nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system of goats, thus improving the functions of immunity and antioxidation, as well as the digestion ...

  4. 41 CFR 101-1.108 - Agency implementation and supplementation of FPMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency implementation and supplementation of FPMR. 101-1.108 Section 101-1.108 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation...

  5. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  6. 17 CFR 200.553 - Draft, final and supplemental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Regulations Pertaining to the Protection of the Environment § 200.553 Draft, final and supplemental impact statements. If the Commission...

  7. Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) highlights pricing effects in the US gas value chain: Do we need wellhead price-floor regulation to bail out the unconventional gas industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2011-01-01

    The total annual revenue stream in the US natural gas value chain over the past decade is analyzed. Growth of total revenues has been driven by higher wellhead prices, which peaked in 2008. The emergence of the unconventional gas business was made possible in part by the pre-recessional rise in global energy prices. The general rise in natural gas prices between 1998 and 2008 did not lower overall US gas consumption, but shifts have occurred during the past decade in the consumption levels of individual consumer groups. Industry's gas consumption has decreased, while power stations increased their gas consumption. Commercial and residential consumers maintained flat gas consumption patterns. This study introduces the Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) as a tool to calculate and monitor an average retail price based on the different natural gas prices charged to the traditional consumer groups. The WACORG also provides insight in wellhead revenues and may be used as an instrument for calibrating retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. Such price-floor regulation is advocated here as a possible mitigation measure against excessive volatility in US wellhead gas prices to improve the security of gas supply. - Highlights: → This study introduces an average retail price, WACORG. → WACORG can monitor price differentials for the traditional US gas consumer groups. → WACORG also provides insight in US wellhead revenues. → WACORG can calibrate retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. → Gas price-floor can improve security of gas supply by reducing price volatility.

  8. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  9. Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2017-04-21

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H 2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively. The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events. The study was registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT02347293 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293 ). Registered 15 January 2015.

  10. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard...

  11. Monitoring and surveillance for multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zuguo; Jefferds, Maria Elena; Namaste, Sorrel; Suchdev, Parminder S; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C

    2017-12-22

    Control and Prevention logic model for vitamin and mineral interventions in public health programmes, and used existing manuals, published literature, country reports, and the opinion of experts, to identify monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance indicators for MMN supplementation programmes. We also considered cross-cutting indicators that could be used across programme settings, as well as those specific to common delivery models, such as antenatal care services. We then described mechanisms for collecting these data, including integration within existing government monitoring systems, as well as other existing or proposed systems. Monitoring data needs at all stages of the programme lifecycle were considered, as well as the feasibility and cost of data collection. We also propose revisions to global-, national-, and subnational-surveillance indicators based on these reviews. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  13. Aircraft Transparency Failure and Logistical Cost Analysis - Supplemental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    ANDJ-.OGISTICA Final fefs’t. S. ow F3 .-6IS-77-C-V6~ IC9𔃻 RIMING OXG0FICAE INA h AND AND A000SS 10. POGA111 DLA0ETE PRJ .TS AForigh Ameron Auircralt...331 In -. 1. . a. WXU .. a..tk. w IL L . ~~~~: .n (1 (a ti c’) r-Ct a) 0 -e h 0 7 2 0! 2 - C- Q. aD a M’ w C) on Cc ed (4 ce C.r QoC 0 f3 n o r CI c...1 ý ý 1 . - . 0 m 5I ) %rca onfl- ac-i 0 0cc C4 --0c acca -car occci .cc cii -’ ( a, cc -- ct -- a-- i-A ilc-g v C2 - rc. t I j c- a ~LM #10 00 0

  14. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  15. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  16. Herbal Supplements for Prostate Enlargement: Current State of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Reza; Zangi, Mahdi; Kim, Michelle M; Yavari Bejestani, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Shahin

    2018-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current state of herbal supplement market for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and correlate the ingredients of each product with available scientific evidence. Twenty-seven products from Amazon.com that were advertised as herbal supplements for LUTS and had listed their active ingredients were selected. Active ingredients were reviewed on Google Scholar. Product price, warranty, and consumer review information were also collected. A total of 58 unique active ingredients were identified. The mean number of ingredients was 8.26 (standard deviation 5.25). Whereas 17 (63%) products had an ingredient with a systematic review to support their use, 20 (74%) had an ingredient with conflicting evidence based on systematic reviews. Out of the supplements that contained ingredients supported by literature, all (100%) products simultaneously had other ingredients with no, conflicting, or refuting evidence. There was no (0%) product that contained only scientifically proven ingredients. There is no scientific study to evaluate these supplements as a whole. Despite the widespread use of herbal supplements for LUTS, there is scant scientific evidence to support their safety and efficacy. Lack of adequate regulation and government support for research and development are some of the factors that disincentivize researchers to study safety and efficacy of these products. We encourage physicians to warn their patients on the lack of adequate evidence to support the safety and efficacy of many of these supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 24 CFR 232.610 - Certification of cost requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Eligibility Requirements-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Fire Safety Equipment Cost Certification Requirements § 232.610 Certification of cost requirements...

  18. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  19. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  20. 7 CFR 330.107 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 330.107 Section 330.107 Agriculture Regulations...; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.107 Costs. All costs (including those incurred under § 330.106 of this... usual places of duty shall be furnished without cost to the person requesting the services, unless a...

  1. 48 CFR 31.202 - Direct costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.202 Direct... amount as an indirect cost if the accounting treatment— (1) Is consistently applied to all final cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct costs. 31.202...

  2. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  3. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND... general practice in the insurance industry. [70 FR 31391, June 1, 2005] ...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING...

  5. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...

  8. Distribution costs -- the cost of local delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winger, N.; Zarnett, P.; Carr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the power transmission system in the province of Ontario is owned and operated as a regulated monopoly by Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC). Local distribution systems deliver to end-users from bulk supply points within a service territory. OHSC distributes to approximately one million, mostly rural customers, while the approximately 250 municipal utilities together serve about two million, mostly urban customers. Under the Energy Competition Act of 1998 local distribution companies will face some new challenges, including unbundled billing systems, a broader range of distribution costs, increased costs, made up of corporate taxes or payments in lieu of taxes and added costs for regulatory affairs. The consultants provide a detailed discussion of the components of distribution costs, the three components of the typical budget process (capital expenditures, (CAPEX), operating and maintenance (O and M) and administration and corporate (GA and C), a summary of some typical distribution costs in Ontario, and the estimated impacts of the Energy Competition Act (ECA) compliance on charges and rates. Various mitigation strategies are also reviewed. Among these are joint ventures by local distribution companies to reduce ECA compliance costs, re-examination of controllable costs, temporary reduction of the allowable return on equity (ROE) by 50 per cent, and/or reducing the competitive transition charge (CTC). It is estimated that either one of these two reductions could eliminate the full amount of the five to seven per cent uplift in delivered energy service costs. The conclusion of the consultants is that local distribution delivery charges will make up a greater proportion of end-user cost in the future than it has in the past. An increase to customers of about five per cent is expected when the competitive electricity market opens and unbundled billing begins. The cost increase could be mitigated by a combination of actions that would be needed for about

  9. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital Preservation (CMDP, the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been supplemented with findings from the literature, and our own knowledge and experience. The identified cost-critical activities have subsequently been deconstructed into measurable components, cost dependencies have been examined, and the resulting equations expressed in a spreadsheet. Currently the model can calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA. The study found that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration projects, while it reinstates an often underestimated cost, which is the cost of developing migration software. The model has proven useful for estimating the

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-10 - Cost of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of money. 31.205-10....205-10 Cost of money. (a) General. Cost of money— (1) Is an imputed cost that is not a form of...) Refers to— (i) Facilities capital cost of money (48 CFR 9904.414); and (ii) Cost of money as an element...

  11. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  12. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  13. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  14. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  15. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  16. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  17. Future Trends: Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose

    The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.

  18. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts and...

  19. 48 CFR 30.102 - Cost Accounting Standards Board publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.102 Cost Accounting Standards Board publication. Copies of the CASB Standards and Regulations are printed in title 48...

  20. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards Preambles...