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Sample records for regulation framework contexte

  1. Service-oriented Context-aware Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, László; Pataki, Balázs; 10.4204/EPTCS.2.2

    2009-01-01

    Location- and context-aware services are emerging technologies in mobile and desktop environments, however, most of them are difficult to use and do not seem to be beneficial enough. Our research focuses on designing and creating a service-oriented framework that helps location- and context-aware, client-service type application development and use. Location information is combined with other contexts such as the users' history, preferences and disabilities. The framework also handles the spatial model of the environment (e.g. map of a room or a building) as a context. The framework is built on a semantic backend where the ontologies are represented using the OWL description language. The use of ontologies enables the framework to run inference tasks and to easily adapt to new context types. The framework contains a compatibility layer for positioning devices, which hides the technical differences of positioning technologies and enables the combination of location data of various sources.

  2. AWARE: mobile context instrumentation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzil eFerreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a mobile instrumentation toolkit, AWARE, an open-source effort to develop an extensible and reusable platform for capturing, inferring, and generating context on mobile devices. Mobile phones are sensor-rich but resource-constrained, and therefore several considerations need to be addressed when creating a research tool that ensures problem-free context collection. We demonstrate how AWARE can mitigate researchers’ effort when building mobile data-logging tools and context-aware applications, with minimal battery impact. By encapsulating implementation details of sensor data retrieval and exposing the sensed context as higher-level abstractions, AWARE shifts the focus from software development to data analysis, both quantitative and qualitative. We have evaluated AWARE in several case studies and discuss its use, power consumption, and scalability.

  3. Service Degradation in Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2011-01-01

    Context aware network services are a new and inter-esting way to enhance network users experience. A context aware application/service enhances network performance in relation to dynamic context information, e.g. mobility, location and device information as it senses and reacts to environment...... changes. The reliability of the information accessed is a key factor in achieving reliable context aware application. This paper will review the service degradation in Context Management Frameworks (CMF) and the effect of high network utilization, with particular focus on the reliability of the accessed...

  4. A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus L. Steenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to describe and to eventually implement work space that can be defined as psychologically meaningful and which has increased during the past 5−10 years. Indications are that various researchers on different continents have embarked on a journey to describe the meaningful workplace. Such a workplace is more than a geographical location, it is psychological space; space where the individual employee performs tasks that construe his or her work role, in collaboration with other individuals, within a framework of predetermined time frames, according to certain procedures, based on identified needs and within a formal workflow structure that is normally referred to as the organisation. Within this framework employees become alienated as a result of which the organisation as well as the individual suffer. The organisation experiences a loss of productivity, quality, innovation, et cetera, and the employee a loss of meaning in life and work. Yet, the workplace remains the space where meaning can be gained. It is both the framework and context for meaningfulness at work. Within this framework certain factors and constitutive elements play a facilitating role in experiencing meaningfulness. Various factors including values, and imbedded therein, the Protestant Ethic (PE, (and various other factors, such as for instance spirituality, culture, leadership and management style, etc., play an important role as facilitating factors towards the experience of meaningfulness at work. Developing a framework and context, on a conceptual level for the positioning of these factors as contributories towards the meaningful workplace, is a first priority. This is what this article is about: to conceptualise the workplace as psychological space, framework and context for understanding the contributory role of PE (and other factors towards the experience of meaningfulness at work. The positioning of values and the PE as Max Weber understood the

  5. Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

  6. Class-Based Context Quality Optimization For Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    delay, packet drop probability, information dynamics and the access strategies taken. QoS classification and system configuration of context management traffic is in this aspect important in order to efficiently balance generated access traffic between network delay, packet loss probability, information......Context-awareness is a key requirement in many of today's networks, services and applications. Context Management systems are in this respect used to provide access to distributed, dynamic context information. The reliability of remotely accessed dynamic context information is challenged by network...... dynamics and reliability requirements to the information from the applications. In this paper we develop a QoS Control network concept for context management systems. The concept includes a soft realtime algorithm for model based context access configuration and QoS class assignment, and allows to put...

  7. Context Management Framework for MAGNET Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Jacobsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss architectural issues that are especially relevant in a context management system for Personal Networks. We identify the needs and requirements for a solution, based on a set of use cases, which can manage context information within one Personal Network (PN) or a federatio...

  8. Context-aware Mobile Hypermedia: Concepts, Framework, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    Context-aware computing focuses on developing systems which through different kinds of sensory systems are able to collect information about the physical environment in order to, more or less automatically, adapt data and behavior to the user’s current context. The aim is to create systems that...... the requirements for context aware mobile hypermedia, both theoretically and practically, and is realized by: • A conceptual model for context-aware hypermedia, • HyCon, a framework for context-aware mobile hypermedia, • A range of hypermedia applications utilizing context-awareness to support mobile fieldwork....... The conceptual model divides the concerns of context-aware hypermedia into three sub-domains: the digital context, the physical context, and the user’s conceptual context and provides techniques for integrating these three conceptual domains. The model is experimentally evaluated through the development...

  9. A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-14

    Feb 14, 2013 ... at work. Within this framework certain factors and constitutive elements play a facilitating ... The original study identified the dimensions (on a conceptual level) that ... Workplace'; to expand the theoretical base of the construct. 'Meaningful .... The experience of meaninglessness has major effects such.

  10. A Generic Context Management Framework for Personal Networking Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Luis; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Bauer, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a high level architecture for a context management system for Personal Networks (PN). The main objective of the Context Management Framework (CMF) described in this paper is to support the interactions between context information sources and context aware components......, services and applications in a generic manner, independently of their nature and operation area. To this end, we propose a structure consisting of a context access module, processing and storage module, and a data source abstraction layer. Nodes provide a certain set of these modules depending...... will interact with each other and how different context information will be exchanged within the Personal Network. Finally, we provide an outlook of the work and issues that need to be addressed in order to complete the described framework....

  11. A Generic Context Management Framework for Personal Networking Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Luis; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Bauer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a high level architecture for a context management system for Personal Networks (PN). The main objective of the Context Management Framework (CMF) described in this paper is to support the interactions between context information sources and context aware components......, services and applications in a generic manner, independently of their nature and operation area. To this end, we propose a structure consisting of a context access module, processing and storage module, and a data source abstraction layer. Nodes provide a certain set of these modules depending...... will interact with each other and how different context information will be exchanged within the Personal Network. Finally, we provide an outlook of the work and issues that need to be addressed in order to complete the described framework....

  12. Lincx: A Linear Logical Framework with First-class Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn Georges, Aina; Murawska, Agata; Otis, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    such structures. Lincx extends the linear logical framework LLF with first-class (linear) contexts and an equational theory of context joins that can otherwise be very tedious and intricate to develop. This work may be also viewed as a generalization of contextual LF that supports both intuitionistic and linear...... and intuitionistic assumptions. We present Lincx, a contextual linear logical framework with first-class mixed contexts. Lincx allows us to model (linear) abstract syntax trees as syntactic structures that may depend on intuitionistic and linear assumptions. It can also serve as a foundation for reasoning about...

  13. Mobile Context Toolbox - an extensible context framework for S60 mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on S60 mobile phones enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new sensors and features to be added to the context framework as they become...... available on mobile phone platforms. The framework provides access to multiple sensors to derive user context, and we present results from experiments with two prototype applications built using the toolbox. Initial experiments have been carried out to validate the data obtained by the tool....... In the experiments 14 participants have been continuously using a Nokia N95 mobile phone with a context logger application for an average of 48 days per user and covering 70% of the time. The study has provided valuable insights into the performance issues of the system in real-life usage situations, including...

  14. Mobile Context Toolbox - an extensible context framework for S60 mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on S60 mobile phones enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new sensors and features to be added to the context framework as they become...... available on mobile phone platforms. The framework provides access to multiple sensors to derive user context, and we present results from experiments with two prototype applications built using the toolbox. Initial experiments have been carried out to validate the data obtained by the tool....... In the experiments 14 participants have been continuously using a Nokia N95 mobile phone with a context logger application for an average of 48 days per user and covering 70% of the time. The study has provided valuable insights into the performance issues of the system in real-life usage situations, including...

  15. Mobile Context Toolbox - An Extensible Context Framework for the Maemo Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomial, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights......In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... into human behavior in terms of places visited, people met, etc. Moreover, it has provided useful insights into platform issues of the system deployed in real-life usage situations, including the stability and power consumption....

  16. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konschnik, Katherine E; Boling, Mark K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have sparked a natural gas boom from shale formations in the United States. Regulators face a rapidly changing industry comprised of hundreds of players, operating tens of thousands of wells across 30 states. They are often challenged to respond by budget cuts, a brain drain to industry, regulations designed for conventional gas developments, insufficient information, and deeply polarized debates about hydraulic fracturing and its regulation. As a result, shale gas governance remains a halting patchwork of rules, undermining opportunities to effectively characterize and mitigate development risk. The situation is dynamic, with research and incremental regulatory advances underway. Into this mix, we offer the CO/RE framework--characterization of risk, optimization of mitigation strategies, regulation, and enforcement--to design tailored governance strategies. We then apply CO/RE to three types of shale gas risks, to illustrate its potential utility to regulators.

  17. Generalized framework for context-specific metabolic model extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semidán eRobaina Estévez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models are increasingly applied to investigate the physiology not only of simple prokaryotes, but also eukaryotes, such as plants, characterized with compartmentalized cells of multiple types. While genome-scale models aim at including the entirety of known metabolic reactions, mounting evidence has indicated that only a subset of these reactions is active in a given context, including: developmental stage, cell type, or environment. As a result, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct context-specific models from existing genome-scale models by integrating various types of high-throughput data. Here we present a mathematical framework that puts all existing methods under one umbrella and provides the means to better understand their functioning, highlight similarities and differences, and to help users in selecting a most suitable method for an application.

  18. The action cycle/structural context framework: a fisheries application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Webster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consensus that environmental governance is a wicked problem that requires understanding of the many linkages and feedbacks between human and natural systems. Here, I propose an action cycle/structural context (AC/SC framework that is based on the concept of responsive governance, in which individuals and decision makers respond to problems rather than working to prevent them. By linking agency and structure, the AC/SC framework points out two key problems in the realm of environmental governance: the profit disconnect, whereby economic signals of environmental harm are dampened by endogenous or exogenous forces, and the power disconnect, whereby those who feel the costs of harm are politically marginalized and so have little influence to effect solutions. I apply this framework to fisheries to develop hypotheses regarding exclusionary and conservation-oriented responses under different power/profit dynamics. These expectations are tested in a historical case study of management of the lobster fishery in Maine. The analysis confirms the importance of profit/power dynamics and reveals that governance tends to go through effective and ineffective cycles in a management treadmill that can be driven by internal or external forces. The latter in particular are generally ignored in fisheries management but could ultimately undermine sustainability even in previously well-managed systems.

  19. DATA CONTEXT MODEL IN THE PRO- CESS INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bo; YAN Yan; NING Ruxin; LI Shiyun

    2008-01-01

    Process integration is the important aspect of product development process. The recent researches focus on project management, workflow management and process modeling. Based on the analysis of the process, product development process is divided into three levels according to different grains from macroscopy to microcosm. Our research concentrate on the workflow and the fine-grained design process. According to the need of representing the data and the relationships among them for process integration, context model is introduced, and its characters are analyzed. The tree-like structure of inheritance among context model's classes is illustrated; The relationships of reference among them are also explained. Then, extensible markup language (XML) file is used to depict these classes. A four-tier framework of process integration has been established, in which model-view-controller pattern is designed to realize the separation between context model and its various views. The integration of applications is applied by the encapsulation of enterprise's business logic as distributed services. The prototype system for the design of air filter is applied in an institute.

  20. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  1. Health systems frameworks in their political context: framing divergent agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Olmen Josefien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the mounting attention for health systems and health systems theories, there is a persisting lack of consensus on their conceptualisation and strengthening. This paper contributes to structuring the debate, presenting landmarks in the development of health systems thinking against the backdrop of the policy context and its dominant actors. We argue that frameworks on health systems are products of their time, emerging from specific discourses. They are purposive, not neutrally descriptive, and are shaped by the agendas of their authors. Discussion The evolution of thinking over time does not reflect a progressive accumulation of insights. Instead, theories and frameworks seem to develop in reaction to one another, partly in line with prevailing paradigms and partly as a response to the very different needs of their developers. The reform perspective considering health systems as projects to be engineered is fundamentally different from the organic view that considers a health system as a mirror of society. The co-existence of health systems and disease-focused approaches indicates that different frameworks are complementary but not synthetic. The contestation of theories and methods for health systems relates almost exclusively to low income countries. At the global level, health system strengthening is largely narrowed down to its instrumental dimension, whereby well-targeted and specific interventions are supposed to strengthen health services and systems or, more selectively, specific core functions essential to programmes. This is in contrast to a broader conceptualization of health systems as social institutions. Summary Health systems theories and frameworks frame health, health systems and policies in particular political and public health paradigms. While there is a clear trend to try to understand the complexity of and dynamic relationships between elements of health systems, there is also a demand to provide

  2. Health systems frameworks in their political context: framing divergent agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the mounting attention for health systems and health systems theories, there is a persisting lack of consensus on their conceptualisation and strengthening. This paper contributes to structuring the debate, presenting landmarks in the development of health systems thinking against the backdrop of the policy context and its dominant actors. We argue that frameworks on health systems are products of their time, emerging from specific discourses. They are purposive, not neutrally descriptive, and are shaped by the agendas of their authors. Discussion The evolution of thinking over time does not reflect a progressive accumulation of insights. Instead, theories and frameworks seem to develop in reaction to one another, partly in line with prevailing paradigms and partly as a response to the very different needs of their developers. The reform perspective considering health systems as projects to be engineered is fundamentally different from the organic view that considers a health system as a mirror of society. The co-existence of health systems and disease-focused approaches indicates that different frameworks are complementary but not synthetic. The contestation of theories and methods for health systems relates almost exclusively to low income countries. At the global level, health system strengthening is largely narrowed down to its instrumental dimension, whereby well-targeted and specific interventions are supposed to strengthen health services and systems or, more selectively, specific core functions essential to programmes. This is in contrast to a broader conceptualization of health systems as social institutions. Summary Health systems theories and frameworks frame health, health systems and policies in particular political and public health paradigms. While there is a clear trend to try to understand the complexity of and dynamic relationships between elements of health systems, there is also a demand to provide frameworks that distinguish

  3. Context-Based Pedagogy: A Framework From Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D

    2016-07-01

    Attempts to transform teaching practice are inadvertently subjected to several hurdles, mostly attributed to the lack of a guiding framework. This study aimed at unraveling the conceptual underpinnings of the context-based pedagogy, being perceived the pedagogy that prepares professionals for future practice. Through focus group interviews, data were collected from 16 nursing students who had case studies as the main instructional format in three major courses. The participants were divided into three focus groups, and interview questions were based on three educational parameters: the learning environment, instructional format, and instructional process. Initial findings revealed an array of classroom activities that characterize each parameter. An in-depth analysis of these activities converged on four concepts: (a) dynamic learning environment, (b) realism, (c) thinking dispositions, and (d) professional formation. These concepts improvise a beginning framework for educators and curriculum leaders that can be used to integrate cases in the curriculum and to facilitate the contextualization of knowledge. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):391-395.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Towards a Research Framework for ICT Use in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The digital divide describes the gap among individuals, house- holds, businesses and geographic areas on socio-economic level, as well as unequal opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs. Castells holds the view that informationalism of shifting global networks creates a vola- tile and ruthless world. Those who do not contribute to the new world economies are discarded. Consequently, much of Africa is condemned to information black holes as Africa becomes the graveyard of failed ICT development programmes. However, by sharing expertise and goodwill, worldwide university networks of science and technology can reverse the inequities brought about by informationalism. We have a shared academic respon- sibility to explore feasible research frameworks on the use of ICT in developing contexts. Bronfenbrenner maintains that the ecology of human development is experimental by nature and design. From his Human Ecological Systems Theory we propose a research framework for the development of socially transfor- mative ICT goals for implementation and validation at the School for Continuing Teacher Education at the North-West University, South Africa.

  5. Teachers Implementing Context-Based Teaching Materials: A Framework for Case-Analysis in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Martin A. J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.; Pilot, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for analysing the interplay between context-based teaching material and teachers, and for evaluating the adequacy of the resulting implementation of context-based pedagogy in chemistry classroom practice. The development of the framework is described, including an account of its theoretical foundations. The framework needs…

  6. Teachers Implementing Context-Based Teaching Materials: A Framework for Case-Analysis in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Martin A. J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.; Pilot, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for analysing the interplay between context-based teaching material and teachers, and for evaluating the adequacy of the resulting implementation of context-based pedagogy in chemistry classroom practice. The development of the framework is described, including an account of its theoretical foundations. The framework needs…

  7. Costing framework for International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Haté, Vibhuti; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E

    2012-07-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]) conferred new responsibilities on member states of the World Health Organization, requiring them to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health emergencies. Many countries have not yet developed these capacities, and poor understanding of the associated costs have created a barrier to effectively marshaling assistance. To help national and international decision makers understand the inputs and associated costs of implementing the IHR (2005), we developed an IHR implementation strategy to serve as a framework for making preliminary estimates of fixed and operating costs associated with developing and sustaining IHR core capacities across an entire public health system. This tool lays the groundwork for modeling the costs of strengthening public health systems from the central to the peripheral level of an integrated health system, a key step in helping national health authorities define necessary actions and investments required for IHR compliance.

  8. Automatic Indexing Framework for Context Aware Personal Document Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Jayaweera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today managing files in a personal computer has the same magnitude as managing the World Wide Web due to the dynamic nature of the file system [1]. Even searching for files over a file system is time consuming because finding a file on hard disk is a long-running task. Every file on the disk has to be read with dangling pointers to files which no longer exist because they have been changed, moved or deleted. This makes the user frustrated. Personal document management is the activity of managing a collection of digital documents by the owner of the documents. This consists of creation, organization, finding and maintenance of documents. Information, especially digital information, is no longer a scarce resource; information exists in abundance and human time and attention have now become the scarce resource [2]. Information overload is now a recognized problem as people struggle to manage the increasing quantities of information they need to deal with on a daily basis [3]. Therefore, an on demand software agent comes necessary to manage the file system and retrieve information that the User needs. This research proposes a framework that manages semi-structured file collection based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA. Formal Concept Analysis has been applied in document retrieval in different contexts. Solutions like Conceptual Email Manager [4] and DOCCO [5] do not support dynamic insertions of documents (Extents to their concept lattice. These tools require algorithms to re-run in order to rebuild the index which is costly. In this work concept lattice is generated incrementally on a document collection and stored in a database making the hierarchical structure compact to facilitate parallel insert and search. The proposed framework utilizes database queries and functions complemented with inverted index which facilitates fast document retrieval and reduce the downtime of costly updates on the master index.

  9. Automatic Indexing Framework for Context Aware Personal Document Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Jayaweera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today managing files in a personal computer has the same magnitude as managing the World Wide Web due to the dynamic nature of the file system [1]. Even searching for files over a file system is time consuming because finding a file on hard disk is a long-running task. Every file on the disk has to be read with dangling pointers to files which no longer exist because they have been changed, moved or deleted. This makes the user frustrated. Personal document management is the activity of managing a collection of digital documents by the owner of the documents. This consists of creation, organization, finding and maintenance of documents. Information, especially digital information, is no longer a scarce resource; information exists in abundance and human time and attention have now become the scarce resource [2]. Information overload is now a recognized problem as people struggle to manage the increasing quantities of information they need to deal with on a daily basis [3]. Therefore, an on demand software agent comes necessary to manage the file system and retrieve information that the User needs. This research proposes a framework that manages semi-structured file collection based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA. Formal Concept Analysis has been applied in document retrieval in different contexts. Solutions like Conceptual Email Manager [4] and DOCCO [5] do not support dynamic insertions of documents (Extents to their concept lattice. These tools require algorithms to re-run in order to rebuild the index which is costly. In this work concept lattice is generated incrementally on a document collection and stored in a database making the hierarchical structure compact to facilitate parallel insert and search. The proposed framework utilizes database queries and functions complemented with inverted index which facilitates fast document retrieval and reduce the downtime of costly updates on the master index.

  10. Medicinal Product Regulation: Portugal׳s Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Bastos, Paulo D; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Roque, Fátima

    2016-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED). From the most recently available data, an update of requests and approvals concerning marketing authorizations, variations, pricing, and reimbursements is provided. Data were sourced from the INFARMED website, Infomed (database of medicinal products for human use), and periodic reports issued by national authorities. Organic laws, acts, and law decrees published in the government gazette (Diário da República) are cited and reproduced as required. In 2015 Portugal ranked fifth in the European System of Medicines Evaluation in terms of the number of completed procedures as a reference member state. Approximately 80% of all approved drug applications in Portugal in 2015 were for generic drugs, mostly pertaining to the nervous system. In Portugal, INFARMED monitors drug quality, safety profile, and efficacy in all stages of the drug life cycle, ensuring patients' safety. The Portuguese market for medicinal products for human use has been appreciably changed by the advent of generic drugs. There is an increased trend for new request applications for biological and biotechnological substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology updates earlier versions from 1986 and 1992 is intended to clarify the current roles and responsibilities of agencies involved in the regulation of biotechnology products.

  12. Making sense of complexity in context and implementation: the Context and Implementation of Complex Interventions (CICI) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfadenhauer, Lisa M; Gerhardus, Ansgar; Mozygemba, Kati; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Booth, Andrew; Hofmann, Bjørn; Wahlster, Philip; Polus, Stephanie; Burns, Jacob; Brereton, Louise; Rehfuess, Eva

    2017-02-15

    The effectiveness of complex interventions, as well as their success in reaching relevant populations, is critically influenced by their implementation in a given context. Current conceptual frameworks often fail to address context and implementation in an integrated way and, where addressed, they tend to focus on organisational context and are mostly concerned with specific health fields. Our objective was to develop a framework to facilitate the structured and comprehensive conceptualisation and assessment of context and implementation of complex interventions. The Context and Implementation of Complex Interventions (CICI) framework was developed in an iterative manner and underwent extensive application. An initial framework based on a scoping review was tested in rapid assessments, revealing inconsistencies with respect to the underlying concepts. Thus, pragmatic utility concept analysis was undertaken to advance the concepts of context and implementation. Based on these findings, the framework was revised and applied in several systematic reviews, one health technology assessment (HTA) and one applicability assessment of very different complex interventions. Lessons learnt from these applications and from peer review were incorporated, resulting in the CICI framework. The CICI framework comprises three dimensions-context, implementation and setting-which interact with one another and with the intervention dimension. Context comprises seven domains (i.e., geographical, epidemiological, socio-cultural, socio-economic, ethical, legal, political); implementation consists of five domains (i.e., implementation theory, process, strategies, agents and outcomes); setting refers to the specific physical location, in which the intervention is put into practise. The intervention and the way it is implemented in a given setting and context can occur on a micro, meso and macro level. Tools to operationalise the framework comprise a checklist, data extraction tools for

  13. Context-aware Mobile Hypermedia: Concepts, Framework, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    . The conceptual model divides the concerns of context-aware hypermedia into three sub-domains: the digital context, the physical context, and the user’s conceptual context and provides techniques for integrating these three conceptual domains. The model is experimentally evaluated through the development...... information in different contexts. Unfortunately, hypermedia has traditionally been confined to structuring digital material, and the associations which we as humans are able to maintain between (digital) information and physical entities, have therefore largely been unsupported. But as computational power...... moves beyond the desktop and into the physical environments we live and work in, it may be worthwhile to support these digital-physical relationships. The thesis addresses the definition, design and requirements for context-aware mobile hypermedia systems. Context-aware hypermedia applies ubiquitous...

  14. Learning and Motivation in Multiple Contexts: The Development of a Heuristic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Marold; Beltman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a heuristic framework that integrates three aspects of context (perspective, content and level) from a number of established theoretical approaches. In this framework, context is viewed from different perspectives (subjective and objective), it comprises different contents (physical, social and formal) and it…

  15. Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Weaver, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia...... is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix...

  16. Comparing Identity Management Frameworks in a Business Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, H.J.; Joosten, H.J.M.; Siljee, J.

    2009-01-01

    Several frameworks for identity management exist, each of them with its own distinguishing features. These frameworks are complex however, and their features not easily understood. This makes it hard for businesses to understand the intricacies, and difficult to select and deploy one. This paper dev

  17. Comparing Identity Management Frameworks in a Business Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepman, Jaap-Henk; Joosten, Rieks; Siljee, Johanneke

    Several frameworks for identity management exist, each of them with its own distinguishing features. These frameworks are complex however, and their features not easily understood. This makes it hard for businesses to understand the intricacies, and difficult to select and deploy one. This paper develops business selection criteria and applies them to four popular identity management frameworks. The resulting score card (1) helps businesses to select and deploy an identity management system, and (2) provides valuable feedback to developers of identity management systems on the criteria that they should take into account when designing and implementing an identity management system that is useful for specific businesses.

  18. Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Janine T; Weaver, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    Tumor progression ensues within a three-dimensional microenvironment that consists of cellular and non-cellular components. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypoxia are two non-cellular components that potently influence metastasis. ECM remodeling and collagen cross-linking stiffen the tissue stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix remodeling and tumor hypoxia influence common mechanisms that maximize tumor progression and cooperate to drive metastasis. Thus, clarifying the molecular pathways by which ECM remodeling and tumor hypoxia intersect to promote tumor progression should identify novel therapeutic targets.

  19. A framework for developing entrepreneurship education in a university context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul; Færgemann, Helle Meibom

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the field of entrepreneurship and education with respect to changes in the university context. It is our statement that the educational system at university level is not at present capable of developing students´ motivation, competences and skills concerning innovation...... and entrepreneurship. Instead entrepreneurship education requires learning methods, pedagogical processes and frames for education which universities at the moment do not master. Such changes however involves parallel transformations of didactics, pedagogy and university context....

  20. EgoSENSE: A Framework for Context-Aware Mobile Applications Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Milic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a context-aware mobile framework (or middleware, intended to support the implementation of context-aware mobile services. The overview of basic concepts, architecture and components of context-aware mobile framework is given. The mobile framework provide acquisition and management of context, where raw data sensed from physical (hardware sensors and virtual (software sensors are combined, processed and analyzed to provide high-level context and situation of the user to the mobile context-aware applications in near real-time. Using demo mobile health application, its most important components and functions, such as these supposed to detect urgent or alarming health conditions of a mobile user and to initiate appropriate actions demonstrated.

  1. A Framework for a Decision Support System in a Hierarchical Extended Enterprise Decision Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Andrés; Ortiz, Angel; Vicens, Eduardo; Poler, Raul

    Decision Support System (DSS) tools provide useful information to decision makers. In an Extended Enterprise, a new goal, changes in the current objectives or small changes in the extended enterprise configuration produce a necessary adjustment in its decision system. A DSS in this context must be flexible and agile to make suitable an easy and quickly adaptation to this new context. This paper proposes to extend the Hierarchical Production Planning (HPP) structure to an Extended Enterprise decision making context. In this way, a framework for DSS in Extended Enterprise context is defined using components of HPP. Interoperability details have been reviewed to identify the impact in this framework. The proposed framework allows overcoming some interoperability barriers, identifying and organizing components for a DSS in Extended Enterprise context, and working in the definition of an architecture to be used in the design process of a flexible DSS in Extended Enterprise context which can reuse components for futures Extended Enterprise configurations.

  2. Integration Framework for Heterogeneous Analysis Components: Building a Context Aware Virtual Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    widget—Ozone Widget Framework (OWF) user tab . . . . 13 Figure 8 User context widget—User tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 9 User...context widget—Context basic information tab . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 10 User context widget—User work description tab . . . . . . . . . . . . 15...anomaly occurs, and anticipate such occurrences in the future. It should be able to reconfigure itself in response to contextual changes, and should be

  3. A Systematic Framework for Entrepreneurship Education within a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghina, Astri; Simatupang, Togar M.; Gustomo, Aurik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of entrepreneurship education that positively impact on the creation of new ventures has been widely recognized. Although numerous studies of entrepreneurship education have been conducted within a university setting, the results are mostly fragmented. Therefore, by using a systematic framework, this research is focused on examining…

  4. Context-Aware Usage-Based Grid Authorization Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yongquan; HONG Fan; FU Cai

    2006-01-01

    Due to inherent heterogeneity, multi-domain characteristic and highly dynamic nature, authorization is a critical concern in grid computing. This paper proposes a general authorization and access control architecture, grid usage control (GUCON), for grid computing. It's based on the next generation access control mechanism usage control (UCON) model. The GUCON Framework dynamic grants and adapts permission to the subject based on a set of contextual information collected from the system environments; while retaining the authorization by evaluating access requests based on subject attributes, object attributes and requests. In general, GUCON model provides very flexible approaches to adapt the dynamically security request. GUCON model is being implemented in our experiment prototype.

  5. A Framework for Examining Desktop Video Conferencing in the Organisational Context

    OpenAIRE

    Angelides, Marios C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes, and applies, a framework for examining desktop video conferencing in the organisational context. The framework helps organisations both to uncover the relative benefits of, and problems in, the use of desktop video conferencing and to reconcile some of the problems that evolve from this use.

  6. Technical Feasibility of a Mobile Context-Aware (Social) Learning Schedule Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jane Y. K.; Joy, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the technical feasibility of implementing their mobile context-aware learning schedule (mCALS) framework as a software application on a mobile device using current technologies, prior to its actual implementation. This process draws a set of compatible mobile and context-aware technologies at present and can be…

  7. Towards a framework for a professional development programme: empowering teachers for context-based chemistry education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.; Bulte, A.M.W.; de Jong, O.; Pilot, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a framework for professional development programmes that empowers chemistry teachers to teach and design context-based chemistry curricula. Firstly, teachers involvement, their concerns and their professional development in several context-based curriculum innovat

  8. HyCon: A Framework for Context-aware Mobile Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Grønbæk, Kaj;

    2003-01-01

    be sensed automatically and/or be provided by the user directly. When mobile, the user may obtain context-aware hypermedia support on a variety of small and medium sized computing platforms such as mobile phones, PDAs, tablet PCs, and laptops. This paper introduces the HyCon (HyperContext) framework...

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Lean Regulated Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cawley, Oisin; Richardson, Ita; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    for software development within a regulated environment? This poster presents the results of our empirical research into lean and regulated software development. Built from a combination of data sources, we have developed a conceptual framework comprising five primary components. In addition the relationships...

  10. DynamicSchema: a lightweight persistency framework for context-oriented data management

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Sergio; González, Sebastián; Mens, Kim; Denker, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    International audience; While context-oriented programming technology so far has focused mostly on behavioral adaptation, context-oriented data management has received much less attention. In this paper we make a case for the problem of context-oriented data management, using a concrete example of a mobile application. We illustrate some of the issues involved and propose a lightweight persistency framework, called DynamicSchema, that resolves some of these issues. The solution consists in a ...

  11. Green walls of urban spaces in the context of climate change: An overview of the actual planning frameworks and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the recent years contemporary planning frameworks, regarding urban development in the context of climate change, are giving special attention to the development of green walls. Therefore, the paper presents an overview of the actual frameworks that promote the use of this type of greenery, with special attention on international experiences and current situation in the Republic of Serbia. The paper specially stresses the importance of green walls in the context of climate change and its positive influence in the process of adaptation and, above all, in terms of energy savings, reducing air temperatures in urban areas, the urban heat island effects etc. One of the conclusions of the paper points out the necessity for establishing an appropriate policy framework aiming to promote green walls in the Republic of Serbia and as priority activities set out the following: establishment of the procedural framework for adoption of the Law on the protection and improvement of green spaces, developing Regulations for green wall construction and researches aiming to quantify the positive impact of green walls in the context of climate change.

  12. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  13. Dynamic context discrimination : psychological evidence for the Sandia Cognitive Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Human behavior is a function of an iterative interaction between the stimulus environment and past experience. It is not simply a matter of the current stimulus environment activating the appropriate experience or rule from memory (e.g., if it is dark and I hear a strange noise outside, then I turn on the outside lights and investigate). Rather, it is a dynamic process that takes into account not only things one would generally do in a given situation, but things that have recently become known (e.g., there have recently been coyotes seen in the area and one is known to be rabid), as well as other immediate environmental characteristics (e.g., it is snowing outside, I know my dog is outside, I know the police are already outside, etc.). All of these factors combine to inform me of the most appropriate behavior for the situation. If it were the case that humans had a rule for every possible contingency, the amount of storage that would be required to enable us to fluidly deal with most situations we encounter would rapidly become biologically untenable. We can all deal with contingencies like the one above with fairly little effort, but if it isn't based on rules, what is it based on? The assertion of the Cognitive Systems program at Sandia for the past 5 years is that at the heart of this ability to effectively navigate the world is an ability to discriminate between different contexts (i.e., Dynamic Context Discrimination, or DCD). While this assertion in and of itself might not seem earthshaking, it is compelling that this ability and its components show up in a wide variety of paradigms across different subdisciplines in psychology. We begin by outlining, at a high functional level, the basic ideas of DCD. We then provide evidence from several different literatures and paradigms that support our assertion that DCD is a core aspect of cognitive functioning. Finally, we discuss DCD and the computational model that we have developed as an instantiation of DCD

  14. A Rewriting Framework and Logic for Activities Subject to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Lincoln, N. Martı́-Oliet, J. Meseguer, and C. Talcott. All About Maude: A High-Performance Logical Framework. Springer , 2007. R. Corin, S. Etalle, P. H...Under consideration for publication in Math. Struct. in Comp. Science A Rewriting Framework and Logic for Activities Subject to Regulations M A X K A...whenever applied. We present a formal semantics of our model based on focused proofs of linear logic with definitions. We also determine the

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks Framework for Indoor Temperature Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojkoska, Biljana; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    transmissions through prediction methods. Additionally the framework explores techniques for localization, such that the location of the nodes is used for optimization of the temperature settings. Information on node location is used to provide the most optimal tradeo between the time it takes to reach......Wireless Sensor Networks take a major part in our everyday lives by enhancing systems for home automation, health-care, temperature control, energy consumption monitoring etc. In this paper we focus on a system used for temperature regulation for homes, educational, industrial, commercial premises...... etc. We propose a framework for indoor regulation and optimization of temperature using wireless sensor networks based on ZigBee. Methods for optimal temperature regulation are suggested and discussed. The framework is based on methods that provide energy savings by reducing the amount of data...

  16. The milieu of managerial work: an integrative framework linking work context to role requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Rubin, Robert S; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical and empirical efforts focusing on the interplay between work context and managerial role requirements have been conspicuously absent in the scholarly literature. This paucity exists despite over 60 years of research concerning the requirements of managerial work and with the rather universal recognition that work context meaningfully shapes organizational behavior. The authors developed a theoretical model linking different types of role requirements to different forms of work context. They empirically tested this framework with a nationally representative sample of 8,633 incumbent spanning 52 managerial occupations. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling analyses demonstrated that discrete forms of context (task, social, and physical) exert significant and predictable effects on managerial role requirements.

  17. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  18. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: Effects of sociocultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Snyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae, Heller, John, & Gross, 2011. In this sociocultural context, as compared to home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes, and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy associated with adaptive outcomes. What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we not only replicated our previous findings, but also found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the reported increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we report are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects.

  19. A context-driven integrated framework for research on interactive IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Integrated Research Framework for Information Seeking and Retrieval (ISR) originating from (Ingwersen & Järvelin, 2005) by comparing it to the Laboratory Research Framework for IR and two nested models of contexts involved in ISR: that of Kekäläinen & Järvelin (2002), based...... on work task activities, and the model by Ingwersen (2007) focusing on contexts to information objects. In addition the relevance model by Cosijn (2004), also of nested nature, is discussed, leading forward to the nine dimensions of research variables, potentially influencing ISR processes and evaluation....

  20. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-09-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required- only-to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs.

  1. Authentication Mechanism Based on Adaptable Context Management Framework for Secure Network Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepczuk Mariusz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A system, which uses context information is a new trend in IT. A lot of researchers create frameworks, which collect some data and perform actions based on them. Recently, there have been observed more and more different security solutions, in which we can use context. But not each works dynamically and ensures a high level of user's quality of experience (QoE. This paper outlines what the context information is and shows a secure and user-friendly authentication mechanism for a mail box in cloud computing, based on using contextual data.

  2. An M-Learning Framework in the Podcast Form (MPF using Context-Aware Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.Amasha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile computing is rapidly transforming the world in which we live, with the advent of iPhones, iPads, tablet computers, and Android smartphones. M-learning in the podcast form (MPF is a recent development forconveying coursecontent to students in higher education. Context-aware technologies use temporal and environmental information to determine context. Thisstudy presents a theoretical framework for using context awareness, M-learning in the podcast forminvestigate the effectiveness of using MPF engagement with context-aware technology in Teaching and Learning a multimedia course. The framework is based on two principal dimensions (MPF andcontext-aware technology, and it contributes to support researchers in e-learning and ubiquitous learning. The study was conducted onstudents (n = 42 enrolled ina multimedia course (IS 450 at QassimUniversity. After finishing the course, theycompleted an online survey to give their feedback on the effectiveness of using MPF with context-aware technology.The results indicate that learners had a positive attitude towards usingMPF with context awarenesstechnology, and that they considered it a great way to develop their knowledge and receive course information.This study demonstrates the ability of context-aware technology to enhance the behaviour of learners by using m-learning in the podcast form.

  3. SCondi: A Smart Context Distribution Framework Based on a Messaging Service for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmoon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When developing IoT (Internet of Things applications, context distribution is a key feature to support effective delivery of related contextual data obtained from things to all interested entities. With the advent of the IoT era, multiple billion devices can generate huge amounts of data that might be used in IoT applications. In this paper, we present a context distribution framework named SCondi utilizing the messaging service which supports MQTT—an OASIS standard IoT messaging protocol. SCondi provides the notion of context channel as a core feature to support efficient and reliable mechanism for distributing huge context information in the IoT environment. The context channel provides a pluggable filter mechanism that supports effective extraction, tailoring, authentication, and security of information.

  4. Global Innovation Systems—A conceptual framework for innovation dynamics in transnational contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binz, Christian; Truffer, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of technological innovation processes in transnational contexts. By drawing on existing innovation system concepts and recent elaborations on the globalization of innovation, we develop a multi-scalar conceptualization of innovation systems. Two key

  5. Evaluating a Professional Development Framework to Empower Chemistry Teachers to Design Context-Based Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.J.; Bulte, A.M.W.; de Jong, O.; Pilot, A.

    2012-01-01

    Even experienced chemistry teachers require professional development when they are encouraged to become actively engaged in the design of new context-based education. This study briefly describes the development of a framework consisting of goals, learning phases, strategies and instructional functi

  6. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    Background:Context-based learning approaches are used to enhance students' interest in, and knowledge about, science. According to different empirical studies, students' interest is improved by applying these more non-conventional approaches, while effects on learning outcomes are less coherent. Hence, further insights are needed into the structure of context-based problems in comparison to traditional problems, and into students' problem-solving strategies. Therefore, a suitable framework is necessary, both for the analysis of tasks and strategies. Purpose:The aim of this paper is to explore traditional and context-based tasks as well as students' responses to exemplary tasks to identify a suitable framework for future design and analyses of context-based problems. The paper discusses different established frameworks and applies the Higher-Order Cognitive Skills/Lower-Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS/LOCS) taxonomy and the Model of Hierarchical Complexity in Chemistry (MHC-C) to analyse traditional tasks and students' responses. Sample:Upper secondary students (n=236) at the Natural Science Programme, i.e. possible future scientists, are investigated to explore learning outcomes when they solve chemistry tasks, both more conventional as well as context-based chemistry problems. Design and methods:A typical chemistry examination test has been analysed, first the test items in themselves (n=36), and thereafter 236 students' responses to one representative context-based problem. Content analysis using HOCS/LOCS and MHC-C frameworks has been applied to analyse both quantitative and qualitative data, allowing us to describe different problem-solving strategies. Results:The empirical results show that both frameworks are suitable to identify students' strategies, mainly focusing on recall of memorized facts when solving chemistry test items. Almost all test items were also assessing lower order thinking. The combination of frameworks with the chemistry syllabus has been

  7. Using Context as an Integrative Framework to Align Policy Goals, Supports, and Outcomes in Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Karrie A; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses how context can be used as an integrative framework to align and promote the seamless integration of disability policies, systems of supports, and personal outcomes in the field of intellectual disability. We describe how disability policy goals serve as inputs to an integrative approach to context, and personal outcomes serve as the intended outputs. We then consider contextual factors that research suggests act as independent or intervening variables and that can be targeted through support strategies to enhance personal outcomes. These independent and intervening variables act as throughputs between disability policy goals and personal outcomes. We introduce a logic model to show how disability policy goals, systems of supports, and personal outcomes can be aligned and discuss the implications of using a context-based integrative framework.

  8. Applying the polyvagal theory to children's emotion regulation: Social context, socialization, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Coutya, Julie; McShane, Kelly E; Sullivan, Caroline

    2008-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization. These proposals were evaluated in a short-term longitudinal study of 94 preschool-aged children. Parenting and basal RSA were measured at home, then 6-10 months later behavioral adjustment and RSA in lab baseline and socially challenging contexts were measured. Children with relatively higher RSA in social challenge than at baseline (DeltaRSA) had fewer internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP), and better behavioral self-regulation (SR). Mothers who used more negative control had children with lower DeltaRSA, more IP and EP, and less SR. Structural equation modeling showed that vagal regulation mediated associations between maternal negative control and children's adjustment; maternal negative control did not predict EP or SR after accounting for DeltaRSA. Associations were consistent across boys and girls, with one exception: Higher DeltaRSA was significantly associated with fewer EP in boys only. These findings suggest that the practical significance of physiological regulation might be best revealed in ecologically valid procedures, and that children's physiological mechanisms of emotion regulation are shaped by their experiences of parental socialization.

  9. Best practices for assessing ocean health in multiple contexts using tailorable frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S. Stewart Lowndes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine policy is increasingly calling for maintaining or restoring healthy oceans while human activities continue to intensify. Thus, successful prioritization and management of competing objectives requires a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the ocean. Unfortunately, assessment frameworks to define and quantify current ocean state are often site-specific, limited to a few ocean components, and difficult to reproduce in different geographies or even through time, limiting spatial or temporal comparisons as well as the potential for shared learning. Ideally, frameworks should be tailorable to accommodate use in disparate locations and contexts, removing the need to develop frameworks de novo and allowing efforts to focus on the assessments themselves to advise action. Here, we present some of our experiences using the Ocean Health Index (OHI framework, a tailorable and repeatable approach that measures health of coupled human-ocean ecosystems in different contexts by accommodating differences in local environmental characteristics, cultural priorities, and information availability and quality. Since its development in 2012, eleven assessments using the OHI framework have been completed at global, national, and regional scales, four of which have been led by independent academic or government groups. We have found the following to be best practices for conducting assessments: Incorporate key characteristics and priorities into the assessment framework design before gathering information; Strategically define spatial boundaries to balance information availability and decision-making scales; Maintain the key characteristics and priorities of the assessment framework regardless of information limitations; and Document and share the assessment process, methods, and tools. These best practices are relevant to most ecosystem assessment processes, but also provide tangible guidance for assessments using the OHI framework. These

  10. Best practices for assessing ocean health in multiple contexts using tailorable frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Julia S Stewart; Pacheco, Erich J; Best, Benjamin D; Scarborough, Courtney; Longo, Catherine; Katona, Steven K; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Marine policy is increasingly calling for maintaining or restoring healthy oceans while human activities continue to intensify. Thus, successful prioritization and management of competing objectives requires a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the ocean. Unfortunately, assessment frameworks to define and quantify current ocean state are often site-specific, limited to a few ocean components, and difficult to reproduce in different geographies or even through time, limiting spatial or temporal comparisons as well as the potential for shared learning. Ideally, frameworks should be tailorable to accommodate use in disparate locations and contexts, removing the need to develop frameworks de novo and allowing efforts to focus on the assessments themselves to advise action. Here, we present some of our experiences using the Ocean Health Index (OHI) framework, a tailorable and repeatable approach that measures health of coupled human-ocean ecosystems in different contexts by accommodating differences in local environmental characteristics, cultural priorities, and information availability and quality. Since its development in 2012, eleven assessments using the OHI framework have been completed at global, national, and regional scales, four of which have been led by independent academic or government groups. We have found the following to be best practices for conducting assessments: Incorporate key characteristics and priorities into the assessment framework design before gathering information; Strategically define spatial boundaries to balance information availability and decision-making scales; Maintain the key characteristics and priorities of the assessment framework regardless of information limitations; and Document and share the assessment process, methods, and tools. These best practices are relevant to most ecosystem assessment processes, but also provide tangible guidance for assessments using the OHI framework. These recommendations also promote

  11. Best practices for assessing ocean health in multiple contexts using tailorable frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Erich J.; Best, Benjamin D.; Scarborough, Courtney; Longo, Catherine; Katona, Steven K.; Halpern, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine policy is increasingly calling for maintaining or restoring healthy oceans while human activities continue to intensify. Thus, successful prioritization and management of competing objectives requires a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the ocean. Unfortunately, assessment frameworks to define and quantify current ocean state are often site-specific, limited to a few ocean components, and difficult to reproduce in different geographies or even through time, limiting spatial or temporal comparisons as well as the potential for shared learning. Ideally, frameworks should be tailorable to accommodate use in disparate locations and contexts, removing the need to develop frameworks de novo and allowing efforts to focus on the assessments themselves to advise action. Here, we present some of our experiences using the Ocean Health Index (OHI) framework, a tailorable and repeatable approach that measures health of coupled human-ocean ecosystems in different contexts by accommodating differences in local environmental characteristics, cultural priorities, and information availability and quality. Since its development in 2012, eleven assessments using the OHI framework have been completed at global, national, and regional scales, four of which have been led by independent academic or government groups. We have found the following to be best practices for conducting assessments: Incorporate key characteristics and priorities into the assessment framework design before gathering information; Strategically define spatial boundaries to balance information availability and decision-making scales; Maintain the key characteristics and priorities of the assessment framework regardless of information limitations; and Document and share the assessment process, methods, and tools. These best practices are relevant to most ecosystem assessment processes, but also provide tangible guidance for assessments using the OHI framework. These recommendations also promote

  12. An Adaptive Fuzzy Framework based on Optimized Fuzzy Contexts for Detecting Network Intrusions

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    Habib Ullah Baig

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS is one of the key component of a reliable security infrastructure. Working at second line of defense, detection accuracy is the key objective that largely depends upon the precision of its normal profile. Due to existence of vague boundaries between normal and anomalous classes and dynamic network behavior, building accurate and generalize normal profile is very difficult. Based on the assumption that intruder?s behavior can be grouped into different phases active at different times, this article proposes to evolve and use ?short-term fuzzy profiles/contexts? for each such individual intrusion phase resulting in enhanced detection accuracy for low-level attacks. The result is a context-driven, adaptable implementation framework based on a double layer hierarchy of fuzzy sensors. The framework adapts to network conditions by switching between different contexts, according to network traffic patterns, anomaly conditions and organization?s security policies. These contexts are evolved in incremental fashion with genetic algorithm using real-time network traces. The framework is tested using DARPA 98/99 dataset showing accurate detection of low-level DoS attack.

  13. A SOA-Based Platform-Specific Framework for Context-Aware Mobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Laura M.; Silva, Eduardo; Pires, Luís Ferreira; van Sinderen, Marten

    Context-aware mobile applications are intelligent applications that can monitor the user’s context and, in case of changes in this context, consequently adapt their behaviour in order to satisfy the user’s current needs or anticipate the user’s intentions. The design of such applications relies on dynamic middleware platforms that consist of a variety of components. These components are distributed in the environment and interoperate by making use of each other’s services. In the A-MUSE project, we defined a design methodology based on MDA principles that relies on a SOA reference architecture for context-aware mobile applications. This paper shows how abstract concepts in the design of such applications can be applied to realize concrete components that guarantee architectural interoperability. We also present a platform-specific framework that uses BPEL, UDDI registry and web services as target technologies to implement our reference architecture.

  14. Theorizing ICT and Society in the Brazilian Context: a Multilevel, Pluralistic and Remixable Framework

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    Marlei Pozzebon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multilevel and pluralistic conceptual framework that is particularly useful for Brazilian researchers investigating information and communication technology (ICT based social changes from a community/societal level of analysis. The framework is influenced by three theoretical perspectives: social shaping of technology, structurationist view of technology and contextualism. It integrates four main concepts – relevant social groups, interpretive frames, negotiation and technology-in-practice – organized in terms of three dimensions – context, process and content. The framework, already applied to 12 different research projects led by Brazilian scholars during the last four years, is seen as a work in permanent transformation and open to reuse, revision, remix and constant revalidation.

  15. A systemic framework for managing e-learning adoption in campus universities: individual strategies in context

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    Carol Russell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate why this is happening in one particular campus university context. My study examines the strategies of individual lecturers for adopting e-learning within their disciplinary, departmental and university work environments to develop a conceptual framework for analysing university learning and teaching as a complex adaptive system. This conceptual framework links the processes through which university teaching changes, the resulting forms of learning activity and the learning technologies used – all within the organisational context of the university. The framework suggests that systemic transformation of a university's learning and teaching requires coordinated change across activities that have traditionally been managed separately in campus universities. Without such coordination, established ways of organising learning and teaching will reassert themselves, as support staff and lecturers seek to optimise their own work locally. The conceptual framework could inform strategies for realising the full benefits of new learning technologies in other campus universities.

  16. Conceptual Framework for Context-Based E-Government Interoperability Development

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    Eglė Malinauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of the paper is to analyse the development aspects of e-government interoperability as dynamic, multidimensional and context-based organisational capability and to propose a conceptual framework for contextualisation of e-government interoperability development research and practice. Design/methodology/approach – Methods of systemic analysis along with the comparative analysis and generalisation were used to define the concept of e-government interoperability, classify the leading methods applied in its development and determine the contextual factors that might impact e-government interoperability research and practice. Findings – To meet the requirements of the implementation processes of contemporary e-government solutions, interoperability is understood and examined as the mix of dynamic, multidimensional and context-dependant dynamic capabilities of diverse public sector organisations to reach common goals through alliance and integration of their business processes and technological systems. The conceptual framework for context-based e-government interoperability development is proposed in this paper. It integrates three contextual layers important for dynamic capabilities such as processes, asset position and path-dependency with the main contextual factors that has been indicated as highly important in the recent e-government research. Research limitations/implications – This paper is a theoretical study of the essential e-government interoperability aspect – its context-dependability – that determines not only the adaptability level of various related political, managerial and technological methods, but also the rigour of research in the field. However, the presented conceptual framework for context-based e-government interoperability development is of the high abstraction level and integrates only the main perspectives, principles and elements of interoperability contextualisation. It should be further

  17. Organizational Context and Capabilities for Integrating Care: A Framework for Improvement

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    Jenna M. Evans

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions aimed at integrating care have become widespread in healthcare; however, there is significant variability in their success. Differences in organizational contexts and associated capabilities may be responsible for some of this variability. Purpose: This study develops and validates a conceptual framework of organizational capabilities for integrating care, identifies which of these capabilities may be most important, and explores the mechanisms by which they influence integrated care efforts.  Methods: The Context and Capabilities for Integrating Care (CCIC Framework was developed through a literature review, and revised and validated through interviews with leaders and care providers engaged in integrated care networks in Ontario, Canada. Interviews involved open-ended questions and graphic elicitation. Quantitative content analysis was used to summarize the data.  Results: The CCIC Framework consists of eighteen organizational factors in three categories: Basic Structures, People and Values, and Key Processes. The three most important capabilities shaping the capacity of organizations to implement integrated care interventions include Leadership Approach, Clinician Engagement and Leadership, and Readiness for Change. The majority of hypothesized relationships among organizational capabilities involved Readiness for Change and Partnering, emphasizing the complexity, interrelatedness and importance of these two factors to integrated care efforts.  Conclusions: Organizational leaders can use the framework to determine readiness to integrate care, develop targeted change management strategies, and select appropriate partners with overlapping or complementary profiles on key capabilities. Researchers may use the results to test and refine the proposed framework, with a focus on the hypothesized relationships among organizational capabilities and between organizational capabilities and performance outcomes.

  18. Parental coping in the context of having a child who is facing death: A theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Korones, David N; Norton, Sally A

    2017-07-13

    While improvements in healthcare have resulted in children with complex and life-threatening conditions living longer, a proportion of them still die. The death of a child puts parents at increased risk for anxiety, depression, and complicated grief. Increasing our understanding of the coping strategies that parents use under such extreme circumstances will enable us to best provide support to families, before and after a child's death. Our aim herein was to develop a theoretical framework of parental coping. Evidence from the literature was employed to develop a theoretical framework to describe parental coping in the context of having a child with a life-limiting illness who is declining and facing eventual death. The reasoning and argument consists of three guiding elements: (1) the importance of approach as well as avoidance (as coping strategies) in the context of managing the extreme emotions; (2) the importance of the social aspect of coping within a family, whereby parents cope for others as well as for themselves; and (3) the importance of a flexible and balanced coping profile, with parents using different coping strategies simultaneously. Central to the proposed framework is that effective coping, in terms of adjustment, is achieved by balancing coping strategies: accessing different coping strategies simultaneously or in parallel with a specific focus on (1) approach and avoidance and (2) coping aimed at self and others. Understanding of parental coping strategies is essential for health professionals in order to support parents effectively.

  19. Application of a QMRA Framework to Inform Selection of Drinking Water Interventions in the Developing Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a modified quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework that could be applied as a decision support tool to choose between alternative drinking water interventions in the developing context. The impact of different household water treatment (HWT) interventions on the overall incidence of diarrheal disease and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was estimated, without relying on source water pathogen concentration as the starting point for the analysis. A framework was developed and a software tool constructed and then implemented for an illustrative case study for Nepal based on published scientific data. Coagulation combined with free chlorine disinfection provided the greatest estimated health gains in the short term; however, when long-term compliance was incorporated into the calculations, the preferred intervention was porous ceramic filtration. The model demonstrates how the QMRA framework can be used to integrate evidence from different studies to inform management decisions, and in particular to prioritize the next best intervention with respect to estimated reduction in diarrheal incidence. This study only considered HWT interventions; it is recognized that a systematic consideration of sanitation, recreation, and drinking water pathways is important for effective management of waterborne transmission of pathogens, and the approach could be expanded to consider the broader water-related context.

  20. A theoretical framework for holistic hospital management in the Japanese healthcare context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen

    2013-11-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for performance measurement as a pilot study on holistic hospital management in the Japanese healthcare context. We primarily used two data sources as well as expert statements obtained through interviews: a systematic review of literature and a questionnaire survey to healthcare experts. The systematic survey searched PubMed and PubMed Central, and 24 relevant papers were elicited. The expert questionnaire asked respondents to rate the degree of "usefulness" for each of 66 indicators on a three-point scale. Applying the theoretical framework, a minimum set of performance indicators was selected for holistic hospital management, which well fit the healthcare context in Japan. This indicator set comprised 35 individual indicators and several factors measured through questionnaire surveys. The indicators were confirmed by expert judgments from viewpoints of face, content and construct validities as well as their usefulness. A theoretical framework of performance measurement was established from primary healthcare stakeholders' perspectives. Performance indicators were largely divided into healthcare outcomes and performance shaping factors. Indicators in the former category may be applied for the detection of operational problems, while their latent causes can be effectively addressed by the latter category in terms of process, structure and culture/climate within the organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Family context variables and the development of self-regulation in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strage, A A

    1998-01-01

    While researchers have begun to specify how features of students' immediate learning environments affect the development and use of self-regulation skills, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of the family context in fostering or impeding the development of these skills. This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on attachment theory (Ainsworth et al., 1978; Bowlby, 1982) and Baumrind's parenting styles typology (Baumrind, 1967, 1991) for examining the relationship between family context variables and the development of self-regulation skills. It also presents initial findings from a study of the parental practices and values associated with academic self-regulation in college students. A sample of 465 students completed the 104-item Student Attitudes and Perceptions Survey, which consists of 4 personal profile scales, 7 family background scales, 2 course characteristics scales, and 2 study habits scales. Perceptions of parents as authoritative and of family as emotionally close were found to be predictive of (1) general confidence and positive sense of self, (2) positive goal-orientation at school, (3) general concern about preparation for the future, and (4) positive adjustment to college. These family profiles were also predictive of (1) students' rating their introductory psychology course as interesting and supportive, (2) favorable ratings of their time and effort management and note-taking skills, and (3) strong agreement with a series of items reflecting components of self-regulated learning. Perceptions of parents as authoritarian and of family as nagging or enmeshed were also predictive of concern about preparation for the future. These family profiles were generally predictive of students' rating their introductory psychology course as difficult, and of time and effort management difficulties. The patterns linking family background profiles with course perceptions, study habits, and individual indices of self-regulated learning

  2. Processing Incomplete Query Specifications in a Context-Dependent Reasoning Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli P. Zlatareva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Search is the most prominent web service, which is about to change dramatically with the transition to the Semantic Web. Semantic Web applications are expected to deal with complex conjunctive queries, and not always such queries can be completely and precisely defined. Current Semantic Web reasoners built upon Description Logics have limited processing power in such environments. We discuss some of their limitations, and show how an alternative logical framework utilizing context-dependent rules can be extended to handle incomplete or imprecise query specifications.

  3. Exploring a Framework for Professional Development in Curriculum Innovation: Empowering Teachers for Designing Context-Based Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Machiel J.; De Jong, Onno; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Involving teachers in early stages of context-based curriculum innovations requires a professional development programme that actively engages teachers in the design of new context-based units. This study considers the implementation of a teacher professional development framework aiming to investigate processes of professional development. The…

  4. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed.

  5. A Framework for a Context-Aware Elderly Entertainment Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anwar Hossain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people constitute a major portion of world’s population. Many of them are physically and mentally vulnerable and need continuous support for their health and well-being. There is a growing trend that these elderly people are placed in an ambient assisted living environment (AAL with an aim to receive better care and support. In such settings, a lot of attention has been given to continuous health monitoring for maintaining physical health status. However, much less attention has been given toward understanding the entertainment needs of the elderly people, which is an important factor relevant to their mental health and joyful living. This paper thus addresses the entertainment needs of the elderly and proposes a framework of an elderly entertainment support system. The proposed framework enables different categories of residents (e.g., elderly people and caregivers to access various media services in both implicit and explicit manner in order to enhance the quality of their living experience in different contexts. Our experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed framework. We believe that the proposed approach will establish the need to develop entertainment systems and services for the elderly people and allow us to sensibly address the problems associated with their independent, happy and active living.

  6. A transactional framework for pediatric rehabilitation: shifting the focus to situated contexts, transactional processes, and adaptive developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Imms, Christine; Stewart, Debra; Freeman, Matt; Nguyen, Tram

    2017-04-11

    A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional processes of change over the life course. The framework draws attention to transactional processes by which individuals, situated in life contexts, change and adapt over the life course and, in turn, influence their contextual settings and broader environments. This framework is based on (a) basic tenets derived from foundational theories taking a life course perspective to change, and (b) transactional processes identified from relevant pediatric rehabilitation models that bring these foundational theories into the pediatric rehabilitation sphere. The framework identifies three types of transactional processes relevant to pediatric rehabilitation: facilitative, resiliency, and socialization processes. These processes describe how contexts and people mutually influence each other via opportunities and situated experiences, thus facilitating capacity, adaptation to adversity, and socialization to new roles and life transitions. The utility of the framework is considered for research, practice, service organizations, and policy. Implications for Rehabilitation The framework supports practitioners going beyond person and environment as separate entities, to provide services to the "situated person" in real-life contexts The framework shifts the focus from "body structures/functions" and "person in activity" to "person in changing and challenging life contexts" Working from a transactional perspective, practitioner-client conversations will change; practitioners will view client situations through a lens of opportunities and experiences, assess client experiences in real-life contexts, and strive to create context-based therapy

  7. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Butler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004 to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating SRL and LTR. To those ends, we employed a mixed-methods design to find patterns within and across 31 classrooms at multiple levels of aggregation. Participants were 646 secondary students engaged in curriculum-based LTR activities. Findings were derived from two coupled assessments: A self-report questionnaire and a performance-based measure of LTR. We used frequency, factor analytic, and cluster analyses to create descriptive profiles of SRL (across emotion, motivation, cognition, and metacognition. Main findings were: (1 important mismatches between students’ self-reported LTR engagement and the demands of LTR activities; (2 four coherent profiles of LTR engagement (actively engaged; disengaged; high stress/actively inefficient; passive/inactively efficient, (3 moderate links between students’ self-reported LTR profiles and LTR performance; and (4 differences in SRL profiles that reflected individual-context interactions. We close by distilling implications for understanding, researching, and fostering SRL as situated within naturalistic settings.

  8. A Framework for an Organic Approach for the Analysis of Institutional Transplants in the Economic Context

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    Dyanko Minchev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Institutional transplants is the name given to formal institutions which are transferred from one institutional setting to another. They are one of the possible channels for institutional change. The success of an institutional transplant depends on its interaction with its new environment. Previous research, based on the methodology of neoclassical economics (and to some extent - of the new institutional economics, is limited in its ability to predict the success of such transplants. We propose a framework for an organic approach for the analysis of institutional transplants in the economic context, which has a potential to overcome these limitations. This could enable policy-makers to take better decisions when undertaking institutional reforms.

  9. Context-rich semantic framework for effective data-to-decisions in coalition networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneberg, Keith; de Mel, Geeth; Braines, Dave; Wang, Xiping; Calo, Seraphin; Pham, Tien

    2013-05-01

    In a coalition context, data fusion involves combining of soft (e.g., field reports, intelligence reports) and hard (e.g., acoustic, imagery) sensory data such that the resulting output is better than what it would have been if the data are taken individually. However, due to the lack of explicit semantics attached with such data, it is difficult to automatically disseminate and put the right contextual data in the hands of the decision makers. In order to understand the data, explicit meaning needs to be added by means of categorizing and/or classifying the data in relationship to each other from base reference sources. In this paper, we present a semantic framework that provides automated mechanisms to expose real-time raw data effectively by presenting appropriate information needed for a given situation so that an informed decision could be made effectively. The system utilizes controlled natural language capabilities provided by the ITA (International Technology Alliance) Controlled English (CE) toolkit to provide a human-friendly semantic representation of messages so that the messages can be directly processed in human/machine hybrid environments. The Real-time Semantic Enrichment (RTSE) service adds relevant contextual information to raw data streams from domain knowledge bases using declarative rules. The rules define how the added semantics and context information are derived and stored in a semantic knowledge base. The software framework exposes contextual information from a variety of hard and soft data sources in a fast, reliable manner so that an informed decision can be made using semantic queries in intelligent software systems.

  10. Immunization to regulate fertility: biological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrater, A F

    1995-09-01

    Deliberate immunization to control fertility differs from that to control disease. Those differences can be discussed within various frameworks, e.g., intent, recipient population, biological bases, and immunological targets. Others include differing perspectives of developers, providers and users, and rights of the state to impose programs of control. Almost all of the differences are grounded in the social, economic, and gendered aspects of societies. The intent of providing a fertility-regulating vaccine is to prevent pregnancy. In theory, men as well as women could receive such vaccines; in reality, most are designed for women. Traditional vaccines are intended to prevent disease and are generally given to susceptible individuals whether male or female, child or adult. The biological bases of contraceptive vaccines are molecules specific to reproduction. The immune response generated by most anti-fertility vaccines is directed toward 'self', one's own cells and molecules. In contrast, the bases of traditional vaccines are materials derived from non-self, disease-causing microorganisms; the immunological targets are those microorganisms or their toxic products. From a developer perspective vaccines that regulate fertility differ little from those that control disease; both prevent a particular condition. Developers cite these advantages to contraceptive vaccines: non-invasive, no serious side-effects, easy to use, reduced patient failure, and long-lasting but naturally reversible. Because anti-fertility vaccines have been tested only in small-scale clinical trials, information on user reactions and experiences is limited. Not surprisingly, the perspectives of women's health advocates and of potential users (mostly women) often differ markedly from those of developers. Women cite as disadvantages the cryptic nature of immunity which leaves one without an obvious signal for the beginning of protection (against pregnancy) and its decline, and the inability to 'turn

  11. The Regulator and the Regulated: An Examination of the Legal Framework for Telecommunication in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Otubu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of any technological revolution is to improve the quality of human life. This can be achieved by successfully assimilating these technological innovations into human society. Technological development in the information and communication technology has found its way into modern human societies for good. However in order to take the full advantage and benefits of this system there is the need to put in place a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework to engender the growth and development of the industry.This paper sets out to examine the legal and regulatory framework surrounding the business of telecom industry in Nigeria. It particularly scrutinizes the provision of the law establishing the National regulator vis a vis the service providers and the consumers of this telecom services. Such laws as the company Act, Nigeria communication Act, Criminal law, law of tort, planning Laws, Land Use act and other regulations tangential to the provision of telecom services in the country.In examining these laws the paper seeks to identify the lacunas, drawbacks and limitations existing in these regulations and proceeds to advance reform and recommendations towards the efficient administration and implementation of telecom laws in Nigeria in the overall benefit of the telecom business in Nigeria.

  12. Regulative processes in individual, 3D and computer supported cooperative learning contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Frank; Kollöffel, Bas; Meijden, van der Henny; Kleine Staarman, Judith; Janssen, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Three studies of student regulation of learning were undertaken. In the first study, the temporal organization of the self-regulation process was examined within an individual learning context. Multilevel analysis showed linear and quadratic relations between self-regulation process and the phase of

  13. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  14. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  15. Metal-organic frameworks as selectivity regulators for hydrogenation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meiting; Yuan, Kuo; Wang, Yun; Li, Guodong; Guo, Jun; Gu, Lin; Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Huijun; Tang, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    Owing to the limited availability of natural sources, the widespread demand of the flavouring, perfume and pharmaceutical industries for unsaturated alcohols is met by producing them from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, through the selective hydrogenation of the carbon-oxygen group (in preference to the carbon-carbon group). However, developing effective catalysts for this transformation is challenging, because hydrogenation of the carbon-carbon group is thermodynamically favoured. This difficulty is particularly relevant for one major category of heterogeneous catalyst: metal nanoparticles supported on metal oxides. These systems are generally incapable of significantly enhancing the selectivity towards thermodynamically unfavoured reactions, because only the edges of nanoparticles that are in direct contact with the metal-oxide support possess selective catalytic properties; most of the exposed nanoparticle surfaces do not. This has inspired the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to encapsulate metal nanoparticles within their layers or inside their channels, to influence the activity of the entire nanoparticle surface while maintaining efficient reactant and product transport owing to the porous nature of the material. Here we show that MOFs can also serve as effective selectivity regulators for the hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Sandwiching platinum nanoparticles between an inner core and an outer shell composed of an MOF with metal nodes of Fe3+, Cr3+ or both (known as MIL-101; refs 19, 20, 21) results in stable catalysts that convert a range of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with high efficiency and with significantly enhanced selectivity towards unsaturated alcohols. Calculations reveal that preferential interaction of MOF metal sites with the carbon-oxygen rather than the carbon-carbon group renders hydrogenation of the former by the embedded platinum nanoparticles a thermodynamically favoured reaction. We anticipate that our basic design

  16. Enabling Proactivity in Context-aware Middleware Systems by means of a Planning Framework based on HTN Planning

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    Preeti Bhargava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s context-aware systems tend to be reactive or ‘pull’ based - the user requests or queries for some information and the system responds with the requested information. However, none of the systems anticipate the user’s intent and behavior, or take into account his current events and activities to pro-actively ‘push’ relevant information to the user. On the other hand, Proactive context-aware systems can predict and anticipate user intent and behavior, and act proactively on the users’ behalf without explicit requests from them. Two fundamental capabilities of such systems are: prediction and autonomy. In this paper, we address the second capability required by a context-aware system to act proactively i.e. acting autonomously without an explicit user request. To address it, we present a new paradigm for enabling proactivity in context-aware middleware systems by means of a Planning Framework based on HTN planning. We present the design of a Planning Framework within the infrastructure of our intelligent context-aware middleware called Rover II. We also implement this framework and evaluate its utility with several use cases. We also highlight the benefits of using such a framework in dynamic ubiquitous systems.

  17. Regulations relating to mycotoxins in almonds in European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diella, Giusy; De Giglio, Osvalda; Vallone, Lisa; Iriti, Marcello; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi and having a toxic effect on humans and farm animals. In particular, almonds, a rich source of nutrients and phytochemicals, can be contaminated by aflatoxins, one of the most important mycotoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The reference regulations in this field are continuously improved and updated worldwide. This paper reports the current state of the European regulations on aflatoxins in almonds concerning the limits, and the procedures for performing official controls and for import.

  18. Self-Regulated Learning in the Context of Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Hayon, L.; Tillema, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Examined Dutch and Israeli teacher educators' and student teachers' perceptions of meaning, implementation, and role expectations in self-regulated learning (SRL) within teacher education. Interview data indicated support for the concept of SRL, although conditions for its actual implementation were not always favorable. Student teachers were more…

  19. The Sustainability Analysis Framework: An Effective Knowledge Communication Tool in a Whole of Government Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Hodgman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the structural formation of the Sustainability Analysis Framework (SAF, which has proved to be an effective knowledge communication tool in the largest state administration in Australia, the Government of New South Wales. The SAF, devised by the author, has been implemented across thirty-eight state agencies and demonstrates that a whole of government Sustainability perspective is achievable. The level of the NSW Government's commitment to this process is evidenced by the fact that it was coordinated at the highest levels of the administration and engaged high-level input from a comprehensive portfolio of its agencies. The SAF's successful deployment across this significant bureaucracy shows that the generally applicable mechanism is effective in data collation, information sharing, knowledge organisation and the communication of Sustainability practice and wisdom. At the heart of the paper is the author's contention that one of the key problems which jeopardises our common future on Earth is the lack of effective tools to communicate Sustainability thinking and practice. In the course of the project, upon which this paper is based, the author identified the need for a visually and conceptually accessible mechanism to accelerate the uptake of Sustainability practice in a whole of organization context. In designing the SAF, which has successfully bridged this knowledge communication gap, the author employed two of humanity's fundamental learning tools – the diagram and the story.

  20. A Framework for Interaction and Cognitive Engagement in Connectivist Learning Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction has always been highly valued in education, especially in distance education (Moore, 1989; Anderson, 2003; Chen, 2004a; Woo & Reeves, 2007; Wang, 2013; Conrad, in press. It has been associated with motivation (Mahle, 2011; Wen-chi, et al., 2011, persistence (Tello, 2007; Joo, Lim, & Kim, 2011, deep learning (Offir, et al., 2008 and other components of effective learning. With the development of interactive technologies, and related connectivism learning theories (Siemens, 2005a; Downes, 2005, interaction theory has expanded to include interactions not only with human actors, but also with machines and digital artifacts. This paper explores the characteristics and principles of connectivist learning in an increasingly open and connected age. A theory building methodology is used to create a new theoretical model which we hope can be used by researchers and practitioners to examine and support multiple types of effective educational interactions. Inspired by the hierarchical model for instructional interaction (HMII (Chen, 2004b in distance learning, a framework for interaction and cognitive engagement in connectivist learning contexts has been constructed. Based on cognitive engagement theories, the interaction of connectivist learning is divided into four levels: operation interaction, wayfinding interaction, sensemaking interaction, and innovation interaction. Connectivist learning is thus a networking and recursive process of these four levels of interaction.

  1. Emotion regulation choice : A conceptual framework and supporting evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Radu, Peter; Blechert, Jens; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Choice behavior is considered the fundamental means by which individuals exert control over their environments. One important choice domain that remains virtually unexplored is that of emotion regulation. This is surprising given that healthy adaptation requires flexibly choosing between regulation

  2. Polish as a Foreign Language: New Context, Regulations and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popławska Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.

  3. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  4. Self-Regulation across Different Contexts: Findings in Young Albanian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Uka, Fitim; Larsen, Ross A. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The importance of self-regulation for children's successful academic performance has led to greatly increased interest in this topic in recent years. However, less is known about the interrelations among self-regulatory processes across different contexts. The present study investigated the structure of self-regulation in young…

  5. Metabolic Context Regulates Distinct Hypothalamic Transcriptional Responses to Antiaging Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Stranahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is an essential relay in the neural circuitry underlying energy metabolism that needs to continually adapt to changes in the energetic environment. The neuroendocrine control of food intake and energy expenditure is associated with, and likely dependent upon, hypothalamic plasticity. Severe disturbances in energy metabolism, such as those that occur in obesity, are therefore likely to be associated with disruption of hypothalamic transcriptomic plasticity. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two well-characterized antiaging interventions, caloric restriction and voluntary wheel running, in two distinct physiological paradigms, that is, diabetic (db/db and nondiabetic wild-type (C57/Bl/6 animals to investigate the contextual sensitivity of hypothalamic transcriptomic responses. We found that, both quantitatively and qualitatively, caloric restriction and physical exercise were associated with distinct transcriptional signatures that differed significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. This suggests that challenges to metabolic homeostasis regulate distinct hypothalamic gene sets in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. A greater understanding of how genetic background contributes to hypothalamic response mechanisms could pave the way for the development of more nuanced therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic disorders that occur in diverse physiological backgrounds.

  6. Abortion care training framework for nurses within the context of higher education in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, I; Bitzer, E M; Boshoff, E L D; Steyn, D W

    2009-09-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rate due to illegal abortions in South Africa necessitated the implementation of abortion legislation in February 1997. Abortion legislation stipulates that registered nurses who had undergone the proposed abortion care training--certified nurses--may carry out abortions within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Currently it seems that an inadequate number of nurses are being trained in the Western Cape to provide pregnant women with counselling, to perform abortions and/or refer problem cases. No real attempts have since been made by higher education institutions in the Western Cape to offer abortion care training for nurses. This case study explores the situation of certified nurses and the context in which they provide abortion care in different regions of the Western Cape. The sampling included a random, stratified (non-proportional) number of designated state health care facilities in the Western Cape, a non-probability purposive sampling of nurses who provided abortion care, a non-probability convenience sample of women who had received abortion care, and a non-probability purposive sampling of final-year pre-registration nursing students. Data was generated by means of questionnaires, a checklist and semi-structured interviews. The main findings of this study indicate that the necessary infrastructure required for legal abortion is in place. However, the ongoing shortage of trained health care practitioners hampers abortion care services. Deficiencies were identified in the existing provincial protocol as some of the guidelines were either not in use or had become obsolete. Certified midwives who had been trained by the regional offices of the Department of Health: Western Cape were skilled in carrying out the abortion procedure, but other aspects of abortion care mainly carried out by other categories of nurses required more attention. This article suggests a training framework that should provide focus for the development of

  7. Understanding Regulated Learning in Situative and Contextual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvenoja, Hanna; Järvelä, Sanna; Malmberg, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    Research on self-regulated learning has focused predominantly on a static individual level to explain various strengths and weaknesses of learners. However, much learning today is highly interactive and technologically enhanced, which an individually oriented perspective to regulated learning does not consider. In this article we discuss…

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintrich, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed,…

  9. Review of environmental issues in the context of biofuel sustainability frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guariguata, MR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available , criteria and indicators 19 4.3 Limitations of principles, criteria and indicators 19 5 Conclusions 23 6 References 25 Tables 1 A broad typology of biofuel sustainability frameworks and certi�cation schemes by governance level and adoption requirements... 3 2 Environmental issues in the six biofuel sustainability frameworks 10 3 Compatibility of criteria on land use change and greenhouse gas emissions in sustainability frameworks (assessed against EU RED) 13 Box 1 Proposals for a uniform (minimum...

  10. Abortion care training framework for nurses within the context of higher education in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The high morbidity and mortality rate due to illegal abortions in South Africa necessitated the implementation of abortion legislation in February 1997. Abortion legislation stipulates that registered nurses who had undergone the proposed abortion care training — certified nurses — may carry out abortions within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Currently it seems that an inadequate number of nurses are being trained in the Western Cape to provide pregnant women with counselling, to perform abortions and/or refer problem cases. No real attempts have since been made by higher education institutions in the Western Cape to offer abortion care training for nurses. This case study explores the situation of certified nurses and the context in which they provide abortion care in different regions of the Western Cape. The sampling included a random, stratified (non-proportional number of designated state health care facilities in the Western Cape, a non-probability purposive sampling of nurses who provided abortion care, a non-probability convenience sample of women who had received abortion care, and a non-probability purposive sampling of final-year pre-registration nursing students. Data was generated by means of questionnaires, a checklist and semi-structured interviews. The main findings of this study indicate that the necessary infrastructure required for legal abortion is in place. However, the ongoing shortage of trained health care practitioners hampers abortion care services. Deficiencies were identified in the existing provincial protocol as some of the guidelines were either not in use or had become obsolete. Certified midwives who had been trained by the regional offices of the Department of Health: Western Cape were skilled in carrying out the abortion procedure, but other aspects of abortion care mainly carried out by other categories of nurses required more attention. This article suggests a training framework that should provide

  11. Social innovation and social economy: A new framework in the Spanish housing context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etxezarreta Etxarri, A.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Cano Fuentes, G.; Cruz Mazo, E.; Dol, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to offer a new theoretical framework to the Spanish housing studies. This article combines different traditions and different frameworks (social innovation, social economy), in order to position the crisis of evictions in Spain and the emergence of housing

  12. Toward a Process Framework of Business Model Innovation in the Global Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng; Li, Peter Ping; Skat-Rørdam, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Primarily due to the large gaps in economic and institutional contexts between the developed and emerging economies, effective business models in the two distinctive contexts tend to differ. In particular, the business model innovation (BMI) at the subsidiary level plays an important role...

  13. A generic framework for context-dependent fusion with application to landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul D.; Chamseddine Ben Abdallah, Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    We present a novel method for fusing the results of multiple landmine detection algorithms that use different types of features and different classification methods. Our approach, called Context Extraction for Local Fusion (CELF), is motivated by the fact that the relative performance of different detectors can vary significantly depending on the mine type, geographical site, soil and weather conditions, and burial depth. CELF is a local approach that adapts the fusion method to different regions of the feature space. It is based on a novel objective function that combines context identification and multi-algorithm fusion criteria into a joint objective function. This objective function is defined and optimized to produce contexts via unsupervised clustering while simultaneously providing optimal fusion parameters for each context. Results on large and diverse Ground Penetrating Radar data collections show that the proposed method can identify meaningful and coherent contexts and that different expert algorithms can be identified for the different contexts. Typically, the contexts correspond to groups of alarm signatures that share common attributes such as mine type, geographical site, soil and weather conditions. Our initial experiments have also indicated that the proposed context-dependent fusion outperforms all individual detectors and other standard fusion methods.

  14. A Context-Aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Based Generalized Pedagogical Agent Framework for Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulehouache, Soufiane; Maamri, Ramdane; Sahnoun, Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    The Pedagogical Agents (PAs) for Mobile Learning (m-learning) must be able not only to adapt the teaching to the learner knowledge level and profile but also to ensure the pedagogical efficiency within unpredictable changing runtime contexts. Therefore, to deal with this issue, this paper proposes a Context-aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Component…

  15. Framework and guidelines for implementing the co-management approach: volume I : context, concept and principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop a common understanding of the co-management approach in fisheries management and to provide an overview of the various frameworks used for its implementation...

  16. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social-cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders - a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent "wear and tear" effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined.

  17. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  18. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  19. Flexibility and Attractors in Context: Family Emotion Socialization Patterns and Children's Emotion Regulation in Late Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenheimer, E.S.; Hollenstein, T.P.; Wang, J.; Shields, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Familial emotion socialization practices relate to children's emotion regulation (ER) skills in late childhood, however, we have more to learn about how the context and structure of these interactions relates to individual differences in children's ER. The present study examined flexibility and attr

  20. The Role of the Family Context in the Development of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Myers, Sonya S.; Robinson, Lara Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews current literature examining associations between components of the family context and children and adolescents' emotion regulation (ER). The review is organized around a tripartite model of familial influence. Firstly, it is posited that children learn about ER through observational learning, modeling and social referencing.…

  1. Hippocampal Regulation of Context-Dependent Neuronal Activity in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen; Hobin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a robust and enduring form of emotional learning that provides an ideal model system for studying contextual regulation of memory retrieval. After extinction the expression of fear conditional responses (CRs) is context-specific: A conditional stimulus (CS) elicits greater conditional responding outside compared with…

  2. Preparing Preservice Teachers for Self-Regulated Learning in the Context of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarski, Bracha; Michalsky, Tova

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of two hypermedia environments on 95 preservice university teachers' self-regulated learning (SRL) in the context of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK): hypermedia with metacognitive instruction (HYP + META) and without (HYP). The study combined online reflections with self-report measures to…

  3. Regulation framework and evolution; Cadre reglementaire et evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daublanc, J. [Ministere de l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Bureau de l`Atmosphere et de la Maitrise de l`energie et des Transports

    1996-12-31

    The general regulations concerning combustion plants in France are reviewed, and the legislation on classified plants is detailed: classification methods, regulatory directives for activities to be declared (boilers, turbines and motors,...) and for those to be authorized (large thermal plants, refining plants and other processes), waste management. The legislation on air pollution concerning thermal energy utilization and pollutant emissions is also presented, together with incentive measures and international protocols. European Union actions for environment are also examined, with directives on air quality and industrial pollution. National, European and international legislation prospectives are also mentioned

  4. PRINCIPAL APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK IN GERMANY IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFELONG LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Morozova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the education system in Germany and explores the structure of National Qualifications Framework, developed in compliance with the Recommendations of the European Parliament and Council, and reflecting the specificity of the four-level educational structure. The author regards it as an effective means for educational system modernization and interaction with the labor market. Additionally, the research demonstrates the mechanisms, put forward by the Association for Developing the German Qualifications Framework to guarantee the compatibility and comparability of German and European qualifications; it also denotes the eight levels of German National Qualifications Framework along with their descriptors.The author believes that German experience of classification and systematization of qualifications in question can be used by Russian specialists.

  5. A mechanistic stochastic framework for regulating bacterial cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghusinga, Khem Raj; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar A; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-07-26

    How exponentially growing cells maintain size homeostasis is an important fundamental problem. Recent single-cell studies in prokaryotes have uncovered the adder principle, where cells add a fixed size (volume) from birth to division, irrespective of their size at birth. To mechanistically explain the adder principle, we consider a timekeeper protein that begins to get stochastically expressed after cell birth at a rate proportional to the volume. Cell-division time is formulated as the first-passage time for protein copy numbers to hit a fixed threshold. Consistent with data, the model predicts that the noise in division timing increases with size at birth. Intriguingly, our results show that the distribution of the volume added between successive cell-division events is independent of the newborn cell size. This was dramatically seen in experimental studies, where histograms of the added volume corresponding to different newborn sizes collapsed on top of each other. The model provides further insights consistent with experimental observations: the distribution of the added volume when scaled by its mean becomes invariant of the growth rate. In summary, our simple yet elegant model explains key experimental findings and suggests a mechanism for regulating both the mean and fluctuations in cell-division timing for controlling size.

  6. Towards a Context-Aware Framework for Improving Collaboration of Users in Groupware Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Montané-Jiménez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Context-Aware Groupware System (CAGS enables the members of a team to communicate, cooperate and coordinate their activities to achieve a common goal, by providing them tools that are aware of their current execution context and adapt accordingly. CAGS can be found in several domains such as entertainment, particularly Collaborative First-Person-Shooter (FPS video games. In CAGS, the means of collaboration traditionally provided to users (e.g. text and audio messaging are not necessarily adequate: for instance, in a FPS, messages can distract the gamer due to the speed of the game. This paper reports a study that, for Collaborative FPS, identifies advantages/disadvantages of current means of collaboration and social behaviors that arise when players interact face-to-face or remotely. Based on this study, a context-aware conceptual model and architecture is proposed for CAGS aimed to improve user collaboration.

  7. Exploring the Value of Bourdieu's Framework in the Context of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloot, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the usefulness of the theoretical framework of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in relation to institutional change through data gathered in some initial interviews at Emerston University, a previously white, English-medium, South African institution. This exploration is based on Bourdieu's concept of a social space as…

  8. Legislative lobbying in context : towards a conceptual framework of interest group lobbying in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluver, Heike; Braun, C.; Beyers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We outline a conceptual framework that identifies and characterizes the contextual nature of interest group politics in the European Union (EU) to better understand variation in interest group mobilization, lobbying strategies and interest group influence. We focus on two sets of contextual factors

  9. This Is Really Happening: Criticality and Discussions of Context in ACRL's "Framework for Information Literacy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the ACRL "Framework for Information Literacy" has sparked an immense amount of conversation among academic librarians, though the profession is still far from consensus with regards to if, when, or how the document should be implemented. This essay argues that despite debates over various points within the text, the…

  10. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeus, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.meeus@eui.e [Florence School of Regulation, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via Boccaccio 151, Florence (Italy); Electrical Engineering Department (ESAT-ELECTA), KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: {yields} Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. {yields} Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. {yields} Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. {yields} More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  11. Vision-Aided Context-Aware Framework for Personal Navigation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, S.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N., , Dr.

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablet-PCs) has encouraged the use of location-based services (LBS) that are relevant to the current location and context of a mobile user. The main challenge of LBS is to find a pervasive and accurate personal navigation system (PNS) in different situations of a mobile user. In this paper, we propose a method of personal navigation for pedestrians that allows a user to freely move in outdoor environments. This system aims at detection of the context information which is useful for improving personal navigation. The context information for a PNS consists of user activity modes (e.g. walking, stationary, driving, and etc.) and the mobile device orientation and placement with respect to the user. After detecting the context information, a low-cost integrated positioning algorithm has been employed to estimate pedestrian navigation parameters. The method is based on the integration of the relative user's motion (changes of velocity and heading angle) estimation based on the video image matching and absolute position information provided by GPS. A Kalman filter (KF) has been used to improve the navigation solution when the user is walking and the phone is in his/her hand. The Experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of this method for outdoor personal navigation systems.

  12. The Context of Oral and Written Language: A Framework for Mode and Medium Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Denise E.

    1988-01-01

    A case study of IBM VM users is discussed in terms of those aspects of the context of a situation that affect both user choice of mode/medium and mode/medium switching. Results indicate that the medium of communication is itself a linguistic choice. (Author/DJD)

  13. Queer of Color Agency in Educational Contexts: Analytic Frameworks from a Queer of Color Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockenbrough, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Although queer students of color face multiple obstacles to safe and full participation in numerous educational contexts, cultural and scholarly narratives that emphasize their vulnerabilities can lead educational stakeholders to overlook, and thus miss opportunities to capitalize on, the agency that these students possess to negotiate the…

  14. Developing a Framework for Critical Science Agency through Case Study in a Conceptual Physics Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Clairmont, Neil; Locke, Donya

    2009-01-01

    In this manuscript we examine how two students develop and express agency in and through high school physics. We tell the stories of two youth from a low-income, urban community to elucidate the important components of critical science agency in a physics context, and to situate a set of claims about how youth develop and express this concept.…

  15. Conceptualising the prevention of adverse obstetric outcomes among immigrants using the 'three delays' framework in a high-income context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2012-12-01

    Women from high-mortality settings in sub-Saharan Africa can remain at risk for adverse maternal outcomes even after migrating to low-mortality settings. To conceptualise underlying socio-cultural factors, we assume a 'maternal migration effect' as pre-migration influences on pregnant women's post-migration care-seeking and consistent utilisation of available care. We apply the 'three delays' framework, developed for low-income African contexts, to a high-income western scenario, and aim to identify delay-causing influences on the pathway to optimal facility treatment. We also compare factors influencing the expectations of women and maternal health providers during care encounters. In 2005-2006, we interviewed 54 immigrant African women and 62 maternal providers in greater London, United Kingdom. Participants were recruited by snowball and purposive sampling. We used a hermeneutic, naturalistic study design to create a qualitative proxy for medical anthropology. Data were triangulated to the framework and to the national health system maternity care guidelines. This maintained the original three phases of (1) care-seeking, (2) facility accessibility, and (3) receipt of optimal care, but modified the framework for a migration context. Delays to reciprocal care encounters in Phase 3 result from Phase 1 factors of 'broken trust, which can be mutually held between women and providers. An additional factor is women's 'negative responses to future care', which include rationalisations made during non-emergency situations about future late-booking, low-adherence or refusal of treatment. The greatest potential for delay was found during the care encounter, suggesting that perceived Phase 1 factors have stronger influence on Phase 3 than in the original framework. Phase 2 'language discordance' can lead to a 'reliance on interpreter service', which can cause delays in Phase 3, when 'reciprocal incongruent language ability' is worsened by suboptimal interpreter systems

  16. A framework for evaluating automatic indexing or classification in the context of retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Korajlka; Soergel, Dagobert; Buchanan, George

    2016-01-01

    subject indexing, hard scientific evidence of their performance in operating information environments is scarce. A major reason for this is that research is usually conducted in laboratory conditions, excluding the complexities of real-life systems and situations. The paper reviews and discusses issues......Tools for automatic subject assignment help deal with scale and sustainability in creating and enriching metadata, establishing more connections across and between resources and enhancing consistency. While some software vendors and experimental researchers claim the tools can replace manual...... with existing evaluation approaches such as problems of aboutness and relevance assessments, implying the need to use more than a single “gold standard” method when evaluating indexing and retrieval and proposes a comprehensive evaluation framework. The framework is informed by a systematic review...

  17. Context-aware assistive systems for augmented work : a framework using gamification and projection

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    While context-aware assistive systems (CAAS) have become ubiquitous in cars or smartphones, most workers in production environments still rely on their skills and expertise to make the right choices and movements. The quality gates currently established by the industry successfully remove "waste" i.e. failed work results from the workflow, but they usually operate in a spatial and temporal distance from the workplace and the worker. Thus workers lack the opportunity to learn from problems on ...

  18. Critical aspects of therapy in the context of child care legal proceedings: an emerging framework

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Michael Glyn

    2012-01-01

    During the last 10 years working intensively with families in the context of child-care legal proceedings I am struck by how their lives hinge precariously on the outcome of a professional's assessment of them. This is especially so with ‘experts’ who often act as final arbiters on a family’s viability by providing independent psychological, psychiatric or Social Work assessments. In some cases, during proceedings, a therapeutic issue often not previously known or considered viable can emerge...

  19. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... July 20, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird...

  20. A Conceptual Framework of Ancillary Benefit Modeling in Context of Climate Change in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Nam, Yun Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    A climate change requires a prudent and general policy since its effect is expected to be very extensive on ecosystem, agricultural production, bio diversity, human health, damage on buildings due to the temperature and sea level increase. Korea is facing to establish and implement a greenhouse gas reduction policy for UNFCCC, established to prevent a climate change. In this study, it recommended to establish a concept for measuring a incidental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas and suggested a framework for establishing a model development suitable to Korea. 43 refs., 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. The Event Chain of Survival in the Context of Music Festivals: A Framework for Improving Outcomes at Major Planned Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila

    2017-08-01

    Despite the best efforts of event producers and on-site medical teams, there are sometimes serious illnesses, life-threatening injuries, and fatalities related to music festival attendance. Producers, clinicians, and researchers are actively seeking ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with these events. After analyzing the available literature on music festival health and safety, several major themes emerged. Principally, stakeholder groups planning in isolation from one another (ie, in silos) create fragmentation, gaps, and overlap in plans for major planned events (MPEs). The authors hypothesized that one approach to minimizing this fragmentation may be to create a framework to "connect the dots," or join together the many silos of professionals responsible for safety, security, health, and emergency planning at MPEs. Adapted from the well-established literature regarding the management of cardiac arrests, both in and out of hospital, the "chain of survival" concept is applied to the disparate groups providing services that support event safety in the context of music festivals. The authors propose this framework for describing, understanding, coordinating and planning around the integration of safety, security, health, and emergency service for events. The adapted Event Chain of Survival contains six interdependent links, including: (1) event producers; (2) police and security; (3) festival health; (4) on-site medical services; (5) ambulance services; and (6) off-site medical services. The authors argue that adapting and applying this framework in the context of MPEs in general, and music festivals specifically, has the potential to break down the current disconnected approach to event safety, security, health, and emergency planning. It offers a means of shifting the focus from a purely reactive stance to a more proactive, collaborative, and integrated approach. Improving health outcomes for music festival attendees, reducing gaps in planning

  2. REGIONAL PERFORMANCES IN THE CONTEXT OF A TRANSITION TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY: STRUCTURING THE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrinel Elena COTAE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the Europe 2020 strategy, a new economic concept aiming to provide a sustainable development pathway by transforming the production cycle and optimizing the use of resources becomes more and more promising. Toiling with the current sustenance issues of the widespread linear “take-make-waste” economic model, the circular economy concept promises to generate major economic, societal and environmental changes, by enabling an integrated recirculation of resources in the value chains. This paper elaborates an approach to capture the multidimensionality of the concept by developing an adaptable assessment framework to support further empirical analysis and potential implementation actions. Defined as CMEF framework, the proposed taxonomy aligns with constructs characterising sustainability science, addressing a prospective and an operational dimension. In this regard, the integrated propositional analysis is used to enforce the duality of the model, ensuring a broad understanding of the conceptual background, while providing the decision making organisms with tools to identify the priorities and real chances of success.

  3. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Varela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC and Ambient Intelligence (AmI systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  4. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  5. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A; Duro, Richard

    2016-07-07

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  6. A collaborative framework to exchange and share product information within a supply chain context

    CERN Document Server

    Geryville, Hichem; Bouras, Abdelaziz; Sapidis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    The new requirement for "collaboration" between multidisciplinary collaborators induces to exchange and share adequate information on the product, processes throughout the products' lifecycle. Thus, effective capture of information, and also its extraction, recording, exchange, sharing, and reuse become increasingly critical. These lead companies to adopt new improved methodologies in managing the exchange and sharing of information. The aim of this paper is to describe a collaborative framework system to exchange and share information, which is based on: (i) The Product Process Collaboration Organization model (PPCO) which defines product and process information, and the various collaboration methods for the organizations involved in the supply chain. (ii) Viewpoint model describes relationships between each actor and the comprehensive Product/Process model, defining each actor's "domain of interest" within the evolving product definition. (iii) A layer which defines the comprehensive organization and collab...

  7. The Drosophila Perlecan gene trol regulates multiple signaling pathways in different developmental contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Trinity L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate signaling by a variety of growth factors. The mammalian proteoglycan Perlecan binds and regulates signaling by Sonic Hedgehog, Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, among others, in contexts ranging from angiogenesis and cardiovascular development to cancer progression. The Drosophila Perlecan homolog trol has been shown to regulate the activity of Hedgehog and Branchless (an FGF homolog to control the onset of stem cell proliferation in the developing brain during first instar. Here we extend analysis of trol mutant phenotypes to show that trol is required for a variety of developmental events and modulates signaling by multiple growth factors in different situations. Results Different mutations in trol allow developmental progression to varying extents, suggesting that trol is involved in multiple cell-fate and patterning decisions. Analysis of the initiation of neuroblast proliferation at second instar demonstrated that trol regulates this event by modulating signaling by Hedgehog and Branchless, as it does during first instar. Trol protein is distributed over the surface of the larval brain, near the regulated neuroblasts that reside on the cortical surface. Mutations in trol also decrease the number of circulating plasmatocytes. This is likely to be due to decreased expression of pointed, the response gene for VEGF/PDGF signaling that is required for plasmatocyte proliferation. Trol is found on plasmatocytes, where it could regulate VEGF/PDGF signaling. Finally, we show that in second instar brains but not third instar brain lobes and eye discs, mutations in trol affect signaling by Decapentaplegic (a Transforming Growth Factor family member, Wingless (a Wnt growth factor and Hedgehog. Conclusion These studies extend the known functions of the Drosophila Perlecan homolog trol in both developmental and

  8. The Regulation Framework for the Banking Sector: The EMU, European Banks and Rating Agencies before and during the Recent Financial and Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Thalassinos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A regulation framework for the banking sector should be characterised by transparency,responsibility and performance in several important areas. These areas are the global and Europeanframework for corporate financial reporting (CFR, risk management (RM, stockholder value creation(SVC, corporate governance (CG, corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable development (SD.The regulation framework for the banking sector must also consider the fiscal and monetary environment inwhich a banking institution operates. The global rating system and the rating agencies will also have animportant impact on any regulation framework for the banking sector. These two factors play a key role whena financial, credit or debt crisis occurs. In this article, a holistic regulation framework for the banking sector ispresented. The article is based on European banks that are part of the European Monetary Union (EMU.Initially, it focuses on the timelines and review the integration of the European Monetary Union, relevantlegislation and information on member countries’ banking sectors. This information creates the frameworkfor the proposed model. The article considers all of the above factors in creating a holistic regulationframework for the banking sector to present in the context of the recent financial, credit and debt crises thathave taken place in the EMU.

  9. Augmenting breath regulation using a mobile driven virtual reality therapy framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushakra, Ahmad; Faezipour, Miad

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework of a virtual reality therapy to assist individuals, especially lung cancer patients or those with breathing disorders to regulate their breath through real-time analysis of respiration movements using a smartphone. Virtual reality technology is an attractive means for medical simulations and treatment, particularly for patients with cancer. The theories, methodologies and approaches, and real-world dynamic contents for all the components of this virtual reality therapy (VRT) via a conceptual framework using the smartphone will be discussed. The architecture and technical aspects of the offshore platform of the virtual environment will also be presented.

  10. Flexibility and attractors in context: family emotion socialization patterns and children's emotion regulation in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Hollenstein, Tom; Wang, Jun; Shields, Ann M

    2012-07-01

    Familial emotion socialization practices relate to children's emotion regulation (ER) skills in late childhood, however, we have more to learn about how the context and structure of these interactions relates to individual differences in children's ER. The present study examined flexibility and attractors in family emotion socialization patterns in three different conversational contexts and their relation to ER in 8-12 year olds. Flexibility was defined as dispersion across the repertoire of discrete emotion words and emotion socialization functions (emotion coaching, dismissing, and elaboration) in family conversation, whereas attractors were defined as the average duration per visit to each of these three emotion socialization functions using state space grid analysis. It was hypothesized that higher levels of flexibility in emotion socialization would buffer children's ER from the presence of maladaptive attractors, or the absence of adaptive attractors, in family emotion conversation. Flexibility was generally adaptive, related to children's higher ER across all contexts, and also buffered children from maladaptive attractors in select situations. Findings suggest that the study of dynamic interaction patterns in context may reveal adaptive versus maladaptive socialization processes in the family that can inform basic and applied research on children's regulatory problems.

  11. Systematizing the legal framework regulating Romanian tourism – proposal for an innovative public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foriş, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous Romanian standards and legal regulations, as well as their particularities in the field of tourism lead us to formulating systematising proposals for the existing legal framework in the field of tourism. As a result of reviewing legal regulations of public administration applied to Romanian tourism activities, we observe that there are numerous legal regulations that embrace the field of tourism; moreover, according to an analysis of the nature of these regulations applied in tourism, we notice that it is particularly the state and the public authorities that have regulatory roles in tourism, more precisely the protection role against abnormalities and abuses caused in tourism and the role of developing tourism. We identify the flexibility and heterogeneity as being the important particularities of legal regulations in the field of tourism. We consider as opportune the proposal regarding the systematisation of the existing legal framework in the field of tourism, by creating and elaborating a “Code of tourism”, an instrument that shall re-unite the laws and regulations applicable to the tourist industry for an accessible and easy identification, both from the juridical and institutional points of view.

  12. Identification of genes that regulate multiple cellular processes/responses in the context of lipotoxicity to hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yedwabnick Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to devise efficient treatments for complex, multi-factorial diseases, it is important to identify the genes which regulate multiple cellular processes. Exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α alters multiple cellular processes, causing lipotoxicity. Intracellular lipid accumulation has been shown to reduce the lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. We hypothesized that the genes which simultaneously regulate lipid accumulation as well as cytotoxicity may provide better targets to counter lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. Results As a model system to test this hypothesis, human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2 were exposed to elevated physiological levels of FFAs and TNF-α. Triglyceride (TG accumulation, toxicity and the genomic responses to the treatments were measured. Here, we present a framework to identify such genes in the context of lipotoxicity. The aim of the current study is to identify the genes that could be altered to treat or ameliorate the cellular responses affected by a complex disease rather than to identify the causal genes. Genes that regulate the TG accumulation, cytotoxicity or both were identified by a modified genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA/PLS analysis. The analyses identified NADH dehydrogenase and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs as important regulators of both cytotoxicity and lipid accumulation in response to FFA and TNF-α exposure. In agreement with the predictions, inhibiting NADH dehydrogenase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK reduced cytotoxicity significantly and increased intracellular TG accumulation. Inhibiting another MAPK pathway, the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, on the other hand, improved the cytotoxicity without changing TG accumulation. Much greater reduction in the toxicity was observed upon inhibiting the NADH dehydrogenase and MAPK (which were identified by the dual-response analysis, than for the

  13. Attachment and affect regulation: a framework for family treatment of conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K

    2002-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), a pervasive adolescent disorder with clinically significant antisocial behaviors, has been a difficult syndrome to treat successfully. Recently, research on affect regulation and attachment has suggested that attachment and affect regulation strategies may underlie the development of conduct disorder in adolescents, implying that attention to these factors might improve family treatment for CD. In this review of the research literature, I discuss the role of attachment and affect regulation in the development and treatment of CD. In addition, I present information about the framework, intervention protocol, and preliminary evidence of effectiveness of an attachment- and affect regulation-based intervention that has been developed and implemented with multiple-family groups of parents and incarcerated adolescents.

  14. The Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Online Learning in a Blended Learning Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lynch

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the distance education and self-regulation literatures to identify learner self-regulation skills predictive of academic success in a blended education context. Five self-regulatory attributes were judged likely to be predictive of academic performance: intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, time and study environment management, help seeking, and Internet self-efficacy. Verbal ability was used as a control measure. Performance was operationalized as final course grades. Data were collected from 94 students in a blended undergraduate marketing course at a west coast American research university (tier one. Regression analysis revealed that verbal ability and self-efficacy related significantly to performance, together explaining 12 percent of the variance in course grades. Self-efficacy for learning and performance alone accounted for 7 percent of the variance.

  15. Poverty, Relationship Conflict, and the Regulation of Cortisol in Small and Large Group Contexts at Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Willett, John B.; Ayoub, Catherine C.; Lindsley, Robert; Hulette, Annmarie C.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the dynamics of cortisol regulation in the context of center-based child care by examining the impact of social context (large classroom vs. small group) and relationship quality with caregivers (conflict with mothers and teachers). We extend the research on children's physiologic stress system…

  16. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies.

  17. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OVER THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT ACCOUNTANCY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenghel Dorin Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the hereby study we set ourselves on an analysis over the internal control and the ways of implementation of it. The final purpose of our research is represented by the characteristics of the internal control system in the context of current accountancy regulations. The accomplishment of such goal has forced us to research the current literature in the area and also the legal regulations over internal control. Of course, the accomplishment of such a research was possible only after a pertinent analysis over the opinions expressed in specialty literature regarding this area. Our research wants to be with a theoretical and applicative character. It is based on analysing the internal control system, the methodology of internal control and the steps of internal control. We express our belief that the implementation of the internal control in a very exact manner comes as an aid to the company management and lead to the accomplishment of managerial objectives and policies. In what it regards the result of our research there can be drawn the following conclusions: from the legal regulations (OMFP nr. 3055/2009, there is no clear conclusion over the procedures and policies of implementation of internal control applicable to an economical entity; also there are not presented in a detailed way the types (forms of internal control, being presented in the legal regulations only a classification of them after the time in which they are exercised (before, during or after the finishing of the operations; also in the legal regulations there is developed a certain way of internal control, represented by the financial and accounting internal control, as if the other forms of internal control do not exist; in what regards the components of internal control, these are presented in another way, but similar to already known models of internal control (Coso and Coco; also in the legal regulations there are presented the general objectives of internal control

  18. Children’s Self-Regulation in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Parental Socialization Theories, Goals, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge M.; Rendón, María I.; Muñoz, Lorena; Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children’s self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation. Thus, this article concludes that more specific research is required to relate both the developmental and the cultural aspects of children’s self-regulation. PMID:28634460

  19. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Marie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Context (QoC awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario.

  20. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-06-16

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario.

  1. A Customizable Context-aware Framework Prototype%可定制的情境感知计算框架原型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇; 刘金刚

    2012-01-01

    分析现存情境感知框架的特点与不足,提出一种面向不同应用领域的可定制的情境感知框架原型,重点阐述原型的体系结构设计和软件运行时基于服务的软件架构.讨论情境感知过程中4个关键问题,包括情境感知系统的可定制化问题、情境规则的迭代与演化、情境感知的交互机制以及情境模式.最后,以该原型为基础,通过在医疗导诊场景下实现情境感知应用验证其实现领域定制的可行性.%This paper analyzes the characteristic and shortage of existing context-aware frameworks, and proposes a distinct domains oriented customizable context-aware framework prototype. The design principles of framework prototype as well as service o-riented runtime mechanism are emphasized. Then four critical issues are discussed, including framework customization, evolutionary context rules, interaction mechanism and context-usage patterns. Finally, with the basis of this framework prototype, the feasibility of distinct domains oriented is proved through the specific applications which are under healthcare service scenarios.

  2. Regulation of Mcl-1 Expression in Context to Bone Marrow Stromal Microenvironment in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudha Balakrishnan, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the resistance of CLL cells to apoptosis is partly mediated through the interactions between leukemia cells and adjacent stromal cells residing in the lymphatic tissue or bone marrow microenvironment. Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic protein that is associated with failure to treatment is up-regulated in CLL lymphocytes after interaction with microenvironment. However, the regulation of its expression in context to microenvironment is unclear. We evaluated and compared changes in Mcl-1 in CLL B-cells in suspension culture and when co-cultured on stromal cells. The blockade of apoptosis in co-cultured CLL cells is associated with diminution in caspase-3 and PARP cleavage and is not dependent on cytogenetic profile or prognostic factors of the disease. Stroma-derived resistance to apoptosis is associated with a cascade of transcriptional events such as increase in levels of total RNA Pol II and its phosphorylation at Ser2 and Ser5, increase in the rate of global RNA synthesis, and amplification of Mcl-1 transcript levels. The latter is associated with increase in Mcl-1 protein level without an impact on the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Post-translational modifications of protein kinases show increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473, Erk at Thr202/Tyr204 and Gsk-3β at Ser9 and augmentation of total Mcl-1 accumulation along with phosphorylation at Ser159/Thr163 sites. Collectively, stroma-induced apoptosis resistance is mediated through signaling proteins that regulate transcriptional and translational expression and post-translational modification of Mcl-1 in CLL cells in context to bone marrow stromal microenvironment.

  3. Regulation of Mcl-1 expression in context to bone marrow stromal microenvironment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Burger, Jan A; Fu, Min; Doifode, Tejaswini; Wierda, William G; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the resistance of CLL cells to apoptosis is partly mediated through the interactions between leukemia cells and adjacent stromal cells residing in the lymphatic tissue or bone marrow microenvironment. Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic protein that is associated with failure to treatment is up-regulated in CLL lymphocytes after interaction with microenvironment. However, the regulation of its expression in context to microenvironment is unclear. We evaluated and compared changes in Mcl-1 in CLL B-cells in suspension culture and when co-cultured on stromal cells. The blockade of apoptosis in co-cultured CLL cells is associated with diminution in caspase-3 and PARP cleavage and is not dependent on cytogenetic profile or prognostic factors of the disease. Stroma-derived resistance to apoptosis is associated with a cascade of transcriptional events such as increase in levels of total RNA Pol II and its phosphorylation at Ser2 and Ser5, increase in the rate of global RNA synthesis, and amplification of Mcl-1 transcript levels. The latter is associated with increase in Mcl-1 protein level without an impact on the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Post-translational modifications of protein kinases show increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473, Erk at Thr202/Tyr204 and Gsk-3β at Ser9 and augmentation of total Mcl-1 accumulation along with phosphorylation at Ser159/Thr163 sites. Collectively, stroma-induced apoptosis resistance is mediated through signaling proteins that regulate transcriptional and translational expression and post-translational modification of Mcl-1 in CLL cells in context to bone marrow stromal microenvironment. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality regulations: A review of accountability studies and frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lucas R F; Liu, Cong; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-02-01

    Assessments of past environmental policies-termed accountability studies-contribute important information to the decision-making process used to review the efficacy of past policies, and subsequently aid in the development of effective new policies. These studies have used a variety of methods that have achieved varying levels of success at linking improvements in air quality and/or health to regulations. The Health Effects Institute defines the air pollution accountability framework as a chain of events that includes the regulation of interest, air quality, exposure/dose, and health outcomes, and suggests that accountability research should address impacts for each of these linkages. Early accountability studies investigated short-term, local regulatory actions (for example, coal use banned city-wide on a specific date or traffic pattern changes made for Olympic Games). Recent studies assessed regulations implemented over longer time and larger spatial scales. Studies on broader scales require accountability research methods that account for effects of confounding factors that increase over time and space. Improved estimates of appropriate baseline levels (sometimes termed "counterfactual"-the expected state in a scenario without an intervention) that account for confounders and uncertainties at each link in the accountability chain will help estimate causality with greater certainty. In the direct accountability framework, researchers link outcomes with regulations using statistical methods that bypass the link-by-link approach of classical accountability. Direct accountability results and methods complement the classical approach. New studies should take advantage of advanced planning for accountability studies, new data sources (such as satellite measurements), and new statistical methods. Evaluation of new methods and data sources is necessary to improve investigations of long-term regulations, and associated uncertainty should be accounted for at each link to

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Self-Regulation: A Multidisciplinary Review and Integrative Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Edwards, Erin S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops – overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, inter-parental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) are considered. Finally, literature providing evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the Self-Regulation Intergenerational Transmission Model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents’ self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for

  6. Intergenerational transmission of self-regulation: A multidisciplinary review and integrative conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-05-01

    This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops--overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, interparental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) is considered. Finally, evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the self-regulation intergenerational transmission model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social/contextual, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children's self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents' self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for intervention work. (c

  7. The Ruggie Framework: Polycentric regulation and the implications for corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Taylor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework,developed by the U.N. Special Representative JohnRuggie, brings together social expectations and law into anemerging policy framework of direct relevance to corporatesocial responsibility, CSR. The principle source of theFramework’s significance for the policy and practice of CSRis its definition of the theory of business responsibility forhuman rights as arising from business activities and relationships,and its deployment of due diligence for humanrights risk as the core operational concept of this theory ofresponsibility. The article considers the responsibility torespect human rights in light of theories about polycentricregulatory regimes and draws the conclusion that the RuggieFramework creates a regulator dynamic in which bothvoluntarism and law have relevant and reinforcing roles toplay in governing business behavior. In the wake of theadaptation of the Framework by the UN, the challenge forthe field of CSR will be to adapt to an emerging reality inwhich business responsibility for ‘the social’ is increasinglya question of compliance and beyond.

  8. Regulatory and scientific frameworks for zoonosis control in Japan--contributing to International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2009-12-01

    Zoonoses have earned recognition as the source of serious problems for both public and animal health throughout the world. Emerging infectious diseases have been occurring at an unprecedented rate since the 1970s and a large proportion of these diseases are considered zoonotic. To aid in controlling zoonoses, countermeasures have been strengthened against these diseases and are maintained at both national and international levels. Atypical example of this international effort can be found in the revised International Health Regulations (2005), known as the IHR (2005), which were instituted by the World Health Organization and have been implemented since 2007. In Japan, the appropriate Ministries have established frameworks for controlling zoonoses that employ both administrative and scientific approaches to fulfill the demands of the IHR (2005). In this paper, the authors present the Japanese framework for controlling zoonoses, as a useful example for global public and animal health management in coming years.

  9. Framework for combining REACH and national regulations to obtain equal protection levels of human health and the environment in different countries - Comparative study of Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for a systems approach to protect the environment and human health by taking into account differences in the cumulative risks of total human exposure in a territorial context. To this end the measures that are available and that can...... be included in REACH exposure scenarios in order to obtain territorially relevant chemical safety assessments (CSAs) were explored. The advantage of linking the REACH exposure scenarios with background environmental quality data reported under other national regulations is discussed. The main question is how...

  10. Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: Close relationships as social context and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals' ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals' ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals' ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships-and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships-influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals' own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Needs of an International Policy and a Regulation Framework for Operational Debris Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, Annamaria; Romano, Valerio

    2013-08-01

    The lack of a shared definition of space debris, jurisdiction on ownership and legal & policy issues, will affect the operations of future debris removal systems. The analysis of these items are an essential step for a governance and regulation framework and to draft a set of specific rules to be agreed at national and international level. All these aspects are very sensitive and they involve constraints in relation to the national sovereignty. The legal uncertainty could induce delay in setting up actions to implement the space debris mitigation measures and the identification of "commercial" actors that could invest and operate in these domains.

  12. Genome-scale study of the importance of binding site context for transcription factor binding and gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronne Hans

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of mRNA transcription is controlled by transcription factors that bind to specific DNA motifs in promoter regions upstream of protein coding genes. Recent results indicate that not only the presence of a motif but also motif context (for example the orientation of a motif or its location relative to the coding sequence is important for gene regulation. Results In this study we present ContextFinder, a tool that is specifically aimed at identifying cases where motif context is likely to affect gene regulation. We used ContextFinder to examine the role of motif context in S. cerevisiae both for DNA binding by transcription factors and for effects on gene expression. For DNA binding we found significant patterns of motif location bias, whereas motif orientations did not seem to matter. Motif context appears to affect gene expression even more than it affects DNA binding, as biases in both motif location and orientation were more frequent in promoters of co-expressed genes. We validated our results against data on nucleosome positioning, and found a negative correlation between preferred motif locations and nucleosome occupancy. Conclusion We conclude that the requirement for stable binding of transcription factors to DNA and their subsequent function in gene regulation can impose constraints on motif context.

  13. Self-regulating in higher education: a psychological and pedagogical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the psychological and pedagogical (methodological, motivating, organizational, and content-related conditions for developing the students’ ability to self-regulate, within the framework applied to the mathematics education designed for students at the technical university. The paper gives the results of the experiment indicating the efficacy of these conditions. Groups of students studying at Tomsk Polytechnic University participated in the educational experiment. Tests, observations, questionnaires, techniques of mathematical statistics were used for assessment. The experiment makes it possible to conclude that the self-regulated learning of students on the basis of the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment ‘Moodle’ together with the project–related activities, performed by students in the existing production environments, leads to a higher level of the students’ ability to self-management.

  14. OIL EXPLOITATION REGULATIONAL FRAMEWORK AND EFFECTS IN THE SECTOR AND ITS RELATION TO THE WHOLE ECONOMY: THE CASE OF BRAZIL’S 1997 CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Emmanuel Santana Borges

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world lives a context of energetic pre-crisis, and Brazil has discovered new big reserves of the “black gold”, which led to changing the regulation framework of its exploitation in the country. This paper focuses on the last change in that framework, in 1997, and tries to evaluate its effects in the production and its links to the rest of Brazilian economy. Using data derived from the I-O matrix in the supply side, and Balance of Payments data, we try to see if there were meaningful changes in the period 1998-2007 from the period 1990-1997 in terms of the oil sector linkage to the rest of the economy, technological modernization, its relation to employment and average earnings , and its impacts in the external insertion of the country (exports and dividends balance.

  15. Knowledge translation in Uganda: a qualitative study of Ugandan midwives’ and managers’ perceived relevance of the sub-elements of the context cornerstone in the PARIHS framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Anna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the annual 3.3 million neonatal deaths could be averted if there was a high uptake of basic evidence-based practices. In order to overcome this ‘know-do’ gap, there is an urgent need for in-depth understanding of knowledge translation (KT. A major factor to consider in the successful translation of knowledge into practice is the influence of organizational context. A theoretical framework highlighting this process is Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS. However, research linked to this framework has almost exclusively been conducted in high-income countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the perceived relevance of the sub-elements of the organizational context cornerstone of the PARIHS framework, and also whether other factors in the organizational context were perceived to influence KT in a specific low-income setting. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a district of Uganda, where focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives (n = 18 and managers (n = 5 within the catchment area of the general hospital. The interview guide was developed based on the context sub-elements in the PARIHS framework (receptive context, culture, leadership, and evaluation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, followed by directed content analysis of the data. Results The sub-elements of organizational context in the PARIHS framework—i.e., receptive context, culture, leadership, and evaluation—also appear to be relevant in a low-income setting like Uganda, but there are additional factors to consider. Access to resources, commitment and informal payment, and community involvement were all perceived to play important roles for successful KT. Conclusions In further development of the context assessment tool, assessing factors for successful implementation of evidence in low-income settings

  16. Electricity regulation in Germany - in the context of the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utilities (EU) in Germany are semi-public or private enterprises of a wide variety of size. The large producer utilities operate the high voltage grid on the basis of private contracts. Regional distribution companies mostly without a considerable share in production often in cooperation with local distributors deliver electricity (el) in the non-urban areas whereas mostly city owned EU supply the large cities often on the basis of considerable parts of autoproduction and often also with a considerable share of el produced in cogeneration plants. The equilibrium between the parts of this system in the past was ensured by a legal framework protecting local monopolies as well as long term contracts between producers and distributors. This equilibrium derived its stability from political more than from economic factors. Deregulation trends inherent in European legislation on competition have threatened this stability. - In the first phase resistance against a more competitive order seemed unanimous. In the meantime however the different actors had time to rethink their position. - The European Council has now proposed a more moderate regulation taking into account the large differences in the ESI in the different member countries. - The German Government has made a proposal for some important changes in the Energy Law and connected passages in the Competition Law, which would introduce some more competitive elements into the system without anticipating the results of a competitive process. - Wholesale producers and regional distributors as well as customer groups are in favour of this reform, whereas the local distributors fear to become the losers in the ongoing reform process. - Environmentalists express concern that a more competitive order could lead to a lowering of environmental standards. This paper gives a short survery of the ESI in Germany, its regulations and the ongoing reform. (orig.)

  17. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  18. Understanding gene sequence variation in the context of transcription regulation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Gat-Viks

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequence polymorphism in a regulatory protein can have a widespread transcriptional effect. Here we present a computational approach for analyzing modules of genes with a common regulation that are affected by specific DNA polymorphisms. We identify such regulatory-linkage modules by integrating genotypic and expression data for individuals in a segregating population with complementary expression data of strains mutated in a variety of regulatory proteins. Our procedure searches simultaneously for groups of co-expressed genes, for their common underlying linkage interval, and for their shared regulatory proteins. We applied the method to a cross between laboratory and wild strains of S. cerevisiae, demonstrating its ability to correctly suggest modules and to outperform extant approaches. Our results suggest that middle sporulation genes are under the control of polymorphism in the sporulation-specific tertiary complex Sum1p/Rfm1p/Hst1p. In another example, our analysis reveals novel inter-relations between Swi3 and two mitochondrial inner membrane proteins underlying variation in a module of aerobic cellular respiration genes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that this approach provides a useful framework for the systematic mapping of quantitative trait loci and their role in gene expression variation.

  19. Regulation of autophagy and chloroquine sensitivity by oncogenic RAS in vitro is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael J; Gamez, Graciela; Menke, Christina; Hernandez, Ariel; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Gidan, Freddi; Staskiewicz, Leah; Morgan, Shellie; Cummings, Christopher; Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is an antimalarial drug and late-stage inhibitor of autophagy currently FDA-approved for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Based primarily on its ability to inhibit autophagy, CQ and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine, are currently being investigated as primary or adjuvant therapy in multiple clinical trials for cancer treatment. Oncogenic RAS has previously been shown to regulate autophagic flux, and cancers with high incidence of RAS mutations, such as pancreatic cancer, have been described in the literature as being particularly susceptible to CQ treatment, leading to the hypothesis that oncogenic RAS makes cancer cells dependent on autophagy. This autophagy "addiction" suggests that the mutation status of RAS in tumors could identify patients who would be more likely to benefit from CQ therapy. Here we show that RAS mutation status itself is unlikely to be beneficial in such a patient selection because oncogenic RAS does not always promote autophagy addiction. Moreover, oncogenic RAS can have opposite effects on both autophagic flux and CQ sensitivity in different cells. Finally, for any given cell type, the positive or negative effect of oncogenic RAS on autophagy does not necessarily predict whether RAS will promote or inhibit CQ-mediated toxicity. Thus, although our results confirm that different tumor cell lines display marked differences in how they respond to autophagy inhibition, these differences can occur irrespective of RAS mutation status and, in different contexts, can either promote or reduce chloroquine sensitivity of tumor cells.

  20. Material flows in a social context : a Vietnamese case study combining the materials flow analysis and action-in-context frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbes, M.; Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kooijman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Materials flow analysis (MFA) is one of the central achievements of industrial ecology. One direction in which one can move MFA beyond mere accounting is by putting the material flows in their social context. This "socially extended MFA" may be carried out at various levels of aggregation. In this

  1. FRAMEWORKING THE PRESS FREEDOM, AT THE BORDER BETWEEN LEGAL AND SELF-REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anca PĂIUȘESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of the press is essential to democracy and to a pluralistic culture. Most journalists are against any form of legal regulation considering the creation of a press law as an interference with freedom of the press, while state authorities considered necessary minimum set of rules to sanction those who exceed the "normality" of free speech. If in the audiovisual field the legislation tends toward European standards, for print media all draft laws proposed so far by different political parties or the government have failed. Representatives of the major newspapers saw each time in these legislative proposals an attempt to "choke" the freedom of the press. In this context, self-regulation is seen as a way in which journalists can establish their own rules in order to protect themselves from the state attempt to regulate this area, a method of protecting against political manipulation and preventing the erosion of public trust, and it is also seen as a method of education within the profession.

  2. Regulating the spatial distribution of metal nanoparticles within metal-organic frameworks to enhance catalytic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu; Liu, Wenxian; Wang, Bingqing; Zhang, Weina; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Yongji; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianpin; Liu, Junfeng; Huo, Fengwei; Lu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Composites incorporating metal nanoparticles (MNPs) within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have broad applications in many fields. However, the controlled spatial distribution of the MNPs within MOFs remains a challenge for addressing key issues in catalysis, for example, the efficiency of catalysts due to the limitation of molecular diffusion within MOF channels. Here we report a facile strategy that enables MNPs to be encapsulated into MOFs with controllable spatial localization by using metal oxide both as support to load MNPs and as a sacrificial template to grow MOFs. This strategy is versatile to a variety of MNPs and MOF crystals. By localizing the encapsulated MNPs closer to the surface of MOFs, the resultant MNPs@MOF composites not only exhibit effective selectivity derived from MOF cavities, but also enhanced catalytic activity due to the spatial regulation of MNPs as close as possible to the MOF surface. PMID:28195131

  3. Regulating the spatial distribution of metal nanoparticles within metal-organic frameworks to enhance catalytic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu; Liu, Wenxian; Wang, Bingqing; Zhang, Weina; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Yongji; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianpin; Liu, Junfeng; Huo, Fengwei; Lu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Composites incorporating metal nanoparticles (MNPs) within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have broad applications in many fields. However, the controlled spatial distribution of the MNPs within MOFs remains a challenge for addressing key issues in catalysis, for example, the efficiency of catalysts due to the limitation of molecular diffusion within MOF channels. Here we report a facile strategy that enables MNPs to be encapsulated into MOFs with controllable spatial localization by using metal oxide both as support to load MNPs and as a sacrificial template to grow MOFs. This strategy is versatile to a variety of MNPs and MOF crystals. By localizing the encapsulated MNPs closer to the surface of MOFs, the resultant MNPs@MOF composites not only exhibit effective selectivity derived from MOF cavities, but also enhanced catalytic activity due to the spatial regulation of MNPs as close as possible to the MOF surface.

  4. China's position in negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines China's position in the negotiations of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations. In particular, it explores three sets of factors shaping China's attitudes and actions in the negotiations: the aspiration to be a responsible power; concerns about sovereignty; and domestic political economy. In both cases, China demonstrated strong incentives to participate in the negotiation of legally binding international rules. Still, the sovereignty issue was a major, if not the biggest, concern for China when engaging in global health rule making. The two cases also reveal domestic political economy as an important factor in shaping China's position in international health negotiations. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Children’s Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam eWeis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g. such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children’s behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children’s self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children’s behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children’s school achievement.

  6. The interaction of economic and pedagogical ideals in the context of workplace learning in Germany: a framework for empirical research – inspired by business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Röbel

    2016-01-01

    As an effect of marketisation, the importance of workplace learning in Germany has increased. The article follows up on the long-standing discourse around the question of how economic and pedagogical ideals interact in this context. In order to develop a theoretical framework for empirical research, three major positions of the discipline of business ethics are introduced. Business ethics in more abstract ways deals with the very same question, namely how do ideas such as profit orientation i...

  7. State Regulation of the Savings Market Within the Context of “New Economy” Imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Viktorovna Litvin

    2015-12-01

    adjusting distribution of savings resources on the part of the state has been examined. The article systematizes tools used for this purpose by public institutions of foreign countries and identifies external threats to stability of the national savings market and ways to strengthen its positions on mega-scale. The conducted research made it possible to develop theoretical framework of shaping effective mechanism for state regulation of savings market at the present stage.

  8. Contexts of Knowing: Their Shape and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses constitutive and regulative knowledge; considers a knowledge community; discusses knowledge codes; describes a heuristic framework for knowledge contexts; and examines the problem of scientific misconduct, suggesting that its definition depends on the knowledge context in which it presents itself. (37 references) (LRW)

  9. Convergence of Croatian Financial and Budget Regulations to the Framework and Practices of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana MALETIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As of 2004 intensive preparatory activities for the accession of the Republic of Croatia into the European Union have started. Significant changes have been taking place in legislation, institutional and administrative respect. The so called “silent reform“ is changing the appearance and the way of work of state administration. Institutions acquire the rules and way of work of the European Union through the usage of pre-accession programmes. General opinion moves in the direction of successfulness, competitiveness, attainment of results and added values. Financial regulations regarding stipulation of budget processes have been changing through the introduction of the following elements: strategic planning, multi-annual budget framework, fiscal discipline, internal audit as well as financial management and control system based on clearly set work processes and procedures. This document provides the description of the most significant changes regarding financial management and budget regulations in the Republic of Croatia which have taken place in the course of adapting (developing the system to the European practices and rules.

  10. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Mueller, Benjamin F; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network.

  11. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Laßek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network.

  12. A framework for analysing water quality observations to detect change in the context of natural variability and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C.; Freer, J.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a main driver for enhancing water management policies and increasing infrastructure investment to improve all water bodies to good ecological status. This requires scientists, managers and regulators to develop an effective evidence base for understanding which strategies maximise the cost-benefit associated with water quality improvements. Such evidence is underpinned by national monitoring and predictions of change are often quantified through the application of computer models. This paper is associated with understanding how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Therefore we explore the inter- and intra-annual variabilities of water quality data in the form of concentrations and loads to benchmark the expected variability and uncertainty under different sampling regimes. Recent research has investigated the effects of sampling designs on commonly used metrics for assessing nutrient fluxes, such as the estimation of annual pollutant loads in catchments. However, there have been significantly fewer studies which have considered the effect of sampling frequencies on the detection of inter- and intra-annual variability in water quality time-series and which include the uncertainty estimates in such data. This is important as it determines both the resolution of sampling which is needed for effective monitoring schemes and also the length of dataset which is necessary to characterise baseline and post-remediation behaviours adequately. Without this, we do not have an effective evidence base that enables us to quantify changes in pollutants when improving water quality management plans and associated infrastructure investment. The study uses a Monte-Carlo based approach to generate deviate sample sets of varying time resolutions from measured continuous time

  13. Toward a multi-objective decision support framework to support regulations of unconventional oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Howard, C.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect environmental quality of areas surrounding UOGD, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is a setback distance, which dictates the minimum proximity between an oil and gas well and an object such as a residential or commercial building, property line, or water source. In general, most setback regulations have been strongly politically motivated without a clear scientific basis for understanding the relationship between the setback distance and various performance outcomes. This presentation discusses a new decision support framework for setback regulations, as part of a large NSF-funded sustainability research network (SRN) on UOGD. The goal of the decision support framework is to integrate a wide array of scientific information from the SRN into a coherent framework that can help inform policy regarding UOGD. The decision support framework employs multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) optimization coupled with simulation models of air quality and other performance-based outcomes on UOGD. The result of the MOEA optimization runs are quantitative tradeoff curves among different objectives. For example, one such curve could demonstrate air pollution concentrations versus estimates of energy development profits, for different levels of setback distance. Our results will also inform policy-relevant discussions surrounding UOGD such as comparing single- and multi-well pads, as well as regulations on the density of well development over a spatial area.

  14. How Does Self-Regulation Affect Computer-Programming Achievement in a Blended Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigdem, Harun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learners' self-regulation which is one of the essential skills for student achievement in blended courses. Research on learners' self-regulation skills in blended learning environments has gained popularity in recent years however only a few studies investigating the correlation between self-regulation skills and student…

  15. The PARP promoter of Trypanosoma brucei is developmentally regulated in a chromosomal context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biebinger, S; Rettenmaier, S; Flaspohler, J;

    1996-01-01

    RNA is abundant in procyclic forms and almost undetectable in blood-stream forms. Post-transcriptional mechanisms are mainly responsible for PARP mRNA regulation but results of nuclear run-on experiments suggested that transcription might also be regulated. We measured the activity of genomically-integrated PARP...... not developmentally regulated, but integration at the PARP locus reduced rRNA promoter activity in bloodstream forms. PARP promoter activity was 5-fold down-regulated in bloodstream forms when integrated at either site. Regulation was probably at the level of transcriptional initiation, but elongation through plasmid...

  16. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenk C

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Christian Lenk,1 Gunnar Duttge2 1Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany; 2Center for Medical Law, Göttingen University, Göttingen, Germany Abstract: For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. Keywords: ethics, law, Europe, health care policy 

  17. Cost management in the context of regulation by incentives; Kostenmanagement im Rahmen der Anreizregulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremp, Ralph; Radtke, Oliver [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und Technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    On 1 January 2009, a new regulation regime was issued for power grid operation. The cost-based pricing was replaced by a regulation specifying upper limits for profits (Anreizregulierungsverordnung, ARegV, ordinance on regulation by incentives). The new regulation is to provide incentives for higher energy efficiency which will reduce the cost incurred by the grid user in the long run. While grid operators are well aware of the need for cost reduction, there are problems in estimating what fields have the biggest potential and what actions should be taken first. A systematic analysis may help. (orig.)

  18. Evaluating mobile learning practice. Towards a framework for analysis of user-generated contexts with reference to the socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Seipold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the conceptual and theoretical background of a socio-culturally orientated approach to mobile learning (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, this paper examines the evaluation of user-generated contexts by referring to an example from the use of mobile phones in schools. We discuss how mobile device-related, user- generated contexts around structures, agency and cultural practices might be brought into a fruitful relationship with institution-based learning. And, we provide categories for evaluating the use of mobile devices to generate meaning from and with fragmented and discontinuous media and modes at the interface of learning in formal, institutionalised and informal, self-directed settings. The evaluation criteria build on the framework of a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning developed by the London Mobile Learning Group.

  19. The Role of Academic Developers in Transforming Bologna Regulations to a National and Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Gunnar; Lycke, Kirsten Hofgaard; Mårtensson, Katarina; Roxå, Torgny; Skodvin, Arne; Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal

    2014-01-01

    Academic developers (ADs) often participate in the implementation of programmes or reforms in higher education. Sometimes they agree with these and sometimes they disagree. This paper discusses possible agentic positions during a genuine policy implementation--the National Qualification Framework at a Norwegian university. Through reflexive…

  20. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  1. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Motivated Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Mohammad Ali; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) is an instrument for measuring motivation and learning strategies in general education. This instrument is modular, consisting of motivation and learning strategies modules. This study sought to see whether the learning strategies module of this instrument can be applied to the context of…

  2. Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: variations across grade level and math context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J; Chen, Peggy P

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted students' use of regulatory strategies. A key finding was that although seventh graders exhibited a more maladaptive self-regulation and motivation profile than sixth graders, achievement groups in seventh grade (high, moderate, low) were more clearly differentiated across both self-regulation and motivation than achievement groups in sixth grade. The pattern of achievement group differences also varied across math course type, as self-regulation and motivation processes more consistently differentiated achievement groups in advanced classes than regular math courses. Finally, task interest was shown to be the primary motivational predictor of students' use of regulatory strategies during math learning. The study highlights the importance of identifying shifting student motivation and self-regulation during the early middle school years and the potential role that context may have on these processes.

  3. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    .... Pintails vi. Scaup vii. Mottled ducks viii. Wood ducks ix. Youth Hunt 2. Sea Ducks 3. Mergansers 4. Canada... year's frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by... options had increased harvest pressure; however, the ability to detect the impact of zone/split...

  4. 77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .... Mottled Ducks viii. Wood Ducks ix. Youth Hunt x. Mallard Management Units xi. Other 2. Sea Ducks 3... year's frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by... harvest pressure, in particular the Tall Grass Prairie (TGP) population. We recognize the continuing...

  5. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    .... Mottled ducks viii. Wood ducks ix. Youth Hunt x. Mallard Management Units xi. Other 2. Sea Ducks 3... frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by the Councils... pressure. We recognize the continuing problems posed by increasing numbers of resident Canada geese and...

  6. A Lexical Framework for Semantic Annotation of Positive and Negative Regulation Relations in Biomedical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Lassen, Tine

    presented here, we analyze 6 frequently used verbs denoting the regulation relations regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates through corpus analysis, and propose a formal representation of the acquired knowledge as domain speci¯c semantic frames. The acquired knowledge patterns can thus...

  7. Toddler's self-regulation strategies in a challenge context are nap-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Crossin, Rebecca; Lebourgeois, Monique K

    2015-06-01

    Early childhood represents a time of developmental changes in both sleep and self-regulation, a construct reflecting the ability to control one's behaviour, attention and emotions when challenged. Links between sleep and self-regulation processes have been proposed, but experimental evidence with young children is lacking. In the current study, we tested the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' self-regulation. Healthy children (n = 12; four males; aged 30-36 months (33.9 ± 1.7)) slept on a strict schedule (verified with actigraphy and sleep diaries) for 5 days before each of two afternoon assessments following a nap and a no-nap condition (~11-day protocol). Children were videotaped while attempting an unsolvable puzzle, and 10 mutually exclusive self-regulation strategies were later coded. On average, children lost ~90 min of sleep on the no-nap versus the nap day. Nap deprivation resulted in moderate-to-large effects on self-regulation strategies, with decreases in scepticism (d = 0.77; 7% change), negative self-appraisal (d = 0.92; 5% change) and increases in physical self-soothing (d = 0.68; 10% change), focus on the puzzle piece that would not fit (perseveration; d = 0.50; 9% change) and insistence on completing the unsolvable puzzle (d = 0.91; 10% change). Results suggest that sleep serves an important role in the way that toddlers respond to challenging events in their daily lives. After losing daytime sleep, toddlers were less able to engage effectively in a difficult task and reverted to less mature self-regulation strategies than when they were well rested. Over time, chronically missed sleep may impair young children's self-regulation abilities, resulting in risk for social-emotional, behavioural and school problems.

  8. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that

  9. Health systems in context: a systematic review of the integration of the social determinants of health within health systems frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Johnson, Bryce; Larsen, Heidi; Novilla, M Lelinneth B; van Olmen, Josefien; Swanson, R Chad

    2013-12-01

    To systematically review and analyze various ways that health systems frameworks interact with the social determinants of health (SDH), as well as the implications of these interactions. This was a review of the literature conducted in 2012 using predetermined criteria to search three comprehensive databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews, and the World Bank E-Library) and grey literature for articles with any consideration of the SDH within health systems frameworks. Snowball sampling and expert opinion were used to include any potentially relevant articles not identified by the initial search. In total, 4,152 documents were found; of these, 27 were included in the analyses. Five main categories of interaction between health systems and SDH emerged: Bounded, Production, Reciprocal, Joint, and Systems models. At one end were the Bounded and Production models, which conceive the SDH to be outside the health system; at the other end, the Joint and Systems models, which visualize a continuous and dynamic interaction. Considering the complex and dynamic interactions among different kinds of organizations involved in and with the health system,the Joint and Systems models seem to best reflect these interactions, and should thereby guide stakeholders in planning for change.

  10. Declining physical activity and the socio-cultural context of the geography of industrial restructuring: a novel conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2014-05-01

    At the population level, the prevalence of physical activity has declined considerably in many developed countries in recent decades. There is some evidence that areas exhibiting the lowest activity levels are those which have undergone a particularly strong transition away from employment in physically demanding occupations. We propose that processes of deindustrialization may be causally linked to unexplained geographical disparities in levels of physical activity. While the sociocultural correlates of physical activity have been well studied, and prior conceptual frameworks have been developed to explain more general patterns of activity, none have explicitly attempted to identify the components of industrial change that may impact physical activity. In this work we review the current literature on sociocultural correlates of health behaviors before using a case study centered on the United Kingdom to present a novel framework that links industrial change to declining levels of physical activity. We developed a comprehensive model linking sociocultural correlates of physical activity to processes associated with industrial restructuring and discuss implication for policy and practice. A better understanding of sociocultural processes may help to ameliorate adverse health consequences of employment decline in communities that have experienced substantial losses of manual employment.

  11. Informal self-regulated learning on a surgical rotation: uncovering student experiences in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Nicole N; Mylopoulos, Maria; Brydges, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    The ability to guide one's own learning is an essential skill for the health professional. The apprenticeship model of undergraduate education offers an opportunity to engage in self-regulated learning as students work to set goals, evaluate the available opportunities and seek out those with the greatest potential for learning. A close examination of how students navigate their clinical rotations could therefore foster greater understanding of how students learn to guide their own learning. The study presented here aimed to examine undergraduate medical students' day-to-day learning strategies in order to better understand the process of informal self-regulated learning in practice. As a secondary objective, we sought to provide a forum for students to share and critically reflect on their own self-regulated learning strategies. A series of focus groups were conducted with medical students on a surgical rotation. Participants were asked to discuss issues relating to the strategies and behaviours that they had implemented in order to maximize their educational experience. Three distinct approaches to informal self-regulated learning were identified: Participants articulated tendencies to acquiesce to a perceived lack of learning opportunities choose from available learning opportunities and create their own learning opportunities. The results are interpreted through the lens of self-regulated learning theory and implications for medical education are discussed.

  12. Welfare Measures and Mandatory Regulation for Transgenic Food in the European Union: A Theoretical Framework for the Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, Maria Del Carmen Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework for studying the impact of mandatory labelling regulation for transgenic food. We compare Genetically Modified (GM) and conventional crop markets and identify gains for food processors prior to mandatory labelling and losses after this measure for the GM market. Nevertheless, food processors could obtain gains for conventional products after market disgregation. Finally, consumers will be worse off both for conventional and GM foods unless qualities...

  13. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  14. European regulation for private human spaceflight in the context of space traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Yehia, Julie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2010-06-01

    During the past years several European actors emerged with plans to develop suborbital vehicles for private spaceflight and the establishment of European spaceports. The privatization and commercialization of space activities is therefore gaining momentum, illustrating that space is no longer a matter that belongs exclusively to States. Indeed, the market of private suborbital flights is on the verge of becoming a reality. In Europe, so far there is no regulation in place governing this new set of activities. However, regulation will be needed for safeguarding public interests as well as providing a sound and reliable basis for business decisions and investments.

  15. Preserving human potential as freedom: a framework for regulating epigenetic harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    this type of harm. This article argues that it is imperative to initiate a regulatory framework to address epigenetic risk from specific substances even if conclusive proof of disease causation cannot be established. Shifting the burden of generating epigenetic risk data to producers of suspected harmful substances serves as a start. As information concerning epigenetic risks accrues, the regulatory response should evolve concurrently. As part of a dynamic policy-making approach our goals need to encompass the following: (i) promotion of knowledge in the scientific, legal, and public domains; (ii) assessment and modification of current regulations to address preventable risk; and (iii) an overarching commitment to protect human capabilities in an equitable manner.

  16. Nitric oxide regulates input specificity of long-term depression and context dependence of cerebellar learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Ogasawara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that multiple internal models are acquired in the cerebellum and that these can be switched under a given context of behavior. It has been proposed that long-term depression (LTD of parallel fiber (PF-Purkinje cell (PC synapses forms the cellular basis of cerebellar learning, and that the presynaptically synthesized messenger nitric oxide (NO is a crucial "gatekeeper" for LTD. Because NO diffuses freely to neighboring synapses, this volume learning is not input-specific and brings into question the biological significance of LTD as the basic mechanism for efficient supervised learning. To better characterize the role of NO in cerebellar learning, we simulated the sequence of electrophysiological and biochemical events in PF-PC LTD by combining established simulation models of the electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, and signaling pathways of the PC. The results demonstrate that the local NO concentration is critical for induction of LTD and for its input specificity. Pre- and postsynaptic coincident firing is not sufficient for a PF-PC synapse to undergo LTD, and LTD is induced only when a sufficient amount of NO is provided by activation of the surrounding PFs. On the other hand, above-adequate levels of activity in nearby PFs cause accumulation of NO, which also allows LTD in neighboring synapses that were not directly stimulated, ruining input specificity. These findings lead us to propose the hypothesis that NO represents the relevance of a given context and enables context-dependent selection of internal models to be updated. We also predict sparse PF activity in vivo because, otherwise, input specificity would be lost.

  17. Trans-Dniester Regulation Problem in the Context of Relations between Russia and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kurylev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern situation as well as prospects of cooperation between Russia and Ukraine in Trans-Dniester regulation are analyzed in this article. National interests of both countries are considered. Problems of cooperation between two countries and importance of cooperation for Russia and Ukraine are also estimated.

  18. Children's Self-Regulation in the Context of Participatory Pedagogy in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Jonna; Ojala, Mikko; Venninen, Tuulikki

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research has shown that self-regulation can support child development in the areas of children's attentional flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control for excluding impulsive responses. How this is actually related in everyday pedagogical early childhood education (ECE) activities has rarely been studied in detail. In…

  19. Linking Learning Contexts: The Relationship between Students’ Civic and Political Experiences and Their Self-Regulation in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M.; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success. PMID:27199812

  20. Linking learning contexts: The relationship between students’ civic and political experiences and their self-regulation in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMalafaia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking. Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. There-fore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is re-lated to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participa-tion with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.

  1. Linking Learning Contexts: The Relationship between Students' Civic and Political Experiences and Their Self-Regulation in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people's self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.

  2. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE TREATMENT OF FINANCIAL CONTAGION EFFECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ACTUAL EUROPEAN TURBULENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoianu Mircea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is still a debate regarding a possible restoring of the confidence in European financial markets because there are still underlying problems from the super-sized finance that actually worsened. Anti crisis strategy efficiency and future costs of real reform make analysts more prudent in forecasts. In addition, a possible reduction risk appetite and the loss of confidence will fuel a negative perspective regarding the recovery of emerging economies, extreme fragile to regional or global contagion effects. In modern financial crises, the events spiral out of control, panic and contagion come very fast. Greek debt crisis is the most serious extreme financial event in the Eurozone, with severe contagion features. An analysis of Eurocontagion effects in the context of Greece crisis by using a dynamic version of the Hawkes jump-diffusion model is suggested.

  3. What can be learnt from an ecotoxicity database in the framework of the REACh regulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henegar, Adina; Mombelli, Enrico [Unite Modeles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pandard, Pascal [Unite Expertise et Essais en Ecotoxicologie (EXES), INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pery, Alexandre R.R., E-mail: alexandre.pery@ineris.fr [Unite Modeles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2011-01-01

    Since REACh applies in all of EU, special emphasis has been put on the reduction of systematic ecotoxicity testing. In this context, it is important to extract a maximum of information from existing ecotoxicity databases in order to propose alternative methods aimed at replacing and reducing experimental testing. Consequently, we analyzed a database of new chemicals registered in France and Europe during the last twenty years reporting aquatic ecotoxicity data with respect to three trophic levels (i.e., Algae EC50 72 h, Daphnia EC50 48 h and Fish LC50 96 h). In order to ensure the relevance of the comparison between these three experimental tests, we performed a stringent data selection based on the pertinence and quality of available ecotoxicological information. At the end of this selection, less than 5% of the initial number of chemicals was retained for subsequent analysis. Such an analysis showed that fish was the least sensitive trophic level, whereas Daphnia had the highest sensitivity. Moreover, thanks to an analysis of the relative sensitivity of trophic levels, it was possible to establish that respective correction factors of 50 and 10 would be necessary if only one or two test values were available. From a physicochemical point of view, it was possible to characterize two significant correlations relating the sensitivity of the aforementioned trophic levels with the chemical structure of the retained substances. This analysis showed that algae displayed a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing acid fragments whereas fish presented a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing aromatic ether fragments. Overall, our work suggests that statistical analysis of historical data combined with data yielded by the REACh regulation should permit the derivation of robust safety factors, testing strategies and mathematical models. These alternative methods, in turn, could allow a replacement and reduction of ecotoxicological testing. - Research

  4. Evaluating the implementation of health and safety innovations under a regulatory context: A collective case study of Ontario’s safer needle regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization’s change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. Methods The proposed study will focus on Ontario’s safer needle regulation (2007 which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. Discussion The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues

  5. The replication domain model: regulating replicon firing in the context of large-scale chromosome architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Benjamin D; Gilbert, David M

    2013-11-29

    The "Replicon Theory" of Jacob, Brenner, and Cuzin has reliably served as the paradigm for regulating the sites where individual replicons initiate replication. Concurrent with the replicon model was Taylor's demonstration that plant and animal chromosomes replicate segmentally in a defined temporal sequence, via cytologically defined units too large to be accounted for by a single replicon. Instead, there seemed to be a program to choreograph when chromosome units replicate during S phase, executed by initiation at clusters of individual replicons within each segment. Here, we summarize recent molecular evidence for the existence of such units, now known as "replication domains", and discuss how the organization of large chromosomes into structural units has added additional layers of regulation to the original replicon model.

  6. Regional tourist industry in context of principles of regional socioeconomic systems self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic principles of self-regulation of tourist complexes as regional socio-economic systems on the example of Sverdlovsk region. These include the principles of goal setting and the necessary diversity of economic entropy: in this case, these are important for the tourism industry and the human and natural resource and ecological potential. Is it shown how a tourist complex influences the socio-economic development of regional economic systems. In particular, tourism influences some of migration processes. Tourism development strategy in the Russian Federation at the tourist center level is analyzed. The need to develop such a strategy is due to the transition to market relations and, as a consequence, complexity of governmental regulation. It is substantiated that Sverdlovsk region is a subject to following strategy and might be successful in various sectors of tourism: business and congress and exhibition, urban entertainment, family and shopping tourism, sports, medical and recreational tourism.

  7. Context-dependent regulation of Th17-associated genes and IFNγ expression by the transcription factor NFAT5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Maria; Iglesias, Marcos; Tejedor, Sonia; Merino, Ramón; López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Stress-activated transcription factors influence T-cell function in different physiopathologic contexts. NFAT5, a relative of nuclear factor κB and the calcineurin-activated NFATc transcription factors, protects mammalian cells from hyperosmotic stress caused by the elevation of extracellular sodium levels. In T cells exposed to hypernatremia, NFAT5 not only induces osmoprotective gene products but also cytokines and immune receptors, which raises the question of whether this factor could regulate other T-cell functions in osmostress-independent contexts. Here we have used mice with a conditional deletion of Nfat5 in mature T lymphocytes to explore osmostress-dependent and -independent functions of this factor. In vitro experiments with CD4 T cells stimulated in hyperosmotic medium showed that NFAT5 enhanced the expression of IL-2 and the Th17-associated gene products RORγt and IL-23R. By contrast, NFAT5-deficient CD4 T cells activated in vivo by anti-CD3 antibody exhibited a different activation profile and were skewed towards enhanced interferon γ (IFNγ) and IL-17 expression and attenuated Treg responses. Using a model of experimental colitis, we observed that mice lacking NFAT5 in T cells exhibited exacerbated intestinal colitis and enhanced expression of IFNγ in draining lymph nodes and colon. These results show that NFAT5 can modulate different T-cell responses depending on stress conditions and stimulatory context.

  8. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  9. Assessing the ecological status in the context of the European Water Framework Directive: where do we go now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyjol, Yorick; Argillier, Christine; Bonne, Wendy; Borja, Angel; Buijse, Anthonie D; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Daufresne, Martin; Kernan, Martin; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Poikane, Sandra; Prat, Narcís; Solheim, Anne-Lyche; Stroffek, Stéphane; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Villeneuve, Bertrand; van de Bund, Wouter

    2014-11-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is now well established as the key management imperative in river basins across Europe. However, there remain significant concerns with the way WFD is implemented and there is now a need for water managers and scientists to communicate better in order to find solutions to these concerns. To address this, a Science-Policy Interface (SPI) activity was launched in 2010 led by Directorate-General for Research and Innovation and Onema (the French national agency for water and aquatic ecosystems), which provided an interactive forum to connect scientists and WFD end-users. One major aim of the SPI activity was to establish a list of the most crucial research and development needs for enhancing WFD implementation. This paper synthesises the recommendations from this event highlighting 10 priority issues relating to ecological status. For lakes, temporary streams and transitional and coastal waters, WFD implementation still suffers from a lack of WFD-compliant bioassessment methods. For rivers, special attention is required to assess the ecological impacts of hydromorphological alterations on biological communities, notably those affecting river continuity and riparian covering. Spatial extrapolation tools are needed in order to evaluate ecological status for water bodies for which no data are available. The need for more functional bioassessment tools as complements to usual WFD-compliant tools, and to connect clearly good ecological state, biodiversity and ecosystem services when implementing WFD were also identified as crucial issues.

  10. Ataxin 2-binding protein 1 is a context-specific positive regulator of Notch signaling during neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jay Prakash; Deshpande, Girish; Shashidhara, L S

    2017-03-01

    The role of the Notch pathway during the lateral inhibition that underlies binary cell fate choice is extensively studied, but the context specificity that generates diverse outcomes is less well understood. In the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, differential Notch signaling between cells of the proneural cluster orchestrates sensory organ specification. Here we report functional analysis of Drosophila Ataxin 2-binding protein 1 (A2BP1) during this process. Its human ortholog is linked to type 2 spinocerebellar ataxia and other complex neuronal disorders. Downregulation of Drosophila A2BP1 in the proneural cluster increases adult sensory bristle number, whereas its overexpression results in loss of bristles. We show that A2BP1 regulates sensory organ specification by potentiating Notch signaling. Supporting its direct involvement, biochemical analysis shows that A2BP1 is part of the Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] complex in the presence and absence of Notch. However, in the absence of Notch signaling, the A2BP1 interacting fraction of Su(H) does not associate with the repressor proteins Groucho and CtBP. We propose a model explaining the requirement of A2BP1 as a positive regulator of context-specific Notch activity.

  11. December 7, 2000. General framework: the European and French contexts. Results of the Eole 2005 program: the lessons; 7 decembre 2000. Cadrage general: les contextes europeens et francais. Resultats du programme Eole 2005: les enseignements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L.; Chabot, B. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Grandidier, J.Y. [Association de l' Energie Eolienne en France, 11 - Narbonne (France); Germa, Ph. [IENA Environnement, France (France); Argenson, A.; Dugue, Ch. [Cabinet GERMA, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fassi Fihri, M.A. [Office National de l' Electricite (Morocco); Wagner, A. [Enron Wind Corp. (Germany); Krogsgaard, P. [BTM Consult ApS, Ringkbing (Denmark); Gonzalvez, C.H. [Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving (IDAE), Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    This first day of conference was organized in two parts: the first part was devoted to a presentation of the French and European contexts of the development of wind power. After a general presentation of the aims of the colloquium, a round table was organized about the European context of development of wind energy with its application to France in the framework of the new organization of the electric power industry. Testimonies about the means used by governments for the sustain of wind energy development were presented with the examples of Spain and Germany. The second part of the day was devoted to the presentation of the results of the French wind energy program 'Eole 2005' and of the lessons gained: detailed presentation of the sustain program for a minimum of 5000 MW installed power in 2010, strategic analysis of the program (projects, R and D actions, companies), the economical workability of wind power projects (tariffs, point-of-view of French and European operators), the export development prospects for the 2000-2005 era and the main international markets at the 2005-2010 vista (examples of Denmark, Portugal and Morocco). (J.S.)

  12. Is the regulation against potentially doped bodies in a fitness context socially sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Denmark is one of the only countries to test members for doping in the fitness centre. Inspired by the Worldwide Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the official recommendation of establishing a doping free sports environment, both among elite sports athletes but also among common users of fitness...... centres, centres in a ‘sport for all’ context are obliged by the national sports federations to test their members for doping. This paper will discuss the anti-doping policy by underlining two major dilemmas. First, a doping free environment will not be established by solely testing some members. Embedded...... by the clubs offering sport for all; namely, the value of community and the sense of fellowship and shared values these clubs are believed to produce in a local community. By implementing a perspective on social sustainability this paper will explore how a focus on this particular social valorisation...

  13. The strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020: Which place for archaeological heritage in the lifelong learning context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Rodríguez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Strategy objective of turning Europe into a world-leading knowledge-based society, has left the way to the Europe 2020 strategyobjectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020 establishes that educational and training systems should provide the means for all citizens to realise their potentials, as well as to acquire and develop skills and competencies needed for their employability and foster further learning, active citizenship and inter-cultural dialogue; from a lifelong learning perspective, covering all levels and contexts (including non-formal and informal learning. The aim of this paper is to present the strategic objectives of EU education and training policies and discuss, accordingly, a place for archaeological heritage in school, higher and adult education.

  14. The interaction of economic and pedagogical ideals in the context of workplace learning in Germany: a framework for empirical research - inspired by business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Röbel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an effect of marketisation, the importance of workplace learning in Germany has increased. The article follows up on the long-standing discourse around the question of how economic and pedagogical ideals interact in this context. In order to develop a theoretical framework for empirical research, three major positions of the discipline of business ethics are introduced. Business ethics in more abstract ways deals with the very same question, namely how do ideas such as profit orientation interact with other norms and values? The new perspectives show that the discourse has been hitherto based on a specific understanding of economy. In order to derive an empirical answer to the research question, the question is re-formulated as follows: Which values are inherent in the decisions taken? Consequently, it suggests using the concept of "rationalities of justification" for empirical research. The article shows how this concept can be applied by conducting a test run.

  15. Integrated frameworks for assessing and managing health risks in the context of managed aquifer recharge with river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources-releases-environmental transport and fate-exposures-health effects-socio-economic impacts-management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation.

  16. An Operational Framework for Land Cover Classification in the Context of REDD+ Mechanisms. A Case Study from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Fernández-Landa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ implementation requires robust, consistent, accurate and transparent national land cover historical data and monitoring systems. Satellite imagery is the only data source with enough periodicity to provide consistent land cover information in a cost-effective way. The main aim of this paper is the creation of an operational framework for monitoring land cover dynamics based on Landsat imagery and open-source software. The methodology integrates the entire land cover and land cover change mapping processes to produce a consistent series of Land Cover maps. The consistency of the time series is achieved through the application of a single trained machine learning algorithm to radiometrically normalized imagery using iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD across all dates of the historical period. As a result, seven individual Land Cover maps of Costa Rica were produced from 1985/1986 to 2013/2014. Post-classification land cover change detection was performed to evaluate the land cover dynamics in Costa Rica. The validation of the land cover maps showed an overall accuracy of 87% for the 2013/2014 map, 93% for the 2000/2001 map and 89% for the 1985/1986 map. Land cover changes between forest and non-forest classes were validated for the period between 2001 and 2011, obtaining an overall accuracy of 86%. Forest age-classes were generated through a multi-temporal analysis of the maps. By linking deforestation dynamics with forest age, a more accurate discussion of the carbon emissions along the time series can be presented.

  17. Self-regulated and Informal Learning: Understanding How New Digital Contexts Support Autonomous Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Donoso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect on the new challenges associated to online digital content creation and use and its impact on learning based on some of the findings of the ongoing eContentplus European project KeyToNature. This three-year project aims at developing interactive e-tools for learning and teaching biodiversity providing common access to data and interactive educational tools for the identification of organisms tailored to the needs of different educational users. A theoretical approach based on self-regulated and informal learning will be the basis upon which our findings will be framed.

  18. The design and testing of a caring teaching model based on the theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese Context: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujie; Shen, Jie; Ye, Xuchun; Chen, Huali; Jiang, Anli

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims to report the design and test the effectiveness of an innovative caring teaching model based on the theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context. Since the 1970's, caring has been a core value in nursing education. In a previous study, a theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context is explored employing a grounded theory study, considered beneficial for caring education. A caring teaching model was designed theoretically and a one group pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study was administered to test its effectiveness. From Oct, 2009 to Jul, 2010, a cohort of grade-2 undergraduate nursing students (n=64) in a Chinese medical school was recruited to participate in the study. Data were gathered through quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the caring teaching model. The caring teaching model created an esthetic situation and experiential learning style for teaching caring that was integrated within the curricula. Quantitative data from the quasi-experimental study showed that the post-test scores of each item were higher than those on the pre-test (p<0.01). Thematic analysis of 1220 narratives from students' caring journals and reports of participant class observation revealed two main thematic categories, which reflected, from the students' points of view, the development of student caring character and the impact that the caring teaching model had on this regard. The model could be used as an integrated approach to teach caring in nursing curricula. It would also be beneficial for nursing administrators in cultivating caring nurse practitioners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of ferulate-5-hydroxylase expression in Arabidopsis in the context of sinapate ester biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegger, M.; Meyer, K.; Cusumano, J.C.; Chapple, C. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1999-01-01

    Sinapic acid is an intermediate in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, and in some taxa serves as a precursor for soluble secondary metabolites. The biosynthesis and accumulation of the sinapate esters sinapoylglucose, sinapolymalate, and sinapolycholine are developmentally regulated in Arabidopsis and other members of the Brassicaceae. The FAH1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes the enzyme ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in syringyl lignin biosynthesis and is required for the production of sinapate esters. Here the authors show that F5H expression parallels sinapate ester accumulation in developing siliques and seedlings, but is not rate limiting for their biosynthesis. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of F5H mRNA is distinct from that of other phenylpropanoid genes. Efforts to identify constructs capable of complementing the sinapate ester-deficient phenotype of fah1 mutants demonstrated that F5H expression in leaves is dependent on sequences 3{prime} of the F5H coding region. In contrast, the positive regulatory function of the downstream region is not required for F5H transcript or sinapolycholine accumulation in embryos.

  20. Regulating emotion in the context of interpersonal decisions: The role of anticipated pride and regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job eVan Der Schalk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories about the relation between emotion and behavior hold that social behavior is influenced not only by the experience of emotion, but also by the anticipation of emotion. We argue that anticipating future emotional states is an emotion regulation strategy when it leads to a change in behavior. In the current studies we examined how construal of a fair or an unfair situation in terms of positive or negative anticipated emotions influences the fairness of subsequent behavior. We used the Ultimatum Bargaining Game--an experimental game in which participants divide a resource between themselves and another person--as a social situation that offers the opportunity to engage in fair and unfair behavior. In Study 1 we used an autobiographical recall task to manipulate anticipated emotions. Although the task did not influence anticipated emotions directly, results showed that anticipated pride about fair behavior increased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated pride about unfair behavior decreased levels of fairness. Similarly, anticipated regret about fair behavior decreased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated regret about unfair behavior increased levels of fairness. In Study 2 we replicated this pattern of findings, and found that participants who thought about their anticipated emotions (pride or regret in relation to unfair behavior behaved more fairly. We discuss these findings in relation to theories of emotion regulation and economic decision-making.

  1. [Work regulation in the context of new public versus private relations in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nelson Bezerra

    2010-08-01

    This work discusses the management of the work relations in the context of the new systems of public vs. private relation in health, having as reference the experience of the habilitation of Social Organizations (SO), responsible for the administration of a group of hospitals in the state of São Paulo. The urgency in this kind of management supported on the legal figure of the SO has implications in the management of Human Resources in Health (HRH) through the adoption of flexibilization mechanisms which include ways of selection, hiring and dismissal, payment rules and functional progression similar to the actions adopted by the market. The establishment of this sort of administration refers to the new paradigm proposed by the managerial administrative reform which suggests the exhaustion of the bureaucratic model to promote adjustment of the public administration to the transformations originated in the new stage of internationalization of the economy and its unfolding in the work world, as well as to the new standards of requirements of performance of the public field. Aspects related to the management of HHR are approached in the two ruling modalities in the Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo: Direct Administration Hospitals (DAH) and units organized under the SO model (SOH).

  2. High performance in healthcare priority setting and resource allocation: A literature- and case study-based framework in the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hall, William; Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam; Peacock, Stuart; Gibson, Jennifer L; Urquhart, Bonnie

    2016-08-01

    Priority setting and resource allocation, or PSRA, are key functions of executive teams in healthcare organizations. Yet decision-makers often base their choices on historical patterns of resource distribution or political pressures. Our aim was to provide leaders with guidance on how to improve PSRA practice, by creating organizational contexts which enable high performance. We carried out in-depth case studies of six Canadian healthcare organizations to obtain from healthcare leaders their understanding of the concept of high performance in PSRA and the factors which contribute to its achievement. Individual and group interviews were carried out (n = 62) with senior managers, middle managers and Board members. Site observations and document review were used to assist researchers in interpreting the interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively with the literature on empirical examples of PSRA practice, in order to develop a framework of high performance in PSRA. The framework consists of four domains - structures, processes, attitudes and behaviours, and outcomes - within which are 19 specific elements. The emergent themes derive from case studies in different kinds of health organizations (urban/rural, small/large) across Canada. The elements can serve as a checklist for 'high performance' in PSRA. This framework provides a means by which decision-makers in healthcare might assess their practice and identify key areas for improvement. The findings are likely generalizable, certainly within Canada but also across countries. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first attempt to present a full package of elements comprising high performance in health care PSRA.

  3. Chlorine-Induced In Situ Regulation to Synthesize Graphene Frameworks with Large Specific Area for Excellent Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanyan; Cui, Huijuan; Meng, Xin; Zheng, Jianfeng; Yang, Pengju; Li, Li; Wang, Zhijian; Jia, Suping; Zhu, Zhenping

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene frameworks are usually limited by a complicated preparation process and a low specific surface area. This paper presents a facile suitable approach to effectively synthesize 3D graphene frameworks (GFs) with large specific surface area (up to 1018 m(2) g(-1)) through quick thermal decomposition from sodium chloroacetate, which are considerably larger than those of sodium acetate reported in our recent study. The chlorine element in sodium chloroacetate may possess a strong capability to induce in situ activation and regulate graphene formation during pyrolysis in one step. These GFs can be applied as excellent electrode materials for supercapacitors and can achieve an enhanced supercapacitor performance with a specific capacitance of 266 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1).

  4. Automated genomic context analysis and experimental validation platform for discovery of prokaryote transcriptional regulator functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Mu, Fangping; Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L; Wren, Melinda S; Unkefer, Clifford J; Unkefer, Pat J

    2014-12-18

    The clustering of genes in a pathway and the co-location of functionally related genes is widely recognized in prokaryotes. We used these characteristics to predict the metabolic involvement for a Transcriptional Regulator (TR) of unknown function, identified and confirmed its biological activity. A software tool that identifies the genes encoded within a defined genomic neighborhood for the subject TR and its homologs was developed. The output lists of genes in the genetic neighborhoods, their annotated functions, the reactants/products, and identifies the metabolic pathway in which the encoded-proteins function. When a set of TRs of known function was analyzed, we observed that their homologs frequently had conserved genomic neighborhoods that co-located the metabolically related genes regulated by the subject TR. We postulate that TR effectors are metabolites in the identified pathways; indeed the known effectors were present. We analyzed Bxe_B3018 from Burkholderia xenovorans, a TR of unknown function and predicted that this TR was related to the glycine, threonine and serine degradation. We tested the binding of metabolites in these pathways and for those that bound, their ability to modulate TR binding to its specific DNA operator sequence. Using rtPCR, we confirmed that methylglyoxal was an effector of Bxe_3018. These studies provide the proof of concept and validation of a systematic approach to the discovery of the biological activity for proteins of unknown function, in this case a TR. Bxe_B3018 is a methylglyoxal responsive TR that controls the expression of an operon composed of a putative efflux system.

  5. Towards a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhorst, Andreas; Micklewright, Dominic; Noakes, Timothy D

    2017-08-23

    The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion. Thus, progress towards a comprehensive multidimensional model of perceived fatigability and exercise regulation is needed. Drawing on Gate Control Theory of pain, we propose a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour, which differentiates between sensory, affective and cognitive processes shaping the perceptual milieu during exercise. We propose that: (A) perceived mental strain and perceived physical strain are primary determinants of pacing behaviour reflecting sensory-discriminatory processes necessary to align planned behaviour with current physiological state, (B) core affect plays a primary and mediatory role in exercise and performance regulation, and its underlying two dimensions hedonicity and arousal reflect affective-motivational processes triggering approach and avoidance behaviour, and (C) the mindset-shift associated with an action crisis plays a primary role in volitional self-regulatory control reflecting cognitive-evaluative processes between further goal-pursuit and goal-disengagement. The proposed framework has the potential to enrich theory development in centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour by emphasising the multidimensional dynamic processes underpinning perceived fatigability and provides a practical outline for investigating the complex interplay between the psychophysiological determinants of pacing and performance during prolonged endurance exercise. © Article author

  6. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Tougas

    Full Text Available Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development.We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory.Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review

  7. La vigilanza sul sistema finanziario: obiettivi, assetti e approcci (Financial-Sector Regulation and Supervision: Targets, Frameworks and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The scandals that have tarnished the reputation of Wall Street and in Italy have damaged those who have invested their savings in Parmalat or Cirio corporate bonds or in Argentinean Government securities justify revisiting the objectives to be achieved by regulation and supervision of the financial sector. Stability is still regarded as paramount for banking, to be secured through an appropriate capital cushion, extensive supervisory arrangements, and market discipline, as agreed by Basel 2. Other financial intermediaries need to conduct their business with great transparency, openness and respect of the rules. However, an ever expanding and innovative financial sector, the blurring of traditional segmentations and globalisation make the task of regulating and supervising the financial sector more difficult and challenging, thus requiring new frameworks, for instance a single agency, in various jurisdictions and more international co-ordination and co-operation among regulating and supervising agencies. Up to now, the approach followed by the latter has been microeconomic, but the growing financial instability and the greater relevance of systemic risk may ask for a macroeconomic management of prudential regulation and supervision, thus complementing monetary policy in securing financial stability.  JEL Codes: E52, G18, G21, G28Keywords: Banking; Regulation; Securities

  8. The social context of nanotechnology and regulating its uncertainty: A nanotechnologist approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamier, Vincent; Gispert, Ignasi; Puntes, Victor

    2013-04-01

    With an increasing number of consumer's products containing nanomaterials (NMs), Nanotechnology is already a reality on the market despite it may only be the emerging part of an iceberg. The potential exponential increase of nanotechnology uses is starting to alert major public bodies due to the uncertainty inherent of every emerging technology. According to the number of publications on safety/toxicity of NMs, major concern seems to be focused on NMs that may be released as free nano-objects. From a nanotechnologist point of view, major identified aspects on inorganic nano-objects are: i) Corrosion of metallic nano-objects, ii) Aggregation to sizes that trigger immune exacerbation, iii) Presence of toxic bystanders, iv) Biological membrane/barrier perturbation, v) Protein association & protein alteration. While the description of phenomena occurring at the nano-scale has not been classified yet, added to the contradictory studies on "unknown" samples, regulatory agencies have no clear idea on what should be considered "nano" or which NMs might pose a threat for health, safety or the environment. In addition to provide full and accessible information on new nano-product, it would seem advisable to plan research and innovation in a responsible and precautionary manner in order to be pro-active towards (responsive) NMs regulation.

  9. Historic Gardens and Parks: Challenges of Development in the Context of Relevant Regulations, Definitions and Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristīne Dreija

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title and contents of this article have emerged after trying to summarize international scientific knowledge and theory, regulations by relevant international organizations, as well as several national legislative provisions issued in the area of development of historical landscapes, environment and sites. Various definitions related to the subject, changing and newly introduced terminology have originally caused some embarrassment and provoked a series of questions, such as: who is who and what is the difference? In this respect, a historical garden or park as a significant area is defined as a ‘Living Monument’, ‘Tangible Heritage’ or even ‘Intangible Heritage’, because there is no doubt that the garden is a dynamic and ever changing environment. The applied terminology and definitions on historical gardens and parks are also undoubtedly related to the issues of heritage awareness. Differences in the national legislations are significant too, whereas historical gardens and parks are classified both, as architecture and natural monuments and heritage immovable property. An analysis at the theoretical level of the legislation and scientific statements provided in conclusion gives a certain insight into the significance of each projective aspect in the planning development of the historical gardens and parks and forms the base for further relevant issue researches.

  10. A Numerical Approximation Framework for the Stochastic Linear Quadratic Regulator on Hilbert Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levajković, Tijana, E-mail: tijana.levajkovic@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: t.levajkovic@sf.bg.ac.rs; Mena, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.mena@uibk.ac.at [University of Innsbruck, Department of Mathematics (Austria); Tuffaha, Amjad, E-mail: atufaha@aus.edu [American University of Sharjah, Department of Mathematics (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-06-15

    We present an approximation framework for computing the solution of the stochastic linear quadratic control problem on Hilbert spaces. We focus on the finite horizon case and the related differential Riccati equations (DREs). Our approximation framework is concerned with the so-called “singular estimate control systems” (Lasiecka in Optimal control problems and Riccati equations for systems with unbounded controls and partially analytic generators: applications to boundary and point control problems, 2004) which model certain coupled systems of parabolic/hyperbolic mixed partial differential equations with boundary or point control. We prove that the solutions of the approximate finite-dimensional DREs converge to the solution of the infinite-dimensional DRE. In addition, we prove that the optimal state and control of the approximate finite-dimensional problem converge to the optimal state and control of the corresponding infinite-dimensional problem.

  11. The Armc10/SVH gene: genome context, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and protection against Aβ-induced mitochondrial fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, R; Mirra, S; Figueiro-Silva, J; Navas-Pérez, E; Quevedo, M; López-Doménech, G; Podlesniy, P; Ulloa, F; Garcia-Fernàndez, J; Trullas, R; Soriano, E

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial function and dynamics are essential for neurotransmission, neural function and neuronal viability. Recently, we showed that the eutherian-specific Armcx gene cluster (Armcx1–6 genes), located in the X chromosome, encodes for a new family of proteins that localise to mitochondria, regulating mitochondrial trafficking. The Armcx gene cluster evolved by retrotransposition of the Armc10 gene mRNA, which is present in all vertebrates and is considered to be the ancestor gene. Here we investigate the genomic organisation, mitochondrial functions and putative neuroprotective role of the Armc10 ancestor gene. The genomic context of the Armc10 locus shows considerable syntenic conservation among vertebrates, and sequence comparisons and CHIP-data suggest the presence of at least three conserved enhancers. We also show that the Armc10 protein localises to mitochondria and that it is highly expressed in the brain. Furthermore, we show that Armc10 levels regulate mitochondrial trafficking in neurons, but not mitochondrial aggregation, by controlling the number of moving mitochondria. We further demonstrate that the Armc10 protein interacts with the KIF5/Miro1-2/Trak2 trafficking complex. Finally, we show that overexpression of Armc10 in neurons prevents Aβ-induced mitochondrial fission and neuronal death. Our data suggest both conserved and differential roles of the Armc10/Armcx gene family in regulating mitochondrial dynamics in neurons, and underscore a protective effect of the Armc10 gene against Aβ-induced toxicity. Overall, our findings support a further degree of regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in the brain of more evolved mammals. PMID:24722288

  12. New integrated and multiscale decision-aiding framework in a context of imperfect information: application to the assessment of torrent checkdams' effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacnet, Jean-Marc; Carladous, Simon; Dezert, Jean; Batton-Hubert, Mireille

    2017-04-01

    Mountain natural phenomena (e.g. torrential floods) put people and buildings at risk. Civil engineering protection works such as torrent check-dams are designed to mitigate those natural risks. Protection works act on both causes and effects of phenomena to reduce consequences and therefore risks. For instance, check-dams control sediment production and liquid/solid flow of torrential floods: several series of dams are located in the headwaters of a watershed, each having specific functions. All those works are damaged by time passing and flood impacts. Effectiveness assessment is needed to define, compare or choose strategies for investment and maintenance which are essential issues in risk management process. Decision support tools are expected to analyze at different scales both their technical effectiveness (related to their structural state and functional effects on phenomena such as stopping, braking, guiding, etc.) and their economic efficiency through comparison between benefits and costs. Several methods, often based on expert knowledge, have already been developed to care about decision under risk. But uncertainty has also to be considered, since decisions are indeed often taken in a context of lack of information and knowledge on natural phenomena, heterogeneity of available information and, finally, reliability of sources. First methods derived from classical industrial contexts, such as dependability analysis, are used to formalize expert knowledge used for decision-making. After having defined the concept of effectiveness, dependability analysis are used to identify decision contexts and problems: criteria and indicators are identified in relation with structural or functional features. Then, innovative and multi-scales multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDMs) and frameworks are proposed to help assessing protection works effectiveness. They combine classical MCDM approaches, belief function, fuzzy sets and possibility theories. Those methods

  13. A molecular framework for seasonal growth-dormancy regulation in perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Donghwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Wang, Qijun; Keathley, Daniel E; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The timing of the onset and release of dormancy impacts the survival, productivity and spatial distribution of temperate horticultural and forestry perennials and is mediated by at least three main regulatory programs involving signal perception and processing by phytochromes (PHYs) and PHY-interacting transcription factors (PIFs). PIF4 functions as a key regulator of plant growth in response to both external and internal signals. In poplar, the expression of PIF4 and PIF3-LIKE1 is upregulated in response to short days, while PHYA and PHYB are not regulated at the transcriptional level. Integration of light and environmental signals is achieved by gating the expression and transcriptional activity of PIF4. During this annual cycle, auxin promotes the degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors through the SKP-Cullin-F-boxTIR1 complex, relieving the repression of auxin-responsive genes by allowing auxin response factors (ARFs) to activate the transcription of auxin-responsive genes involved in growth responses. Analyses of transcriptome changes during dormancy transitions have identified MADS-box transcription factors associated with endodormancy induction. Previous studies show that poplar dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes PtMADS7 and PtMADS21 are differentially regulated during the growth-dormancy cycle. Endodormancy may be regulated by internal factors, which are specifically localized in buds. PtMADS7/PtMADS21 may function as an internal regulator in poplar. The control of flowering time shares certain regulatory hierarchies with control of the dormancy/growth cycle. However, the particularities of different stages of the dormancy/growth cycle warrant comprehensive approaches to identify the causative genes for the entire cycle. A growing body of knowledge also indicates epigenetic regulation plays a role in these processes in perennial horticultural and forestry plants. The increased knowledge contributes to better understanding of the dormancy

  14. Regulating Extraction in Africa: Towards a Framework for Accountability in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Gamil Besada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how revenue flows from the extractive sector can have substantial multiplier effects on the rest of the economy in resource-endowed countries in the Global South. The aim is to demonstrate that in order to fully benefit from extraction practices, countries in the Global South must adopt measures to address issues such as weak governance, the exploitative practices of foreign investors, mismanagement, corruption, undervaluation of mineral assets, revenue mismanagement, and various forms of taxation manipulation and evasion. Through literature examples in various African countries, this research concludes that the Global South should focus on constructing national regulatory frameworks that emphasise revenue transparency.

  15. La vigilanza sul sistema finanziario: obiettivi, assetti e approcci (Financial-Sector Regulation and Supervision: Targets, Frameworks and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The scandals that have tarnished the reputation of Wall Street and in Italy have damaged those who have invested their savings in Parmalat or Cirio corporate bonds or in Argentinean Government securities justify revisiting the objectives to be achieved by regulation and supervision of the financial sector. Stability is still regarded as paramount for banking, to be secured through an appropriate capital cushion, extensive supervisory arrangements, and market discipline, as agreed by Basel 2. Other financial intermediaries need to conduct their business with great transparency, openness and respect of the rules. However, an ever expanding and innovative financial sector, the blurring of traditional segmentations and globalisation make the task of regulating and supervising the financial sector more difficult and challenging, thus requiring new frameworks, for instance a single agency, in various jurisdictions and more international co-ordination and co-operation among regulating and supervising agencies. Up to now, the approach followed by the latter has been microeconomic, but the growing financial instability and the greater relevance of systemic risk may ask for a macroeconomic management of prudential regulation and supervision, thus complementing monetary policy in securing financial stability.

  16. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and frameworks.…

  17. Organizational context associated with time spent evaluating language and cognitive-communicative impairments in skilled nursing facilities: Survey results within an implementation science framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Natalie F

    2016-01-01

    The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was developed to merge research and practice in healthcare by accounting for the many elements that influence evidence-based treatment implementation. These include characteristics of the individuals involved, features of the treatment itself, and aspects of the organizational culture where the treatment is being provided. The purpose of this study was to apply the CFIR to a measurement of current practice patterns of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in the skilled nursing facility (SNF) environment. In an effort to inform future evidence-based practice implementation interventions, research questions addressed current practice patterns, clinician treatment use and preferences, and perceptions of the organizational context including leadership, resources, and other staff. Surveys were mailed to each SLP working in a SNF in the state of Michigan. Participants (N=77, 19% response rate) completed a survey mapping on to CFIR components impacting evidence-based practice implementation. Quantitative descriptive and nonparametric correlational analyses were completed. Use of evidence-based treatments by SLPs in SNFs was highly variable. Negative correlations between treating speech and voice disorders and treating swallowing disorders (rs=-.35, planguage and cognitive-communicative disorders and treating swallowing disorders (rs=-.30, planguage and cognitive-communicative disorders and treating swallowing disorders (rs=-.67, planguage and cognitive-communicative disorders (rs=-.37, ptime spent evaluating language and other cognitive-communicative disorders (rs=.27, planguage or other cognitive-communicative disorders. Further, SLPs in this sample spent more time evaluating language and cognitive-communicative impairments if they perceived their organizational context in a more positive way. The CFIR may guide treatment and implementation research to increase the uptake of evidence-based practices for

  18. The Internal Model Principle : Asymptotic Tracking and Regulation in the Behavioral Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Shaik; Takaba, K.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Given a plant, together with an exosystem generating the disturbances and the reference signals, the problem of asymptotic tracking and regulation is to find a controller such that the to-be-controlled plant variable tracks the reference signal regardless of the disturbance acting on the system. If

  19. Self-Regulated Workplace Learning: A Pedagogical Framework and Semantic Web-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadaty, Melody; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pata, Kai; Milikic, Nikola; Holocher-Ertl, Teresa; Jeremic, Zoran; Ali, Liaqat; Giljanovic, Aleksandar; Hatala, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learning processes have a potential to enhance the motivation of knowledge workers to take part in learning and reflection about learning, and thus contribute to the resolution of an important research challenge in workplace learning. An equally important research challenge for the successful completion of each step of a…

  20. Physiological framework for the regulation of quorum sensing-dependent public goods in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellbye, Brett; Schuster, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Many bacteria possess cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) systems that often regulate cooperative secretions involved in host-microbe or microbe-microbe interactions. These secretions, or "public goods," are frequently coregulated by stress and starvation responses. Here we provide a physiological rationale for such regulatory complexity in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using minimal-medium batch and chemostat cultures, we comprehensively characterized specific growth rate-limiting macronutrients as key triggers for the expression of extracellular enzymes and metabolites directly controlled by the las and rhl QS systems. Expression was unrelated to cell density, depended on the secreted product's elemental composition, and was induced only when the limiting nutrient was not also a building block of the product; rhl-dependent products showed the strongest response, caused by the largely las-independent induction of the regulator RhlR and its cognate signal. In agreement with the prominent role of the rhl system, slow growth inverted the las-to-rhl signal ratio, previously considered a characteristic distinguishing between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. Our results highlight a supply-driven, metabolically prudent regulation of public goods that minimizes production costs and thereby helps stabilize cooperative behavior. Such regulation would be beneficial for QS-dependent public goods that act broadly and nonspecifically, and whose need cannot always be accurately assessed by the producing cell. Clear differences in the capacities of the las and rhl systems to integrate starvation signals help explain the existence of multiple QS systems in one cell.

  1. Self-Regulated Workplace Learning: A Pedagogical Framework and Semantic Web-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadaty, Melody; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pata, Kai; Milikic, Nikola; Holocher-Ertl, Teresa; Jeremic, Zoran; Ali, Liaqat; Giljanovic, Aleksandar; Hatala, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learning processes have a potential to enhance the motivation of knowledge workers to take part in learning and reflection about learning, and thus contribute to the resolution of an important research challenge in workplace learning. An equally important research challenge for the successful completion of each step of a…

  2. A cerebellar framework for predictive coding and homeostatic regulation in depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorder is associated with abnormalities in the processing of reward and punishment signals and disturbances in homeostatic regulation. These abnormalities are proposed to impair error minimization routines for reducing uncertainty. Several lines of research point towards a role of the c

  3. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  4. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  5. A framework for discovering, designing, and testing microproteins to regulate synthetic transcriptional modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiume, Elisa; de Klein, Niek; Rhee, Seung Yon; Magnani, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors often form protein complexes and give rise to intricate transcriptional networks. The regulation of transcription factor multimerization plays a key role in the fine-tuning of the underlying transcriptional pathways and can be exploited to modulate synthetic transcriptional mod

  6. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... effect of $100 million or more on the economy. Executive Order 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O... Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule will have an annual effect on the economy... communicate those selections to us; and ] to establish and publicize the necessary regulations and procedures...

  7. "Because I Am Worth It" : A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Review of a Justification-Based Account of Self-Regulation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315033770; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; De Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discr

  8. EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SPENDING FOR EDUCATION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK "EDUCATION AND TRAINING 2020"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela, POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is universally recognized as one of the foundations of human development and one of the most powerful tools that a society has for poverty reduction, sustainable development in the long term. The world we live in today can be defined as a global arena, a planet increasingly crowded, faced with a real problem - population growth and thus increasing the number of young people, which means educational systems and to able to support them and to answer their needs. Educational policies should reflect the responsibility of building a world based on a more on mutual support. Marginalization, exclusion, ignorance of the rules of democracy and lack of education are factors that may cause the gap between a minority of people are able to find a path to success and a majority that feels manipulated events. Providing everyone access to knowledge, education has the task of helping people understand the world and to understand others. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy makes in education provides a new strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training, created from his predecessor's work program "Education and Training 2010", "Education and Training 2020". This paper aims to highlight the strategic objectives for the Member States, the implementation of these, and a number of statistics on the efficiency of public spending on education in the European Union.

  9. Using multi-criteria analysis to explore non-market monetary values of water quality changes in the context of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ortega, Julia; Berbel, Julio

    2010-09-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive represents a major change in the management of water resources and sets ambitious ecological objectives for all European waters. In the Directive, the economic assessment of the non-market environmental benefits of water quality improvements plays a crucial role. Studies valuing these benefits are now appearing in the literature, applying stated preference valuation techniques. However, these techniques are often criticized for providing only narrow mono-criterion information to the decision-making process. The research presented here builds on a recent line of investigation that combines monetary stated preference tools, in this case a choice experiment, with multi-criteria analysis, in this case the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). We argue that the AHP can contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of the choice experiment results by exploring the criteria involved in respondents' trade-off between the attributes. The AHP provides relevant insights for the application of use-based water quality ladders in the valuation of environmental benefits in the context of the WFD. Results also show the importance of the spatial dimension of preferences for water quality.

  10. An integrated modelling framework for regulated river systems in Land Surface Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Anis, Muhammad; razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Many of the large river systems around the world are highly regulated with numerous physical flow control and storage structures as well as a range of water abstraction rules and regulations. Most existing Land Surface Models (LSM) do not represent the modifications to the hydrological regimes introduced by water management (reservoirs, irrigation diversions, etc.). The interactions between natural hydrological processes and changes in water and energy fluxes and storage due to human interventions are important to the understanding of how these systems may respond to climate change amongst other drivers for change as well as to the assessment of their feedbacks to the climate system at regional and global scales. This study presents an integrated modelling approach to include human interventions within natural hydrological systems using a fully coupled modelling platform. The Bow River Basin in Alberta (26,200 km2), one of the most managed Canadian rivers, is used to demonstrate the approach. We have dynamically linked the MESH modelling system, which embeds the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), with the MODSIM-DSS water management modelling tool. MESH models the natural hydrology while MODSIM optimizes the reservoir operation of 4 simulated reservoirs to satisfy demands within the study basin. MESH was calibrated for the catchments upstream the reservoirs and gave good performance (NSE = 0.81) while BIAS was only 2.3% at the catchment outlet. Without coupling with MODSIM (i.e. no regulation), simulated hydrographs at the catchment outlet were in complete disagreement with observations (NSE = 0.28). The coupled model simulated the optimization introduced by the operation of the multi-reservoir system in the Bow river basin and shows excellent agreement between observed and simulated hourly flows (NSE = 0.98). Irrigation demands are fully satisfied during summer, however, there are some shortages in winter demand from industries, which can be rectified by

  11. A framework for the modeling of gut blood flow regulation and postprandial hyperaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam David Jeays; Patricia Veronica Lawford; Richard Gillott; Paul A Spencer; Karna Dev Bardhan; David Rodney Hose

    2007-01-01

    After a meal the activity of the gut increases markedly as digestion takes place. Associated with this increase in activity is an increase in blood flow, which has been shown to be dependent on factors such as caloric content and constitution of the meal. Much qualitative work has been carried out regarding mechanisms for the presence of food in a section of gut producing increased blood flow to that section, but there are still many aspects of this process that are not fully understood.In this paper we briefly review current knowledge on several relevant areas relating to gut blood flow, focusing on quantitative data where available and highlighting areas where further research is needed. We then present new data on the effect of feeding on flow in the superior mesenteric artery. Finally, we describe a framework for combining this data to produce a single model describing the mechanisms involved in postprandial hyperaemia.For a section of the model, where appropriate data are available, preliminary results are presented.

  12. Investigating the Reliability and Factor Structure of the Self-Regulating Capacity in Vocabulary Learning (SRCvoc in Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Taleb Doaee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the reliability and factor structure of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning strategies scale (SRCvoc in the Iranian EFL context. To this end, the original (SRCvoc questionnaire (Tseng, Dornyei, & Schmitt, 2006 was translated into Persian, using a translation/back-translation procedure. Then, the Persian version of the SRCVOC was piloted to 43 high school students and showed acceptable internal consistency reliability (α = .81. In the main phase of the study, a sample of 1167 high school students (grades 9-12 from fifteen high schools in three Iranian cities completed the Persian SRCvoc. Based on the results, the Persian version of the scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability (α = 0.81. The factor structure of the translated version of the measure was investigated through a series of factor analyses. The results showed that the translated SVLSQ is composed of one dimension with five subcomponents, with a different factor structure as compared to the original questionnaire. The findings of the study suggest that the Persian version of the SVLSQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring self-regulatory vocabulary learning strategies in Iran.

  13. Development of a lifestyle intervention using the MRC framework for diabetes prevention in people with impaired glucose regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troughton, Jacqui; Chatterjee, Sudesna; Hill, Siân E.; Daly, Heather; Martin Stacey, Lorraine; Stone, Margaret A.; Patel, Naina; Khunti, Kamlesh; Yates, Thomas; Gray, Laura J.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We report development of a group-based lifestyle intervention, Let's Prevent, using the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework, and delivered by structured education to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in people with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in a UK multi-ethnic population. Methods Diabetes Education and Self-Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND) is the first national T2DM programme that meets National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria and formed the basis for Let's Prevent. An iterative cycle of initial development, piloting, collecting and collating qualitative and quantitative data, and reflection and modification, was used to inform and refine lifestyle intervention until it was fit for evaluation in a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT). The programme encouraged IGR self-management using simple, non-technical language and visual aids. Results Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that intervention resulted in beneficial short-term behaviour change such as healthier eating patterns, improved health beliefs and greater participant motivation and empowerment. We also demonstrated that recruitment strategy and data collection methods were feasible for RCT implementation. Conclusions Let's Prevent was developed following successful application of MRC framework criteria and the subsequent RCT will determine whether it is feasible, reliable and transferable from research into a real-world NHS primary healthcare setting. Trial Registration ISRCTN80605705. PMID:26311822

  14. Geomorphic Framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration, Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Little, Rand

    2010-01-01

    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability. PDF version of a presentation on changes to aquatic

  15. A Cerebellar Framework for Predictive Coding and Homeostatic Regulation in Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2016-02-01

    Depressive disorder is associated with abnormalities in the processing of reward and punishment signals and disturbances in homeostatic regulation. These abnormalities are proposed to impair error minimization routines for reducing uncertainty. Several lines of research point towards a role of the cerebellum in reward- and punishment-related predictive coding and homeostatic regulatory function in depressive disorder. Available functional and anatomical evidence suggests that in addition to the cortico-limbic networks, the cerebellum is part of the dysfunctional brain circuit in depressive disorder as well. It is proposed that impaired cerebellar function contributes to abnormalities in predictive coding and homeostatic dysregulation in depressive disorder. Further research on the role of the cerebellum in depressive disorder may further extend our knowledge on the functional and neural mechanisms of depressive disorder and development of novel antidepressant treatments strategies targeting the cerebellum.

  16. Context-dependent Dynamic Processes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Differentiating Common and Unique Effects of State Regulation Deficits and Delay Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The ability to specify differential predictions is a mark of a scientific models' value. State regulation deficits (SRD) and delay aversion (DAv) have both been hypothesized as context-dependent dynamic dysfunctions in ADHD. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison of their common an

  17. A Framework for Designing Training Programs to Foster Self-Regulated Learning and Text Analysis Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to develop an intervention program and to evaluate its contribution to students’ self-regulated learning (SRL and text analysis skills. In a student-focused training approach, the students themselves acquired the training strategies, whereas in the teacher-focused training, the teachers were enabled to explicitly impart these strategies to their students. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of transfer benefits on SRL and text analysis skills, 274 lower secondary students were examined in a pretest-training-posttest design. Based on two different training approaches, a distinction was made between four groups: student training (singleST, teacher training (singleTT, combination of student and teacher training (ComT, and control group (CG. Substantially more transfer was revealed in all training conditions as compared to the control group. Specifically, the singleST group showed the highest learning gains for all variables. Conversely, a combination of both approaches (ComT did not result in synergetic effects, but rather in reciprocal interferences.

  18. Internet architecture and the layers principle: a conceptual framework for regulating Bitcoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Yee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is the first decentralised, peer-to-peer network that allows for the proof and transfer of ownership of virtual currencies without the need for a trusted third party. It has created a platform for tremendous financial innovation, but at the same time the role of traditional regulatable financial intermediaries is bypassed. The purpose of this article is to address the important policy question of how we can capture Bitcoin’s potential benefits for the economy while addressing new regulatory challenges. To do so, we first conceptualise the Bitcoin ecosystem through the layered model of internet architecture. Second, we apply the layers principle of internet governance to identify control points and guidelines for regulation that respect the integrity of the layers. Third, we conclude with the need for governments to adopt an adaptive and novel regulatory approach to ensure that society can benefit from Bitcoin’s revolutionary potential. This work forms a baseline for further understanding of the governance of Bitcoin and the various actors within the ecosystem based on the layers principle of internet architecture.

  19. The Role of the Regulated Sector in the UK Anti-Money Laundering Framework: Pushing the Boundaries of the Private Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Egan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the conceptualisation of private police in current academic literature requires expansion to accommodate the role of the regulated sector in the Anti- Money Laundering (AML framework. Firstly, it evaluates the literature on ‘private police’ and argues that its current parameters are too narrow to accommodate the ‘policing’ role of the regulated sector. Secondly, it lays out the legislative framework that has developed to deal with the problem of money laundering. Thirdly, it contextualises the role of the regulated sector, examining the domestic inter-agency policing relationships within the suspicious activity regime as operationalised in Scotland. Finally, it takes a closer look at how the courts have interpreted the ‘failure to report offence’ under s330 of the Proceeds of Crime Act (POCA 2002 and its consequential effect on the engagement of the regulated sector with the SARs regime.

  20. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  1. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  2. Rapid and facile ratiometric detection of an anthrax biomarker by regulating energy transfer process in bio-metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihe; Li, Bin; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Liming; Zheng, Youxuan

    2016-11-15

    A ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on luminescent bio-metal-organic framework was prepared by exchanging both Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) cations into anionic bio-MOF-1. Due to a highly efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) (>89%), emission color of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 was orange-red even though Tb(3+) was the dominant content in this Tb/Eu co-doping material. More interestingly, this energy transfer process could be modulated by dipicolinic acid (DPA), an unique biomarker for bacillus spores. With DPA addition, corresponding DPA-to-Tb(3+) energy transfer was gradually enhanced while the energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) was significantly weakened. By regulating the energy transfer process in Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1, visual colorimetric sensing of DPA in porous MOF was realized for the first time. Detection limit of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 for DPA was 34nM, which was much lower than an infectious dosage of Bacillus anthracis spores (60μM) for human being. Besides, Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 showed a remarkable selectivity over other aromatic ligands and amino acids. More importantly, this porous ratiometric sensor worked equally well in human serum. These particularly attractive features of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 made the direct, rapid and naked-eye detection of DPA for practical application possible.

  3. Empowering chemistry teachers for context-based education. Towards a framework for design and evaluation of a teacher professional development programme in curriculum innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many countries experience a wave of context-based curriculum innovation aimed at meaningful student learning. During such innovations, teachers are encouraged to participate in the design of innovative context-based teaching materials. This thesis describes studies on the empowerment of Dutch

  4. Empowering chemistry teachers for context-based education. Towards a framework for design and evaluation of a teacher professional development programme in curriculum innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many countries experience a wave of context-based curriculum innovation aimed at meaningful student learning. During such innovations, teachers are encouraged to participate in the design of innovative context-based teaching materials. This thesis describes studies on the empowerment of Dutch chemis

  5. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Brietzke, Aline P.; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0−1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18–65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  6. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  7. DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING SELF-REGULATING SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE THEORY OF CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Svetlana Sergeevna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation in construction is characterized by a number of essential disadvantages, which reduce its efficiency. The authors justify scientific and methodological base of self-regulation, which includes the elements of the theory of change and self-organization. Introduction of self-regulation is considered as organizational and economical change, the life cycle of which is an implementation process of the projects of change. According to the lifecycle, key problem zones of self-regulation process are determined and a number of required economical and institutional changes are offered.

  8. Individual Differences in the Development of Self-Regulation during Pre-Adolescence: Connections to Context and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to…

  9. Individual Differences in the Development of Self-Regulation during Pre-Adolescence: Connections to Context and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to…

  10. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF OPTIMAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF CREDIT COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra OSADETS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presented scientific practical research we considered and explored the role and problems of state regulation and supervision of the financial sector of Ukraine, in particular of credit unions because they are inalienable participants in the financial market. In current conditions that have been established during the inancial crisis, one of the most urgent problems is the effective functioning of the regulation and supervision of the financial sector. The crisis that negatively affected the activities of financial sector participants discovered the discrepancy of regulation and supervision of them, which caused the negative trend of development of financial market of Ukraine, as evidenced by official data of the National Commission, which performs state regulation in the sphere of financial services. In the presented scientific practical research we identified the strengths and weaknesses of the modern system of state regulation and supervision in the financial sector of Ukraine, particularly in the sector of credit cooperation, and we formed suggestions on improving its model in the context of the concentration of regulatory and supervisory efforts in state financial regulators

  11. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF OPTIMAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF CREDIT COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra OSADETS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presented scientific practical research we considered and explored the role and problems of state regulation and supervision of the financial sector of Ukraine, in particular of credit unions because they are inalienable participants in the financial market. In current conditions that have been established during the financial crisis, one of the most urgent problems is the effective functioning of the regulation and supervision of the financial sector. The crisis that negatively affected the activities of financial sector participants discovered the discrepancy of regulation and supervision of them, which caused the negative trend of development of financial market of Ukraine, as evidenced by official data of the National Commission, which performs state regulation in the sphere of financial services. In the presented scientific practical research we identified the strengths and weaknesses of the modern system of state regulation and supervision in the financial sector of Ukraine, particularly in the sector of credit cooperation, and we formed suggestions on improving its model in the context of the concentration of regulatory and supervisory efforts in state financial regulators.

  12. The concept of shalōm as a constructive bereavement healing framework within a pluralist health seeking context of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of health, that is, sickness in Africa is viewed in personalistic terms. A disease is explained as effected by ‘the active purposeful intervention of an agent, who may be human’, non-human (a ghost, an ancestor, an ‘evil spirit, or supernatural (a deity or other very powerful being’ (Foster. Illness is thus attributed to breaking of taboos, offending God and/ or ancestral spirits; witchcraft, sorcery, the evil eye, passion by an evil spirit and a curse from parents or from an offended neighbour. In view of these personalistic theories of ill health, treatment is through ritual purification, exorcism or sacrifices. For an appropriate diagnosis and intervention, it is imperative to determine ‘who’ caused the illness and then ‘why’ it was caused, to which answers are offered through divination by a healer. This interpretive framework, is applicable to all types of sickness, facilitates co-existence of African traditional healing and biomedical treatment, that is, plurality of health seeking practices. The approach fails to offer a constructive approach and contradicts the biblical healing framework whereby one may not have explanatory causes to a situation of ill health. This article engaged the biblical concept of shalōm as a relevant constructive framework. The Hebrew concept of shalōm, though distinctly salvific, is inclusive of holistic and personalistic healing aspects. The concept encompasses constructive aspects of completeness, wholeness, health, peace, welfare, safety, soundness, tranquillity, prosperity, perfectness, fullness, rest, harmony and the absence of agitation or discord, which provides a useful holistic healing theological framework. It therefore provides a health and well-being framework that is relational, sensitive and applicable to healing patterns in Africa. Using the case study of the Abaluyia people of East Africa, this article discussed bereavement as a state that requires healing and how the

  13. Adapting the coping in deliberation (CODE) framework: A multi-method approach in the context of familial ovarian cancer risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, J.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.; Rogers, M.T.; Menon, U.; Brain, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether the coping in deliberation (CODE) framework can be adapted to a specific preference-sensitive medical decision: risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to

  14. A novel approach to assessing achievement goals in the context of the 2 x 2 framework : Identifying distinct profiles of individuals with different dominant achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2006-01-01

    In two studies, individuals' dominant achievement goals were assessed using a new, simple, and conceptually precise measure based on Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 framework. Next, the four groups were compared in terms of achievement-relevant variables, including need for achievement, perfectio

  15. Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, and Self-Transcendence (S-ART: A Framework for Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Vago

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness - as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness, an ability to effectively modulate one’s behavior (self-regulation, and the development of a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence. This framework of self-awareness, regulation, and transcendence (S-ART illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.

  16. Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R; Silbersweig, David A

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness), an ability to effectively modulate one's behavior (self-regulation), and a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence). This framework of self-awareness, -regulation, and -transcendence (S-ART) illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove) distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted as supporting mechanisms for S-ART, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment, and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.

  17. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  18. The Customs Regulation of Export-Import Operations in the Context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problems of reforming the customs regulation of export-import operations in the context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU. Both the goods and the territorial structures of Ukraine’s export-import activities with the EU Member States were analyzed. Trends in the cooperation of the foreign economic actors in the Lviv region with the EU counterparts were explored. The key activities carried out in Ukraine in the sphere of customs regulation in the context of implementation of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU have been outlined and characterized, in particular: administration of tariff quotas, issuance of certificates by the customs authorities for the transport of EUR 1 goods, granting of the status of authorized exporter to economic entities, launching of an automated system of customs services «One-stop window», transition to electronic declaration, etc. The results, problematic issues and benefits of implementing the above activities in the sphere of customs regulation of the export-import activities of enterprises have been characterized.

  19. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rilov

    Full Text Available Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat. Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  20. The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to partition the space of morality have focused on the descriptive content of distinct moral domains (e.g., harm versus purity), or alternatively, the relationship between the perpetrator and victim of moral violations. Across three studies, we demonstrate that harm and purity norms are relevant in distinct relational contexts. Moral judgments of purity violations, compared to harm violations, are relatively more sensitive to the negative impact perpetrators have on themselves versus other victims (Study 1). This pattern replicates across a wide array of harm and purity violations varying in severity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, while perceptions of harm predict moral judgment consistently across relational contexts, perceptions of purity predict moral judgment more for self-directed actions, where perpetrators violate themselves, compared to dyadic actions, where perpetrators violate other victims (Study 3). Together, these studies reveal how an action's content and its relational context interact to influence moral judgment, providing novel insights into the adaptive functions of harm and purity norms.

  1. Using the Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model (CIPP) as a Comprehensive Framework to Guide the Planning, Implementation, and Assessment of Service-Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guili; Zeller, Nancy; Griffith, Robin; Metcalf, Debbie; Williams, Jennifer; Shea, Christine; Misulis, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Planning, implementing, and assessing a service-learning project can be a complex task because service-learning projects often involve multiple constituencies and aim to meet both the needs of service providers and community partners. In this article, Stufflebeam's Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) evaluation model is recommended as a…

  2. Learning Race in a U.S. Context: An Emergent Framework on the Perceptions of Race among Foreign-Born Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries-Britt, Sharon; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.; Peralta, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    Foreign-born students of color arrive in the United States with racial and cultural orientations specific to their country of origin, which are often quite distinct from issues of race and racism within the U.S. context. This qualitative study examines the college experiences of 15 foreign-born students of color to address the research question:…

  3. Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: connections to context and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Lengua, Liliana J; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8-12 year-olds (T1 M = 9.5, SD = 1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence.

  4. Mobile Context Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  5. Proposal of a tiered conceptual framework for sustainable design and planning of large-scale development projects in the metropolitan context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, J., Email: John.morrissey@rmit.edu.au [RMIT, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Centre for Design; Iyer-Raniga, U.; McLaughlin, P.; Mills, A.

    2010-07-01

    The overwhelming threat posed by climate change means that increasingly, emphasis is being placed on the need to integrate sustainability considerations into all areas of policy making, planning and development. Actors in the built environment are progressively considering environmental and social issues alongside functional and economic aspects of development projects. However, to date in Australia and internationally, there have been few practical examples of integrated applications of sustainability principles in the built environment across design, planning, construction, operation and de-construction phases. Notable initiatives have tended to be narrow in scope, focusing on either mitigation or adaptation strategies. Integrated considerations of impacts from component and building scales to city and regional scales and across physical and socio-economic dimensions are urgently needed, particularly for long-life major infrastructure projects. This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on the principal that early intervention is the most cost-effective and efficient means of implementing effective strategies for mitigation and adaptation. A Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approach is forwarded as an umbrella analytical framework, assembled from analytical methods which are strategically 'tiered' to inform different stages of the planning and decision-making process. Techniques such as Ecological footprint, Life cycle costing and Risk analysis may be applied to integrate sustainable design, construction and planning considerations which address both mitigation and adaptation dimensions, results of each analysis ultimately being collated into the overall SEA. This integrated conceptual framework for sustainable, resilient and cost-effective infrastructure development will in practice be applied to assess selected case-studies of major development projects in Australia, focusing on the area of stadium development. Practically applied and

  6. Bone remodeling in the context of cellular and systemic regulation: the role of osteocytes and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Tadeusz; Filipowska, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes constant remodeling. The appropriate course of this process determines development and regeneration of the skeleton. Tight molecular control of bone remodeling is vital for the maintenance of appropriate physiology and microarchitecture of the bone, providing homeostasis, also at the systemic level. The process of remodeling is regulated by a rich innervation of the skeleton, being the source of various growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones regulating function of the bone. Although the course of bone remodeling at the cellular level is mainly associated with the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, recently also osteocytes have gained a growing interest as the principal regulators of bone turnover. Osteocytes play a significant role in the regulation of osteogenesis, releasing sclerostin (SOST), an inhibitor of bone formation. The process of bone turnover, especially osteogenesis, is also modulated by extra-skeletal molecules. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts are promoted by the brain-derived serotonin and hypothetically inhibited by its intestinal equivalent. The activity of SOST and serotonin is either directly or indirectly associated with the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the main regulatory pathway of osteoblasts function. The impairment of bone remodeling may lead to many skeletal diseases, such as high bone mass syndrome or osteoporosis. In this paper, we review the most recent data on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling control, with particular emphasis on the role of osteocytes and the nervous system in this process.

  7. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  8. Assessing Self-Regulation as a Cyclical, Context-Specific Phenomenon: Overview and Analysis of SRL Microanalytic Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Cleary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to review relevant research related to the use of an assessment technique, called Self-Regulated Learning (SRL Microanalysis. This structured interview is grounded in social-cognitive theory and research and thus seeks to evaluate students' regulatory processes as they engage in well-defined academic or nonacademic tasks and activities. We illustrate the essential features of this contextualized assessment approach and detail a simple five-step process that researchers can use to apply this approach to their work. Example questions and administration procedures for five key self-regulation subprocesses (i.e., including goal-setting, strategic planning, monitoring, self-evaluation, and attributions are highlighted, with particular emphasis placed on causal attributions. The psychometric properties of SRL microanalytic assessment protocols and potential areas of future research are presented.

  9. Performance monitoring and the medial prefrontal cortex: A review of individual differences and context effects as a window on self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefon evan Noordt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC is central to self-regulation and has been implicated in generating a cluster of event-related potential components, collectively referred to as medial frontal negativities (MFNs. These MFNs are elicited while individuals monitor behavioural and environmental consequences, and include the error-related negativity, Nogo N2, and the feedback-related negativity. A growing cognitive and affective neuroscience literature indicates that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and surrounding medial prefrontal regions during performance monitoring is not only influenced by task context, but that these patterns of activity also vary as a function of individual differences (e.g., personality, temperament, clinical and non-clinical symptomatology, socio-political orientation, and genetic polymorphisms, as well as interactions between individual differences and task context. In this review we survey the neuroscience literature on the relations between performance monitoring, personality, task context, and brain functioning with a focus on the MPFC. We relate these issues to the role of affect in the paradigms used to elicit performance-monitoring neural responses and highlight some of the theoretical and clinical implications of this research. We conclude with a discussion of the complexity of these issues and how some of the basic assumptions required for their interpretation may be clarified with future research.

  10. Plata serviciilor ecosistemice: context legal și metode consacrate de evaluare, cu aplicație la păduri [Payments for ecosystem services: legal framework and classical evaluation methods, with an applications to forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgoi M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to present the most important problems raised by ecosystem services evaluation, together with the juridical framework needed for endorsing a long run system of payments. In Romania the legal framework wherein the payments for ecosystem services shall be implemented has been created by the all three Forest Acts adopted by the Parliament since 1996 and the article highlights the pitfalls of the legal provisions referring to these payments. The key-word of the two law articles referred to by the study is the fair price of the ecosystem services, a price which cannot be captured by the market since such a market doesn’t exist neither in Romania nor in other similar countries. Another important issue we have brought into discussion is the inappropriateness of any system of payments in the context of illegal cuttings, simply because the opportunity costs that shall be compensated doesn’t exist when illegal cuttings occur. Some methodological details are also presented in order to demonstrate that a fair price always depends on the context of evaluation and the statistical imprecision is inherent as long as the any evaluation is carried out on sample of data. However these monetary assessments can be used as economic arguments in any public debate or bargain between ecosystem services providers and users.

  11. The effect of an adaptive online learning support in an undergraduate computer course: An exploration of self-regulation in blended contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Yin

    In accordance with Zimmerman's self-regulated learning model, the proposed online learning tool in the current study was designed to support students in learning a challenging subject. The Self-Check List, Formative Self-Assessment, and Structured Online Discussion served goal-setting, self-monitoring, and self-reflective purposes. The primary aim of the study was to assist students in becoming self-regulated learners. Moreover, this study was intended to investigate whether self-efficacy for learning and performance, metacognitive self-regulation, time and study environment management, and computer self-efficacy were predictive of success in a blended learning context. A quasi-experimental control group design was used for this study. Eighty-nine university students were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Both experimental groups were provided the complete online self-regulated tool, but only one of the groups received the additional teacher feedback. The control group used only part of the self-regulated online tool. MANCOVA, multiple regression, and one-way ANCOVA were used to answer relevant research questions. The results indicated that self-efficacy for learning and performance as well as time and study environment management significantly related to student academic performance, both together accounting for 21.2% of the variance in student final grades. In addition, students in both experimental groups produced better academic achievements than students in the control group, but no significant difference in student academic achievement was found between the two experimental groups. The findings in this study confirmed that the complete self-regulated learning cycle has a greater potential for scaffolding students effectively. Although the computer trace data were not used to answer any research questions, they provided further information for understanding how students deployed their self-regulatory behaviors in the course of

  12. An Analysis of Internal Environment of a Commercial-oriented Research Organization: Using Mckinsey 7S Framework in a Ghanaian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus Francis Gyepi-Garbrah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest research organization in Ghana has of part of its mandate to raise internally generated funds through the commercialization of research products and services in order to supplement government’s budgetary allocation. How could its internal structures, vision and mission be strategically aligned for effective commercialization performance? The study utilizes the McKinsey 7 S Framework which is an analytical tool used to help in a variety of situations, including how to improve the performance of a company, and determine how best to implement a proposed strategy. Finally, the study makes some strategic recommendations for consideration by policy makers within the public sector.

  13. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  14. The Interplay of Chromatin Landscape and DNA-Binding Context Suggests Distinct Modes of EIN3 Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanskaya, Elena V.; Levitsky, Victor G.; Oshchepkov, Dmitry Y.; Grosse, Ivo; Mironova, Victoria V.

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates numerous developmental processes and stress responses. Ethylene signaling proceeds via a linear pathway, which activates transcription factor (TF) EIN3, a primary transcriptional regulator of ethylene response. EIN3 influences gene expression upon binding to a specific sequence in gene promoters. This interaction, however, might be considerably affected by additional co-factors. In this work, we perform whole genome bioinformatics study to identify the impact of epigenetic factors in EIN3 functioning. The analysis of publicly available ChIP-Seq data on EIN3 binding in Arabidopsis thaliana showed bimodality of distribution of EIN3 binding regions (EBRs) in gene promoters. Besides a sharp peak in close proximity to transcription start site, which is a common binding region for a wide variety of TFs, we found an additional extended peak in the distal promoter region. We characterized all EBRs with respect to the epigenetic status appealing to previously published genome-wide map of nine chromatin states in A. thaliana. We found that the implicit distal peak was associated with a specific chromatin state (referred to as chromatin state 4 in the primary source), which was just poorly represented in the pronounced proximal peak. Intriguingly, EBRs corresponding to this chromatin state 4 were significantly associated with ethylene response, unlike the others representing the overwhelming majority of EBRs related to the explicit proximal peak. Moreover, we found that specific EIN3 binding sequences predicted with previously described model were enriched in the EBRs mapped to the chromatin state 4, but not to the rest ones. These results allow us to conclude that the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors might cause the distinct modes of EIN3 regulation. PMID:28119721

  15. Regulating the for-profit private healthcare providers towards universal health coverage: A qualitative study of legal and organizational framework in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Narula, Indermohan S; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter S

    2017-05-29

    Regulating the behavior of private providers in the context of mixed health systems has become increasingly important and challenging in many developing countries moving towards universal health coverage including Mongolia. This study examines the current regulatory architecture for private healthcare in Mongolia exploring its role for improving accessibility, affordability, and quality of private care and identifies gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were used including documentary review, analysis, and in-depth interviews with 45 representatives of key actors involved in and affected by regulations in Mongolia's mixed health system, along with long-term participant observation. There has been extensive legal documentation developed regulating private healthcare, with specific organizations assigned to conduct health regulations and inspections. However, the regulatory architecture for healthcare in Mongolia is not optimally designed to improve affordability and quality of private care. This is not limited only to private care: important regulatory functions targeted to quality of care do not exist at the national level. The imprecise content and details of regulations in laws inviting increased political interference, governance issues, unclear roles, and responsibilities of different government regulatory bodies have contributed to failures in implementation of existing regulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making.

  17. Statement on a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU No 257/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS provides a scientific statement presenting a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU No 257/2010. This framework will be used in the evaluation made by the Panel, but the expert judgement of the scientific background, on a case-by-case basis, remains essential to reach a final conclusion. The outcome of the re-evaluation of food additives taking into account all available information is presented in the document, as well as the exposure assessment scenarios to be carried out by the Panel considering the use levels set in the legislation and the availability of adequate usage or analytical data.

  18. Context in place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework - i.e. a vocabulary - for understanding the importance of integrating context in analyses of guidance practices. The paper delineates a conceptual landscape of context based on social practice and interactional theories on context. We...... specifically argue for a more grounded approach to the conception of context - a topographic approach - in which the physical setting - i.e. 'the place' becomes an inevitable part of analyses of guidance practices in order to understand participants' sense-making processes. In the paper we draw on two case...

  19. Epigenetic histone modifications and master regulators as determinants of context dependent nuclear receptor activity in bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, J Wesley; Meyer, Mark B; St John, Hillary C; Benkusky, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Genomic annotation of unique and combinatorial epigenetic modifications along with transcription factor occupancy is having a profound impact on our understanding of the genome. These studies have led to a better appreciation of the dynamic nature of the epigenetic and transcription factor binding components that reveal overarching principles of the genome as well as tissue specificity. In this minireview, we discuss the presence and potential functions of several of these features across the genome in osteoblast lineage cells. We examine how these features are modulated during cellular maturation, affect transcriptional output and phenotype, and how they alter the ability of cells to respond to systemic signals directed by calcemic hormones such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and PTH. In particular, we describe recent experiments which indicate that progressive stages of bone cell differentiation affect RUNX2 binding to the genome, modify and restrict patterns of gene expression, and dramatically alter cellular response to the vitamin D hormone. These studies expand our understanding of mechanisms that govern steroid hormone regulation of gene expression, while highlighting the increasing complexity that is evident relative to these basic cellular processes. The results also have profound implications with respect to the impact of skeletal diseases on transcriptional outcomes as well. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Epigenetics and Bone.

  20. Structure-guided mutational analysis of gene regulation by the Bacillus subtilis pbuE adenine-responsive riboswitch in a cellular context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Velázquez, Joan G; Batey, Robert T

    2015-02-13

    Riboswitches are a broadly distributed form of RNA-based gene regulation in Bacteria and, more rarely, Archaea and Eukarya. Most often found in the 5'-leader sequence of bacterial mRNAs, they are generally composed of two functional domains: a receptor (aptamer) domain that binds an effector molecule and a regulatory domain (or expression platform) that instructs the expression machinery. One of the most studied riboswitches is the Bacillus subtilis adenine-responsive pbuE riboswitch, which regulates gene expression at the transcriptional level, up-regulating expression in response to increased intracellular effector concentrations. In this work, we analyzed sequence and structural elements that contribute to efficient ligand-dependent regulatory activity in a co-transcriptional and cellular context. Unexpectedly, we found that the P1 helix, which acts as the antitermination element of the switch in this RNA, supported ligand-dependent activation of a reporter gene over a broad spectrum of lengths from 3 to 10 bp. This same trend was also observed using a minimal in vitro single-turnover transcription assay, revealing that this behavior is intrinsic to the RNA sequence. We also found that the sequences at the distal tip of the terminator not directly involved in alternative secondary structure formation are highly important for efficient regulation. These data strongly support a model in which the switch is highly localized to the P1 helix adjacent to the ligand-binding pocket that likely presents a local kinetic block to invasion of the aptamer by the terminator.

  1. Site-specific water quality guidelines: 2. Development of a water quality regulation framework for pulse exposures of mine water discharges at a uranium mine in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A; Tayler, K; van Dam, R; Hogan, A

    2014-01-01

    The Ranger Uranium Mine, in northern Australia, is monitored by the Supervising Scientist Division (SSD) of the Australian Government to ensure that it does not impact on the highly valued aquatic ecosystems of Kakadu National Park. In 2010, the SSD adopted the continuous monitoring of electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity, in combination with event-triggered automated grab samples, as its primary water quality monitoring method. The continuous monitoring of EC has shown that mine discharges typically occur over short-term 'pulse' durations of minutes to hours. Given that magnesium (Mg) is the most likely mine-derived solute to approach or exceed the applicable water quality limit value, the focus has been on developing a pulse exposure assessment framework for Mg, as represented by its proxy EC, which is tracked by the continuous monitoring system. This study presents a possible ecotoxicologically derived Mg pulse exposure limit and trigger regulation framework for Magela and Gulungul Creeks and an assessment of historic continuous monitoring EC data from these creeks. This framework demonstrates potential to supersede the current EC guideline and associated trigger levels, which are statistically derived from historic grab sample data.

  2. Bridging the gap between modules in isolation and as part of networks: A systems framework for elucidating interaction and regulation of signalling modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Govind; Krishnan, J

    2016-07-21

    While signalling and biochemical modules have been the focus of numerous studies, they are typically studied in isolation, with no examination of the effects of the ambient network. In this paper we formulate and develop a systems framework, rooted in dynamical systems, to understand such effects, by studying the interaction of signalling modules. The modules we consider are (i) basic covalent modification, (ii) monostable switches, (iii) bistable switches, (iv) adaptive modules, and (v) oscillatory modules. We systematically examine the interaction of these modules by analyzing (a) sequential interaction without shared components, (b) sequential interaction with shared components, and (c) oblique interactions. Our studies reveal that the behaviour of a module in isolation may be substantially different from that in a network, and explicitly demonstrate how the behaviour of a given module, the characteristics of the ambient network, and the possibility of shared components can result in new effects. Our global approach illuminates different aspects of the structure and functioning of modules, revealing the importance of dynamical characteristics as well as biochemical features; this provides a methodological platform for investigating the complexity of natural modules shaped by evolution, elucidating the effects of ambient networks on a module in multiple cellular contexts, and highlighting the capabilities and constraints for engineering robust synthetic modules. Overall, such a systems framework provides a platform for bridging the gap between non-linear information processing modules, in isolation and as parts of networks, and a basis for understanding new aspects of natural and engineered cellular networks.

  3. Bridging the gap between modules in isolation and as part of networks: A systems framework for elucidating interaction and regulation of signalling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Govind; Krishnan, J.

    2016-07-01

    While signalling and biochemical modules have been the focus of numerous studies, they are typically studied in isolation, with no examination of the effects of the ambient network. In this paper we formulate and develop a systems framework, rooted in dynamical systems, to understand such effects, by studying the interaction of signalling modules. The modules we consider are (i) basic covalent modification, (ii) monostable switches, (iii) bistable switches, (iv) adaptive modules, and (v) oscillatory modules. We systematically examine the interaction of these modules by analyzing (a) sequential interaction without shared components, (b) sequential interaction with shared components, and (c) oblique interactions. Our studies reveal that the behaviour of a module in isolation may be substantially different from that in a network, and explicitly demonstrate how the behaviour of a given module, the characteristics of the ambient network, and the possibility of shared components can result in new effects. Our global approach illuminates different aspects of the structure and functioning of modules, revealing the importance of dynamical characteristics as well as biochemical features; this provides a methodological platform for investigating the complexity of natural modules shaped by evolution, elucidating the effects of ambient networks on a module in multiple cellular contexts, and highlighting the capabilities and constraints for engineering robust synthetic modules. Overall, such a systems framework provides a platform for bridging the gap between non-linear information processing modules, in isolation and as parts of networks, and a basis for understanding new aspects of natural and engineered cellular networks.

  4. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  5. The Last Habitual Residence of the Deceased as the Principal Connecting Factor in the Context of the Succession Regulation (650/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atallah Max

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to gather information about the last habitual residence (LHR of the deceased in the context of the upcoming EU Succession Regulation. In addition, the aim was to analyze the adequacy of the legally undefined LHR as the principal connecting factor in cross-border succession within the EU. This study was carried out as a part of a bachelor thesis conducted on the same subject. The data were collected from relevant jurisprudence, international law, national acts, the EU published materials and case law. These results suggest that the legally undefined LHR is an unstable connecting factor for the purposes of the Succession Regulation, since it cannot guarantee sufficient legal certainty, and hence, the EU citizens are not able to fully utilize their right to free movement. The findings indicate that there might be a need to amend a legal definition for the LHR, not only for the EU Member States to be able to apply the concept in an harmonized way, but also for the EU citizens to know whether they are considered habitually resident in a state or not.

  6. The Effect of Mindfulness on Stress in Mothers of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Emotion Regulation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Caitlin Mary

    2013-01-01

    Parents, especially mothers, of a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience higher levels of stress, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as mindfulness and acceptance, may decrease stress among parents of children with ASD. Research has shown that mindfulness-based interventions reduce perceived stress among parents of typically developing children and improve the parent-child relationship, and similar interventions may be helpful for mothers of c...

  7. Comment on ‘An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Magee, Darrin

    2017-03-01

    In their article ‘An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales’ (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 015001), Grill et al utilized a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales. Using global dam data they developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, both based on river volume. Their results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in their future scenario, Grill et al find this number would rise to 93%, an effect they attribute largely to dam construction in the Amazon Basin. They also provide evidence for the importance of considering small- to medium-sized dams. We find this approach interesting and the analysis straightforward, but in this response note some limitations to the Asia-specific data on which the analysis is based. China and India are not only the two most populous countries, but are home to the vast majority of the world’s largest dams and reservoirs, numbers which will rapidly increase in the future. Grill et al however, limit their modeling and subsequent basin assessment (flow regulation and river fragmentation) to less than ten percent of existing and forthcoming dams in those two countries. While we suspect this is due to data limitations, it results in what we feel are significant misinterpretations of the future of dams and rivers across much of Asia.

  8. Regulation of the monopoly operation based on income framework. A description of background, principles, rules, and special problem areas; Regulering av energiverkenes monopolvirksomhet basert paa inntektsrammer. En beskrivelse av bakgrunn, prinsipper, regelverk, spesielle problemomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasto, Ketil

    1997-05-02

    Until 1997, Norwegian electric utilities determined the transfer tariffs so as to fully cover their costs. Since 1993, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) has determined an annual maximum yield rate that in principle could only be attained through efficient operation of the grid. According to this report, it has been hard to follow up this principle and network owners have been able to charge maximum yield rates. To remedy some inherent weaknesses of a regulation based on cost coverage, NVE has changed the rules to be based on the income framework determined for each network owner individually. The actual costs no longer determine the tariffs. The network owners must now give preference to measures and costs within the determined income framework. Cost reductions and efficiency improvements are rewarded with increased yield while increased costs give reduced yield. For a rational network owner this provides an incentive for increased efficiency. NVE will change the income framework each year in the five-year period 1997-2001 in relation to inflation, development of energy delivered and the requirements on improved efficiency. This system is expected to contribute to a rational network development which will better attend to the uppermost interests of society

  9. The acute phase reactant orosomucoid-1 is a bimodal regulator of angiogenesis with time- and context-dependent inhibitory and stimulatory properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ligresti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissues respond to injury by releasing acute phase reaction (APR proteins which regulate inflammation and angiogenesis. Among the genes upregulated in wounded tissues are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα and the acute phase reactant orosomucoid-1 (ORM1. ORM1 has been shown to modulate the response of immune cells to TNFα, but its role on injury- and TNFα-induced angiogenesis has not been investigated. This study was designed to characterize the role of ORM1 in the angiogenic response to injury and TNFα. METHODS AND RESULTS: Angiogenesis was studied with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo angiogenesis assays. Injured rat aortic rings cultured in collagen gels produced an angiogenic response driven by macrophage-derived TNFα. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR showed that TNFα and ORM1 were upregulated prior to angiogenic sprouting. Exogenous ORM1 delayed the angiogenic response to injury and inhibited the proangiogenic effect of TNFα in cultures of aortic rings or isolated endothelial cells, but stimulated aortic angiogenesis over time while promoting VEGF production and activity. ORM1 inhibited injury- and TNFα-induced phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and p38 MAPK in aortic rings, but not of NFκB. This effect was injury/TNFα-specific since ORM1 did not inhibit VEGF-induced signaling, and cell-specific since ORM1 inhibited TNFα-induced phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and p38 MAPK in macrophages and endothelial cells, but not mural cells. Experiments with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the MEK/ERK pathway was required for angiogenesis. ORM1 inhibited angiogenesis in a subcutaneous in vivo assay of aortic ring-induced angiogenesis, but stimulated developmental angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. CONCLUSION: ORM1 regulates injury-induced angiogenesis in a time- and context-dependent manner by sequentially dampening the initial TNFα-induced angiogenic response and promoting the downstream stimulation of the angiogenic

  10. Allocation of Capacitors and Voltage Regulators in Unbalanced Distribution Systems: A Multi-objective Problem in Probabilistic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinelli, Guido; Noce, Christian; Russo, Angela; Varilone, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Capacitors and series voltage regulators are used extensively in distribution systems to reduce power losses and improve the voltage profile along the feeders. This paper deals with the problem of contemporaneously choosing optimal locations and sizes for both capacitors and series voltage regulators in three-phase, unbalanced distribution systems. This is a mixed, non-linear, constrained, multi-objective optimization problem that usually is solved in deterministic scenarios. However, distribution systems are stochastic in nature, which can lead to inaccurate deterministic solutions. To take into account the unavoidable uncertainties that affect the input data related to the problem, in this paper, we have formulated and solved the multi-objective optimization problem in probabilistic scenarios. To address the multi-objective optimization problem, algorithms were used in which all the objective functions were combined to form a single function. These algorithms allow us to transform the original multi-objective optimization problem into an equivalent, single-objective, optimization problem, an approach that appeared to be particularly suitable since computational time was an important issue. To further reduce the computational efforts, a linearized form of the equality constraints of the optimization model was used, and a micro-genetic algorithm-based procedure was applied in the solution method.

  11. Decreasing the mitochondrial synthesis of malate in potato tubers does not affect plastidial starch synthesis, suggesting that the physiological regulation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is context dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecowka, Marek; Osorio, Sonia; Obata, Toshihiro; Araújo, Wagner L; Rohrmann, Johannes; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-12-01

    Modulation of the malate content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit by altering the expression of mitochondrially localized enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle resulted in enhanced transitory starch accumulation and subsequent effects on postharvest fruit physiology. In this study, we assessed whether such a manipulation would similarly affect starch biosynthesis in an organ that displays a linear, as opposed to a transient, kinetic of starch accumulation. For this purpose, we used RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of fumarase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the tuber-specific B33 promoter. Despite displaying similar reductions in both fumarase activity and malate content as observed in tomato fruit expressing the same construct, the resultant transformants were neither characterized by an increased flux to, or accumulation of, starch, nor by alteration in yield parameters. Since the effect in tomato was mechanistically linked to derepression of the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, we evaluated whether the lack of effect on starch biosynthesis was due to differences in enzymatic properties of the enzyme from potato and tomato or rather due to differential subcellular compartmentation of reductant in the different organs. The results are discussed in the context both of current models of metabolic compartmentation and engineering.

  12. A Framework for Context-aware Trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogorny, V.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent advances in technologies for mobile devices, like GPS and mobile phones, are generating large amounts of a new kind of data: trajectories of moving objects. These data are normally available as sample points, with very little or no semantics. Trajectory data can be used in a variety of ap

  13. 无缝学习中基于情境的内容适应性架构研究%Research of context-oriented adaptive content framework in seamless learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲秋雁; 刘晓东; 季少波

    2013-01-01

    The biggest difference between Seamless Learning and traditional E-learning is from the change of context which is brought by mobility. Therefore context adaptation seems especially important to Seamless Learning. This paper presents a framework to describe the factors that play an important role in delivering learning content to mobile learners, and their relationship to each other. In this model,the necessany information of delivering leavming context is obtained by automatic collection or the input mode of the learners. The system constructs learner models by processing personalized information, reorganizes learning materials with adaptation labels or learning units, and generates learning content according to individual learner model so as to meet the specific personal needs.%无缝学习(Seamless Learning)与传统E-learning的最大不同来自其移动性所带来的情境的变化,因此情境的适应性对移动学习显得尤其重要.提出了一个理论模型,用来描述移动学习者与学习内容的交互过程中起重要作用的因素以及它们之间的关系.在这个模型中,移动学习情境的必要信息通过自动采集,或者通过学习者输入的方式获取,系统通过对这些个性化信息的处理,构建一个学习者模型,依据学习者模型对经过适应性标记的学习素材或学习单元进行重组织,生成适应当前情境中特定用户个性需求的学习内容,并以适当的格式和表现形式呈现给学习者.

  14. An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Günther; Lehner, Bernhard; Lumsdon, Alexander E.; MacDonald, Graham K.; Zarfl, Christiane; Reidy Liermann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The global number of dam constructions has increased dramatically over the past six decades and is forecast to continue to rise, particularly in less industrialized regions. Identifying development pathways that can deliver the benefits of new infrastructure while also maintaining healthy and productive river systems is a great challenge that requires understanding the multifaceted impacts of dams at a range of scales. New approaches and advanced methodologies are needed to improve predictions of how future dam construction will affect biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and fluvial geomorphology worldwide, helping to frame a global strategy to achieve sustainable dam development. Here, we respond to this need by applying a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales using data at high spatial resolution. We calculated the cumulative impact of a set of 6374 large existing dams and 3377 planned or proposed dams on river connectivity and river flow at basin and subbasin scales by fusing two novel indicators to create a holistic dam impact matrix for the period 1930-2030. Static network descriptors such as basin area or channel length are of limited use in hierarchically nested and dynamic river systems, so we developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, which are based on river volume. These indicators are less sensitive to the effects of network configuration, offering increased comparability among studies with disparate hydrographies as well as across scales. Our results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in our future scenario, this number would nearly double to 93%, largely due to major dam construction in the Amazon Basin. We provide evidence for the importance of considering small to medium sized

  15. Reverse logistics - a framework

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Dekker, Rommert

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of products, processes and actors. In addition we provide a decision framework for Reverse Logistics and we present it according to long, medium and short term decisions, i.e. strategic-tactic-operational decis...

  16. Oxytocin Signaling in Basolateral and Central Amygdala Nuclei Differentially Regulates the Acquisition, Expression, and Extinction of Context-Conditioned Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the…

  17. Oxytocin Signaling in Basolateral and Central Amygdala Nuclei Differentially Regulates the Acquisition, Expression, and Extinction of Context-Conditioned Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the…

  18. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework - A proposal based on studies of building cases, regulations, standards and research in seven Nordic and Baltic countries. CREDIT Report 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Haugbølle, Kim; Huovila, Pekka; Hansson, Bengt; Karud, Ole Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    This CREDIT Report 3 'CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework' presents a framework of building costs, performance and impact indicators. The framework is an endeavor to map and communicate many and differing approaches and perspectives on building and real estate in one model. The general and specific objectives of the research on the performance indicator framework were to: – Improve transparent value creation in both construction and real estate. – Develop an internat...

  19. Use of a vehicle-modelling tool for predicting CO 2 emissions in the framework of European regulations for light goods vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Kouridis, Hariton; Samaras, Zissis; Elst, Daniel; Gense, Raymond

    The reduction of CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption from road transportation constitutes an important pillar of the EU commitment for implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Efforts to monitor and limit CO 2 emissions from vehicles can effectively be supported by the use of vehicle modelling tools. This paper presents the application of such a tool for predicting CO 2 emissions of vehicles under different operating conditions and shows how the results from simulations can be used for supporting policy analysis and design aiming at further reductions of the CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, the case of light duty goods (N1 category) vehicle CO 2 emissions control measures adopted by the EU is analysed. In order to understand how certain design and operating aspects affect fuel consumption, a number of N1 vehicles were simulated with ADVISOR for various operating conditions and the numerical results were validated against chassis dynamometer tests. The model was then employed for analysing and evaluating the new EU legislative framework that addresses CO 2 emissions from this vehicle class. The results of this analysis have shown the weaknesses of the current regulations and revealed new potential in CO 2 emissions control. Finally the TREMOVE model was used for simulating a possible scenario for reducing CO 2 emissions at fleet level.

  20. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  1. Danish Technology Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Jørgensen, Tom Rydahl

    This report investigates the occurrence of foundation failures within the context of the Danish construction technology framework. The report comprises a definition/typology section on the basis of which Danish regulatory and administrative procedures in relation to foundation failures are reviewed....

  2. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of product

  3. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  4. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  5. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  6. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  7. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how the context of competencies affects the way we see and value competence and how it thereby forms communication and strategies of action. The paper puts forward the view that the context of competence is often spoken of in incomprehensible terms and generally taken...... for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  8. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  9. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  10. 食品安全监管的框架分析与细节观察%The Framework Analysis and Detail Observation of Food Safety Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡颖廉

    2011-01-01

    There exists huge difference of food regulatory enforcement among various regions in China, which reduces regulatory performance. Based on institutional autonomy theory, this article establishes an analytical framework of the determining factors of food regulatory enforcement. After introducing variable index system, OLS regression is used to test hypotheses, conclusions are followed: food regulator must pay more attention to safety issues and be more responsive to rural consumer demands; it's important to balance safety and industrial development; central government should play a more active role; improvement of enforcement effectiveness is urgent.%现阶段我国各地区食品安全监管执法力度存在巨大差异,不利于提高食品安全保障水平。以机构自主性为理论视角,选取食品生产加工环节,构建中国食品安全监管执法力度影响因素的分析框架,引入符合国情的操作交量,运用OLS回归来验证假设,进而得出结论:监管者应全面且持久地关注食品安全,农村消费者诉求需得到更多回应,正确处理安全监管与产业发展的关系,中央政府应发挥更积极作用,监管执法效率亟待提高。

  11. Theory Framework Building of Instructional Interaction in Connectivist Learning Context%联通主义学习的教学交互理论模型建构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志军; 陈丽

    2015-01-01

    联通主义学习理论是深入认识开放网络时代在线学习规律的前瞻性理论。教学交互是联通主义学习的核心与取得成功的关键。为了构建联通主义学习理论与实践之间的桥梁,帮助研究者和实践者认清联通主义学习中教学交互的特征与规律,建构对实践具有解释力和指导力的理论,本研究遵循解释主义的研究范式,采用应用学科的系统理论模型建构法,依照从理论到研究的研究策略,建构了基于认知参与度的联通主义学习教学交互分层模型。根据认知参与度从浅入深,该模型将联通主义学习的教学交互分为操作交互、寻径交互、意会交互和创生交互四层,寻径交互包括与人的联通和与信息的联通,意会交互包括聚合与分享、讨论与协商、反思与总结、决策制定,创生交互包括制品创建和重新合成。四类交互是一个网络化而非线性化的,表现出很强的递归性。较低层交互是更高层交互的基础,高层次交互的开展扩展了低层次交互的需求。联通主义学习是四类交互作用下螺旋式的知识创新和网络扩展与优化的过程。%Connectivism is a prospective learning theory in the open networked online learning era. Instructional inter-action is the core and key to the success of connectivisist learning. In order to build a bridge to link learning theory and practice, and to help researchers and practitioners recognize the characteristics and principles of instructional inter-action in connectivist learning and to provide a power and guidance theoretical explanatory for practice as well, this study build a framework for instructional interaction in connectivist learning contexts based on cognitive engagement. Following the interpretation paradigm, the framework building process used theory building method in applying sci-ence with theory to practice strategy. Based on cognitive engagement

  12. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  13. Dicyanometallates as Model Extended Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report the structures of eight new dicyanometallate frameworks containing molecular extra-framework cations. These systems include a number of hybrid inorganic–organic analogues of conventional ceramics, such as Ruddlesden–Popper phases and perovskites. The structure types adopted are rationalized in the broader context of all known dicyanometallate framework structures. We show that the structural diversity of this family can be understood in terms of (i) the charge and coordination preferences of the particular metal cation acting as framework node, and (ii) the size, shape, and extent of incorporation of extra-framework cations. In this way, we suggest that dicyanometallates form a particularly attractive model family of extended frameworks in which to explore the interplay between molecular degrees of freedom, framework topology, and supramolecular interactions. PMID:27057759

  14. Challeng es for context manag ement s ystems imposed by context inference

    OpenAIRE

    Korbinian Frank; Nikos Kalatzis; Ioanna Roussaki; Nicolas Liampotis

    2009-01-01

    This work gives an overview over the challenges for context management systems in Ubiquitous Computing frameworks or Personal Smart Spaces. Focused on the integration of context inference in today’s context management systems (CMSs) we address important design decisions for future frameworks. The inference system we have in mind is probabilistic and relies on the concept of Bayeslets, special inference rules extending Bayesian networks. We show that for inference rule creation, storage, infer...

  15. Collaborative learning situated in the university context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles MARTÍNEZ RUIZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective strategies in teacher education can be based on conceptual change and social constructivism models. From this framework theory, we assume that, in order to improve the succession of the different progressive stages of teachers'conceptual development, social and collaborative strategies are more adequate than individual methodologies. The main aim of this research is to analyze the use of particular and appropiate strategies in a constructivist and collaborative teacher education context. The case-study carried out proves that conceptual change is more effective when it is implemented synergistically with strategies directed towards group autonomy and group-regulation of learning rhythms and goals. The results demostrate the benefits derived from the use of strategies that propitiate the sharing and comparing practice among prospective teachers, especially, if they are, as usual, at heterogenous levels of teaching expertise.

  16. Provision of regulating energy in the context of direct marketing according to the EEG 2012; Zur Bereitstellung von Regelleistung im Rahmen der Direktvermarktung nach dem EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Daniel [Landgericht Koeln (Germany); Osborne Clarke, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric power from wind power plants and photovoltaic power plants cannot be stored and is not available at all times. The results are volatile power supply curves, risks of availability forecasting for grid owners or (direct) marketers, and enhanced requirements on grid operation with stable frequency. All this will directly affect the reliability of power supply in Germany. Grid integration and market integration of renewable energy sources are directly connected. The contribution discusses the challenges of ensuring grid stability as well as the legal regulations governing the supply of regulating power from renewable energy sources. Since 1 January 2012, regulating power from renewable energy sources is provided within the scope of the EEG only by direct marketing, i.e. without receiving fixed reimbursement rates. Direct marketing is only possible outside the scope of the EEG, but this is without relevance for the time being. (orig.)

  17. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism. They model the

  18. Fuzzy Context-Free Languages. Part 1: Generalized Fuzzy Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These so-called fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a very general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism.

  19. Fuzzy context-free languages. Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These fuzzy context-free K-grammars provide a general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism. They model the sit

  20. Fuzzy context-free languages. Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These so-called fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a very general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism.

  1. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2016-03-25

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers' health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights.

  2. 情境感知自适应移动学习系统框架研究*___以UoLmP系统为例%Study on Framework of Context-aware Self-adaptation Mobile Learning System﹕Case Study of UoLmP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑

    2015-01-01

    认为在情境感知中,学习者的情境信息是情境感知移动学习系统实现的关键,包括学习情境和移动情境2个方面;建立情境感知自适应和个性化学习系统,旨在通过移动设备进行学习,增加其学习兴趣。以UoLmP为例,提出情境感知自适应移动学习系统框架,并从体系结构、系统自适应机制、系统的移动传递工具3个方面阐释UoLmP系统。%The paper thinks that context information of learners is the key to implement context-aware mobile learning system in context-aware, includes 2 aspects of learning context and mobile context; the purpose of building context-aware self-adaptation and individuated learning system is to make sure learners can get learning by mobile devices and increase their interest in learning. The paper gives a framework of context-aware self-adaptation mobile learning system by an example of UoLmP, and trying to make a sys-tematic explanation on UoLmP system from 3 aspects of architecture, self-adaptation mechanism and mobile delivery tool.

  3. National context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This document forms part of the tasks of Work Package 3 for the European project PLACES (Platform of Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science) whose main goal is to offer to a wide and diverse community of actors a common platform to structure their science communication activities,......, at a city/regional level (www.openplaces.eu). The main objective of this document is to have an overview of different contexts of scientific culture that are present around Europe with a particular focus on the local dimension of the initiatives and policies in science communication....

  4. A NEW APPROACH TO FINANCIAL REGULATION AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Laura VALEANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the recent financial and economic crisis onset, a fragility of the financial system became apparent, under the form of a series of vulnerabilities and failures with a strong destabilizing impact on the economy. In this context, a new approach to financial stability has outlined itself, pleading for a more extensive financial regulation and macro-prudential supervision, complementary to the micro-prudential one. The objectives of this article are to highlight the context and need for a new financial regulatory framework and underline the main problems of the banking system the new European regulations addresses.

  5. A Model for Rearchitecting Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H. Galal-Edeen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Software rearchitecting is the process of obtaining a documented architecture for an existing system. There are many software rearchitecting frameworks which are based upon different concepts and context-related issues for a specific application or programming language, such as Rigi, Ciao, SPOOL, and Symphony, and Software Rearchitecting Action Framework (SRAF. Most of the frameworks focus on the reverse engineering process of source code. They neglect the role of stakeholders in enhancing and developing their systems. This paper presents a systematic analysis and comparative study for rearchitecting frameworks using generic architecture characteristics or elements. Based on the major requirements that should be available in the rearchitecting frameworks, the comparative study proceeds. An efficient model is proposed based on the trends that resulted from the comparative analysis. It considers the evaluation criteria of the compared frameworks. Conclusions and remarks are highlighted.

  6. Mobile Purposive-Extensive-Podcast-Listening versus Mobile Self-Regulated-Podcast-Development: A Critical Framework for Designing Foreign Language Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendag, Serkan; Caner, Mustafa; Kafes, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile technologies are widely employed in almost all fields of education for varying reasons. The present study intends to explore the role of mobile technologies in the development of students' listening skills in a higher education context. The aim of the present study is twofold; while it seeks for the feasibility of mobile…

  7. Rock climbing and acute emotion regulation in patients with major depressive disorder in the context of a psychological inpatient treatment: a controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstäuber M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria Kleinstäuber,1,2 Merle Reuter,3 Norbert Doll,4 Andreas J Fallgatter4 1Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany, 4Department of General Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by deficits in emotion regulation. This study examined associations between rock climbing and acute emotion regulating effects in patients with major depression. Patients and methods: In a nonrandomized, controlled study, 40 major depressive disorder inpatients were assigned to either a climbing session (n=20 or a relaxation session (n=20. Positive and negative affect, depressiveness, and coping emotions were assessed immediately before and after the session. Results: Mixed analyses of variance and covariance revealed significant time × group interaction effects for all assessed outcomes (p≤0.012: positive affect and coping emotions significantly increased and negative affect and depressiveness significantly decreased after the climbing session (1.04≤ Cohen’s d ≤1.30, in contrast to a relaxation session (0.16≤ Cohen’s d ≤0.36. Conclusion: The results show that rock climbing is associated with acute emotion regulatory effects. These findings have to be replicated with a randomized design, and future research should pay attention to possible mechanisms of rock climbing in regard to emotion regulation. Keywords: physical activity, controlled trial, relaxation, inpatient treatment

  8. Comparative analysis of A-to-I editing in human and non-human primate brains reveals conserved patterns and context-dependent regulation of RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Richard T; Wang, Xiaojing; Morabito, Michael V; Emeson, Ronald B

    2017-04-06

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the relationships between the extent of editing at multiple substrate transcripts (5HT2C, MGLUR4, CADPS, GLUR2, GLUR4, and GABRA3) in brain tissue obtained from adult humans and rhesus macaques. Several patterns emerged from these studies revealing conservation of editing across primate species. Additionally, variability in the human population allows us to make novel inferences about the co-regulation of editing at different editing sites and even across different brain regions.

  9. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general framework that extends choice models by including an explicit representation of the process and context of decision making. Process refers to the steps involved in decision making. Context refers to factors affecting the process, focusing in this paper on social networks. The...

  10. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we will present a descriptive and organizational framework for incremental and fundamental changes to regulatory and utility business models in the context of clean energy public policy goals. We will also discuss the regulated utility's role in providing value-added services that relate to distributed energy resources, identify the "openness" of customer information and utility networks necessary to facilitate change, and discuss the relative risks, and the shifting of risks, for utilities and customers.

  11. For-Profit Colleges and Universities: Their Markets, Regulation, Performance, and Place in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C., Ed.; Lechuga, Vicente M., Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book offers a clear-eyed and balanced analysis of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs), reviewing their history, business strategies, and management practices; setting them in the context of marketplace conditions, the framework of public policy and government regulations; and viewing them in the light of the public good. Individual…

  12. Discerning Childcare Quality: Parents as Potential Informants of Policy beyond Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In the context of market-based childcare provision, governments in many industrialised countries use regulation to ensure quality standards and practices. Limited research, however, has investigated parents' perceptions of childcare quality and whether what parents value as contributors to quality resonates with regulatory frameworks. This article…

  13. For-Profit Colleges and Universities: Their Markets, Regulation, Performance, and Place in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C., Ed.; Lechuga, Vicente M., Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book offers a clear-eyed and balanced analysis of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs), reviewing their history, business strategies, and management practices; setting them in the context of marketplace conditions, the framework of public policy and government regulations; and viewing them in the light of the public good. Individual…

  14. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  15. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  16. A conceptual framework for energy technology sustainability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musango, Josephine K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the framework of incorporating the system dynamics methodology in energy technology assessment theory and practice within the context of sustainable development. The framework provides for technology sustainability assessment, which, in turn, can guide...

  17. Quantitative Reasoning Learning Progressions for Environmental Science: Developing a Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Mayes; Franziska Peterson; Rachel Bonilla

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a complex concept with many definitions and a diverse account in the literature. The purpose of this article is to establish a working definition of quantitative reasoning within the context of science, construct a quantitative reasoning framework, and summarize research on key components in that framework. Context underlies all quantitative reasoning; for this review, environmental science serves as the context.In the framework, we identify four components of quanti...

  18. The Analysis on the Theory of Responsive Regulation and Its Application in Chinas Context%回应性监管理论及其本土适用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 王力

    2016-01-01

    法和社会学视角之下的回应性监管理论对弥补政治经济学视角下监管研究的不足有重要作用。该理论提出了纵向的监管策略和横向的监管主体间监管权分配的方案,并发展出一系列衍生理论,意在构建出监管活动的新模式。具有该理论特点的监管实践在西方国家取得了显著成效,对我国的监管理论和实践提供了重要启示。然而,该理论在我国本土的运用还面临着诸多问题。我国可以通过一定的措施改善回应性监管理论的适用性,以实现监管的善治。%Currently in Chinese context,most theories of regulation imported from Western studies are basically from traditional political economy studies.However,theory of responsive regulation based on legal sociology can fill the theoretical gap of those classical political economy theories.This new theory advances regulatory strategy and scheme of regulatory power among regulation subjects,which also develops a series of derived sub-theories and creates a new model to understand regulatory actions.A few of regulatory practices guided by responsive regulation theory in Western countries have achieved great accomplishments which can shed light on Chinas ongoing regulatory reform.Although a series of challenges have to be faced for the application of this theory in Chinas context,Chinese government can take a series of measures to improve practicality,as well as to achieve the target of good govern-ance in the regulatory reform field.

  19. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James; O'Connor, Denise; Michie, Susan

    2012-04-24

    An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): 'Knowledge', 'Skills', 'Social/Professional Role and Identity', 'Beliefs about Capabilities', 'Optimism', 'Beliefs about Consequences', 'Reinforcement', 'Intentions', 'Goals', 'Memory, Attention and Decision Processes', 'Environmental Context and Resources', 'Social Influences', 'Emotions', and 'Behavioural Regulation'. The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development.

  20. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT: A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual’s values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8% and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain.

  1. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT): A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia) in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Martha; Rivers, Crystal T.; Wrenn, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT) interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual’s values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8%) and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain. PMID:26039013

  2. Generic and energy-efficient context-aware mobile sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Yurur, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes novel context-inferring algorithms and generic framework designs to enhance the existing tradeoffs in mobile sensing, especially between accuracy and power consumption. It integrates the significant topics of energy efficient, inhomogeneous, adaptive, optimal context-aware inferring algorithm and framework design. In addition, it includes plenty of examples to help readers understand the theory, best practices, and strategies.

  3. Intercultural Learning Across Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Beate VASBØ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available International youth work in Europe (i.e. non-formal learning demands a renewal of the prominent intercultural theory and framework in the youth field in order to cope with contemporary questions concerning pluralism and global challenges. This article provides a new theoretical framework for intercultural learning that departs from a complex, multicultural, social reality. Furthermore, the article explores how young people today experience international youth exchanges as arenas for learning in relation to other learning arenas in and out of school. The data consists of interviews and participant observation of a Norwegian youth group preparing for, participating in and reflecting on their experiences in an international youth exchange programme. The findings show that participation in international youth exchanges, in addition to cultural knowledge, may contribute to increased motivation for learning, enhanced self-understanding and personal growth that seems transferable to other contexts. Furthermore,global youth culture plays a crucial role in young people`s experiences of being like one another across national borders, cultures and social realities.

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis:the Technique to Make Better Financial Regulation in Law Context%成本收益分析:金融监管治理的技艺及其法制化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟飞

    2014-01-01

    Before issuing a new regulatory policy , the financial regulator must demonstrate that the pro-posed regulatory action intends to address market failure problems .The major types of failures include market power , externality , and asymmetric information .However , the regulator often leads to regulatory failures when correcting market failures.Then, many financial regulators adopt cost-benefit analysis ( CBA) as governing dual failures techniques .The UK and USA financial regulators have been applying this CBA for at least ten years.The underlying principle is that CBA is a unique analytical framework different from private decision making .When quantifying and monetizing anticipated benefits and costs , the regulator should describe the measure approach used , and explain why costs and benefits cannot be quantified .The decision procedure of CBA often includes five steps , and involves public comment to some extent .To the present , the financial reg-ulator of China has not adopted the ex CBA when proposing regulatory policies .In order to improve high quali-ty of financial regulation , China ’ s regulators should conduct CBA on different levels .The financial regulators form UK and USA, such as FSA, SEC, CFTC, provide many valuable practices that can be learnt by China ’ s counterparts .%金融监管机构颁布的监管政策为矫正市场失灵提供了正当性基础,然而监管的失灵却对政策的有效性提出了质疑。成本收益分析成为平衡双重失灵下金融监管政策效率的基准。英国和美国等国家的金融监管机构已经开始采用成本收益分析对拟定的监管政策进行经济效率评估。但是,金融监管政策效率的分析框架与私人项目决策存在很大的差异,这就需要对成本和收益的数量化估值做出特别的要求,并在分析程序上做出特别的规定。中国金融监管机构在采用成本收益分析评估拟定政策时,应当分步骤实施,在这一

  5. 社会化媒体情境中信息素养的内容框架研究%Study on Content Framework of Information Literacy in Social Media Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范哲

    2012-01-01

      信息化社会的人群应具备的信息素养由于不同的应用情境被赋予了不同的要求,通过剖析社会化媒体网站与传统网站的区别,以及网络环境下传统网站信息素养研究内容的内涵,探讨社会化媒体情境赋予信息素养的新内涵。将用户使用社会化媒体的信息生产与信息消费行为过程与信息素养研究内容结合,构建出社会化媒体情境中的信息素养研究内容框架,并对该框架的应用范围进行探讨。%  Information literacy is given different requirements according to different application scenarios in information society. This pa-per analyzes the distinction of the social media sites and traditional sites, the key contents of the information literacy research of traditional sites under the network environment, and then discusses the new connotation of information literacy given by the social media. The paper combines information production and consumption of users using the social media with the research content of information literacy, con-structs the information literacy research content framework under the social media environment, and discusses application of the framework subsequently.

  6. 现代职教体系构建背景下职业教育质量保障框架设计%Design of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Framework in the Context of Building Modern Vocational Education System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈效民; 刘磊

    2014-01-01

    现代职教体系构建对教育质量保障提出了新诉求,要求尽快摈弃传统分散、各自为政的评估范式,转变为一体化、系统化的评估范式,这就需要重新设计现代职业教育质量保障框架,遵循整体设计、分类指导、底线思维、减负高效和系统衔接的基本原则,形成国家教育行政部门、地方教育行政部门、行业企业、职业院校共同关注并参与职业教育人才培养过程的“六位一体”质量保障框架。%New demands for education quality assurance was put forward because of Modern Vocational Education System construction, which required to abandon traditional decentralized fragmented type of assessment paradigm, develop the integrated systematic assessment paradigm, and re-design modern vocational education quality assurance framework. Following the overall principles of integrated design, classified guidance, bottom line of thinking, system efficient and reducing the burden of convergence, the “Six in One” quality assurance framework was formed, which concerned and participated by national education administrative departments, local education administrative departments, industries and enterprises and vocational colleges.

  7. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  8. Context-dependent metabolic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Oyarzún, Diego; Picó, Jesús; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolism to survive changes in their environment. We present a framework for the construction and analysis of metabolic reaction networks that can be tailored to reflect different environmental conditions. Using context-dependent flux distributions from Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), we produce directed networks with weighted links representing the amount of metabolite flowing from a source reaction to a target reaction per unit time. Such networks are analyzed with tools from network theory to reveal salient features of metabolite flows in each biological context. We illustrate our approach with the directed network of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, and study its properties in four relevant biological scenarios. Our results show that both flow and network structure depend drastically on the environment: networks produced from the same metabolic model in different contexts have different edges, components, and flow communities, capturing the biological re-routing of metab...

  9. Analysing Policy in the Context(s) of Practice: A Theoretical Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to the construction of a critically informed toolbox of diverse concepts for education policy analysis. Focusing on the context(s) of practice of the policy cycle, the article outlines an interpretative framework to grasp policy enactment across different localities, the influences bearing upon those enactments as well as…

  10. Analysing Policy in the Context(s) of Practice: A Theoretical Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to the construction of a critically informed toolbox of diverse concepts for education policy analysis. Focusing on the context(s) of practice of the policy cycle, the article outlines an interpretative framework to grasp policy enactment across different localities, the influences bearing upon those enactments as well as…

  11. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Andrew; Ellenwood, Dave; Gregory, Lua; Higgins, Shana; Lilburn, Jeff; Harker, Yasmin Sokkar; Sweet, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL "Framework." While the "Framework" recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a…

  12. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  13. Context Management Platform for Tourism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-01-01

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model. PMID:23797739

  14. Context management platform for tourism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-06-24

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model.

  15. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR) technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b). This paper addresses the following questions: (1) What is the nature of Information Science? and (2) What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on ...

  16. A Review of the Context of Strategy Analysis Tools and the Construction of Analytic Framework%战略分析工具:研究脉络梳理及分析框架构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项国鹏; 杨卓

    2014-01-01

    The early development of the strategic management theory is composed of many distinguished planning theories . Since 1968 ,w hen Boston consulting firm proposed BCG matrix ,there have been more and more studies on strategy analy-sis tools .T his paper makes a theoretical review of the strategy analysis tools'history ,in four aspects of strategic analysis , strategy formulation ,strategy choice ,strategy evaluation and control ,presenting a general analysis framework of strate-gic management ,as w ell as propose some advices to promote the study on the strategy analysis tools .%战略管理理论首先由许多卓越的中早期计划理论构成,从1968年Boston咨询公司提出BCG矩阵起,学界对于战略分析工具的研究越来越多。从战略分析、战略制定、战略选择、战略评价与控制4个层面对战略分析工具的历史沿革进行述评,提出了战略管理一般分析框架,以及若干旨在推动战略分析工具研究发展的建议。

  17. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  18. Detecting Human Hydrologic Alteration from Diversion Hydropower Requires Universal Flow Prediction Tools: A Proposed Framework for Flow Prediction in Poorly-gauged, Regulated Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Alipour, M.

    2016-12-01

    Achieving the universal energy access Sustainable Development Goal will require great investment in renewable energy infrastructure in the developing world. Much growth in the renewable sector will come from new hydropower projects, including small and diversion hydropower in remote and mountainous regions. Yet, human impacts to hydrological systems from diversion hydropower are poorly described. Diversion hydropower is often implemented in ungauged rivers, thus detection of impact requires flow analysis tools suited to prediction in poorly-gauged and human-altered catchments. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of hydrologic alteration in 32 rivers developed with diversion hydropower in southwestern China. As flow data are sparse, we devise an approach for estimating streamflow during pre- and post-development periods, drawing upon a decade of research into prediction in ungauged basins. We apply a rainfall-runoff model, parameterized and forced exclusively with global-scale data, in hydrologically-similar gauged and ungauged catchments. Uncertain "soft" data are incorporated through fuzzy numbers and confidence-based weighting, and a multi-criteria objective function is applied to evaluate model performance. Testing indicates that the proposed framework returns superior performance (NSE = 0.77) as compared to models parameterized by rote calibration (NSE = 0.62). Confident that the models are providing `the right answer for the right reasons', our analysis of hydrologic alteration based on simulated flows indicates statistically significant hydrologic effects of diversion hydropower across many rivers. Mean annual flows, 7-day minimum and 7-day maximum flows decreased. Frequency and duration of flow exceeding Q25 decreased while duration of flows sustained below the Q75 increased substantially. Hydrograph rise and fall rates and flow constancy increased. The proposed methodology may be applied to improve diversion hydropower design in data-limited regions.

  19. The SERENITY Runtime Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Beatriz Gallego-Nicasio; Piñuela, Ana; Soria-Rodriguez, Pedro; Serrano, Daniel; Maña, Antonio

    The SERENITY Runtime Framework (SRF) provides support for applications at runtime, by managing S&D Solutions and monitoring the systems’ context. The main functionality of the SRF, amongst others, is to provide S&D Solutions, by means of Executable Components, in response to applications security requirements. Runtime environment is defined in SRF through the S&D Library and Context Manager components. S&D Library is a local S&D Artefact repository, and stores S&D Classes, S&D Patterns and S&D Implementations. The Context Manager component is in charge of storing and management of the information used by the SRF to select the most appropriate S&D Pattern for a given scenario. The management of the execution of the Executable Component, as running realizations of the S&D Patterns, including instantiation, de-activation and control, as well as providing communication and monitoring mechanisms, besides the recovery and reconfiguration aspects, complete the list of tasks performed by the SRF.

  20. Education for Sustainable Development: A Framework for Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Adesoji A.; Adetoro, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed a framework for conceptualizing, planning for and implementing an education agenda for sustainable development within the Nigerian context. The strategic questions informing this framework are: What is the context within which sustainable development is being proposed? What are the educational needs that arise within the given…

  1. Education for Sustainable Development: A Framework for Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Adesoji A.; Adetoro, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed a framework for conceptualizing, planning for and implementing an education agenda for sustainable development within the Nigerian context. The strategic questions informing this framework are: What is the context within which sustainable development is being proposed? What are the educational needs that arise within the given…

  2. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  3. NEW MULTIANUAL FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK: PRIORITIES FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION, PRIORITIES FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-DANIELA PĂUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a brief foray into the situation of the European economy, but especially of the banking system of the Member States affected differently by the current world economic crisis, or recession, but especially for a detailed analysis of the New Multiannual Financial Framework for the period 2014-2020, with the priorities which appear to be distinct for the EU and for Romania. After a comparative analysis of European regulations on the agreements of the previous financial negotiated for the period 2014-2020, and Delors I (1988-1992, Delors II (1993-1999, the Agenda 2000 (2000-2006 and multiannual financial framework (2007- 2013 and ultimately the provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon (which convert multiannual financial framework in an essential act from a legal point of view; express personal opinions on Romania’s priorities and on the challenges and perspectives in the actual European and global context.

  4. Translation science and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based health care practices are available for a number of conditions such as asthma, smoking cessation, heart failure, and management of diabetes. However, these practices are not routinely implemented in care delivery and variations in practices abound. Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) is challenging, and difficulties implementing evidence may be largely explained by contextual factors. Thus, strategies are needed that address the complexity and systems of care, individual practitioners, senior leadership, and ultimately changing health care cultures to promote an evidence-based practice environment. To advance knowledge about promoting and sustaining adoption of EBPs in health care, translation science needs more studies that test translating research into practice (TRIP) interventions; studies are needed that investigate what TRIP interventions work, for whom, in what circumstances, in what types of settings, and studies that explain the underlying mechanisms of effective TRIP interventions. According to the Translation Research Model, adoption of innovations, such as EBPs, are influenced by the nature of the innovation (e.g., the type and strength of evidence; the clinical topic), and the manner in which it is communicated (disseminated) to members (e.g., physicians, nurses) of a social system (organization, nursing profession). This article discusses the importance of context in translation using this framework as a guide.

  5. Calibration of skill and judgment in driving: development of a conceptual framework and the implications for road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Lee, John D

    2015-03-01

    Humans often make inflated or erroneous estimates of their own ability or performance. Such errors in calibration can be due to incomplete processing, neglect of available information or due to improper weighing or integration of the information and can impact our decision-making, risk tolerance, and behaviors. In the driving context, these outcomes can have important implications for safety. The current paper discusses the notion of calibration in the context of self-appraisals and self-competence as well as in models of self-regulation in driving. We further develop a conceptual framework for calibration in the driving context borrowing from earlier models of momentary demand regulation, information processing, and lens models for information selection and utilization. Finally, using the model we describe the implications for calibration (or, more specifically, errors in calibration) for our understanding of driver distraction, in-vehicle automation and autonomous vehicles, and the training of novice and inexperienced drivers.

  6. 實徵研究/家庭情境中的網路使用行為:多元面向的情境架構初探/陳怡蓁 │ Web-Using Behavior in Context of the Home Use Environment: Toward a Multidimensional Framework / Yi-Chen Chen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳怡蓁 Yi-Chen Chen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available 近年來,網際網路逐漸滲透人們的日常生活:在台灣,家中網路使用人口亦大幅增加,顯示我國民眾的家戶日常生活與網際網路之間已產生密切的關連。然 而,在過去的網路使用者行為相關研究中,較少以家庭為主要分析場域去討論家庭情境中的網路使用行為,因而引發本研究之動機。既然家戶是人們主要上網地點, 且家庭又是一個重要的社會互動單位;本文試圖將家庭視為一種資訊使用環境,從情境的概念來探索家庭網路使用環境下的情境面向,並且建立一個多元面向的情境 架構模式。本研究採用文獻分析法,彙整國內外相關研究,特別是有關家庭網路使用之實證研究:藉由對相關文獻的分析,一方面描繪出一般家庭的網路使用現況,一方面也試圖歸納出家庭環境對於網路使用行為提供了哪些情境面向,進而建構一家庭使用環境下的情境架構。言 研究結果發現,家庭作為資訊使用環境的情境層級,它既是實體空間環境,也是社會生活環境,提供人類資訊行為一組特定情境的面向:包含:環境本身的特性和社 會條件、環境中的空間配置、環境中的時間分配、環境中的參與成員、環境中的人際互動、以及環境中的資訊活動與需求。而且,這些面向並不是獨立運作的,是在 動態的框架中彼此產生關連。整體而言,As more people gain at-home access to the Internet, information behaviors on the Web has become embedded in everyday life. The objective of this study was to characterize the home as the context of information use environment level and to explore the framework of web-use behaviors in context at home. In this framework, the context of home use environment appears to be a multidimensional construct.In this paper, the author reviewed the literature and analyzed the empirical findings

  7. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  8. towards a theory-based multi-dimensional framework for assessment in mathematics: The "SEA" framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anku, Sitsofe E.

    1997-09-01

    Using the reform documents of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (NCTM, 1989, 1991, 1995), a theory-based multi-dimensional assessment framework (the "SEA" framework) which should help expand the scope of assessment in mathematics is proposed. This framework uses a context based on mathematical reasoning and has components that comprise mathematical concepts, mathematical procedures, mathematical communication, mathematical problem solving, and mathematical disposition.

  9. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  10. [Advanced therapy: from European regulatory framework to national regulatory framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Samuel, S

    2013-05-01

    The European regulation n(o) 1394/2007/CE published on the 13th of November 2007 defined and harmonized the European regulatory framework for advanced therapy medicinal products. It creates a specialized committee located at the European Medicine Agency, in charge of the assessment of these medicinal products. The consequences of this regulation are introduced in the French regulation by the law n(o) 2011-302 published on the 22nd of March 2011. It detailed notably the possibility for public establishments (except health establishments) and nonprofit organisms to create pharmaceutical establishments. This law defined also a specific category of advanced therapy medicinal products, which fall under the "hospital exemption" framework. The rules regarding the authorizations of the establishments able to prepare these types of medicinal products and the authorization of the products are defined by the n(o) 2012-1236 decree published on the 6th of November 2012.

  11. An extended framework for science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalis, Roland

    2017-09-01

    We may be at the cusp of a next generation framework for science which can be facilitated by understanding current limitations in the context of a divergence of 'scientific' tradition from the Axial Age (800-200 BCE) to the present. A powerful advance may come from fusing certain elements from Western and Eastern traditions, synthesizing the framework with an apt understanding of the divergence. Key traits will include the ethopoetic nature of the scientist with attention to his/her experience of self. The framework will also 'access' knowledge through a state of mind less encumbered with paradoxes, duality, incompatibility and other aporias. Case studies in biology and physics illustrate possibilities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

  13. Design and Analysis of Web Application Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    -state manipulation vulnerabilities. The hypothesis of this dissertation is that we can design frameworks and static analyses that aid the programmer to avoid such errors. First, we present the JWIG web application framework for writing secure and maintainable web applications. We discuss how this framework solves...... some of the common errors through an API that is designed to be safe by default. Second, we present a novel technique for checking HTML validity for output that is generated by web applications. Through string analysis, we approximate the output of web applications as context-free grammars. We model......Numerous web application frameworks have been developed in recent years. These frameworks enable programmers to reuse common components and to avoid typical pitfalls in web application development. Although such frameworks help the programmer to avoid many common errors, we nd...

  14. ZEND FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupasc Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present Zend Architecture, which is an open source technology for developing web applications and services, based on object-oriented components, and the Model-View-Controller architectural pattern, also known as MVC, which is the fundament of this architecture. The MVC presentation emphasises its main characteristics, such as facilitating the components reuse by dividing the application into distinct interconnected modules, tasks distribution in the process of developing an application, the MVC life cycle and also the essential features of the components in which it separates the application: model, view, controller. The controller coordinates the models and views and it’s responsible with manipulating the user events through the corresponding actions. The model contains application rules, respectively the scripts that implement the database manipulation. The third component, the view represents the controllers interface with the user or the way it displays the response to the event triggered by the user. Another aspect treated in this paper consists in highlighting the Zend architecture advantages and disadvantages. Among the framework advantages, we can enumerate good code organization, due to its delimitation into three sections, presentation, logic and data access, and dividing the code into components, which facilitates the code reuse and testing. Other advantages are the open-source license and the support for multiple database systems. The main disadvantages are represented by its size and complexity, that makes it hard to understand for a beginner programmer, the resources it needs etc. The last section of the paper presents a comparison between Zend and other PHP architectures, like Symphony, CakePHP and CodeIgniter, which includes their essential features and points out their similarities and differences, based on the unique functions that set them apart from others. The main thing that distinguishes ZF from the

  15. Context Aware Concurrent Execution Framework for Web Browser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Erbad, Aiman Mahmood; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    by balancing load across workers/CPU cores. This work presents load-balancing algorithms between web workers using parameters such as scheduler throughput, computation priority and game entity locality. An award-winning web-based multimedia game (raptjs.com) is used to test the performance of the load balance...... algorithms. The preliminary results indicate that the performance of game improved with effective load-balancing across web workers. Three load balancing algorithm were developed on top of DOHA, an open source JavaScript execution layer for multimedia applications. The load between web workers is transferred...... between web workers via serialized objects. The application performance is measured by measuring the jitter and the number of frames per second. The results showed improvement in performance with lower jitter and high FPS. These techniques can be used by developers to improve the application design giving...

  16. Context Aware Concurrent Execution Framework for Web Browsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Erbad, Aiman; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2016-01-01

    be maximized by balancing load across workers/CPU cores. This work presents load-balancing algorithms between web workers using parameters such as scheduler throughput, computation priority and game entities locality. An award-winning web-based multimedia game (raptjs.com) is used to evaluate the performance...... of load balancing algorithms. The preliminary results indicated that the performance of game improved with the proposed load-balancing across web workers. The load balancing algorithms were developed on top of DOHA, an open source JavaScript execution layer for multimedia applications. The load between...... web workers is transferred between web workers via serialized objects. Effects of load transfer between on the overall application performance was measured by analyzing jitter and number of frames per second. Load balancing algorithms and load transfer mechanism can be used by developers to improve...

  17. Context Aware Concurrent Execution Framework for Web Browsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Erbad, Aiman; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2016-01-01

    Computing hungry multimedia web applications need to efficiently utilize all the resources of a device. HTML5 web workers is a non-sharing concurrency platform that enables multimedia web application to utilize the available multicore hardware. HTML5 web workers are implemented by major browser...

  18. Towards a Context-Aware Proactive Decision Support Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    the text are entirely lexical in nature. The assertion extraction utilizes Stanford’s core NLP libraries and makes use of a part-of-speech tagger...Ramesh Jain: Toward a Common Event Model for Multimedia Applications. IEEE MultiMedia 14(1): 19-29 (2007). [11] http://www.dlib.org/ dlib /september07

  19. USER CONTEXT MODELS : A FRAMEWORK TO EASE SOFTWARE FORMAL VERIFICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article is accepted to appear in ICEIS 2010 proceedings; International audience; Several works emphasize the difficulties of software verification applied to embedded systems. In past years, formal verification techniques and tools were widely developed and used by the research community. However, the use of formal verification at industrial scale remains difficult, expensive and requires lot of time. This is due to the size and the complexity of manipulated models, but also, to the impo...

  20. Innovation in regulation of rapidly changing health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald; Henson, Spencer; Peters, David H

    2014-06-24

    The rapid evolution and spread of health markets across low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has contributed to a significant increase in the availability of health-related goods and services around the world. The support institutions needed to regulate these markets have lagged behind, with regulatory systems that are weak and under-resourced. This paper explores the key issues associated with regulation of health markets in LMICs, and the different goals of regulation, namely quality and safety of care, value for money, social agreement over fair access and financing, and accountability. Licensing, price controls, and other traditional approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services have played an important role, but they have been of questionable effectiveness in ensuring safety and efficacy at the point of the user in LMICs. The paper proposes a health market systems conceptual framework, using the value chain for the production, distribution and retail of health goods and services, to examine regulation of health markets in the LMIC context. We conclude by exploring the changing context going forwards, laying out implications for future heath market regulation. We argue that the case for new approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services in LMICs is compelling. Although traditional "command and control" approaches will have a place in the toolkit of regulators, a broader bundle of approaches is needed that is adapted to the national and market-level context of particular LMICs. The implication is that it is not possible to apply standard or single interventions across countries, as approaches proven to work well in one context will not necessarily work well elsewhere.

  1. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  2. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    A model for context-dependent natural language semantics is proposed and formalized in terms of possible worlds. The meaning of a sentence depends on context and at the same time affects that context representing the knowledge about the world collected from a discourse. The model fits well...

  3. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  4. Community Social Context and Individualistic Attitudes toward Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.

    2004-01-01

    I develop a theoretical framework explaining how community social context affects attitude formation via nonfamily institutions and related behaviors. Empirical tests of the framework use data from a study of the Chitwan Valley in rural Nepal. The analyses focus on attitudes toward seven aspects of marriage: child marriage, arranged marriage,…

  5. Harnessing Context for Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmish Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of collaborative social media (CSM applications such as Wikipedia to modern free societies can hardly be overemphasized. By allowing end users to freely create and edit content, Wikipedia has greatly facilitated democratization of information. However, over the past several years, Wikipedia has also become susceptible to vandalism, which has adversely affected its information quality. Traditional vandalism detection techniques that rely upon simple textual features such as spammy or abusive words have not been very effective in combating sophisticated vandal attacks that do not contain common vandalism markers. In this paper, we propose a context-based vandalism detection framework for Wikipedia. We first propose a contextenhanced finite state model for representing the context evolution ofWikipedia articles. This paper identifies two distinct types of context that are potentially valuable for vandalism detection, namely content-context and contributor-context. The distinguishing powers of these contexts are discussed by providing empirical results. We design two novel metrics for measuring how well the content-context of an incoming edit fits into the topic and the existing content of a Wikipedia article. We outline machine learning-based vandalism identification schemes that utilize these metrics. Our experiments indicate that utilizing context can substantially improve vandalism detection accuracy.

  6. The Impact of Learning Contexts on English Granunar Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuXiaoxiao

    2004-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate to what extent different learning contexts inform syntax acquisition of Chinese adult learners of English. The research was conducted in London and Chongqing within a different framework that acknowledges the role of context from a perspective of the general theory of second language acquisition. Issues and

  7. Genre and Literacy-Modeling Context in Educational Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Complements review in previous volume concerning Australian literacy (in first- and second-language) initiatives that drew on systemic functional linguistics, highlights ongoing research within the same theoretical framework, and focuses on the question of modeling context in educational linguistics. The discussion includes modeling context as…

  8. Context and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Joshua M.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Context is an important aspect of educational research and the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework, but is often missing from TPACK research, or its specific meaning is not clear. To provide a systematic and comprehensive view of the extent to which context is included in such research, and to understand the meaning of…

  9. Context and Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Context is very important factor that can't be ignored in speech communication. Context contributes much to understanding the meaning of words. The exact and thorough interpretation of words and utterance results from contexts. The relation is discussed between context and listening comprehension, and the functions of context are analyzed in listening. It is pointed out that the analysis of contextual clues is useful in understanding listening materials and also introduces some ways on contextual clues in listening so as to improve listening comprehension.

  10. 欧盟众筹金融监管法律框架及评析%The Review of the Legal Framework on the Regulation of Crowd-Funding in European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴珂楠

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of crowd-funding, the European Commission has published relevant documents as attempts to strengthen the regulation on crowd-funding at the EU level. Crowd-funding not only helps European SMEs obtain financing in the wake of the economic crisis and European sovereign debt crisis, but also suits the EU development plan in the years ahead. At the EU level, the regulatory framework on crowd-funding is mainly composed of existing Directives. At the member states level, in addition to the existing legislation, some countries have already enacted special regulations or applicable guidelines on crowd-funding. This paper examines the existing legislation of EU and its member states on crowd-funding and finds out that the legislation is still at an early stage and some problems deserve more attention, which include the fragmentation of legislation, legislative gaps, and how to innovate within the existing mechanisms.%随着众筹的快速发展,欧盟委员会已发布相关文件以探索在欧盟层面对众筹进行监管的路径。众筹不仅帮助欧洲中小企业在经济危机和欧债危机后的困难局面下获得了融资,也契合欧盟今后几年的发展规划。在欧盟层面,针对众筹的规制框架主要由现存指令构成;在欧盟成员国层面,除现有法规外,一些国家已先行颁布针对众筹的专门法规或适用指引。从目前欧盟及其成员国的立法情况来看,因众筹处于发展初期阶段,包括立法碎片化、立法空白以及在现有机制内尝试创新等问题都值得关注。

  11. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b. This paper addresses the following questions: (1 What is the nature of Information Science? and (2 What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on an explication of the processes of human information coordinating behavior and information feedback that facilitate the relationship between human information behavior and human interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies (Web, digital libraries, etc..

  12. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Battista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL Framework. While the Framework recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a cogent statement that connects information literacy to social justice. In this article, authors concerned with social justice and civic engagement will share their reflections on the Framework from a critical pedagogical and social justice orientation.

  13. Beyond innovation. Towards an extended framework for analysing technology policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Sørensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses technology policy as a scholarly concern and political practice that needs to be taken beyond the present somewhat singular focus on innovation and deployment. We also need to include an interest in the making of infrastructure, the provision of regulations, and democratic engagement. Consequently, this paper introduces the concepts of socialisation and domestication to overcome the instrumental, economic framing of technology policy. These concepts highlight the importance of embedding and enacting new technology. The suggested conceptual framework is used in a brief synthetic analysis of four examples of technology policy and technological development in the Norwegian context: cars, wind power, hydrogen for transport, and carbon capture and storage (CCS.

  14. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...... trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing...

  15. The contexts of penitentiary pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szczepaniak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a sketch of the interpretation of penitentiary pedagogy. There arediscussed, among others, etymology and the definition of penitentiary pedagogy, its subject- matter, goals, axiological, teleological, theoretical and methodological foundations and its place and role among other scientific disciplines. Along with the development of multiple methodological options and changes in social life, the reflection concerning the identity and place of penitentiary pedagogy demands a new articulation. The author submits and gives grounds for a proposition for the penitentiary pedagogy to reap gain in a wider scope from the achievements of social pedagogy, which in the context of citizens’ life deals with designing, carrying out and evaluating educational efforts and the regulation of social relations in the context of social policy, according to an open citizen society (inclusive idea.

  16. ELPSA as A Lesson Design Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lowrie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a framework for mathematics lesson design that is consistent with the way we learn about, and discover, most things in life. In addition, the framework provides a structure for identifying how mathematical concepts and understanding are acquired and developed. This framework is called ELPSA and represents five learning components, namely: Experience, Language, Pictorial, Symbolic and Applications. This framework has been used in developing lessons and teacher professional programs in Indonesia since 2012 in cooperation with the World Bank. This paper describes the theory that underlines the framework in general and in relation to each inter-connected component. Two explicit learning sequences for classroom practice are described, associated with Pythagoras theorem and probability. This paper then concludes with recommendations for using ELPSA in various institutional contexts.

  17. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing...

  18. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  19. Safety Management in Non-Nuclear Contexts. Examples from Swedish Railway Regulatory and Company Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Ilkka; Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2005-06-15

    Nuclear power operations demand safe procedures. In the context of this report, safety management is considered as a key instrument to achieve safety in technology, organization and operations. Outside the area of nuclear operations there exist a number of other technological areas that also demand safe operations. From the perspective of knowledge management, there exists an enormous pool of safety experiences that may be possible to shear or reformulate from one context to another. From this point of view, it seems highly relevant to make efforts to utilize, and try to understand how safety in general is managed in other contexts. There is much to gain from such an approach, not at least from economical, societal, and systems points of views. Because of the vast diversity between technological areas and their operations, a common framework that allow elaboration with common concepts for understanding, must be generated. In preceding studies a number of steps have been taken towards finding such a general framework for modeling safety management. In an initial step a system theoretical framework was outlined. In subsequent steps central concepts from this framework has been applied and evaluated in relation to a number of non-nuclear organizations. The present report brings this intention one step further, and for the first time, a complete analysis of a system consisting of both the regulator and the licensee was carried out, in the above respects. This report focused the Swedish railway system, and the organizations studied were the Swedish Rail Agency (SRA) and SJ (the main rail traffic operator). The data used for this report consisted of various documents about the organizations, and interview data. This report is basically structured around three, more or less, independent studies that are presented in separate chapters. They are: the system theoretical framework that in the following chapters is applied to the two organizations, and one chapter each for the

  20. Safety Management in Non-Nuclear Contexts. Examples from Swedish Railway Regulatory and Company Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Ilkka; Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2005-06-15

    Nuclear power operations demand safe procedures. In the context of this report, safety management is considered as a key instrument to achieve safety in technology, organization and operations. Outside the area of nuclear operations there exist a number of other technological areas that also demand safe operations. From the perspective of knowledge management, there exists an enormous pool of safety experiences that may be possible to shear or reformulate from one context to another. From this point of view, it seems highly relevant to make efforts to utilize, and try to understand how safety in general is managed in other contexts. There is much to gain from such an approach, not at least from economical, societal, and systems points of views. Because of the vast diversity between technological areas and their operations, a common framework that allow elaboration with common concepts for understanding, must be generated. In preceding studies a number of steps have been taken towards finding such a general framework for modeling safety management. In an initial step a system theoretical framework was outlined. In subsequent steps central concepts from this framework has been applied and evaluated in relation to a number of non-nuclear organizations. The present report brings this intention one step further, and for the first time, a complete analysis of a system consisting of both the regulator and the licensee was carried out, in the above respects. This report focused the Swedish railway system, and the organizations studied were the Swedish Rail Agency (SRA) and SJ (the main rail traffic operator). The data used for this report consisted of various documents about the organizations, and interview data. This report is basically structured around three, more or less, independent studies that are presented in separate chapters. They are: the system theoretical framework that in the following chapters is applied to the two organizations, and one chapter each for the

  1. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  2. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  3. Intelligent FPGA Data Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunpeng; Gaisbauer, Dominic; Huber, Stefan; Konorov, Igor; Levit, Dmytro; Steffen, Dominik; Paul, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present the field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)-based framework intelligent FPGA data acquisition (IFDAQ), which is used for the development of DAQ systems for detectors in high-energy physics. The framework supports Xilinx FPGA and provides a collection of IP cores written in very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language, which use the common interconnect interface. The IP core library offers functionality required for the development of the full DAQ chain. The library consists of Serializer/Deserializer (SERDES)-based time-to-digital conversion channels, an interface to a multichannel 80-MS/s 10-b analog-digital conversion, data transmission, and synchronization protocol between FPGAs, event builder, and slow control. The functionality is distributed among FPGA modules built in the AMC form factor: front end and data concentrator. This modular design also helps to scale and adapt the DAQ system to the needs of the particular experiment. The first application of the IFDAQ framework is the upgrade of the read-out electronics for the drift chambers and the electromagnetic calorimeters (ECALs) of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The framework will be presented and discussed in the context of this paper.

  4. Virtual Team Training Engine and Evaluation Framework Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an effort to support a range of social educations in the context of constantly evolving mission objectives, this proposal focuses on the creation of a framework...

  5. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  6. Deconstructing AMO framework: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2016-09-01

    Originality/value: Our study shed light on some aspects of the AMO framework within the HRM context. Specifically, we aimed to identify whether or not it is possible to confirm the model as it was originally proposed. We also find out which HR practices and measures of performance were considered across investigations, to define a standard approach.

  7. An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Max; Weissing, Franz J.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework for the understanding of animal personalities in terms of adaptive evolution. We focus on two basic questions. First, why do behavioural types exhibit limited behavioural plasticity, that is, behavioural correlations both across contexts and over time? Second, how c

  8. Sustainable Transportation - Indicators, Frameworks, and Performance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Hall, Ralph P.; Marsden, Greg;

    This textbook provides an introduction to the concept of sustainability in the context of transportation planning, management, and decision-making. The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, indicators and frameworks for measuring sustainable development in the transportation sector...

  9. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed....

  10. Ontologies for Effective Use of Context in E-Learning Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Knight, Colin; Richards, Griff

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework aimed at explicit representation of context-specific metadata derived from the actual usage of learning objects and learning designs. The core part of the proposed framework is a learning object context ontology, that leverages a range of other kinds of learning ontologies (e.g., user modeling…

  11. French Current Plans for a National Space Legal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    France bears the international obligation to authorise and supervise space activities under its jurisdiction and can be liable for damage caused by space objects launched from Kourou (French Guiana) and/or by companies registered in France. The current national framework for the activities carried by Arianespace, Starsem, Eutelsat and for the Ariane European launcher operated from the Guiana Space Centre (CSG) is adequately regulated on the basis of relevant programmatic, contractual and administrative legal regime. But in consequence of the liberalisation of the telecommunications market, of the privatisation of international organisations and State owned companies and of the increasing private demands to access CSG facilities, further regulations could be needed. In this context, the French Ministry of Research's Space Department has convened in 1999, during 2 years, more than 100 technical and legal experts organised in several working groups to propose an upgraded national legal framework for space activities. This constituted working groups dealt with: launching (to implement a licence procedure, considering the responsibility of France and international competition rules), earth observation (for licensing and data policy), telecommunications and navigation, and space objects property and security regime (linked to the registration convention and the Unidroit Space Protocol). Th report of this work named "Space Law Evolution in France Study" was presented to the Minister of Research by the beginnings of this year. The present author has driven the overall study on behalf of the French Research Ministry's Space Department. This paper presents the report's general content with following actions regarding the French national space legal framework.

  12. A framework for understanding the role of culture in entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Urban

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Synthesising research findings on business regulations, culture, self, and entrepreneurship, this article provides a broad overview of the potential patterns of relationships between cultural values, personal and contextual factors, and entrepreneurial outcomes. Theories of entrepreneurship where either environmental or personality variables have been specified as unique predictors of entrepreneurship are investigated to determine whether they capture the complexity of entrepreneurial action that encompasses the interaction of environmental, cognitive, and behavioural variables. Emphasis is also placed on the South African business environment, where business regulations that may enhance or constrain new business activity are analysed. Design/Methodology/Approach: Building on previous conceptualisations and empirical findings, the article identifies salient antecedents and consequences of venture creation from established literature. A framework is then proposed, building on previous findings to approach the interaction between the multiple interacting influences on entrepreneurship more systematically.Findings: Principal literature reviews indicate that, despite SA's apparent favourable regulatory environment, low entrepreneurial activity persists, and understanding the interplay between culture, self, context and entrepreneurship remains imperative for policymakers and practitioners. In the proposed model, cultural values affect the perception of an individual resulting in key entrepreneurial outcomes; culture is depicted as a moderator in the relationship between contextual factors (business regulations and entrepreneurial outcomes, and acts as a catalyst rather than a causal agent of entrepreneurial outcomes. Limitations include lack of any causal inferences, and thus directionality between the variables which are not fully explored or empirical tested.Implications: Implications for policymakers encouraging entrepreneurship in SA

  13. Post-war prevention: Emerging frameworks to prevent drug use after the War on Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan

    2017-07-19

    The prevention of drug use is one of the primary goals of the War on Drugs. However, despite investment in high-profile interventions such as social marketing campaigns and enforcement-based deterrence, these efforts have generally failed. With the emergence of novel policy frameworks to control and regulate drug use, a window of opportunity exists to test approaches to drug prevention that take into account existing evidence and the rights of individuals who use drugs. Specifically, there is a growing consensus that entry into drug use is a socially-defined event that individuals experience within particular socio-structural contexts. This understanding, coupled with a distinction between the value of preventing problematic drug use rather than all drug use, provides a useful framework within which to develop effective and rights-based approaches to drug prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex trafficking in Nepal: context and process

    OpenAIRE

    Hennink, Monique; Simkhada, Padam

    2004-01-01

    This study has developed a conceptual framework to provide a clearer understanding of the process and context of sex trafficking from Nepal. Quantitative data were analysed from case records of 202 sex-trafficked women at rehabilitation centres in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 42 sex trafficked women, mostly residing at rehabilitation centres in Kathmandu, provide contextual information on the process and circumstances of sex trafficking. The results of this study provide a clearer understa...

  15. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  16. Incest in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Stan

    1984-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive view of the societal, cultural, familial, and personality factors that form the context of people at risk for incest and associated problems. Summarizes the consequences and the causal context of incest and describes an ecosystems approach to intervention. (Author/LLL)

  17. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctor...

  18. Regulation and supervision of microfinance in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezart Hoxhaj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes important regulation issues that concern microfinance. It starts byconsidering literature on how and why to regulate and supervise microfinance. Considering thespecific case of microfinance in Albania, it analyzes the context of this industry and someparticular issues that might influence its growth. Related regulation in Albania seems to be notactivity-oriented since a real definition of microfinance is lacking in the Albanian law. Therefor,Albanian microfinance sector needs, first of all, a microcredit and microfinance definition toimplement the right development policies and avoid confusion and license misuse. Moreover, theregulatory framework seems to be too restrictive for institutions supposed to be engaged inmicrofinance example high capital requirement and provisioning. Possible interventions can be inlowering minimum capital requirements for NBFIs to improve entrance, simplifying procedures,documentation and harmonization of the taxation treatment of institutions to enhancedevelopment, encourage access and avoid market distortions. There is the need to implementregulation considering microfinance as an activity, and develop a regulatory framework to inducecommercial banks integrate downward into the microfinance market and help informal start-upsinstitutions develop and get formalized.

  19. Evaluation in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaap, Kamps; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger

    All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation...... in the Cranfield tradition requires abstracting away from individual differences between users. This paper investigates if we can bring some of this context into the Cranfield paradigm. Our approach is the following: we will attempt to record the "context" of the humans already in the loop - the topic authors....../assessors - by designing targeted questionnaires. The questionnaire data becomes part of the evaluation test-suite as valuable data on the context of the search requests.We have experimented with this questionnaire approach during the evaluation campaign of the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX...

  20. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human......: patients and IT; usability test and evaluation; work tasks and related contexts; human factors and simulation; and context and systems design, and outline theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights related to how health information technologies can be better designed to accommodate...

  1. Time and identity : A framework for research and theory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; van Geert, Paul; Bosma, Harke; Kunnen, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for the study of identity in the context of developmental and real-time. The framework consists of two dimensions related to the notion of time. One dimension involves the distinction between short- and long-term processes, or, as we call them, the micro-

  2. An Energy Flexibility Framework on the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Siksnys, Laurynas; Albano, Michele;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for management of flexible energy loads in the context of the Internet of Things and the Smart Grid. The framework takes place in the European project Arrowhead, and aims at taking advantage of the flexibility (in time and power) of energy production and consumption...

  3. Time and identity : A framework for research and theory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; van Geert, Paul; Bosma, Harke; Kunnen, Saskia

    This article presents a conceptual framework for the study of identity in the context of developmental and real-time. The framework consists of two dimensions related to the notion of time. One dimension involves the distinction between short- and long-term processes, or, as we call them, the micro-

  4. A Framework for Designing Cluster Randomized Trials with Binary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Martinez, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a frame work for approaching a power analysis for a CRT (cluster randomized trial) with a binary outcome. The authors suggest a framework in the context of a simple CRT and then extend it to a blocked design, or a multi-site cluster randomized trial (MSCRT). The framework is based on proportions, an…

  5. A Curriculum Framework Based on Archetypal Phenomena and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrowski, Bernie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an alternative paradigm of curriculum development based on the theory of situated cognition. This approach starts with context rather than concept, gives greater weight to students' interpretative frameworks, and provides for a more holistic development. Presents a grade 1-8 framework that uses archetypal phenomena and technologies as the…

  6. Time and identity : A framework for research and theory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; van Geert, Paul; Bosma, Harke; Kunnen, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for the study of identity in the context of developmental and real-time. The framework consists of two dimensions related to the notion of time. One dimension involves the distinction between short- and long-term processes, or, as we call them, the micro-

  7. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  8. Peer-Formativity: A Framework for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag

    2014-01-01

    The system currently deployed to assess research outputs in higher education can influence what, how and for whom academics write; for some it may determine whether or not they write at all. This article offers a framework for negotiating this performative context--the writing meeting. This framework uses the established theoretical underpinning…

  9. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Get a thorough introduction to ADO.NET Entity Framework 4 -- Microsoft's core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. The second edition of this acclaimed guide provides a hands-on tour of the framework latest version in Visual Studio 2010 and .NET Framework 4. Not only will you learn how to use EF4 in a variety of applications, you'll also gain a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs. Written by Julia Lerman, the leading independent authority on the framework, Programming Entity Framework covers it all -- from the Entity Data Model and Object Service

  10. Integrated pathway-based transcription regulation network mining and visualization based on gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibinge, Nelson; Ono, Naoaki; Horie, Masafumi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Saito, Akira; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2016-06-01

    Conventionally, workflows examining transcription regulation networks from gene expression data involve distinct analytical steps. There is a need for pipelines that unify data mining and inference deduction into a singular framework to enhance interpretation and hypotheses generation. We propose a workflow that merges network construction with gene expression data mining focusing on regulation processes in the context of transcription factor driven gene regulation. The pipeline implements pathway-based modularization of expression profiles into functional units to improve biological interpretation. The integrated workflow was implemented as a web application software (TransReguloNet) with functions that enable pathway visualization and comparison of transcription factor activity between sample conditions defined in the experimental design. The pipeline merges differential expression, network construction, pathway-based abstraction, clustering and visualization. The framework was applied in analysis of actual expression datasets related to lung, breast and prostrate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Life Stories in Context: Using the Three-Sphere Context Model To Analyze Amos's Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Tuval-Mashiach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide theoretical consensus among narrative researchers about the importance of referring to context in analyzing narratives, it seems that the various contexts at work in individual life stories and the specific methodological implications of the importance of context are not that clear. In this paper, I will describe a model for context analysis, which refers to three distinct spheres of contexts in which narrators situate their life stories (Zilber, Tuval-Mashiach, & Lieblich, 2008. The first context involves the immediate inter-subjective relationships within and involving which a narrative is produced; the second comprises the collective social field in which a life and story have evolved; and the third surrounds the systems of broad cultural meaning or meta-narratives that underlie and give sense to any particular life story. In the second part of the paper, I will illustrate the three contexts in Amos's story, and claim that viewing his story as it is embedded through these three contexts not only situates it within a more general social framework, but also enables a deeper understanding of his identity and the core themes of his life-story.

  12. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

  13. Dynamic context bindings : infrastructural support for context-aware applications

    OpenAIRE

    Broens, Tom Henri Ferdinand

    2008-01-01

    The world is increasingly equipped with high-capacity, interconnected, mobile and embedded computing devices. Context-awareness provides an attractive approach to personalize applications such that they better suit the user’s needs in this rich computing environment. Context-aware applications use context information, offered by context sources, to adapt their behavior to the situation at hand. The exchange of context information requires an association between a context consuming context-awa...

  14. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  15. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...

  16. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...

  17. Telehealth success: evaluation framework development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, M

    2001-01-01

    Implementing telehealth applications represents a substantial investment of resources, which is one reason why success is of great interest. Many research and evaluation studies have investigated measures of successful telehealth systems. However, the term "telehealth" represents a wide range of variables including clinical application, characteristics of the information being transmitted, temporal relationships of data transfer and the organizational context. These sources of variability pose many challenges for evaluation as well as for building a cumulative history of research. A conceptual framework is required that assists in categorizing results and drawing conclusions based on an accumulation of findings. One measure of "success" in health care is quality patient care and this reflects a primary reason for ICT investments. For this reason, Donabedian's work in evaluating quality provides the basis for the proposed framework. DeLone and McLean's definitions of IS success assist in conceptualizing Donabedian's structure-outcome-process variables in a telehealth context. Multiple evaluation approaches have been used to address different types of questions. Prior to the technologies being introduced to clinical care, there are usually many studies to demonstrate their effectiveness. Health Technology Assessment examines a broader context than the technology alone, including costs and comparing alternatives that would exist in the absence of telehealth. It considers performance measures; outcomes; summary measures, operational considerations, and other issues. Program Evaluation examines use of the technology to provide a service or deliver a program. Evaluation questions often address whether the program goals have been met and if it is operating as expected. Perhaps of greater concern than the evaluation approach taken is generalizability of findings. Recent studies have given inadequate attention to defining what is done (i.e. comparison of telehealth to most

  18. Deformations of crystal frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S

    2011-01-01

    We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.

  19. Considerations on Law no. 78/2014 regarding the Regulation of the Volunteering Activity in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at highlighting the progress in the regulation of volunteering activity in Romania through the recent adoption by the Parliament of the Law no. 78/2014 on the regulation of volunteering in Romania. The new legislative act, which replaced Volunteering Law no. 195 / 2001 (republished tries and we believe that it actually succeeds in providing consistent and harmonized solutions at European level to problems of organizations working with volunteers and thus creating a modern legal framework, appropriately adapted to the national and European context in the field of volunteering.

  20. From context to condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Martin; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Based on studies at Morphogenetic Studio, the article discusses how the term context in relation to generative design techniques can be understood as conditions integrated in both the form development and the production process.......Based on studies at Morphogenetic Studio, the article discusses how the term context in relation to generative design techniques can be understood as conditions integrated in both the form development and the production process....

  1. A Framework for Heterotic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Stepney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational devices combining two or more different parts, one controlling the operation of the other, for example, derive their power from the interaction, in addition to the capabilities of the parts. Non-classical computation has tended to consider only single computational models: neural, analog, quantum, chemical, biological, neglecting to account for the contribution from the experimental controls. In this position paper, we propose a framework suitable for analysing combined computational models, from abstract theory to practical programming tools. Focusing on the simplest example of one system controlled by another through a sequence of operations in which only one system is active at a time, the output from one system becomes the input to the other for the next step, and vice versa. We outline the categorical machinery required for handling diverse computational systems in such combinations, with their interactions explicitly accounted for. Drawing on prior work in refinement and retrenchment, we suggest an appropriate framework for developing programming tools from the categorical framework. We place this work in the context of two contrasting concepts of "efficiency": theoretical comparisons to determine the relative computational power do not always reflect the practical comparison of real resources for a finite-sized computational task, especially when the inputs include (approximations of real numbers. Finally we outline the limitations of our simple model, and identify some of the extensions that will be required to treat more complex interacting computational systems.

  2. Context Variation and Definitions in Learning the Meanings of Words: An Instance-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Donald J.; Balass, Michal; Landen, Eve; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes an instance-based theoretical framework to account for the influence of both contexts and definitions on learning new word meanings and reports 2 studies that examine hypotheses about learning from context. One is that variation in contexts is important for allowing core meaning features of a word to emerge. The second is…

  3. UrbanWeb: a Platform for Mobile Context-aware Social Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    UrbanWeb is a novel Web-based context-aware hypermedia plat- form. It provides essential mechanisms for mobile social comput- ing applications: the framework implements context as an exten- sion to Web 2.0 tagging and provides developers with an easy to use platform for mobile context-aware appli...

  4. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Feature context-dependency and complexity-reduction in probability landscapes for integrative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benecke Arndt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how to integrate heterogeneous sources of biological information into a coherent framework that allows the gene regulatory code in eukaryotes to be systematically investigated is one of the major challenges faced by systems biology. Probability landscapes, which include as reference set the probabilistic representation of the genomic sequence, have been proposed as a possible approach to the systematic discovery and analysis of correlations amongst initially heterogeneous and un-relatable descriptions and genome-wide measurements. Much of the available experimental sequence and genome activity information is de facto, but not necessarily obviously, context dependent. Furthermore, the context dependency of the relevant information is itself dependent on the biological question addressed. It is hence necessary to develop a systematic way of discovering the context-dependency of functional genomics information in a flexible, question-dependent manner. Results We demonstrate here how feature context-dependency can be systematically investigated using probability landscapes. Furthermore, we show how different feature probability profiles can be conditionally collapsed to reduce the computational and formal, mathematical complexity of probability landscapes. Interestingly, the possibility of complexity reduction can be linked directly to the analysis of context-dependency. Conclusion These two advances in our understanding of the properties of probability landscapes not only simplify subsequent cross-correlation analysis in hypothesis-driven model building and testing, but also provide additional insights into the biological gene regulatory problems studied. Furthermore, insights into the nature of individual features and a classification of features according to their minimal context-dependency are achieved. The formal structure proposed contributes to a concrete and tangible basis for attempting to formulate novel

  6. Knowledge in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kompa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to motivate and defend a version of epistemic contextualism; a version, that is, of what came to be called attributor or ascriber contextualism. I will begin by outlining, in the first part, what I take to be the basic idea of and motivation behind the version of epistemic contextualism that I favor. In the second part, a couple of examples will be presented in order to illustrate the contextualist point. Since epistemic (ascriber contextualists commonly claim that knowledge ascriptions are context-sensitive, the third part of the paper will be concerned with the phenomenon of context-sensitivity at a more general level. A more detailed inquiry into the context-sensitivity natural language expressions exhibit will prove helpful in order to counter the objection that postulating context-sensitivity in the case of knowledge ascriptions is an ad-hoc-maneuver. Given that epistemic contextualism is partly an epistemological thesis, party a linguistic thesis, the remainder of the paper will be devoted to the question of how to semantically model the kind of context-sensitivity exhibited by knowledge ascriptions. The upshot will be that there are two differ-ent ways of semantically accommodating the context-sensitivity at issue. Both call for a more or less drastic departure from epistemological and semantic orthodoxy.

  7. A Framework for Mobile User Experiences in Theme Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework, which contributes to a better theoretical understanding of mobile user experience in theme parks that is not limited to (a) personal smartphones, (b) a specific theme park, or (c) specific mobile content. Thus, the paper contributes to the field of mobile user...... experience in theme parks within HCI. The identified aspects constituting the mobile user experience in theme parks are the environmental context, the social context, the functional context, the mobile interface, and of course the mobile content. The framework is developed based on five diverse case studies...

  8. A Framework for Mobile User Experiences in Theme Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework, which contributes to a better theoretical understanding of mobile user experience in theme parks that is not limited to (a) personal smartphones, (b) a specific theme park, or (c) specific mobile content. Thus, the paper contributes to the field of mobile user...... experience in theme parks within HCI. The identified aspects constituting the mobile user experience in theme parks are the environmental context, the social context, the functional context, the mobile interface, and of course the mobile content. The framework is developed based on five diverse case studies...... on mobile content designed for different theme parks. The empirical data is based on observations studies, shadowing, and interviews....

  9. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Programming Entity Framework is a thorough introduction to Microsoft's new core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. This highly-acclaimed book not only gives experienced developers a hands-on tour of the Entity Framework and explains its use in a variety of applications, it also provides a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs -- knowledge that will be extremely valuable as you shift to the Entity Framework version in .NET Framework 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010. From the Entity Data Model (EDM) and Object Services to EntityClient and the Metadata Work

  10. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...

  11. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-01-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  12. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  13. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  14. Context, you need

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt

    that object-initial clauses like “Her, he invited” are more difficult to read and comprehend than subject-initial clauses like “He invited her”. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the difference particularly affects a brain area known by the name of Broca’s area. Whether one says “He invited her” or “Her......, he invited” depends on the context – it is therefore relevant to take contextual factors into account when examining how language users process information structure. The dissertation is based on a psycholinguistic reading experiment and three neuroimaging experiments that all examine the interplay...... between context and information structure. The experimental results indicate that context plays a significant role when it comes to sentence comprehension and that the activity in Broca’s area is also affected by contextual factors. Based on the results of the four language experiments, it is also argued...

  15. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... among the context factors studied. For instance hot beverages were more likely to be consumed at breakfast, while alcoholic beverages were strongly related to dinner meals. Beer/wine was considerably more likely to be consumed outside home or in on-premise locations in the presence of friends or family...

  16. A Brief History of Context

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Kaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Context is a rich concept and is an elusive concept to define. The concept of context has been studied by philosophers, linguists, psychologists, and recently by computer scientists. Within each research community the term context was interpreted in a certain way that is well-suited for their goals, however no attempt was made to define context. In many areas of research in computer science, notably on web-based services, human-computer interaction (HCI), ubiquitous computing applications, and context-aware systems there is a need to provide a formal operational definition of context. In this brief survey an account of the early work on context, as well as the recent work on many working definitions of context, context modeling, and a formalization of context are given. An attempt is made to unify the different context models within the formalization. A brief commentary on the usefulness of the formalization in the development of context-aware and dependable systems is included.

  17. Epigenetics in an ecotoxicological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetics can play a role in interactions between chemicals and exposed species, between species and abiotic ecosystem components or between species of the same or another population in a community. Technological progress and advanced insights into epigenetic processes have led to the description of epigenetic features (mainly DNA methylation) in many ecologically relevant species: algae, plants, several invertebrates and fish. Epigenetic changes in plants, insects and cladocerans have been reported to be induced by various environmental stress factors including nutrition or water deficiency, grazing, light or temperature alterations, social environment, and dissolved organic matter concentrations. As regards chemicals, studies in rats and mice exposed to specific pesticides, hydrocarbons, dioxins, and endocrine disrupting chemicals demonstrated the induction of epigenetic changes, suggesting the need for further research with these substances in an ecotoxicological context. In fish and plants, exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals, and soluble fractions of solid waste affected the epigenetic status. A novel concept in ecotoxicological epigenetics is the induction of transgenerational stress resistance upon chemical exposure, as demonstrated in rice exposed to metals. Evaluating epigenetics in ecotoxicological field studies is a second relatively new approach. A cryptic lineage of earthworms had developed arsenic tolerance in the field, concurrent with specific DNA methylation patterns. Flatfish caught in the framework of environmental monitoring had developed tumours, exhibiting specific DNA methylation patterns. Two main potential implications of epigenetics in an ecotoxicological context are (1) the possibility of transgenerationally inherited, chemical stress-induced epigenetic changes with associated phenotypes and (2) epigenetically induced adaptation to stress upon long-term chemical exposure. Key knowledge gaps are concerned with the causality of

  18. Context-dependent generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  19. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  20. 全球化背景下的跨国公司国际规范研究%Research on international regulations of transnational companies under the globalization context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2011-01-01

    在经济全球化过程中,熟悉国际游戏规则和全球价值规范成为各国企业首先面临的一个问题.本文主要研究跨国公司的国际规范,即跨国公司在不同的国家和地区处理跨国经营问题时,被广泛接受并认可的用于约束跨国公司行为的国际伦理规范.%During the process of globalization, one of the most important questions which many countries encounter is to familiarize the international rule of game and global value regulations. The target of this thesis is to study the international regulations of transnational regulations, that is the widely accepted international ethical guidelines applied to transnational companies when they solving different business issues in different countries or regions.