WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulation control law

  1. Loopholes of laws and regulations related to redevelopment of former sites of radioactive material control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We found loopholes of laws and regulations for supervising radioactive materials. It is not obliged to measure the soil radioactivity of the sites that were formerly used as scientific or engineering institutes, or hospitals with a radioactive material control area. If the former institutes or hospitals made studies with radioactive materials before the enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to isotopes and its detailed regulations, it is concluded that there was the period when the radioactive materials were not under management. If it is found that the radioactive materials were applied at the former site before the enforcement of the related laws and regulations, the radioactivity in the soil of the redeveloped area should be examined, which should be obliged by some laws or regulations. (author)

  2. Code of laws and regulations on atomic energy controls. Showa 53 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The code has collected above laws and regulations promulgated by 10th February, 1978 and they can be classified into following several categories. 1. Atomic Energy Basic Law and Atomic Energy Commission Establishment Law including their related government orders, regulations and rules. 2. The Law for Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and regulations, rules, instructions and guidelines. 3. The Law on Technical Criteria for the Prevention of Radiation Hazards and the Law Concerning the Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc. including their related government orders, regulations, rules and announcements. 4. The Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage with its relating government order and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage. 5. Laws for establishing those nuclear energy development organizations as Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. 6. Other laws relating to atomic energy and radiation utilization including their pertaining regulations, rules, standards, etc. such as: Electricity Business Law; Land Transportation and Cars Law; Ships and Vessels Safety Law; Aviation Law; Employees' Health and Safety Law; Electricity Resources Development Law; and others

  3. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the DOD Military Retirement Trust Fund Financial Statements for FY 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... No. 94-01, "Form and Content of Agency Financial Statements," November 16, 1993. In addition, we assessed the internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations related to the financial statements...

  4. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the DOD Military Retirement Trust Fund Financial Statements for FY 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 94-01, "Form and Content of Agency Financial Statements," November 16, 1993. In addition, we assessed the internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations related to the financial statements...

  5. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  6. Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaqan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

  7. Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Mandrioli, Daniele; Cranor, Carl F

    2015-03-18

    The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was the first legislation to extend coverage to the regulation of industrial chemicals, both existing and newly registered. However, decisions related to both law and science that were made in passing this law inevitably rendered it ineffectual. Attempts to fix these shortcomings have not been successful. In light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform in US law and practice.

  8. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Working Capital Fund Financial Statements for FY 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), who is the fund manager of the DFAS Working Capital Fund, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls and for complying with applicable laws and regulations...

  9. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the "Other Defense Organizations" Receiving Department 97 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to assess internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations and to review and evaluate the adjustments to the FY 1996 "Other Defense Organizations" financial statements...

  10. The law concerning the environmental impact assessment. Vol. 1. Collection of regulations with an introduction to EIA law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The present book contains all regulations relevant to EIA in compact form: The EU EIA Directive; the Federal Law on the EIA; the Procedural Rules of Atomic Energy Law; the Ninth Ordinance on the Federal Emissions Control Law including the pertinent general administrative regulation; the Federal Mining Law; the Federal Building Law; the Federal Regional Planning Law; and the EIA laws of the Laender such as implementing regulations, the Land EIA Laws, and the Land Planning Laws. There is a basic introduction to EIA law preceding this collection of regulations and laws. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  12. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  13. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law authorizing these regulations. 146.2 Section 146.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.2 Law...

  14. The TEXTBOOK - Directives, Regulations, Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    The TEXTBOOK is a collection of carefully selected directives, regulations, and judgments. Whether you are a student, a scholar, or a practitioner of law, this book is a supplemental tool in your work with European business law. It is recommended that you have this book within your reach when you...

  15. Radiation protection and the laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Takuo

    1980-01-01

    In hospitals and clinics, when cobalt remote irradiation apparatuses, betatrons and linear accelerators are installed, the provisions of medical and radiation injury prevention laws and other related laws and regulations must be observed. The following matters are described: the laws and regulations concerning the prevention of radiation injuries, the definitions of the therapeutical equipments, the radiation protection standards for such facilities, radiation exposure dose and permissible dose, the procedures concerning the application before usage, the responsibilities of hospitals and clinics for radiation measurement and management, and shielding and shield calculations. (J.P.N.)

  16. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop m odel laws . Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  17. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  18. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Financial Statements for FY 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Frederick

    1996-01-01

    ... No. 94-01, "Form and Content of Agency Financial Statements," November 16, 1993. In addition, we determined whether controls were adequate to ensure that the consolidated financial statements were free of material error...

  19. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Lundy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  20. SHELL DISEASES AND TOXINS REGULATED BY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Topić Popović

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of cultivating shells in Croatia, and the shell industry has a good perspective of further development. Since shells are delicate organisms that require special breeding conditions and climate, they are also subject to many diseases. Bonamiosis, haplospioridiosis, marteiliosis, microcytosis and perkinsosis are stated by the International Bureau for Epizootics as shell diseases that, in keeping with law, must be reported, and iridovirosis as a disease of a potential international importance. The same diseases are regulated by the Veterinary Law from 1997 as infectious diseases prevention of which is of an interest for the Republic of Croatia. Although, according to the law, it does not have to be prevented, in this article the disease Mytilicola is also described. According to the Health Department Statute from 1994, eatable part of shells are being tested for toxins of some marine dinoflagelates that can damage human health, and these are PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poison, DSP (Diarrhoeic Shellfish Poison and NSP (Neuroparalytic Shellfish Poison.

  1. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms

  2. 3-D bioprinting law regulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Harkusha, Andrii

    Achieved level of technical progress moves us closer and closer to practical use of 3-d bioprinting technologies in real life. Such perspective raise a wide variety of crucial legal issues from the acceptable model of regulation of the science and its' societal effects to problems of the commercialization of the technology and potential restrictions of its use. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. Scientific discussion on 3-D bioprinting, European Union`s and US experience in patenting of 3-D bioprinting technologies, European Medicine Agency (EMA) or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, European Medical Technology Industry Association (EUCOMED) Acts. Article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. General debate of last few years comes down to an attempt to resolve hesitation between legal attempts for regulation of 3-D biobrinting and concept of complete prohibition of such activities. An adequate response to the mentioned challenge is a reasonable position between some aspects of prohibition and self-regulation, resulting in a moderate number of regulations and standards for developing and marketing. Such regulations may concern an intellectual property (IP) rights, regulation of distribution, premarket restrictions, control mechanism etc. Scientific approach and regulatory settlement of 3-D bioprinting sphere must unite to achieve a fair balance between the interests of humanity and of individuals - on the one hand, and development of science and business benefits for stakeholders - on the other. The main instruments for this must be balanced regulation of intellectual property (IP) rights, regulation of access and distribution, premarket restrictions, control mechanism etc.

  3. History of the nuclear matter safety and control law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations

  4. Whistleblowing in the Slovak labor law regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Krošlák

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrupt behaviour is a common practice with negative effects on the whole of society. For instance, if a company wins a public procurement contract in an unfair way, it enriches itself not only at the expense of competition, but also at the expense of the whole of society, as the best applicant has not necessarily been selected within such a procurement. The same applies in the case of a supplier launching an unsafe product onto the market, threatening the health of everyone who buys it. In order to prevent such malpractice and eliminate their negative effects, the cooperation of persons aware of such behaviours is necessary. In order to ensure such cooperation, however, the existence of instruments protecting whistle-blowers against various sanctions (especially by employers is necessary. As Slovak legislation did not include a regulation of procedures for reporting malpractice and protecting whistle-blowers, a new law aimed at solving such issues was enacted in October, 2014. The given legal regulation took effect on January 1, 2015. This paper endeavours to provide basic knowledge of the environment that the given regulation entered, as well as information on the possibilities of individuals to protect social interests on its grounds.

  5. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    According to the provisions of The Law, those stipulated as internationally controlled materials are nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, reactors and facilities, transferred from such as the U.S.A., the U.K. and Canada on the agreements of peaceful uses of atomic energy, and nuclear fuel materials accruing therefrom. (Mori, K.)

  6. Right, laws, regulations and technical building systems; Recht, Gesetze, Verordnungen und Technische Gebaeudesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Chapter 23 of the anthology about building control gives an overview of the laws and regulations in the field of technical building systems. The following fields are discussed: license regulations in the field of building trade, communication law, environmental responsibility law, building right, European directives, laws and regulations of the Federal Government and the Laender. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 23 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control gibt einen Ueberblick ueber Recht, Gesetze und Verordnungen im Bereich der Technischen Gebaeudesysteme. In diesem Zusammenhang kommen folgende Bereiche in Frage: Lizenzrecht im Bauwesen; Fernmelderecht; Umwelthaftungsgesetz; Baurecht; Europaeische Richtlinien; Gesetze und Verordnungen des Bundes und der Laender. (BWI)

  7. 19 CFR 122.30 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.30 Section 122.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.30 Other Customs laws and regulations...

  8. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  9. An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio); R.J. van den Bergh (Roger)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This chapter provides a general framework to analyze regulation with a law and economics approach. It introduces the volume “Regulation and Economics” of the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. This study intends to provide a state-of-the-art overview of

  10. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, and the former notification No. 26, 1961, is hereby abolished. Internationally regulated goods under the law are as follows: nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and moderator materials transferred by sale or other means from the governments of the U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia and France or the persons under their jurisdictions according to the agreements concluded between the governments of Japan and these countries, respectively, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, nuclear reactors, the facilities and heavy water transferred by sale or other means from these governments or the persons under their jurisdictions, the nuclear fuel materials produced by the usage of such reactors, facilities and heavy water, the nuclear fuel materials sold by the International Atomic Energy Agency under the contract between the Japanese government and the IAEA, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, the heavy water produced by the facilities themselves transferred from the Canadian government, Canadian governmental enterprises or the persons under the jurisdiction of the Canadian government or produced by the usage of these facilities, etc. (Okada, K.)

  11. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  12. Atomic Energy Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the consolidated text of the Atomic Energy Control Regulations of 17 March 1960, with amendments to 27 August 1992. The Regulations cover the licensing of nuclear facilities, radiation sources, including uranium mining, radiation protection questions, etc. (NEA)

  13. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  14. Constitutionality Degree of Indonesia Local Regulation in Political Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Politics of Law holds responsibility to give the surety of all regulations, including Local Regulation, for capable of reflecting the collective will of the public as the owner of the highest sovereignty. Politics of law is always working to bring together the ius constituendum and ius constitutum  at the encounter between realism and idealism. Local Regulation as subsystems of national law, is expected to serve as a guiding instrument and guard direction for development and continuous improvement of Local Government. Therefore the existence of local regulations holds a strategic role for legal certainty, which is a necessary to create a conducive business climate and stability of the country. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Constitutionality Degree of Indonesia Local Regulation in Political Law Perspective. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 41-52. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.131

  15. Present problems with atomic energy laws and regulations. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The report includes two speeches held by the author on the 3rd Japanese-German Atomic Law Symposion in Tokio on 5-7 Oct. 1992. The titles are: 1) Recent developments in the German Laws and regulations ruling atomic energy; 2) Legal aspects of stopping and eliminating nuclear plants in Germany. Both speeches were translated into Japanese. (HP) [de

  16. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the Defense Logistics Agency Working Capital Fund Financial Statements for FY 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," as amended by Public Law 103-356, the "Federal Financial Management Act of 1994," requires financial statement audits by the Inspector...

  17. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the Defense Logistics Agency Working Capital Fund Financial Statements for FY 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," as amended by Public Law 103-356, the "Federal Financial Management Act of 1994," requires financial statement audits by the Inspector...

  18. EMERGING COMMON LAW DECISIONS IN GOODWILL ACCOUNTING REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Radu-Daniel LOGHIN

    2014-01-01

    In respect to financial reporting, statutory accounting standards and regulations form only a part of the normative landscape. Considering the case of common law countries, besides these classic sources of norms and practices there is an alternative base for exercising the professional judgement of the accountant, the case law precedents which drive and supplement in cases accounting regulations. For the purpose of this paper, goodwill accounting is explored from a normative perspective which...

  19. Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation (No. 434-1993) was made in pursuance of the Radiation Control Act 1990 and replaces the Active Substances Regulations 1959 repealed by the Act. It entered into force on 1 September 1993. The Regulation specifies that the technical radiation protection definitions have the same meaning as in the 1990 recommendations. The Regulation provides for the licensing of persons to use radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. It prescribes activities which may only be carried out by an accredited radiation expert and regulates the use of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances as well as the disposal and transport of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances. (NEA)

  20. Comparative study of flare control laws. [optimal control of b-737 aircraft approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, A. A.; Breedlove, W. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A digital 3-D automatic control law was developed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between various initial glid slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition. A discrete, time-invariant, optimal, closed-loop control law presented for a linear regulator problem, was extended to include a system being acted upon by a constant disturbance. Two forms of control laws were derived to solve this problem. One method utilized the feedback of integral states defined appropriately and augmented with the original system equations. The second method formulated the problem as a control variable constraint, and the control variables were augmented with the original system. The control variable constraint control law yielded a better performance compared to feedback control law for the integral states chosen.

  1. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The internationally controlled materials determined according to the law for nuclear source materials, etc. are the following: nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, facilities including reactors, etc. sold, transferred, etc. to Japan according to the agreements for peaceful uses of atomic energy between Japan, and the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and France by the respective governments and those organs under them; nuclear fuel materials resulting from usage of the above sold and transferred materials, facilities; nuclear fuel materials sold to Japan according to agreements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency; nuclear fuel materials involved with the safeguards in nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty with IAEA. (Mori, K.)

  2. AGENCY CONTRACTS – EXISTING REGULATIONS IN ROMANIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cojocaru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agency contracts are created as legal instruments with a highly important role for the business activity, given that they are the basis for professional intermediation. Regulations have changed in time, in an attempt to offer a better apprehension of the notion and applicability of this type of contract through the legislative framework. In Romanian law, this type of contract was regulated for the first time by Law no. 509 in 2002 on permanent commercial agents, law that was repealed when the new Civil Code came into force on October 1, 2011.

  3. EMERGING COMMON LAW DECISIONS IN GOODWILL ACCOUNTING REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Daniel LOGHIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In respect to financial reporting, statutory accounting standards and regulations form only a part of the normative landscape. Considering the case of common law countries, besides these classic sources of norms and practices there is an alternative base for exercising the professional judgement of the accountant, the case law precedents which drive and supplement in cases accounting regulations. For the purpose of this paper, goodwill accounting is explored from a normative perspective which draws from case law precedents in Zimbabwe and South Africa, two emerging common law countries which share a rich common law heritage, resulting in a set of findings relevant to the understanding of the nature of goodwill as well as an understanding of the factors which lead to early adoption of International Accounting Standards.

  4. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  5. Investigating the Role of International Law in Controlling Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Kheirkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International law globally plays a key role in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, due to changed forms of infectious diseases and individuals' lifestyles as well as individuals' proximity caused by increased air travels, communicable diseases are in an international and cross-border form. In this regard, binding regulations and inconsistent rules adopted in international multilateral institutions like the World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization can be of great use in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. With the globalization of public health, international law can be used as an essential tool in monitoring global health and reducing human vulnerability and mortality.

  6. Procedural problems in phase-out regulations in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The contribution discusses the legal regulations accompanying German nuclear policy during the past twelve years. There were several radical changes in 2002, 2010, and 2011 which reflect the opinions of the then German governments; some of these regulations, according to the author, were not compatible with German constitutional law.

  7. 19 CFR 122.2 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.2 Section 122.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.2 Other Customs...

  8. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of

  9. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  10. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  11. Comparative study of flare control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a digital, three dimensional, automatic control law designed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between glide slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition is presented. The digital control law is a time invariant, state estimate feedback law, and the design is capable of using the microwave landing system. Major emphasis is placed on the reduction of aircraft noise in communities surroundings airports, the reduction of fuel consumption, the reduction of the effects of adverse weather conditions on aircraft operations, and the efficient use of airspace in congested terminal areas. Attention is also given to the development of the capability to perform automatic flares from steep glide slopes to precise touchdown locations.

  12. Legal provisions governing technical installations, especially regulations of the Building Law, Trade-and-Industry Law, and Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    The author first shows the various legal regulation patterns of the German law system with regard to technical installations and in this context discusses the comprehensive clause method which refers to scientific-technical standards. This method is said to be an adequate means of achieving suitable results in the relationship between law and technology. However, three weak points can be seen: (1) The law system uses many different standards. (2) Due to uncertainty about the real meaning and content of these standards, it is not clear how these standards are defined. (3) This in practice puts up the question to what extent statutory works of technology are a suitable tool of making legal regulations more concrete, and whether they are to be given binding force. (HSCH) [de

  13. A Story of Three Bank-Regulatory Legal Systems: Contract, Financial Management Regulation and Fiduciary Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Frankel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available How should banks be regulated to avoid their failure? Banks must control the risks they take with depositors' money. If depositors lose their trust in their banks, and demand their money, the banks will fail. This article describes three legal bank regulatory systems: Contract with depositors (U.S.; a mix of contract and trust law, but going towards trust (Japan and a full trust-fiduciary law regulating banks (Israel. The article concludes that bank regulation, which limits the banks' risks and conflicts of interest, helps create trustworthy banks that serve their country best.

  14. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  15. Networks, complexity and internet regulation scale-free law

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2013-01-01

    This book, then, starts with a general statement: that regulators should try, wherever possible, to use the physical methodological tools presently available in order to draft better legislation. While such an assertion may be applied to the law in general, this work will concentrate on the much narrower area of Internet regulation and the science of complex networks The Internet is the subject of this book not only because it is my main area of research, but also because –without...

  16. Regulation on control of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kaname

    1976-01-01

    Some comment is made on the present laws and the future course of consolidating the regulation of nuclear fuel materials. The first part gives the definitions of the nuclear fuel materials in the laws. The second part deals with the classification and regulation in material handling. Refinement undertaking, fabrication undertaking, reprocessing undertaking, the permission of the government to use the materials, the permission of the government to use the materials under international control, the restriction of transfer and receipt, the reporting, and the safeguard measures are commented. The third part deals with the strengthening of regulation. The nuclear fuel safety deliberation special committee will be established at some opportunity of revising the ordinance. The nuclear material safeguard special committee has been established in the Atomic Energy Commission. The last part deals with the future course of legal consolidation. The safety control will be strengthened. The early investigation of waste handling is necessary, because low level solid wastes are accumulating at each establishment. The law for transporting nuclear materials must be consolidated as early as possible to correspond to foreign transportation laws. Physical protection is awaiting the conclusions of the nuclear fuel safeguard special committee. The control and information systems for the safeguard measures must be consolidated in the laws. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Regulations And Control Of Food And Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuide, G.E.; Director General, National Agency For Food And Drugs Administration And Control, Federal Secretariat, Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria.

    1996-01-01

    Effective control of processed food and medicines is crucial for the maintenance of public health. Issues of wholesomeness, quality, efficacy and safety are of paramount concern to both consumers and regulatory agencies alike. Laws and regulatory are put in in place to ensure minimum standards of practice by the various operators in the food and pharmaceutical sub-sectors, such as will guarantee that the regulated products (food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, chemicals and bottled water) they deal in satisfy all the parameters of quality, wholesomeness, efficacy and safety. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) was established to enforce all relevant laws and regulations on food and drugs among other-regulated products. NAFDAC has put in place appropriate administrative structures and procedures in its efforts to fulfill its mandate. Finally, the agency is in the process of extending its regulatory and control activities to cover irradiated food products in order to safeguard public health

  18. Arms control and the rule of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War

  19. Arms control and the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  20. Civil Law Obligations in the Financial Law Regulations A seminar at the Faculty of Law and Administration, Torun, 24 March 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Bączyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem, which is examined in the study, is the legal way of creation of civil law obligations. Civil law obligations are created by civil law transactions (especially by contracts. There is the question, if civil law obligations can be created directly by the legal regulations? This issue is important for the legal and financial relations between the Treasury, local government and other legal persons.

  1. Digest of impaired driving and selected beverage control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with impaired driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 2006.

  2. The regulation of Christian churches: Ecclesiology, law and polity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hill QC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the internal regulation of religious organisations in terms of their law, order or polity. It offers a systematic comparative analysis of how different Christian traditions structure and regulate themselves. The resultant legal frameworks are expressive of the institutional self-understanding of particular churches and, as such, are a form of applied ecclesiology. The paper draws upon two ongoing research studies: the Colloquium of Anglican and Roman Catholic Canon Lawyers and the Christian Law Panel of Experts, the latter having submitted a detailed submission to the World Council of Churches’ Faith and Order Commission giving a legal critique of its recent document ‘Towards a Common Vision’. Through a detailed methodical and comparative analysis of the various structural and regulatory formulae adopted by the different branches of the Christian family, profound similarities are discernible that are redolent with deeper theological significance. This research represents an emergent platform capable of being utilised within the ecumenical endeavour to give traction in the movement towards greater visible unity in the 21st century.

  3. Some optimal considerations in attitude control systems. [evaluation of value of relative weighting between time and fuel for relay control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    The conventional six-engine reaction control jet relay attitude control law with deadband is shown to be a good linear approximation to a weighted time-fuel optimal control law. Techniques for evaluating the value of the relative weighting between time and fuel for a particular relay control law is studied along with techniques to interrelate other parameters for the two control laws. Vehicle attitude control laws employing control moment gyros are then investigated. Steering laws obtained from the expression for the reaction torque of the gyro configuration are compared to a total optimal attitude control law that is derived from optimal linear regulator theory. This total optimal attitude control law has computational disadvantages in the solving of the matrix Riccati equation. Several computational algorithms for solving the matrix Riccati equation are investigated with respect to accuracy, computational storage requirements, and computational speed.

  4. Featuring Control Power: Corporate Law and Economics Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation reappraises the existing framework for economic analysis of corporate law. The standard approach to the legal foundations of corporate governance is based on the ‘law matters’ thesis, according to which corporate law promotes separation of ownership and control by

  5. 42 CFR 405.1063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings... Medicare Coverage Policies § 405.1063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and... the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the Administrator, CMS. Consistent with...

  6. The rule of law approach to regulating electricity supply in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... It assesses potential conflict between principles of market orthodoxy and those of constitutional governance and argues for a rule-of-law approach to regulation post-privatization ... Keywords: Liberalization, Privatization, Regulation, Market Efficiency, Rule of Law ...

  7. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law... respects and follows the policies and laws regarding worker labor protections particularly as they [[Page...

  8. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that...

  9. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations... objectives, this proposed rule adds a subpart and clause entitled Labor Law Violations to the Agriculture...

  10. Oil pollution control mechanisms - statutes and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide a detailed picture of federal statutes and regulations, as well as case law, bearing on oil spill prevention and control. Emphasis has been placed on federal action occurring after a spill, although some effort is directed toward review of prevention statutes and regulations. In-depth consideration is given the control of oil pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act but this analysis also touches lightly upon acts that have a lesser effect on oil pollution control. These acts being: The Refuse Act; The Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972; The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; The Oil Pollution Act of 1961; The Deepwater Port Act of 1974, and The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

  11. The Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations: The Rome I Regulation in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    De Miguel Asensio, Pedro Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations: The Rome I Regulation in Comparative Perspective I. Introduction II. Party Autonomy III. Applicable Law in the Absence of Choice IV. Protection of Weaker Parties V. Overriding Mandatory Rules and Public Policy

  12. Collection of laws and ordinances concerning regulation of atomic energy, 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the collection of the laws and ordinances on the regulation of atomic energy, 1991 edition, published under the supervision of Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. First, the abbreviated indication of the laws and ordinances is shown. The contents are those as of September 30, 1990. 12 basic laws and ordinances, 45 laws and ordinances on the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, 26 laws and ordinances on the prevention of the radiation injuries due to radioisotopes and others, and 29 related laws and ordinances are collected in this book. (K.I.)

  13. 16 CFR 304.4 - Application of other law or regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of other law or regulation. 304.4 Section 304.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE HOBBY PROTECTION ACT § 304.4 Application of other law or...

  14. Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-08-08

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

  15. Exclusion of objections in licensing procedures according to Atomic Energy Law or Pollution Control Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution shows that the exclusion of objections after expiration of the term provided for in licensing procedures under Atomic Energy Law and Pollution Control Law has to be understood extensively and that it is in accordance with German Basic Law. In detail, the treatise is limited to the discussion of the following issues: the effects of the expiration of the period on the right to raise objections, the importance of the exclusion of objections for lawsuits and the importance of the exclusion of objections for constitutional law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. California's privacy pileup. New state laws meet even newer federal regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Chris

    2009-08-01

    In California, teasing apart state and federal breach notification laws highlights the challenges organizations everywhere face in determining their responsibilities under ARRA's new privacy regulations.

  17. Regulation on control systems tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.; Navarro, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements under regulation applicable to the testing of control systems and controlled equipments in the case of USA nuclear projects are examined. They are reviewed, in particular, the following standards and criteria: 10 Code of Federal Regulations 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 20 and 21; IEEE Standards 279 and 308; IEEE Standard 338; US Regulatory Guides 1.22 and 1.118.(J.E.de C.)

  18. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that, to the best of its knowledge...

  19. The law concerning the environmental impact assessment. Vol. 1. Collection of regulations with an introduction to EIA law; Das Recht der Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung. Bd. 1. Vorschriftensammlung mit Einfuehrung in das UVP-Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    The present book contains all regulations relevant to EIA in compact form: The EU EIA Directive; the Federal Law on the EIA; the Procedural Rules of Atomic Energy Law; the Ninth Ordinance on the Federal Emissions Control Law including the pertinent general administrative regulation; the Federal Mining Law; the Federal Building Law; the Federal Regional Planning Law; and the EIA laws of the Laender such as implementing regulations, the Land EIA Laws, and the Land Planning Laws. There is a basic introduction to EIA law preceding this collection of regulations and laws. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Das Buch bietet alle UVP-Vorschriften in kompakter Form, die UVPRL der EU, das UVPG, die Atomrechtliche Verfahrensverordnung (AtVfV) und die 9. BImSchV einschliesslich der entsprechenden Allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschrift sowie das BBergG, das BauGB, das ROG bis hin zum UVP-Recht der Laender wie DurchfuehrungsVO, LUVPG und Landesplanungsgesetzen. Vorangestellt ist diesen Vorschriften eine grundlegende Einfuehrung in das Recht des UVP. (orig./HP)

  20. Basic characteristics of the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammich, S

    1987-02-02

    The paper abstracted informs about the basic principles characterizing the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic. The author deals with the constitutional principles, the National Culture Law valid since 1970 and conceived as a general pollution law, the planning of pollution abatement, legal aspects of water pollution abatement, air pollution abatement, waste management, noise pollution abatement and radiation protection. Particular emphasis is on the legal sanctions devised to ensure the observance of environmental laws and restrictions which are both part of the administrative, civil and economic laws and of the disciplinary and criminal laws. (HSCH).

  1. State-wide Regulation of Smoking Law in Lagos state Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya

    2016-07-01

    Awareness of the State Regulation of smoking law was low however ,many of the workers support many aspects of the law. They however, believed the law would negatively impact revenue. Mechanisms to educate these workers and deal with their misconceptions of the perceived negative effects of the law should be implemented. Monitoring the awareness and support of these workers for smoke-free legislation is essential, in line with the guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO FCTC.

  2. Information Sources on U. S. Radio Regulations in the Law Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, James D.

    An annotated bibliography gives the radio regulations in the U.S., using sources available in the University of Michigan Law Library as well as the University of Michigan Libraries. Information is applicable to other law, university and public libraries. Relevant material on television regulations is included. Listings cover federal agencies, card…

  3. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings..., ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS... on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the CMS Administrator...

  4. The purpose of uniform choice-of law rules: the Rome II Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 marks the entry into force of the first two EC regulations on choice of law: one on torts and other non-contractual obligations (‘Rome II’), and one on contracts (‘Rome I’). In both regulations, the need for uniform choice-of-law rules is explained, generally, in the preamble. In ‘Rome

  5. 5 CFR 2636.302 - Relationship to other laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to other laws and... Employees § 2636.302 Relationship to other laws and regulations. The limitations and restrictions contained... applicable standards of conduct or by reason of any statute or regulation relating to conflicts of interest...

  6. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.13 Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. (a...

  7. Safety requirements laid down in the Atomic Energy Law and in the Law on Immission Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with safety requirements relating to installations, laid down in the Atomic Energy Law and in the Law on Immission Control. Actually it is a matter of how the safety requirements of sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Law can be compared with those laid down in the sections 5 and 6 of the Federal Act for the Protection Against Nuisances. In the process, three comparative levels are examined: 1. The normative conditions concerning the licencability of hazardous installations, 2. those demands that go way beyond that in order to reduce residual risks, and 3. the licensing authorities' scope of discretion. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  9. The new Portuguese law on surrogacy - The story of how a promising law does not really regulate surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2017-09-01

    Since 2006, surrogacy arrangements have been expressly forbidden within the Portuguese legal order, in any one of its forms, and in some situations, it has even been criminalised. However, since August 2016, surrogacy has been allowed under certain restrictive scenarios, providing it follows several prerequisites. In spite of this progress, the 2016 amendment to the law has not been immune to criticism. One of its most debatable aspects is the lack of the surrogate's right to regret, although it is doubtful that surrogacy contracts will be enforced against a surrogate's wishes. But the weakest point of the new law is its failure to address some of the nuclear issues of surrogacy contracts, leaving solutions either to general contract law or to the clauses stipulated by the parties. Furthermore, it is unclear which clauses are allowed and which are forbidden under the law. This study describes the content of the new Portuguese surrogacy law, exposes its main fragilities and suggests solutions for matters not covered by the law. The conclusion is that a law full of promise fails regarding the issues it is supposed to regulate.

  10. The promotion and control functions of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The question about the purpose of atomic energy law may sound superfluous in Germany, a country where a highly differential legal framework for the peaceful utilization of nuclear power has existed for nearly 40 years in the Basic Law, the Atomic Energy Act, and its ordinances, and a comprehensive body of case laws. Yet, it is justified in view of the declared intention of the German federal government to establish an environmental code into which atomic energy law, hitherto an independent branch of the law, would be integrated, and it is justified also in view of persistent complaints that the present rules and regulations stifled investment activities. A look into some codes of law may help answer the question. Already in 1959, the authors of the Atomic Energy Act outlined the purposes of the legislation in relatively clear terms in Section 1. Besides the two foreign policy aspects of security and loyalty under treaties, which do not concern us in this connection, the key purposes of atomic energy law are stated there as promotion and protection. The protection purpose, which implies the need to protect life, health, and property from the hazards of nuclear energy and harmful effects of ionizing radiation, ranks second in the Act. In accordance with the ruling in 1972 of the Federal Administrative Court, however, it should rank at the top. (orig.) [de

  11. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations ...

  12. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  13. Protecting Biodiversity: National Laws Regulating Access to Genetic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book is the first to compare such laws and policies across a range of countries in ... and developing worlds, including Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, ... conservation, the environment, intellectual property, and related issues; ...

  14. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  15. Collection of laws and ordinances concerning regulation of atomic energy, 1989 edition. 1989 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The collection of the laws and ordinances concerning the regulation of atomic energy, 1989 edition, was published by the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. First, the abbreviated expressions of 56 laws and ordinances are shown. The contents are divided into Part 1: Fundamental laws and ordinances, Part 2: Regulation of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, Part 3: Prevention of radiation injuries due to radioactive isotopes and others, and Part 4: Related laws and ordinances. In Part 1, Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, Act of Institution of Atomic Energy Commission and Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan, Law Concerning the Technical Standard for Prevention of Radiation Injuries and 9 others are included. In Part 2, Law Concerning Regulation of Nuclear Source Materials, Nuclear Fuel Materials and Nuclear Reactors and 45 others are included. In Part 3, Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injuries Due to Radioisotopes and Others and 25 others are included. In Part 4, Electricity Enterprises Act, Road Transport and Vehicles Act, Ships' Safety Law, Labor Safety and Hygiene Law, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Law and 29 others are included. The contents are those as of November 30, 1988. (Kako, I.)

  16. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline control law for research into adaptive elements and other advanced flight control law components. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation; the simulation results show excellent handling qualities throughout the limited flight envelope. A simple angular momentum formulation was chosen because it can be included in the stability proofs for many basic adaptive theories, such as model reference adaptive control. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as basic as possible to simplify the addition of the adaptive elements. Those design choices are explained, along with their predicted impact on the handling qualities.

  17. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  18. Time Optimal Control Laws for Bilinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bichiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the feedforward and state feedback suboptimal time control for a subset of bilinear systems, namely, the control sequence and reaching time. This paper proposes a method that uses Block pulse functions as an orthogonal base. The bilinear system is projected along that base. The mathematical integration is transformed into a product of matrices. An algebraic system of equations is obtained. This system together with specified constraints is treated as an optimization problem. The parameters to determine are the final time, the control sequence, and the states trajectories. The obtained results via the newly proposed method are compared to known analytical solutions.

  19. Environmental impact statement law and environmental impact statement administration regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution does not deal with the question - as might be suggested by the heading - that the execution of the environmental impact statement law might be uncertain if there are no further accompanying legal transformatory acts. Putting the environmental impact statements into action is concerned in partiuclar with procedural provisions regarding the Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Act. The author deals with aspects of the environmental impact statement law and the state-of-the-art achieved so far. He also deals with legislative intent, with further points of putting the law into practice, i.e. the information requirements in the administrative provisions and the integrating aspect, the amalgamating aspect, the requirements made on the state of the environment, and the significance of administrative provisions. Also treated are legal procedures in the Federal Laender and on an international level. (RST) [de

  20. Legal basis of energy economy. Collection of important laws and regulations of the amended power economy law. 7. ed.; Rechtsgrundlagen der Energiewirtschaft. Sammlung wichtiger Gesetze und Vorschriften zum novellierten Energiewirtschaftsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, B.J.; Schweers, E.

    2007-07-01

    The book under consideration is an actual collection of important laws and regulations according to the amended power economy law. It is the 7th edition and contains components of the European and national cartel law. Furthermore, the power economy law, the regulations of mains access, and the regulations of mains fee are revised editorial. The book consist of four main chapters: (a) General energy law; (b) Bylaws to energy economical laws; (c) Law of privileged energy supports; (d) cartel law.

  1. Stochastic control and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is studied from the point of view of stochastic control theory. We find that the feedback control laws which are of interest are those which depend only on average values, and not on sample path behavior. We are lead to a criterion which, when satisfied, permits one to assign a temperature to a stochastic system in such a way as to have Carnot cycles be the optimal trajectories of optimal control problems. Entropy is also defined and we are able to prove an equipartition of energy theorem using this definition of temperature. Our formulation allows one to treat irreversibility in a quite natural and completely precise way.

  2. Simple control law structure for the control of airplanes by means of their engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fezans, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a simple control law structure is presented for the control of airplanes using only the engines' thrust. For the design of such a propulsion controlled aircraft control law, the approach followed in this work is to look for the right level of performance in order to avoid both excessive engines activity and reduction of robustness properties. Another goal is to keep the control law and its tuning as simple as possible: for this a control law structure whose terms can easily be i...

  3. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  4. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  5. Emergence of robust growth laws from optimal regulation of ribosome synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Klumpp, Stefan; Mateescu, Eduard M; Hwa, Terence

    2014-08-22

    Bacteria must constantly adapt their growth to changes in nutrient availability; yet despite large-scale changes in protein expression associated with sensing, adaptation, and processing different environmental nutrients, simple growth laws connect the ribosome abundance and the growth rate. Here, we investigate the origin of these growth laws by analyzing the features of ribosomal regulation that coordinate proteome-wide expression changes with cell growth in a variety of nutrient conditions in the model organism Escherichia coli. We identify supply-driven feedforward activation of ribosomal protein synthesis as the key regulatory motif maximizing amino acid flux, and autonomously guiding a cell to achieve optimal growth in different environments. The growth laws emerge naturally from the robust regulatory strategy underlying growth rate control, irrespective of the details of the molecular implementation. The study highlights the interplay between phenomenological modeling and molecular mechanisms in uncovering fundamental operating constraints, with implications for endogenous and synthetic design of microorganisms. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Department of Psychology of Education, College of Education, University of ... Keywords: ecosystemic theory; learner absenteeism; management approach; South African law and policy ..... learners, but can also be cultural and systemic ..... tesis. Pretoria, Suid-Afrika: Universiteit van Suid-. Afrika. Beskikbaar te .... Phd thesis.

  7. 30 CFR 931.13 - Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following provisions of New Mexico law and regulation are hereby preempted and superseded as they may apply... Conservation Act (17-2-37 to 17-2-46 NMSA 1978) to the extent it is inconsistent with provisions of SMCRA...

  8. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  9. Genetic Algorithm Optimizes Q-LAW Control Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-objective, genetic algorithm designed to optimize Lyapunov feedback control law (Q-law) parameters in order to efficiently find Pareto-optimal solutions for low-thrust trajectories for electronic propulsion systems. These would be propellant-optimal solutions for a given flight time, or flight time optimal solutions for a given propellant requirement. The approximate solutions are used as good initial solutions for high-fidelity optimization tools. When the good initial solutions are used, the high-fidelity optimization tools quickly converge to a locally optimal solution near the initial solution. Q-law control parameters are represented as real-valued genes in the genetic algorithm. The performances of the Q-law control parameters are evaluated in the multi-objective space (flight time vs. propellant mass) and sorted by the non-dominated sorting method that assigns a better fitness value to the solutions that are dominated by a fewer number of other solutions. With the ranking result, the genetic algorithm encourages the solutions with higher fitness values to participate in the reproduction process, improving the solutions in the evolution process. The population of solutions converges to the Pareto front that is permitted within the Q-law control parameter space.

  10. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  11. Flight Control Laws for NASA's Hyper-X Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Lallman, F.; McMinn, J. D.; Martin, J.; Pahle, J.; Stephenson, M.; Selmon, J.; Bose, D.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the Hyper-X program is to demonstrate and validate technology for design and performance predictions of hypersonic aircraft with an airframe-integrated supersonic-combustion ramjet propulsion system. Accomplishing this goal requires flight demonstration of a hydrogen-fueled scramjet powered hypersonic aircraft. A key enabling technology for this flight demonstration is flight controls. Closed-loop flight control is required to enable a successful stage separation, to achieve and maintain the design condition during the engine test, and to provide a controlled descent. Before the contract award, NASA developed preliminary flight control laws for the Hyper-X to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed scramjet test sequence and descent trajectory. After the contract award, a Boeing/NASA partnership worked to develop the current control laws. This paper presents a description of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle control law architectures with performance and robustness analyses. Assessments of simulated flight trajectories and stability margin analyses demonstrate that these control laws meet the flight test requirements.

  12. Improvement and rationalization of nuclear energy laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chum; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  13. Improvement and rationalization of nuclear energy laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  14. Improvement and rationalization of nuclear energy laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chum; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul

    2002-03-01

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea

  15. Dynamic coordinated control laws in multiple agent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, David S.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2005-01-01

    We present an active control scheme of a kinetic model of swarming. It has been shown previously that the global control scheme for the model, presented in [Systems Control Lett. 52 (2004) 25], gives rise to spontaneous collective organization of agents into a unified coherent swarm, via steering controls and utilizing long-range attractive and short-range repulsive interactions. We extend these results by presenting control laws whereby a single swarm is broken into independently functioning subswarm clusters. The transition between one coordinated swarm and multiple clustered subswarms is managed simply with a homotopy parameter. Additionally, we present as an alternate formulation, a local control law for the same model, which implements dynamic barrier avoidance behavior, and in which swarm coherence emerges spontaneously

  16. Unacceptable but Indispensable: Opium Law and Regulations in Guangdong, 1912–1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Paulès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During most of the period from 1912 to 1936, Guangdong Province was independent from the central government. The local authorities there were facing a dilemma regarding opium, as others were elsewhere in China. On the one hand, opium was considered the symbol of China’s weakness, and its suppression was a top priority; on the other hand, opium taxes represented an indispensable source of fiscal income. Some Guangdong power holders were truly committed to a suppression agenda, especially from 1913 to 1924. During this period, with the exception of a brief interlude from 1915 to 1916, opium laws were prohibition laws. Even if these laws were not always enforced with full vigor, the drug remained illegal in Guangdong. After 1924, opium was legalized, and the authorities openly ruled an opium monopoly. They came out with increasingly comprehensive regulations, which proved successful in increasing opium revenues. Yet, as this article makes clear, there was nothing like direct government control: traditional tax-farming arrangements with local opium merchants (though under stricter supervision remained the backbone of the monopoly. The article also pays attention to the influence of the Six-Year Plan (1935–1940 launched by the Nanking government. As a credible set of suppression laws, it appealed to the Guangdong progressive elites who were hostile to opium. They urged the local autocrat Chen Jitang to take similar action. Chen made attempts to launch his own plans for suppressing opium, but they were unconvincing and nothing concrete came out of them. This article suggests that, in order to obtain a better understanding of how easily Chen Jitang was driven out of power in the summer of 1936, it is necessary to take into account the significant contribution of the Six-Year Plan in undermining his legitimacy.

  17. Impact of California firearms sales laws and dealer regulations on the illegal diversion of guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Glenn L; Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-06-01

    The available evidence suggests that more restrictive state firearm sales laws can reduce criminal access to guns. California has firearm-related laws that are more stringent than many other states and regulates its retail firearms dealers to a unique degree. This research seeks to examine the effect of more restrictive state gun laws and regulations on the illegal diversion of guns to criminals. Survival analyses are used to determine whether state firearm sales laws, particularly California's legal context and regulatory regime, impact the distribution of time-to-crime of recovered firearms in that state relative to other US states. USA. 225,392 traced firearms, where the first retail purchasers and the gun possessors were different individuals, recovered by law enforcement agencies between 2003 and 2006. The increased stringency of state-level firearms laws and regulations leads to consistently older firearms being recovered. California was associated with the oldest recovered crime guns compared with guns associated with other states. These patterns persisted regardless of whether firearms were first purchased within the recovery state or in another state. These findings suggest that more restrictive gun sales laws and gun dealer regulations do make it more difficult for criminals to acquire new guns first purchased at retail outlets. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  19. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  20. Local ordinances as an instrument of social exclusion: the regulation affecting the homeless is administrative law of the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melero Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses local ordinances, especially the so-called coexistence ordinances, to the extent they affect the daily activities of the homeless. There are three areas of regulation: the prohibition of begging; a ban on sleeping, washing and perform physiological needs in public spaces; and the prohibition of sorting through garbage. This regulation is subjected to a critical analysis, focusing on the fact that has an impact on the fundamental rights of the homeless. The basic parameters of control are the reserve of law and, above all, the principle of proportionality. The conclusion reached is that, in many cases, this regulation is not only illegal, it can also be included within the category Administrative Law of the enemy.

  1. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  2. The Rome II Regulation on the Law Applicable to Non-Contractual Obligations: The European Private International Law Tradition Continued. : Introductory Observations, Scope, System, and General Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe establishment of Regulation No 864/2007 on the Law Applicable to Non-Contractual Obligations (Rome II) is a landmark for European Private International Law. The regulation of torts in the European Union has a history of forty years, starting with the preparation of the Rome

  3. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780–4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226–35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear–quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. (paper)

  4. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  5. 25 CFR 900.50 - What Federal laws, regulations, and Executive Orders apply to subcontractors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management..., regulations, and Executive Orders apply to subcontracts awarded under self-determination contracts. As a... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What Federal laws, regulations, and Executive Orders...

  6. Standard contract terms regulation in the proposal for a common European sales law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the regulation in standard contract terms in the proposal for a Commono European Sales Law (CESL) is compared with the regulation in the Unfair Terms Directive, the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) and the Vienna Sales Convention (CISG). The paper starts with an overview of the

  7. Logistics of radioactive materials: optimization of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akakiev, B.V.; Makarevich, I.M.; Nesterov, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the problems of the Russian authorization system in the field of radioactive materials (RM) logistics which does not meet the needs of their application in medicine, science and industry. To correct the situation, first of all, it is necessary to revise the licensing system. For optimization of licensing in the field of RM transportation, a radical revision is needed for the Regulations of transportation of dangerous cargoes by automobiles, sanitary regulations, the GOST Dangerous Cargoes, numerous federal codes and norms issued by Rostekhnadzor in recent years. It is also necessary to review and coordinate various sanitary regulations for radiation safety, develop the Agreement on transit transportation of RM between the countries of the CIS [ru

  8. Connecting People: Semantic-Conceptual Modeling for Laws and Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engers, T.; Nijssen, S.; Janssen, M.; Scholl, H.J.; Wimmer, M.A.; Bannister, F.

    2014-01-01

    Working on building large scale information systems that have the job to serve their clients in a client friendly way and at the same time have to comply with the rules that regulate their behavior, including their (legal) decision-making processes, we observed that designing these systems is still

  9. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk

  10. Transposition of the basic safety standards. Potential impact on French laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.M.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The new proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation is about to be adopted. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. As far as France is concerned, these evolutions will mainly impact the labour code (for occupational issues) and the public health code for both legal and regulatory requirements. The most significant improvements of the current version of the project are the introduction of graded approach to regulatory control and the enhancement of requirements for protection against natural radiation sources (in particular exposure to radon and naturally occurring radioactive material). This project also aims at achieving a better harmonisation between Member States for topics such as the organization of radiation protection for workers, the justification of medical devices and non-medical imaging exposure situations. ASN has already identified major issues for the transposition of the Directive concerning both French laws and regulations. Main topics should concern the impact of ICRP terminology (planned exposure situation, existing exposure situation versus lasting exposure situation, reference level versus maximum activity level for exposure to radon..) and the extension of both justification and optimisation principles to new activities involving natural radiation sources, such as industries processing naturally occurring radioactive material. Furthermore, France will have to decide whether it will adjust some positions about the prohibition of nonmedical imaging exposures and the release of materials from regulatory control according to generic values. Indeed, the project mentions the possibility to introduce derogations to those major principles. Finally, and according to the graded approach, the project introduces a new

  11. Connecting People: Semantic-Conceptual Modeling for Laws and Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Engers , Tom ,; Nijssen , Sjir

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Services and Interoperability; International audience; Working on building large scale information systems that have the job to serve their clients in a client friendly way and at the same time have to comply with the rules that regulate their behavior, including their (legal) decision-making processes, we observed that designing these systems is still more an art rather than a result of systematic engineering. We have been working on a method allowing stakeholders to systematically a...

  12. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are wholly revised under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: employee engaged in radiation work; person regularly entering into the controlled area; the maximum permissible exposure dose; accumulative dose; the maximum permissible accumulative dose; the maximum permissible concentration in the air; the maximum permissible concentration under water; the maximum permissible surface density. The application for permission of the uses shall be made according to the form attached and include as appendix following documents: copy of register of the applicant legal person; plane drawings of the works or the enterprise and their surroundings in reduced scales and with directions, centering on facilities in use, of storage and disposal, etc. The report of the uses shall list name and address of the user, object and method of the uses, and include as annex copy of register of the user legal person and papers explaining the expected date of beginning and the period of the uses, etc. Standards of the uses, refilling, storage, transport and disposal are in detail stipulated. Specified measures shall be taken for measurement, prevention of radiation hazards, finding out of persons injured by radiation and others. (Okada, K.)

  13. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes'' and the Enforcement Order for the ''Law concerning the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes''. The Regulation includes the definitions of terms, applications for the permission of the use of radioisotopes, standards on usage, obligation of measurement, persons in charge of radiation, etc. Terms are explained, such as persons engaging in radiation works, persons who enter at any time the control areas, radiation facilities, maximum permissible exposure dose, cumulative dose, maximum permissible cumulative dose, maximum permissible concentration in the air, maximum permissible concentration in water and maximum permissible surface density. The applications for permission in written forms are required for the use, sale and abandonment of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes or the apparatuses for generating radiation shall be used in the using facilities. The measurement of radiation dose rate, particle flux density and contamination due to radioisotopes shall be made with radiation-measuring instruments. At least one person shall be chosen as the chief radiation-handling person in each factory, establishment, selling office or abandoning establishment by a user, a trademan or a person engaged in abandonment of radioisotopes. The forms for the application for permission, etc. are attached. (Okada, K.)

  14. Competition in energy markets - law and regulation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter Duncanson; Brothwood, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Analysis of the origins, aims and implementation of the EU energy directives is essential to an understanding of the emerging internal market in energy in the European Union. This book provides a detailed and practical account of the legislation and the various developments in the Member States that are leading to a competitive energy market for the first time. It explains the legislation, EU case law and the relevant national laws, regulations and competence of the enforcing authorities. (Author)

  15. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  16. Stealth law: HIPAA's back-door regulation of "business associates".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, James M

    2003-01-01

    The final HIPAA privacy modifications have substantially lightened the administrative, compliance, and liability loads borne by health plan and provider covered entities. Unlike under the original Clinton rules, for example, covered entities are no longer required to obtain patient consents, to monitor and mitigate the information practices of their business associates, or to treat patients as third-party beneficiaries of their business associate contracts. But the final modifications have done almost nothing to lessen the huge burdens and expense that will soon be imposed on those managed care entities that are merely business associates, a category that Congress never authorized HHS to regulate.

  17. Evaluation of 'period-generated' control laws for the time-optimal control of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Time-Optimal control of neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. These laws are designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws'. Relative to time-optimal response, they function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The results of a systematic evaluation of these laws are presented. The behavior of each term in the control laws is shown and the capability of these laws to control properly the reactor power is demonstrated. Factors affecting the implementation of these laws, such as the prompt neutron lifetime and the differential reactivity worth of the actuators, are discussed. Finally, the results of an experimental study in which these laws were used to adjust the power of the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor are shown. The information presented should be of interest to those designing high performance control systems for test, spacecraft, or, in certain instances, commercial reactors

  18. Energy law. An anthology of the most important legislation and regulations. 9. new rev. ed.; Energierecht. Textsammlung der wichtigsten Rechtsvorschriften und Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The book under consideration is a current anthology of the most important legislation and regulations on energy law and contains the energy economy law, competition law, general conditions of supply and the tax law.

  19. Prohibited Possessors and the Law: How Inmates in Los Angeles Jails Understand Firearm and Ammunition Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Barragan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 140 interviews with individuals detained in the Los Angeles County Jail system, this article examines what gun offenders know about gun and ammunition regulation in California. Though most respondents had a consistent, albeit general, understanding of the regulations limiting gun acquisition and possession, analysis suggests that their understanding of ammunition restrictions was more limited. Our sample’s awareness of firearms law is especially important to consider given that they are the very population targeted by firearms regulations and prohibitions at the local, state, and federal level. By examining what detained offenders know about firearms laws, we can better theorize about individual gaps in legal knowledge and the realistic expectations for how understanding of the law can affect behavior.

  20. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    General provisions specify the purpose of the Law and definitions of terms used in it. Provisions relating to control of business management for refining cover designation of business operation, requirements for designation, permission and report of alteration, report of commencement of business operation, revocation of designation, recording, and measures for wastes. Provisions relating to control of business management for processing cover permission of operation, requirements for permission, approval of design and construction plan, inspection of facilities, report of commencement of business management, measures for maintenance, suspension of use of facilities, responsible personnel for handling nuclear fuel, and permit, obligations, etc. of responsible personnel for handing nuclear fuel. Provisions relating to control of construction and operation of nuclear reactor cover permission of construction, permission concerning nuclear reactor mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, requirements for permission, etc. Other articles stipulate provisions relating to control of business management for reprocessing, use of nuclear fuel substances, use of materials and substances covered by international regulations, designation of inspection organizations, and other rules. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  2. Considerations on Law no. 78/2014 regarding the Regulation of the Volunteering Activity in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at highlighting the progress in the regulation of volunteering activity in Romania through the recent adoption by the Parliament of the Law no. 78/2014 on the regulation of volunteering in Romania. The new legislative act, which replaced Volunteering Law no. 195 / 2001 (republished tries and we believe that it actually succeeds in providing consistent and harmonized solutions at European level to problems of organizations working with volunteers and thus creating a modern legal framework, appropriately adapted to the national and European context in the field of volunteering.

  3. Laws and regulations associated with ownership of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... to persons and which is, as an independent entity, subject to judicial control by a ... exclusive right in human tissue is acquired by any person who obtains .... The effect of such an event could result in the patient experiencing.

  4. Special feature article. Nuclear new age. Towards reform of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Morokuzu, Muneo; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Nishiwaki, Yoshihiro; Marumo, Syunji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hariyama, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Since about half a century passes after the peaceful use of nuclear energy began in Japan, the safety laws and regulations of the nuclear energy becomes difficult to cope enough with the current situation without regulation structure changing. In March 2007, Tokyo University set up nuclear energy legislation study meeting' consisting of members from regulatory bodies, electric utilities, nuclear industries and others. The special feature introduces five opinions obtained through the argument in the meeting. As an example, Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Sources Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors is applied to basic design about the commercial reactors, but Electric Utilities Industry Law is applied to a detailed design, and different licensing standard is applied in each. Taking the adjustment of licensing standard with unifying these is necessary for efficiency. In addition, current law for the Regulations of Nuclear Sources Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors regulates according to the businesses such as reactor facilities, fuel fabrication plants and radioactive waste disposal. As for plural businesses, a low procedure and safety measures are demanded every each business. It is also necessary to include structure of the comprehensive licensing that assumed an enterprise running plural businesses. (T. Tanaka)

  5. The Improvement Plan on Unifying from Law and Regulations Related to Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dong Kyong; Lee, Jong Back; Park, Myung Hwan

    2006-01-01

    This is for the purpose to help the bill related to technologists be systematic and unitary by carefully analyzing a legislation, an enforcement ordinance, and enforcement regulations in the connection with the radiological worker and the radiation workers from the law and regulations related to technologists. Concerning technologists, a legislation, an enforcement ordinance, and enforcement regulations for a sort of medical technician, regarding the radiological worker, the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety management, and concerning the radiation workers, atomic energy law, an enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations were gathered, compared with one another, and analyzed. Among technologists, in the case of working in the department of diagnosis radiation, the title 'Radiological Worker' is used by the Medical Service Law, and in the case of working in the department of radiation tumors or the one of nucleus medicine, the title 'Radiation Workers' is used by the Atomic Energy Law. Besides the technical term that is used by characteristic tasks, unification of the terms that can be used in common is necessary for sure. And when a legislation, an enforcement ordinance, enforcement regulations, and notification, things like that in the radiation field are amended, certainly they should be done by mutual agreement through negotiation between the organization related to radiation and the governmental organization.

  6. EU Criminal Law and the Regulation of Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Summers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities afforded by the global information space give rise to the potential for the commission of new crimes –crimes such as hacking or denial of service attacks– and for existing crimes, such as speech offences or fraud, to be committed in new ways and with potentially larger consequences. One of the biggest challenges for the regulation of information and communications technology is that the global information space does not respect national boundaries. In order to be successful, any regulatory approach will call for some degree of cooperation between countries. This poses an obvious problem for those seeking to develop a regulatory structure. This challenge is particularly relevant in the criminal law context, as the criminal law has traditionally been considered to be the product and responsibility of national law. This article considers the EU’s regulatory approach in this area. The aim here is not to offer a critique of the EU’s regulatory structure in the context of cybercrime, but rather to use the situation in the EU to illustrate various issues arising in the context of the criminal law regulation of information and communications technology. This article examines some of the issues which have arisen in the context of the regulation of cyber activity at the EU level as a result of this tension between national sovereignty and broader overarching EU regulation and assesses the relevance of these issues in the context of criminal law regulation more broadly. Consideration of the processes of criminalisation and harmonisation provides the basis for an analysis of the manner in which the EU seeks to justify its involvement in criminal law in this field.

  7. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Law at Cafe’ and Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Özcebe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted in order to evaluate ideas of some cafe and restaurants’ clients and workers about the tobacco control law three years after entering into force in a central district in Ankara in 2008. Methods: In the descriptive study;105 management, 113 worker and 386 client was visited, face to face interviews were done using two different questionnaire form and another form for managements’ evaluation. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program, Chi-square and t-tests were used. Administrative leave was taken. Results: Mean age of workers was 30.1±8.32 years; 82.3% were men, 54.0% smoker; with clients the values are 27.7±8.61 years; 53.6% women and 39.4% were smokers. There’s a difference between smokers and non- smokers’ ideas about the hazards; death due to second-hand smoking (p=0.024; p<0.01. 80.3% of smokers and 74.3% of non-smokers knew the law in restaurants serving alcoholic beverages. Acceptance of the idea of the law could help to quit smoking was significantly different between smoker/non smoker workers and smoker/non smoker clients (p=0.004;p<0.001. According to observations, 7.6% of the managements didn’t have law related plaque, 94.1% had smoking free areas, 57.1% had show window, 22.7% had smoking individuals and 12.6% had ashtray. Conclusion: Tobacco use is an individualistic reality but also a public health issue. Publicly acceptance of 45 law and implementations are needed besides individual perceptions. Implementations must be inspected and Smokers’ observance of the rules must be supplied in order to decrease tobacco use and related health complications.

  8. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  9. Re-Engineering Biosafety Regulations In India: Towards a Critique of Policy, Law and Prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Damodaran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the structure and essence of India’s biosafety regulations from an evolutionary perspective. After detailing the processes associated with the biosafety law and guidelines in the country, this article looks critically at recent efforts to re-engineer the regulations. It is argued that India’s biosafety regulations should move towards a more inclusive approach, which will facilitate transparent and informed decision-making, based on stakeholder-convergence. It is also suggested that the entire spectrum of laws and regulations that have a direct or indirect bearing on biosafety in India, need to be explored so that greater coherence could be secured in the management of biotechnology products that are sensitive to the environment. Drawing from the experience of the Bt cotton case, the article advocates a greater role for civil society and grassroots organizations.

  10. LAW ENFORCEMENT OF THE BANDUNG REGIONAL REGULATIONS ON THE ORDERLINESS, CLEANLINESS, AND THE BEAUTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesmil Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Number of sidewalk vendors in Bandung has reached 11,000 with no decline in growth according to the survey conducted by Indonesian University of Education/ Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI in collaboration with Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Bappeda or regional development planning agency Bandung. Sidewalk vendor is one of the main contributors to the dirtiness and traffic congestion in Bandung. Bandung has passed a Regional Regulation Numbered 3 and 5 about Cleanliness, Orderliness and the Beauty to prevent and to build the  sidewalk vendors. However, lack of legal awareness and law enforcement may constrain the effectiveness of the regulation. Those regulations are particularly Bandung Regional Regulation Numbered 4/ 2011 concerning sidewalk vendors in which imposing high fine sanction not only for the seller but also for the buyer to prevent them from violating those regulations. To analyze the the compliance level of society and the effectiveness of fine sanction for the violation of regulations, this research used juridical normative approach and comparative method by comparing the regulation in Bandung with other Regional regulations related to sidewalk vendors in other cities in Indonesia such as in Surakarta and Surabaya. This research found that the law enforcement to the violation of sidewalk vendors regulation in Bandung city is not optimum due to lack of awareness to obey the law. The criminal sanction such as fine and forced fees are not able to prevent the violation of sidewalk vendors regulations. This research suggest that The Regional government of Bandung City: (1 needs to find a right model to keep sidewalk vendors in order by looking at the characteristics of the society and its social culture; (2 needs to search for a way to increase society’s compliance to any policies made by the government; and (3 needs to revise the current regulation

  11. Data adaptive control parameter estimation for scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinklage, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Dose, Volker [Max-Planck- Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Bayesian experimental design quantifies the utility of data expressed by the information gain. Data adaptive exploration determines the expected utility of a single new measurement using existing data and a data descriptive model. In other words, the method can be used for experimental planning. As an example for a multivariate linear case, we apply this method for constituting scaling laws of fusion devices. In detail, the scaling of the stellarator W7-AS is examined for a subset of {iota}=1/3 data. The impact of the existing data on the scaling exponents is presented. Furthermore, in control parameter space regions of high utility are identified which improve the accuracy of the scaling law. This approach is not restricted to the presented example only, but can also be extended to non-linear models.

  12. Romania- New Tobacco control law from an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaltan Florin Dumitru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our presentation we are evaluating the progress of the tobacco control in Romania looking form the point of view on NGO in the last 26 years. We are signalling the progressive steps towards policy and an advocacy from our perspective and the consequences of our success. The final result is reflected in the new law starting in force on March 17th, 2016, a real advance in our fight. We are identifying in the same time the new challenging problems after launching the new law. Probably the biggest gain of our fight is the extensive partnership with all the factors, our efforts to bring together in a big family as the coalition “Romania Respira” politicians, advocates, judges, economists, young’s and also the new way found to encourage all: mass media, politicians, journalists, public to support us.

  13. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  14. The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-04-01

    How electronic cigarettes and similar products (e-cigarettes) are defined affects how they are regulated, particularly whether existing laws for cigarettes apply, including sales and marketing, youth access, smoke-free and taxation laws. We examined the text of 46 bills that define e-cigarettes enacted in 40 states and characterised how e-cigarettes and similar products were defined. States enact laws creating new product categories for e-cigarettes separate from the 'tobacco product' category (eg, 'alternative nicotine product,' 'vapour product,' 'electronic nicotine device'), with four states explicitly excluding e-cigarettes from 'tobacco products.' Twenty-eight states do not include e-cigarettes in their definitions of 'tobacco products' or 'smoking,' eight include e-cigarettes as 'tobacco products,' three include e-cigarettes in 'smoking.' Sixteen states' definitions of e-cigarettes require nicotine, and five states pre-empt more stringent local laws. Tobacco and e-cigarette industry representatives tried to shape laws that benefit their interests. Definitions separating e-cigarettes from other tobacco products are common. Similar to past 'Trojan horse' policies, e-cigarette policies that initially appear to restrict sales (eg, limit youth access) may actually undermine regulation if they establish local pre-emption or create definitions that divide e-cigarettes from other tobacco products. Comparable issues are raised by the European Union Tobacco Products Directive and e-cigarette regulations in other countries. Policymakers should carefully draft legislation with definitions of e-cigarettes that broadly define the products, do not require nicotine or tobacco, do not pre-empt stronger regulations and explicitly include e-cigarettes in smoke-free and taxation laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Economic analysis of Japanese air pollution regulation : an optimal retirement problem under the vehicle type regulation in the NOx-particulate matter law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the vehicle type regulation that was introduced under the Automobile : Nitrogen OxidesParticulate Matter Law to mitigate air pollution in Japanese metropolitan : areas. The vehicle type regulation effectively sets the timing fo...

  16. Economic analysis of a Japanese air pollution regulation : an optimal retirement problem under vehicle type regulation in the NOx-particulate matter law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This paper empirically examines the vehicle type regulation that was introduced under the : Automobile Nitrogen OxidesParticulate Matter Law to mitigate air pollution problems in Japanese metropolitan areas. The vehicle type regulation effectively...

  17. No. 434 - Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation, made under the Radiation Control Act 1990, replaces the Radioactive Substances Regulation 1959, repealed by the 1990 Act. It deals with licensing of the use of radioactive substances and radiation apparatus, regulates their use, disposal and transport. It also provides for radiation monitoring and emergency planning. (NEA)

  18. An Approach to Regulation on Financial Derivatives in the Spanish Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanz Bayón

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the major reforms implemented in the regulations governing the trading of financial derivatives in Spain. This new regulation is intended to harmonize the treatment of derivative products with the legal standards of international markets in the European area as well as improving their competitiveness by enhancing the trading of new products and business lines in the Spanish markets while reducing the systemic risk associated to the clearing and settlement of derivatives contracts. Including measures regarding the conversion of OTC derivatives into assets quoted on organized markets into Spanish law has made an important contribution to a better regulation, security and transparency of the financial system.

  19. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C

    2015-10-01

    Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns.

  20. Intelligent robust control law for induction motors based on field-oriented control theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barambones, O.; Alcorta, P.; Sevillano, G.; Garrido, A.; Garrido, I. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieri a de Sistemas y Automatica

    2009-07-01

    A sensorless adaptive control law was developed to improve the trajectory tracking performance of induction motors. The law used an integral sliding mode algorithm to avoid the necessity of calculating an upper bound for system uncertainties. The vector control theory was used to develop the induction motor drives. The sliding mode control law incorporated an adaptive switching gain and included a method of estimating rotor speeds. Rotor speed estimation errors were presented as a first order simple function based on the difference between real stator currents and estimated stator currents. The Lyapunov stability theory was used to analyze the controller under different load disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Results of the study showed that the control signal of the scheme was smaller than signals obtained using traditional variable structure control schemes. It was concluded that speed tracking objectives can be obtained under various parameter and torque uncertainties. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Sarah B; Gutman, Abraham; Allen, Leslie; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott

    2017-12-01

    (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on 1 February 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full data sets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (http://www.pdaps.org/; Archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6qv5CZNaZ on 2 June 2017). Twenty-eight states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All states protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources number of dispensaries per state and restricting proximity to various types of location. The federal ban in the United States on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  3. On the quality of regulating impact of labor law in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya O. Almayeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove that the development of the legislation quality theory in labor law is of great practical importance. Methods the methodological basis of research is universal dialectic method of cognition as well as other general theoretical methods. Taking into account the impossibility to research and solve problems through the use of exclusively legal matter the specific scientific methods were also widely used formallogical comparativelegal etc. Results basing on the analysis of scientific works on the topic it is concluded that the integral characteristics of the labour standards quality requires consideration of not only legal but also social political and moral points of view. With this approach it is logical to allocate not only legal but also sociopolitical and moral quality of the labour law. It is recognized that the existing theoretical legal works on the problem of labor laws quality do not allow to speak about creation of the quality concept development of the research methodology of labour quality standards. It is concluded that the quality of the regulatory impact of labour legislation in Russia is not always at the proper level. Moreover among the main reasons for the imperfection of the normative base regulating sociallabour relations it is necessary to allocate objective and subjective reasons and their quotsymbiosisquot. Scientific novelty it was found that the definition of the quality of the law regulating sociolabour relations should have an indication of properties of their components the content of legal norms which allow to establish whether a particular law is a quality one. Practical significance the theoretical principles formulated in the article can be used in scientific legislative and law enforcement activity educational process of higher vocational education institutions of the legal profile to improve the skills of practitioners and scientificpedagogical staff in the field of jurisprudence. nbsp

  4. On the significance of the employee status and of the personal scope of labour law regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakab Nóra I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the relevance of the labour law regulation's personal scope, what the holistic approach of employee status and its social part mean. There have been discussions in the European Union to which circle of working people shall the protection system of labour law apply, and how the security of employees can be guaranteed under the pressure of flexibility. The debates have been inspired by a changed economic and social environment in the XXth centrury. The essay presents the influence of the changing economic and social environment in the concept of employee status, and more closer in the Hungarian labour law regulation. The decision who is acknowledged to be an employee is made by the legislator. By making this decision the labour law regulation shows a tendency of withdrawal and moving forward in the last decades. The change of employment contract develops at the same time with the expansion of personal scope in Europe and shows a great variety. The legislation, judicial practice, legal practice and the collective bargaining influence the expansion of protection under labour law. The changes of personal scope in the Labour Code of 1992 and 2012 are presented, how it is extended and in which direction. The personal scope is also applied to link the public and private sector by finding a common focal point: the characteristics of employment. While coping with the employment relations on the labour market and trying to fit into the self-employed - employee-like person - employee categories, it is suggested to exceed the contractual framework by means of abstraction and using the concept of personal work relations. Employee status has social part; therefore the essay describes the social consequences of being employee and its relation to the employee status.

  5. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation....... In other areas the regulation is quite alike and the results are most often a result of trying to keep the balance between the tenant’s rights to dispose over a home contrary to the landlord’s rights as a property owner. This paper will explore some different aspects of tenancy law regulation – especially...

  6. Development of a digital guidance and control law for steep approach automatic landings using modern control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a digital automatic control law for a small jet transport to perform a steep final approach in automatic landings is reported along with the development of a steady-state Kalman filter used to provide smooth estimates to the control law. The control law performs the functions of localizer and glides capture, localizer and glideslope track, decrab, and place. The control law uses the microwave landing system position data, and aircraft body-mounted accelerators, attitude and attitude rate information. The results obtained from a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics, wind conditions, and sensor noises using the control law and filter developed are described.

  7. The NSW Radiation Control Act and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The legal control of radiation safety in New South Wales has undergone substantial change in recent years. The long-awaited Regulation to the 1990 Radiation Control Act came into effect on 1 September 1993 (of necessity, as the Regulation to the previous 1957 Radioactive Substances Act expired on that date). It has not met with unanimous acclaim. The Regulation addresses three broad areas, namely - (a) legal controls - licensing, registration, radiation 'experts'; (b) safety matters - workplace management, monitoring, research exposures, transport/disposal, accidents; and (c) miscellaneous -radiation safety officers, committees, penalties, records, This article offers a personal view of the implications for nuclear medicine practice in New South Wales

  8. Comparative Study Between The IAEA Model Regulations and The Egyptian Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaza, A.; Hosni, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the security of radioactive sources due to its great importance, in order to provide the adequate security of these sources from the threat of theft, sabotage, illegal seizure through doing a comparison between the model regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (11) and the Egyptian law (No. 7/2010) that regulates nuclear and radiation activities and its executive regulations. The Egyptian legislator has put a chapter entitled n uclear security w ith the aim of organizing the security of nuclear materials. However, there was a review to some regulatory rules issued by the IAEA on the security of these sources which include the responsibilities of the licensee towards it. This chapter also, addressed the security culture through rehabilitation and training, in addition to the obligations of the competent authorities who is responsible for the process of issuing the license when full requirements are met. It has been shown that the Egyptian law and its executive regulations contained the rule that provides the necessary protection for these radioactive sources. Furthermore, more regulations are still needed to provide adequate security and more protection for the radioactive sources and its facilities

  9. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

    2015-12-01

    A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.

  10. Investigation of control law reconfigurations to accommodate a control element failure on a commercial airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a pilot to reconfigure the control surfaces on an airplane after a failure, allowing the airplane to recover to a safe condition, becomes more difficult with increasing airplane complexity. Techniques are needed to stabilize and control the airplane immediately after a failure, allowing the pilot more time to make longer range decisions. This paper presents a baseline design of a discrete multivariable control law using four controls for the longitudinal channel of a B-737. Non-reconfigured and reconfigured control laws are then evaluated, both analytically and by means of a digital airplane simulation, for three individual control element failures (stabilizer, elevator, spoilers). The simulation results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the control reconfiguration on tracking ability during the approach and landing phase of flight with severe windshear and turbulence disturbing the airplane dynamics.

  11. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  12. ORACLS: A system for linear-quadratic-Gaussian control law design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    A modern control theory design package (ORACLS) for constructing controllers and optimal filters for systems modeled by linear time-invariant differential or difference equations is described. Numerical linear-algebra procedures are used to implement the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) methodology of modern control theory. Algorithms are included for computing eigensystems of real matrices, the relative stability of a matrix, factored forms for nonnegative definite matrices, the solutions and least squares approximations to the solutions of certain linear matrix algebraic equations, the controllability properties of a linear time-invariant system, and the steady state covariance matrix of an open-loop stable system forced by white noise. Subroutines are provided for solving both the continuous and discrete optimal linear regulator problems with noise free measurements and the sampled-data optimal linear regulator problem. For measurement noise, duality theory and the optimal regulator algorithms are used to solve the continuous and discrete Kalman-Bucy filter problems. Subroutines are also included which give control laws causing the output of a system to track the output of a prescribed model.

  13. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of international controlled material in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: area of material delivery; fluctuation of stock; batch; real stock, effective value; fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for permission of the uses of international controlled material shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency by the processor, the establisher of reactor, the reprocessor or the user for each works or enterprise, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the works or the enterprise where such material is used, kind and quantity of the material and expected period of the uses. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works or enterprise on specified matters, including especially delivery, stock and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. Provisions on control of measurement, method of analysis and information processing business are stipulated. Reports shall be submitted to the Director in the forms attached on delivery, control and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. (Okada, K.)

  14. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  15. Becoming a law to regulate the production and use of chemicals: the problems of technical regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Бабенко

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The system of legal regulation of the management of chemicals in Ukraine, although it has become a development, but is very imperfect. The main problems concerning technical legislation, the resolution of which will improve the systems of standardization and certification focused on European practice.

  16. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This law has following two purposes. At first, it exercises necessary controls concerning nuclear source material, nuclear fuel material and reactors in order to: (a) limit their uses to those for the peaceful purpose; (b) ensure planned uses of them; and (c) ensure the public safety by preventing accidents from their uses. Necessary controls are to be made concerning the refining, fabricating and reprocessing businesses, as well as the construction and operation of reactors. The second purpose of the law is to exercise necessary controls concerning internationally controlled material in order to execute the treaties and other international agreements on the research, development and use of atomic energy (the first chapter). In the second and following chapters the law prescribes controls for the persons who wish to carry on the refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to conduct the reprocessing business, as well as for those who use the internationally controlled material, respectively in separate chapters by the category of those businesses. For example, the controls to the person who wishes to construct and operate reactors are: (a) the permission of the business after the examination; (b) the examination and approval of the design and methods of construction prior to the construction; (c) the inspection of the facilities prior to their use; (d) periodic inspections of the facilities; (e) the establishment of requirements for safety measures and punishments to their violations. (Matsushima, A.)

  17. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  18. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  19. The Application of Human Rights Law to Everyday Life under Rebel Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws upon social science literature to offer a new assessment of the normative value of human rights law vis-à-vis international humanitarian law in territory under armed groups’ control. In particular, the article considers how the two bodies of law can be applied in a complementary

  20. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  1. Development of a Model Following Control Law for Inflight Simulation and Flight Controls Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mark; Fletcher, Jay; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA are currently developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) at the Ames Research Center. RASCAL, shown in Figure 1, is a UH-60, which is being modified in a phased development program to have a research fly-by-wire flight control system, and an advanced navigation research platform. An important part of the flight controls and handling qualities research on RASCAL will be an FCS design for the aircraft to achieve high bandwidth control responses and disturbance rejection characteristics. Initially, body states will be used as feedbacks, but research into the use of rotor states will also be considered in later stages to maximize agility and maneuverability. In addition to supporting flight controls research, this FCS design will serve as the inflight simulation control law to support basic handling qualities, guidance, and displays research. Research in high bandwidth controls laws is motivated by the desire to improve the handling qualities in aggressive maneuvering and in severely degraded weather conditions. Naturally, these advantages will also improve the quality of the model following, thereby improving the inflight simulation capabilities of the research vehicle. High bandwidth in the control laws provides tighter tracking allowing for higher response bandwidths which can meet handling qualities requirements for aggressive maneuvering. System sensitivity is also reduced preventing variations in the response from the vehicle due to changing flight conditions. In addition, improved gust rejection will result from this reduced sensitivity. The gust rejection coupled with a highly stable system will make more precise maneuvering and pointing possible in severely degraded weather conditions. The difficulty in achieving higher bandwidths from the control laws in the feedback and in the responses arises from the complexity of the models that are needed to produce a satisfactory design. In this case, high

  2. Digitally Controlled Converter with Dynamic Change of Control Law and Power Throughput

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Nielsen, Nils

    2003-01-01

    the substitution of analog controllers with their digital counterparts are considered. The outline of the paper is divided into two segments – the first being an experimental analysis of the timing behavior by means of code optimization – the second being an examination of the dynamics of incorporating two control......With the continuous development of faster and cheaper microprocessors the field of applications for digital control is constantly expanding. Based on this trend the paper at hand describes the analysis and implementation of multiple control laws within the same controller. Also, implemented within...

  3. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism pheromone in line with principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none-European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in context of cyber-attacks events in attempt to establish legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber-attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  4. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Buçaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism phenomena in line with the principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in the context of cyber attacks events in attempt to establish a legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  5. A disturbance decoupling nonlinear control law for variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a nonlinear control law for controlling variable speed wind turbines using feedback linearization. The novel aspect of the control law is its ability to decouple the effect of wind fluctuations. Furthermore, the transformation to feedback linearizable coordinates is chosen...

  6. [Forensic psychologist's considerations about the new law regulation in cases of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The article comments, from the perspective of a forensic psychologist, the changes which have been recently provided to the law regulations on sexual crime and the treatment of the sexual crime perpetrators. It appears that the new law regulations follow the right path, because they create the conditions for holistic and complex solutions in the sexual crime treatment matter. Unfortunately they are still rather incomplete and inconsistent. Their practical implementation is difficult because of the very demanding qualification criteria to the psychotherapy of sexual crime perpetrators, the existence of law criteria to the therapy, the narrow frame of the therapy goals and unclear rules of therapy constraint. Moreover, in Poland there is a lack of complex therapy models of sexual perpetrators, we have little experience in this kind of therapy and there is a deficiency of qualified specialists. Finally the relationship between the treatment of this kind of criminals in prison conditions and ambulatory therapy conditions isn't very clearly precise. On the other hand, a lot of improvements have been provided, such as: continuing the treatment after leaving prison, not only pharmacological treatment but also psychotherapy, the system of prevention. Despite of the strong attempts to promote the special role of pharmacological treatment of sexual crime perpetrators (,,chemical castration"), the new solutions promote a complex and interdisciplinary approach to this problem. In this article, the author described the current Polish experience in the therapy of sexual crime perpetrators and listed several rules of preparing the forensic-psychological expertise according to the described problem in context of new legal regulations.

  7. LAWS, REGULATIONS, FORMALITIES AND FACILITIES/INCENTIVES ON INVESTMENT: A CASE OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen\tAHMED

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment is a crucial component phenomenon for economic and industrial development of a country. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the present investment related laws and regulations in Bangladesh. An analysis has been made to depict different aspects and their impacts on formulations, promotions, incentives and facilities support provided by BOI, BEPZA, BSCIC, Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh Bank and National Board of Revenue to both local and foreign investors. The results of the study indicate that variables related to investment in Bangladesh are highly positive for economic growth and industrial development of the country.

  8. Laws and regulations associated with ownership of human biological material in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishen Mahesh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ownership with regard to human biological material (HBM is addressed to some extent within South African law, specifically in chapter eight of the National Health Act (NHA and its associated regulations. However, members of the legal fraternity struggle to conceptualise ownership of such materials without objectifying a person or people and risking reducing such individuals to a state of property. This then infers a reduction in human dignity by rendering one-self or parts of that same self as a commodity. The complexity of the issue raises much debate both legally as well as ethically. 

  9. Liability for contaminated property : the interaction between regulation and the common law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacWilliam, A.G. [Milner Fenerty, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The criteria used for guidelines by environmental regulators to set acceptable levels of contamination for the purposes of site remediation were discussed. For the purposes of liability under environmental legislation, the guidelines allow `persons responsible` for property contamination to have an idea of the extent to which they must remediate. The guidelines provide a standard of cleanliness which takes into account the protection of environmental quality and human health. This paper describes common law causes of action, including claims in tort and claims in contract. Issues of negligence, nuisance, and liability under Rylands v. Fletcher are also addressed.

  10. Some internationl law elements of national nuclear regulations from the Polish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadkowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The essential contents of the Polish Nuclear Act from 1986 reflects on one hand needs and possibilities of the industrial use of nuclear energy and, on the other, international obligations of Poland. Poland is a State with a limited activity regarding to industrial use of nuclear energy; the main international-law elements of national nuclear regulations can be described as follows: 1. The good-neighborliness principle concerning the siting of nuclear installations in border areas. 2. An adequate concept of nuclear damage. 3. An adequate concept of liability for nuclear damage. (orig./HSCH)

  11. Regulation and Control of Hazardous Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hans W. Gottinger

    1994-01-01

    Hazardous waste regulations require disposal in approved dumpsites, where environmental consequences are minimal but entry may be privately very costly. Imperfect policing of regulations makes the socially more costly option illicit disposal preferable form the perspective of the private decision maker. The existence of the waste disposal decision, its economic nature, production independence, and the control over environmental damage are key issues in the economics of hazardous waste managem...

  12. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  13. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is set up under the provisions of the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages, to enforce them. An atomic energy business enterpriser who intends to get the approval of indemnification measures specified under the law shall file an application to the General Director of the Science Technology Agency, attaching particular documents and writing the following matters: his name and address; the kinds of operation of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are operated; the thermal output of reactors; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials processed or employed; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be transported; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be disposed; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation of reactors; and other items stipulated concerning liability insurance and indemnification contracts. The negotiable securities qualified to be trusted include government bonds; municipal bonds; bonds issued by particular legal persons; bonds issued by banks, Central Cooperative Bank for Agriculture and Forestry, or Bank for Commerce and Industrial Cooperatives, and secured debentures under the secured debenture trust law. The recovering of trusted securities and identification cards are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  14. First law regulating school canteens in Brazil: evaluation after seven years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Schmitz, Bethsái de Abreu Soares

    2009-06-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren in Brazil and worldwide has shown that strategies to promote healthy eating habits are needed. Santa Catarina was the first Brazilian State to promulgate specific legislation to regulate the food commercialized in schools (Law n 12.061/2001). The objective was to assess the functioning of school canteens in eight key municipalities of Santa Catarina, investigating whether the foods sold were in accordance with the Law. A questionnaire was completed by the principals and those responsible for the canteens. Item Response Theory was used to examine the levels of compliance with the Law. In all 345 schools took part. Of these, 156 (45%) had a canteen. The presence of a canteen was significantly higher in the private sector (p educational actions targeting the proprietors of the canteens as well as the schools themselves. Training for the canteen's proprietors may constitute a strategy that will guarantee the economic viability of these establishments and the possibility of them being transforming into places of health promotion.

  15. Making decisions about decision-making: conscience, regulation, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, José

    2015-01-01

    The exercise of conscience can have far reaching effects. Poor behaviour can be fatal, as it has occurred in various medical scandals over the years. This article takes a wide definition of conscience as its starting point, and argues that the decision-making processes open to society--legal regulation and professional regulation--can serve to limit the options available to an individual and thus her ability to exercise her conscience. The article charts the law's changing attitude to legal intervention, which now seeks to limit the use of conscience by individuals, and addresses concerns that this may serve to 'de-moralise' medicine. It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [International experience in the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the world trade organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnyk, Olena V; Hendel, Nataliia V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. Materials and methods: Using the historical legal method has allowed to analyze the genesis of legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. The dialectical method is widely used, in particular, when it comes to the issue of the ratio of market regulation of medicines circulation and public health protection, the formal logic method, in particular, in formulating the general principles, principles and methods of legal regulation in the field of medicines, as well as the systemic method, in particular, in defining the institutional component of legal regulation in the field of medicines. Review: The activities of the WTO include several areas related to health protection: international control over infectious diseases, international legal regulation of food safety (food security), tobacco control, environmental protection, international legal aspects of access and treatment of medicinal and pharmaceutical products, international legal regulation of medical services provision. Conclusions: It is proved that the right to health is a right to access to medicines. However, for many developing countries, it is problematic to obtain patents for the production of necessary medicines or to pay a license fee, which creates a barrier to the realization of the right to health.

  17. Robust Operation of Tendon-Driven Robot Fingers Using Force and Position-Based Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven finger and a control system. The system controls the finger via a force-based control law when a tension sensor is available, and via a position-based control law when a sensor is not available. Multiple tendons may each have a corresponding sensor. The system selectively injects a compliance value into the position-based control law when only some sensors are available. A control system includes a host machine and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having a control process, which is executed by the host machine to control the finger via the force- or position-based control law. A method for controlling the finger includes determining the availability of a tension sensor(s), and selectively controlling the finger, using the control system, via the force or position-based control law. The position control law allows the control system to resist disturbances while nominally maintaining the initial state of internal tendon tensions.

  18. Blackhole State-Controlled Regulated Pushdown Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Csuhaj-Varju; T. Masopust (Tomas); G. Vaszil (György); H. Bordihn; R. Freund; T. Hinze; M. Holzer; M. Kutrib; F. Otto

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we introduce and study a variant of regulated pushdown automata, called blackhole state-controlled R-PDA where a symbol can always be pushed to the pushdown, but only a given depth of the pushdown contents is remembered; the rest of the pushdown contents is lost. In

  19. Macro impact of the law on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution on power industry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment

    2001-07-01

    The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.

  20. The Degree of Court's Control on Arbitration under the Ethiopian Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Degree of Court's Control on Arbitration under the Ethiopian Law: Is It to the ... C)) reveals that courts in Ethiopia control arbitration by such avenues as appeal, ... all overlook the avenue of refusal, particularly in terms of domestic awards.

  1. Complex regulation controls Neurogenin3 proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Roark

    2012-10-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS is known to be responsible for the rapid turnover of many transcription factors, where half-life is held to be critical for regulation of transcriptional activity. However, the stability of key transcriptional regulators of development is often very poorly characterised. Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3 is a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that plays a central role in specification and differentiation of endocrine cells of the pancreas and gut, as well as spermatogonia and regions of the brain. Here we demonstrate that Ngn3 protein stability is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system and that Ngn3 can be ubiquitylated on lysines, the N-terminus and, highly unusually, on non-canonical residues including cysteines and serines/threonines. Rapid turnover of Ngn3 is regulated both by binding to its heterodimeric partner E protein and by the presence of cdk inhibitors. We show that protein half-life does appear to regulate the activity of Ngn3 in vivo, but, unlike the related transcription factor c-myc, ubiquitylation on canonical sites is not a requirement for transcriptional activity of Ngn3. Hence, we characterise an important new level of Ngn3 post-translational control, which may regulate its transcriptional activity.

  2. JURIDICAL REGIME OF THE INTEREST IN THE ROMANIAN LAW. PARTICULAR CASE. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE REGULATIONS OF THE REMUNERATORY INTEREST VERSUS THE PENALIZING INTEREST, IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucia Cristea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a case where the rate of the conventional interest is not specified made me investigate what is the maximal limit that can be obtained in this case, under the regulation in force, in the Romanian law (sect.1!To formulate a solution, I considered as necessary to analyze : the provision on the moratory damages (according to the Roman Civil Code and the putting of the debtor in default, in order to know what is the date starting from which the moratory damages are calculated (according to the Roman Civil Code-sect.2; the juridical regime of the interest (according to the Roman Bankin Law-sect.3;comparison between the remuneratory interest and the penalizing interest (according to the Roman Banking Law-sect.4;solution for the case and conclusions-sect. 5.

  3. Regulation, control, tele-management; Regulation, commande, telegestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 1998, the French public authorities have started an ambitious energy mastery policy under the auspices of the Agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). One aspect of this policy concerns the R and D, industrial development and applications of automation and computerized control to the energy systems of buildings. This RCT 2000 seminar takes stock of the recent advances in this domain 7 years after the previous RCT issue. The first day of the seminar was devoted to new developments in regulation and control (ergonomics aspects, lighting systems, air conditioning in accommodations, solar systems etc..). Stress was put on the revolution expected with the introduction of domestic computer applications and Internet. This first day ended with a precise status of the standardization and future regulatory aspects. The second day was dealing with tele-management and technical management systems for buildings with an analysis of the impact of Internet and of the sensors and actuators capacity in information processing. The consequences and new requirements of the thermal regulation 2000 and the factors of success of a new start-up of the tele-management market in local authorities and social accommodations were analyzed too. (J.S.)

  4. Law society breaches competition rules over financial regulation training for conveyancers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the impact of a competition law ruling against the Law Society of England and Wales. \\ud \\ud The Law Society was found to have breached UK competition law rules in relation to its provision of anti-money laundering and mortgage fraud training courses to law firms. The Law Society made it a condition of membership of its Quality Conveyancing Scheme that all law firm members must only receive this training from the Law Society. A competing provider of legal training course...

  5. Environmental impact evaluation: law no. 16.466 of 1994 01 14 and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    No.16.466 law of January 9, 1994, known as the Law on Prevention and Environmental Impact Assessment EIA or just law is probably the law marked the beginning of a new generation of environmental standards in Uruguay, together with other like Hazardous Waste Act (Act 17 220 1999), the law of Natural Protected Areas System (Law 17 234 2000) and especially the General Law Protection Environment (Law no. 17 283 of November 28, 2000), but which also reaches to the Constitution of the Republic, with the inclusion of environment in the new wording of Article 47 of the 1996 reform.

  6. Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private

  7. U.S. Laws and Regulations for Renewable Energy Grid Interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geller, Nina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly declining costs of wind and solar energy technologies, increasing concerns about the environmental and climate change impacts of fossil fuels, and sustained investment in renewable energy projects all point to a not-so-distant future in which renewable energy plays a pivotal role in the electric power system of the 21st century. In light of public pressures and market factors that hasten the transition towards a low-carbon system, power system planners and regulators are preparing to integrate higher levels of variable renewable generation into the grid. Updating the regulations that govern generator interconnections and operations is crucial to ensure system reliability while creating an enabling environment for renewable energy development. This report presents a chronological review of energy laws and regulations concerning grid interconnection procedures in the United States, highlighting the consequences of policies for renewable energy interconnections. Where appropriate, this report places interconnection policies and their impacts on renewable energy within the broader context of power market reform.

  8. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  9. The executive regulations of the decree-law no. 31 of the year 2002 concerning radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Laws No.31 of the year 2002 of the State of Qatar is composed of five parts. Part 1 includes articles dealing with definition of terms (Chapter 1) and application and scope of the regulations (Chapter 2). Part 2 deals with licensing (Chapter 1) and inspections aspects (Chapter 2) of the regulations. Article 1 defines legal terms and radiation protection concepts in the context of this regulation. Article 2 describes practices that are covered by these regulations which include: 1. production of radiation sources; extraction and treatment of radioactive raw materials; and use of radiation or radioactive materials for medical, industrial, agricultural, training or scientific research purposes or others, including any activities relating to such use and involve or may involve radiation exposure; 2. practices involving natural sources of radiation which lead to greater dose than that prescribed for workers or the public, and which cannot be ignored from the perspective of radiation protection; 3. any other practice to be determined by the Council and which involves risks from: occupational exposure, medical exposure, public exposure, potential exposure, chronic exposure, or emergency exposure; and intervention in case of an emergency radiation or chronic exposure. Article 3 defines practices that are exempted from the requirements set out in these Regulations. Article 4, 5 and 6 deal with the principles of protection, dose limits and ideal protection and safety. Part 3 consists of 3 chapters: Chapter 1 describes Occupational Exposure Protection and Radiation Work Places, Chapter 2 describes Medical Exposure Protection and Chapter 3 describes Public Exposure. Part 4, consists of 3 chapters: Chapter 1 describes General Requirements For Safety Management and Performance, Chapter 2 describes Radiation Sources Safety and Accidents, and Chapter 3 describes Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. Part 5 consists of 2 chapters: Chapter 1 describes

  10. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  11. GENDER ASPECTS OF INHERITANCE MANAGEMENT IN GEORGIA CULTURAL PRACTICES VS LAW REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Araviashvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After gaining independence in 1991 Georgia adopted the new constitution, received liberal laws and joined international conventions, which formally guarantee gender equality. However, law regulations do not come in accordance with cultural values, and are not shared by society. Consequently, the problems of gender inequality are still vital issues in Georgian society. Traditionally, informal practice of dowry giving protected women and gave them independence in a new family. Nowadays, in Georgia a daughter and a son formally have equal access to their parent’s inheritance, but there are very rare cases when a woman demands her part of it. This is not justified by society to contend for the inheritance with a brother. Formal institutions are not strong to prevent this economic form of domestic violence. The methodology of the research is complex: expert interviews were recorded and analyzed, to study data about the inheritance registration and court records pertaining to inheritance litigations, the method of content analysis was used; apart from this, ethnographic resources and surveys were examined. The findings of the proposed research article provide a complex picture of this really vital problem still affecting the post-soviet Georgian society.

  12. Experiences in the last amendment of radiation regulation laws in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakunai, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the deliberation on the introduction of the ICRP recommendation to the radiation regulation laws in Japan, the Radiation Council opened the meetings and the draft report to the public, and requested comments. Submitted comments were reflected in the deliberation. As for the following three subjects, that is, dose limit of occupational exposure for women, classification of workplaces and limitations of the occupational exposure in the emergency, a lot of opinions were expressed in the process of the deliberation on the council, and there were a lot of various opinions of the genera( public to the draft. These opinions were the opinions from each standpoint where benefit conflicted with damage, opinions based on different ideas, and opinions from a socially different standpoints. The Council drew the conclusion after having examined that the grounds of argument had been well verified in a scientific manner and the conclusion of each subject maintained the correspondence in the whole system of law. In order to improve the current comment requesting system, it was pointed out that further discussions by open system among authors, experts and submitted general publics who had the responsible opinion is desirable. (author)

  13. Comparison of the Canadian and US Laws, Regulations, Policies, and Systems of Oversight for Animals in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Locke, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Canadian and United States' approaches to oversight of animals in research are both based on the "3Rs" principles outlined in Russell and Burch's classic text, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Each country seeks to protect the welfare of animals, while permitting the legitimate goals of scientific research to be attained according to the legal principles, cultures, and strengths and constraints of their jurisprudential and societal traditions. Canada is one of the most decentralized federations in the world, and regulation of activities is based to a great extent on custom and practice. The United States is more hierarchical and, at least with respect to laws governing animal research, more centralized. Accordingly, the Canadian approach is rooted in the concepts of social contracts, with a greater emphasis on guidance and policy and less reliance on legislation. No federal (national) direct legislation of laboratory animal welfare exists, although the federal government uses its criminal and spending authorities to shape behavior. The central feature of the Canadian system is the Canadian Council on Animal Care, which was formed to support universities and government departments involved in animal-based science. Animal care committees play a central role in implementing the guidelines and policies in facilities that carry out animal research. The United States has enacted two federal (national) laws applicable to animals in research. The Animal Welfare Act is a more traditional, command-and-control law that gives authority to the US Department of Agriculture to promulgate regulations, inspect facilities, and enforce violations. The Health Research Extension Act, which amended the US Public Health Services (PHS) Act, applies to any activity conducted or supported by the PHS, including research efforts supported by the US National Institutes of Health. It is largely nonregulatory and establishes a system of assurances and policies that covered

  14. Design and Testing of Flight Control Laws on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chad R.; Hindson, William S.; Moralez. Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Dryfoos, James B.

    2001-01-01

    Two unique sets of flight control laws were designed, tested and flown on the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The first set of control laws used a simple rate feedback scheme, intended to facilitate the first flight and subsequent flight qualification of the RASCAL research flight control system. The second set of control laws comprised a more sophisticated model-following architecture. Both sets of flight control laws were developed and tested extensively using desktop-to-flight modeling, analysis, and simulation tools. Flight test data matched the model predicted responses well, providing both evidence and confidence that future flight control development for RASCAL will be efficient and accurate.

  15. Development of a digital automatic control law for steep glideslope capture and flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A longitudinal digital guidance and control law for steep glideslopes using MLS (Microwave Landing System) data is developed for CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law covers the final approach phases of glideslope capture, glideslope tracking, and flare to touchdown for automatic landings under adverse weather conditions. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process MLS and body-mounted accelerometer data to form estimates of flight path errors and wind velocities including wind shear. The flight path error estimates and wind estimates are used for feedback in generating control surface commands. Results of a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the guidance and control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  16. Regulated control of practices and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Excepting the radiation caused by the natural background radiation, the Executive Secretariat for Nuclear Affairs (SEAN) does not authorize any source no practice within the national territory that may imply exposure of a person to ionizing radiation unless this use is ruled. This document establishes the basic criteria to set up such system as well as to exclude or exempt practices and sources from this regulated control

  17. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  18. A Comparative Study of Obsessionality in Medical Students, Law Students, and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Kim, Suck Won; Grant, Jon E

    2017-09-01

    Understanding obsessive-compulsive behavior in medical students and law students is necessary for administrators and educators to properly work with students struggling with obsessionality. We aim to compare the differences in obsessive symptoms between medical students, law students and a control population. A total of 100 third-year medical students, 102 third-year law students and 103 control subjects drawn from the general population completed the Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI). Subjects were examined on all three sections (symptoms/traits, resistance and interference) of the LOI. Obsessional symptom scores for medical students (14.29 ± 7.33) and law students (13.65 ± 6.61) were significantly greater than for the control group (11.58 ± 7.45). Medical and law students were both more likely to report checking, order, routine and attention to detail as obsessive symptoms. Medical students were more likely than law students to possess the obsessive symptoms of cleanliness and conscientiousness, while law students were more likely than medical students to possess obsessive symptoms related to difficulty in making up their mind and doubting themselves. While medical students and law students are more obsessional than the control population, each group is more likely to report different obsessive symptoms.

  19. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  20. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public... boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? (a) In addition to the.... NPS applies the adopted laws and regulations to vessels and their operation on all waters (navigable...

  1. Federalism and managed care: introductory comments to the American Association of Law Schools' Section on Law, Medicine and Health Care on the role of the states in managed care regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J D

    1999-01-01

    This section of the Annals of Health Law represents a compilation of materials concerning the state regulation of managed care. The following materials were first presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Law Schools ("AALS"), Section on Law, Medicine and Health Care in January 1999. Chairman John Blum introduces the subject and questions the dual role assumed by state and federal authorities in regulating managed care.

  2. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  3. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years

  4. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  5. Transposition of the new European Union audit regulation into the Croatian national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Sever Mališ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The audit reform in the EU had as a consequence the adoption of the new regulatory framework. The European Parliament adopted Directive 2014/56/EU amending the Directive 2006/43/EC on statutory audit in the EU and the EU Regulation No. 537/2014 containing requirements that relate specifically to the statutory audit of public interest entities. Each Member State needs to transpose the Directive into its national legislation and also ensure its implementation. Within the framework of transposing the Directive into the national regulation, each Member State had many options that allows them to tailor the provisions of the national law according to their needs and specific aspects of the national audit markets. However, the number of options brings risks that are connected to additional audit procedures and inefficiencies in the process of performing audit with the potential effects on the quality and cost of audits. The aim of this article is to analyse the most important (not used options of the Directive and Regulation according to the Croatian national legislation. In that sense, the article provides information about the definition of statutory audit and the subjects of statutory audit as well as the definition of public interest entities in Croatia. In addition, the audit profession in Croatia is analysed in the context of the “European audit passport”. The results of this research can be a base for future comparisons between Croatia and the other EU Member States. Finally, the implementation of this provisions will answer the question: Does the implementation of different options bring convergence or divergence within the single EU audit services market?

  6. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  7. Computational Study of Separation Control Using ZNMF Devices: Flow Physics and Scaling Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittal, Rajat

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to gain a fundamental understanding of strategies, mechanisms, and scaling laws for successful control of separation using zern-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators...

  8. Optimization of motion control laws for tether crawler or elevator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.; Von Tiesenhausen, Georg

    1988-01-01

    Based on the proposal of a motion control law by Lorenzini (1987), a method is developed for optimizing motion control laws for tether crawler or elevator systems in terms of the performance measures of travel time, the smoothness of acceleration and deceleration, and the maximum values of velocity and acceleration. The Lorenzini motion control law, based on powers of the hyperbolic tangent function, is modified by the addition of a constant-velocity section, and this modified function is then optimized by parameter selections to minimize the peak acceleration value for a selected travel time or to minimize travel time for the selected peak values of velocity and acceleration. It is shown that the addition of a constant-velocity segment permits further optimization of the motion control law performance.

  9. A Study of Control Laws for Microsatellite Rendezvous with a Noncooperative Target

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tschirhart, Troy

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a microsatellite to accomplish an orbital rendezvous with a noncooperative target, with a focus on the control laws necessary for achieving such a rendezvous...

  10. Quality Control in diagnostic radiology according to national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienik, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the main aspects of quality control of radiological devices according to the current national regulations. Explanation of the physical principles of image formation by different test phantoms used to measure focal spot sizes is presented in appendix. The obligation for quality assurance (QA) for all X-ray systems which follows European standards was enforced in updated '' Atomic Law Act '' of 29 November 2000 . This document is the main regulatory act which establishes the basic safety standards for radiation protection in Poland. The main modifications introduced by this new Act concerned the issue of radiation protection of individuals undergoing medical examinations with the use of ionizing radiation which is regulated by EC Directive 97/43 Euratom. According to this Directive quality assurance programmes, including quality control measures need to be implemented by the holder of the radiological installation. Therefore, in the above Act the Minister of Health has been obligated to impose specific regulations describing the way of implementation of general principles laid down in the Directive. Some of these regulations, like those concerning QC tests and tolerances, have already been mentioned in the document titled '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine ''. For example, the QC program in radiography is being considered; the obligatory tests- acceptance, routine and annual- are discussed and specific procedures are being indicated. The main idea of the document '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine '' which concerns radiation protection of patients and staff against ionizing radiation used in medicine is to implement the surveillance of all X-ray systems in form of acceptance tests followed by internal tests (routine and annual) performed in accordance with European standards. (author)

  11. General Form of Model-Free Control Law and Convergence Analyzing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The general form of model-free control law is introduced, and its convergence is analyzed. Firstly, the necessity to improve the basic form of model free control law is explained, and the functional combination method as the approach of improvement is presented. Then, a series of sufficient conditions of convergence are given. The analysis denotes that these conditions can be satisfied easily in the engineering practice.

  12. Related regulation of quality control of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book introduce related regulation of quality control of industrial products, which includes regulations of industrial products quality control, enforcement ordinance of industrial products quality control, enforcement regulation of quality control of industrial products, designated items with industrial production quality indication, industrial production quality test, and industrial production quality test organization and management tips of factory quality by grade.

  13. MARKET FAIRNESS IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS LAW AND ETHICS: A Study on Modern and Traditional Market Regulations in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapa Khamal Rokan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated by unfair market conditions in the form of marginalization of traditional markets in Indonesia due to unequal competition with the modern market. This article tries to find a fair legal formulation to maintain the existence of a small market (traditional. To find the legal formulation, the author attempts to discuss market regulation in Indonesian legislation, analyzed and found it to be optimized to create a fair market arrangements in the perspective of Islamic law. This study propose a paradigm that the market functions not only as an business institution but also as religious and social institutions based on brotherhood which requires mutual respect and responsibility. There are prescriptive law to maintain the existence of traditional markets in Indonesia, which optimizes the concept of ownership as a form of common ownership and optimize the regulation of cooperation between the traditional and the modern market economy based on the doctrine of Islamic law.

  14. Should virtual cybercrime be regulated by means of criminal law? A philosophical, legal-economic, pragmatic and constitutional dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2014-01-01

    This paper will be about the question of whether or not virtual cybercrime should be regulated by means of criminal law. By virtual cybercrime I mean activities such as the stealing of virtual property or the killing of an avatar (a player's virtual representation) within the virtual worlds of

  15. How to opt into the Common European Sales Law? Brief comments on the Commission's proposal for a regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike the actual text for the proposed Common European Sales Law (CESL), which is based on extensive preparatory work by academics, the regime for opting into the instrument, which is set out in the main text of the proposed regulation, is entirely of the European Commission's own making. The

  16. How to opt into the Common European Sales Law? Brief comments on the Commission's proposal for a regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Claeys, I.; Feltkamp, R.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the actual text for the proposed Common European Sales Law (CESL), which is based on extensive preparatory work by academics, the regime for opting into the instrument, which is set out in the main text of the proposed regulation, is entirely of the European Commission's own making. The

  17. Decree 120/12. It regulate the servitudes prescribed by law 17,389

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree regulates the monitoring, control, maintenance and operation of the oil pipeline territory in charge of Ancap. This pipeline connects the Eastern Terminal Jose Ignacio with La Teja refinery which simultaneously is connected with La Tablada plant. The Administracion Nacional de Combustibles Alcohol y Portland (Ancap) establish the prohibitions and limitations on the land use as well as the explosive charge circulation in the zone.

  18. Judicial control authority and third-party action as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author points out the fundamental complex of problems. From the 'undetermined' legal term of imperative prevention of damage as defined by Sect. 7 para. 2 (3) of the Atomic Energy Law follows the judicial claim for detailed analysis of facts in case of minor radioactive exposure under normal operation and in case of accident prevention. He discusses the relation of the Atomic Energy Law to the Basic Law and to the normative structure of the Atomic Energy Law. The re-orientation to be found in the judicial approach to control does recognize sanctuaries of the executive. Control density and the right of third parties to take action are closely interrelated. From the integration - according to subjective law and basic law - of the Atomic Energy Law into the realtionship existing between technological and cultural development, and the material relation of licences granted for nuclear installations follows a reduction of judicial control intensity, at least for the procedural constellation of third-party actions. (HSCH) [de

  19. It Is About Control: Progressivism, FATCA and Global Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive ideology has slowly eroded American principles for over a century, declaring social control its ultimate goal. Social control is not possible while American principles, such as individual freedoms and limited government, thrive. Global control is now the favored progressive tactic to overcome such principles, and no sector of our lives is off limits.

  20. Guidance Law and Neural Control for Hypersonic Missile to Track Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic technology plays an important role in prompt global strike. Because the flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle is nonlinear, uncertain, and highly coupled, the controller design is challenging, especially to design its guidance and control law during the attack of a maneuvering target. In this paper, the sliding mode control (SMC method is used to develop the guidance law from which the desired flight path angle is derived. With the desired information as control command, the adaptive neural control in discrete time is investigated ingeniously for the longitudinal dynamics of the hypersonic missile. The proposed guidance and control laws are validated by simulation of a hypersonic missile against a maneuvering target. It is demonstrated that the scheme has good robustness and high accuracy to attack a maneuvering target in the presence of external disturbance and missile model uncertainty.

  1. The system of non-statutory regulations in the field of atomic energy law and radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of the expert opinion examines the system of authority and competence to issue regulations, administrative provisions, and rules, and their legal effects. While regulations have an effect on third parties, administrative provisions have a binding effect only for administrative bodies. The legal effects of rules and recommendations are very difficult to define; for their application in practice, one often relies on such instruments as prima facie evidence, or anticipatory expert opinion. In the second part, the system of advisory bodies and committees, and their legal position are examined. Recommendations of the RSK and the SSK, or safety guides e.g., do not have a binding effect and are only of an indicatory nature. They can be made legally binding by transforming them into administrative provisions for implementation, or by referring to them in administrative provisions as a standard to be adhered to. (HSCH) [de

  2. Integrated care in Norway: State of affairs years after regulation by law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Bjerkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A mandatory multidisciplinary plan for individual care, the 'Individual care Plan', was introduced by law in Norway in 2001. The regulation was established to meet the need for improved efficiency and quality of health and social services, and to increase patient involvement. The plan was intended for patients with long-term and complex needs for coordinated care. The aim of this study was to elaborate on knowledge of such planning processes in Norwegian municipalities.Method: A piloted questionnaire was sent to 92 randomly selected municipalities in 2005-2006, addressing local organization and participation in the work with individual care plans. Local political governance, size of the population, funds available for health care, and problems related to living conditions were indicators for analysing the extent to which the individual care plan was used five years after the regulation was introduced.Results: Our results showed that 0.5% as opposed to an expected 3% of the population had an individual care plan. This was independent of the political, social and financial situation in the municipalities or the way the planning process had been carried out. The planning process was mostly taken care of by local health and social care professionals, rather than by hospital staff and general practitioners.Discussion and conclusion: The low number of care plans and the oblique responsibility among professionals for planning showed that the objectives of the national initiative had not been achieved. More research is needed to determine the reasons for this lack of success and to contribute to solutions for improved multidisciplinary cooperation.

  3. Integrated care in Norway: State of affairs years after regulation by law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Bjerkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A mandatory multidisciplinary plan for individual care, the 'Individual care Plan', was introduced by law in Norway in 2001. The regulation was established to meet the need for improved efficiency and quality of health and social services, and to increase patient involvement. The plan was intended for patients with long-term and complex needs for coordinated care. The aim of this study was to elaborate on knowledge of such planning processes in Norwegian municipalities. Method: A piloted questionnaire was sent to 92 randomly selected municipalities in 2005-2006, addressing local organization and participation in the work with individual care plans. Local political governance, size of the population, funds available for health care, and problems related to living conditions were indicators for analysing the extent to which the individual care plan was used five years after the regulation was introduced. Results: Our results showed that 0.5% as opposed to an expected 3% of the population had an individual care plan. This was independent of the political, social and financial situation in the municipalities or the way the planning process had been carried out. The planning process was mostly taken care of by local health and social care professionals, rather than by hospital staff and general practitioners. Discussion and conclusion: The low number of care plans and the oblique responsibility among professionals for planning showed that the objectives of the national initiative had not been achieved. More research is needed to determine the reasons for this lack of success and to contribute to solutions for improved multidisciplinary cooperation.

  4. On the need of regulating surrogacy: Recent case law and activities in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses three important events for a future possible international instrument on surrogacy with cross-border effects. The Hague Conference document 'The desirability and feasibility of further work on the Parentage / Surrogacy Project', the first two judgments of the European Court of Human Rights on the effects of cross-border surrogate motherhood and two judgments of the Court of the European Union on the right of intended mothers to maternity leave suggest that international regulation of the issues is desirable, but large differences between internal laws of states require further study on the possibility of reaching a consensus to draw up and accept a binding or not-binding multilateral instrument on the subject matter. The Mennesson v France ECHR judgment is particularly important, because it establishes violation of the right to respect private life of children who were given birth by a surrogate mother, and creates by this a contradiction between the margin of appreciation of a respective State and the principle of best interests of the child.

  5. Automatic guidance and control laws for helicopter obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Lam, T.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the implementation of a full-function guidance and control system for automatic obstacle avoidance in helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The guidance function assumes that the helicopter is sufficiently responsive so that the flight path can be readily adjusted at NOE speeds. The controller, basically an autopilot for following the derived flight path, was implemented with parameter values to control a generic helicopter model used in the simulation. Evaluation of the guidance and control system with a 3-dimensional graphical helicopter simulation suggests that the guidance has the potential for providing good and meaningful flight trajectories.

  6. Promoting Implementation of Tobacco Control Laws and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  7. Decree No. 1991, Regulations to the Law on Foreigners, 30 June 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Among other things, these Regulations set forth rules on requirements for visas established in the Ecuador Law on Foreigners. They list the amounts of income from abroad or investments in Ecuador required of foreigners entering Ecuador with immigrant visas, documents needed by persons working permanently in enterprises and institutions under immigrant visas, and methods of proof of dependency for persons entering on immigrant visas as dependents. In this context, they provide that persons with foreign income must receive at least $1,000 per month, with an increase of 80% Ecuadorian personnel; that persons entering as workers must inform authorities of changes in work status; and that persons entering as dependents may themselves work only if their sponsor dies or the means of subsistence of the sponsor decrease. The Regulations also set forth requirements for persons entering Ecuador on nonimmigrant visas, such as refugees, students, temporary workers, religious personnel, and those in transit. With respect to refugees, the rules provide that false statements made in an application will trigger an expulsion order; that foreign nationals coming from a country other than that where they suffered persecution will not be admitted unless they were in that country in direct transit; that refugees may not leave the country without express permission; and that, if the conditions justifying asylum change, a refugee will be required to leave the country. With respect to workers, the rules provide that an applicant must show a need for a foreign worker that cannot be fulfilled by an Ecuadorian worker and must show a work contract or appointment. With respect to those in transit, the rules provide that no visa is required and that entry will be denied to those lacking permission to enter the country of destination and transit through countries bordering Ecuador that are on their route. Persons in this category may stay in Ecuador for only a limited time--usually 10 days for

  8. The system of legal regulations and supervisory powers in the German Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the book deals with the practical implementation of the legal provisions governing examination and subsequent licensing and judicial restraint, and the effects of actual practice on the energy industry, for the purpose of showing the chain of cause and effect of the frequently lamented delays in the further utilisation of nuclear energy, and of analysing the role of the administrative courts in the process, pointing to the explosiveness in terms of economics of this issue. The second part analyses the risk assessments from the legal and technical point of view in order to ascertain whether the findings of risk assessments are suitable to serve as scale models for decisions to be taken by the courts. The third part is a critical evaluation of the numerous attempts to incorporate the general doctrine of discretionary power into the system of atomic energy law in a way conformable with the existing system. This analysis resulting in the statement that the attempts have failed so far, the fourth part of the book discusses the necessity to look for other solutions, among other things by critically screening the dogma of discretionary power. The author comes to the conclusion that judicial restraint is to be cut back in the licensing procedure, however not to the extent that control over the authorities is abandoned altogether, but rather in such a way that the power of administrative courts does not develop into judgments executing the law. It is to be avoided that licensing procedures for nuclear power plants degenerate into 'administrative procedures preceded by administrative procedures'. This may not be confounded with giving up all possibilities of legal protection. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. 25 CFR 900.148 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian...

  10. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  11. The Dawn of Criminal Law, Regulation of Punitive Power in the Sumerian, Akk adian and Semite Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro J. García Falconí

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available General and special Law, the regulation of the punitive power appeared since the first codings known in the history of mankind, being clear their religious character, their sacrifice logic, and the violence element that permeate to it. This punitive matrix is found in both Sumerian and Akkadian Codes, as in the later Jewish legislation, in which violence and sacredness fuse. The Talion Law already makes its appearance, as well as the structures on which the Inquisitorial System will be later built, and some traits that survive until today.

  12. Law and psychiatry: regulating psychotherapy or restricting freedom of speech? California's ban on sexual orientation change efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    California's new law banning sexual orientation change efforts by licensed therapists for patients under 18 immediately provoked court challenges. Therapists, parents, and patients argued that the statute infringed constitutional rights to freedom of speech and parental rights to select treatments for their children. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected all of these claims in a unanimous decision upholding the law. However, the decision evokes concerns that other forms of psychotherapy could be subject to similar regulation. Tort remedies may provide less intrusive means for discouraging use of ineffective and potentially harmful therapies.

  13. A Nonlinear Fuel Optimal Reaction Jet Control Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breitfeller, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We derive a nonlinear fuel optimal attitude control system (ACS) that drives the final state to the desired state according to a cost function that weights the final state angular error relative to the angular rate error...

  14. Trade law and alcohol regulation: what role for a global Alcohol Marketing Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew D; Casben, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Following calls for restrictions and bans on alcohol advertising, and in light of the tobacco industry's challenge to Australia's tobacco plain packaging measure, a tobacco control measure finding support in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper considers what role, if any, an international alcohol marketing code might have in preventing or reducing the risk of challenges to domestic alcohol marketing restrictions under trade rules. Narrative review of international trade and health instruments and international trade court judgements regarding alcohol products and marketing restrictions. The experience of European trade courts in the litigation of similar measures suggests that World Trade Organization rules have sufficient flexibility to support the implementation of alcohol marketing restrictions. However, the experience also highlights the possibility that public health measures have disproportionate and unjustifiable trade effects and that the ability of a public health measure to withstand a challenge under trade rules will turn on its particular design and implementation. Measures implemented pursuant to international public health instruments are not immune to trade law challenges. Close collaboration between health policymakers, trade officials and lawyers, from as early as the research stage in the development of a measure to ensure a robust evidence base, will ensure the best chance of regulatory survival for an international marketing code. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  16. Approximate analytical relationships for linear optimal aeroelastic flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ayman Hamdy

    1998-09-01

    This dissertation introduces new methods to uncover functional relationships between design parameters of a contemporary control design technique and the resulting closed-loop properties. Three new methods are developed for generating such relationships through analytical expressions: the Direct Eigen-Based Technique, the Order of Magnitude Technique, and the Cost Function Imbedding Technique. Efforts concentrated on the linear-quadratic state-feedback control-design technique applied to an aeroelastic flight control task. For this specific application, simple and accurate analytical expressions for the closed-loop eigenvalues and zeros in terms of basic parameters such as stability and control derivatives, structural vibration damping and natural frequency, and cost function weights are generated. These expressions explicitly indicate how the weights augment the short period and aeroelastic modes, as well as the closed-loop zeros, and by what physical mechanism. The analytical expressions are used to address topics such as damping, nonminimum phase behavior, stability, and performance with robustness considerations, and design modifications. This type of knowledge is invaluable to the flight control designer and would be more difficult to formulate when obtained from numerical-based sensitivity analysis.

  17. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  18. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  19. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATED HIGH TEMPERATURE MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT MULTIMODE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  20. Rehabilitating the regulative use of reason: Kant on empirical and chemical laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Michael Bennett

    2015-12-01

    In his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant asserts that laws of nature "carry with them an expression of necessity" (A159/B198). There is, however, widespread interpretive disagreement regarding the nature and source of the necessity of empirical laws of natural sciences in Kant's system. It is especially unclear how chemistry-a science without a clear, straightforward connection to the a priori principles of the understanding-could contain such genuine, empirical laws. Existing accounts of the necessity of causal laws unfortunately fail to illuminate the possibility of non-physical laws. In this paper, I develop an alternative, 'ideational' account of natural laws, according to which ideas of reason necessitate the laws of some non-physical sciences. Chemical laws, for instance, are grounded on ideas of the elements, and the chemist aims to reduce her phenomena to these elements via experimentation. Although such ideas are beyond the possibility of experience, their postulation is necessary for the achievement of reason's theoretical ends: the unification and explanation of the cognitions of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Redesigning government regulations towards a tobacco endgame strategy: a comparative law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Edson Yarcia

    2018-03-01

    Incorporation of international law in domestic law allows States to formulate tobacco endgame strategies through legislative and/or executive actions. The formulation based on the Philippines could be a basis for other States to formulate their respective end game strategies, taking into consideration their unique political, cultural, economic, and epidemiological contexts.

  2. Development of fault tolerant adaptive control laws for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rocha, Andres E.

    The main topic of this dissertation is the design, development and implementation of intelligent adaptive control techniques designed to maintain healthy performance of aerospace systems subjected to malfunctions, external parameter changes and/or unmodeled dynamics. The dissertation is focused on the development of novel adaptive control configurations that rely on non-linear functions that appear in the immune system of living organisms as main source of adaptation. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to demonstrate that these novel adaptive control architectures are able to improve overall performance and protect the system while reducing control effort and maintaining adequate operation outside bounds of nominal design. This research effort explores several phases, ranging from theoretical stability analysis, simulation and hardware implementation on different types of aerospace systems including spacecraft, aircraft and quadrotor vehicles. The results presented in this dissertation are focused on two main adaptivity approaches, the first one is intended for aerospace systems that do not attain large angles and use exact feedback linearization of Euler angle kinematics. A proof of stability is presented by means of the circle Criterion and Lyapunov's direct method. The second approach is intended for aerospace systems that can attain large attitude angles (e.g. space systems in gravity-less environments), the adaptation is incorporated on a baseline architecture that uses partial feedback linearization of quaternions kinematics. In this case, the closed loop stability was analyzed using Lyapunov's direct method and Barbalat's Lemma. It is expected that some results presented in this dissertation can contribute towards the validation and certification of direct adaptive controllers.

  3. Power laws reveal phase transitions in landscape controls of fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; Maureen C. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the environmental controls on historical wildfires, and how they changed across spatial scales, is difficult because there are no surviving explicit records of either weather or vegetation (fuels). Here we show how power laws associated with fire-event time series arise in limited domains of parameters that represent critical transitions in the controls...

  4. An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looye, G.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions.

  5. Development of Analysis Tools for Certification of Flight Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    In Proc. Conf. on Decision and Control, pages 881-886, Bahamas, 2004. [7] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi , and A. Vicino. LMI-based computation of...Minneapolis, MN, 2006, pp. 117-122. [10] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi . and A. Vicino, "LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov functions...Convex Optimization. Cambridge Univ. Press. Chesi, G., A. Garulli, A. Tesi and A. Vicino (2005). LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov

  6. Radiation protection and the safe use of X-ray equipment: Laws, regulations and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrus Herbst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, South Africa’s regulatory framework for electromagnetic medical devices has come under considerable pressure. In this article the legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure are scrutinized, by looking at how the legislature has given form to protective measures against ionizing radiation. Although the Hazardous Substances Act provides for effective protection against radiation, poor administration led to insufficient staffing levels, uncertainty about Regulations and licensing conditions and therefore undermines a sound radiation protection infrastructure. The legal basis of enforcing licensing conditions through a website without proper consultation with interested and affected parties is questionable and ineffective in controlling radiation levels. Effective and legal radiation control is possible by activating the National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products provided for in Regulation R326 published in 1979, but never implemented. The possible impact of annual quality assurance tests currently enforced through licensing conditions on the radiation dose of the population is not cost effective as new training and accreditation structures had to be created. The fact that generally more than 80% of overexposures are caused by human error is a clear indication that training of the daily users of X-ray equipment should be emphasized and not the training and accreditation of the technicians responsible for a single quality assurance test per year. Constructive engagement with the professional bodies involved in the medical use of X-rays through a National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products may be a cost effective solution for lowering radiation dose to the population.

  7. The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.

  8. Comparing Interval Management Control Laws for Steady-State Errors and String Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Lesley A.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2018-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that leverages avionics to provide speed guidance to an aircraft to achieve and maintain a specified spacing interval from another aircraft. The design of a speed control law to achieve the spacing goal is a key aspect in the research and development of the IM concept. In this paper, two control laws that are used in much of the contemporary IM research are analyzed and compared to characterize steady-state errors and string stability. Numerical results are used to illustrate how the choice of control laws gains impacts the size of steady-state errors and string performance and the potential trade-offs between those performance characteristics.

  9. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of Manipulator Based on the Improved Reaching Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na ZHAI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the mechanical hand often have serious uncertainty, as the state in which the different and external changes, also its parameters are changing, this is very adverse to achieve precise control. In this paper, the traditional sliding mode variable structure was improved, the sign function is replaced by saturated function based on the double power reaching law, by adjusting the values of e1, e2, a, b, g and k to effectively improve the manipulator joint reaching speed, track expected trajectory fast and shorten the system response time. Finally, the method is used for simulation of manipulator trajectory tracking, compared to two reaching law control algorithms. The simulation results show that the control algorithm has good dynamic performance, which can effectively restrain the chattering and quickly track the desired trajectory. Therefore, the improved reaching law can effectively improve the performance of robotic manipulator.

  10. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  11. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...] Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations apply to NRC... ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe the accounting aspects that MC&A programs must include...

  12. The Self-Regulation of Electronic Commerce: An Appraisal in Accordance to the Chilean Law of Unfair Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López Jiménez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Electronic commerce or e-commerce constitutes a commercial activity on the rise. Although it has many advantages, there are several lingering factors that prevent its consolidation, such as the lack of trust of the potential consumer/user. In order to overcome that obstacle, instruments of self-regulation were created in the field of advertising. Firms that wish to distinguish themselves favorably against their competitors have the option of adopting those instruments, which play a praiseworthy role regarding the target audience and constitutes a considerable improvement of consumer rights. However, on occasions, problems arise in the market when those systems of self-regulation bind third parties that did not voluntarily enter into a contract. This paper tackles the question of if self-regulation of advertising in the net can be put in place should it affects the honor of the third party not committed with the fair-practices document. Methodology/approach/design – In this article, we will refer to the particularities that arise from a case concerning the Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007, on unfair competition and self-regulation of advertising in the Internet pertaining WOM, Movistar, Entel, Claro and Virgin. Findings – The Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007 contributes to the goal of discouraging conduct contrary to good faith or good practices in advertising in conjunction with codes of conduct that have been approved in the field related to the systems of self-regulation.

  13. In control? IQC consensus and statutory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Internal quality control (IQC) represents an essential risk management tool within the total testing pathway (TTP) that contributes to the overall objective of assuring the quality of results produced in medical laboratories. Controlling analytical phase quality alone requires significant expertise and input by scientifically trained staff. This effort has escalated exponentially following the publication of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)15189:2012 requirements for quality and competence in medical laboratories. The reported inconsistency and diversity to IQC approaches in diagnostic laboratories is definitive evidence that international guidance in IQC programme design and implementation is long overdue. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Herein, the authors define, describe and critically examine the essential elements four stages of an IQC programme and suggest a template to inform both design and ease of implementation. For practical application, the authors have stratified the proposed methodology into four stages: staff education and training; IQC material; IQC targets; and IQC procedure, and provide recommendations that meet ISO15189:2012 requirements. Findings - These recommendations are informed by the published literature together with the collective experience working in clinical biochemistry and diagnostic endocrinology laboratories. The authors note that the laboratory staff's effort on IQC is a continuous process, driven by changes within each IQC stage, in response to risk analysis, maximising economic value or through professional leadership and central to IQC programme implementation and delivery. Practical implications - The authors offer a template that laboratories can use to inform the design and implementation of their IQC programme. Originality/value - The proposed IQC programme is user friendly, flexible and pragmatic with the potential to harmonise practice. The authors

  14. Mergers and concentrations occurring on the basis of acquiring of control in Serbian and EU competition law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevant Serbian and EU competition legislation does not define what is considered a concentration, but regulates which business transactions lead to concentrations of undertakings. Concentrations can be differentiated according to whether the concentration affects legal position of the merging undertakings. A concentration shall be deemed to arise where a change of control on a lasting basis results from the merger of two or more previously independent undertakings or parts of undertakings. Second type of concentrations occurs in the case of an acquisition of control. Finally, the concentration shall be deemed to arise in the case of creation of a joint venture performing on a lasting basis all the functions of an autonomous economic entity. This paper analyses mergers and concentrations occurring on the basis of acquiring of control in Serbian and EU competition law.

  15. A Comparative Study of Interval Management Control Law Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Smith, Colin L.; Palmer, Susan O.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool designed to allow for rapid development and testing of different control algorithms for airborne spacing. This tool, Interval Management Modeling and Spacing Tool (IM MAST), is a fast-time, low-fidelity tool created to model the approach of aircraft to a runway, with a focus on their interactions with each other. Errors can be induced between pairs of aircraft by varying initial positions, winds, speed profiles, and altitude profiles. Results to-date show that only a few of the algorithms tested had poor behavior in the arrival and approach environment. The majority of the algorithms showed only minimal variation in performance under the test conditions. Trajectory-based algorithms showed high susceptibility to wind forecast errors, while performing marginally better than the other algorithms under other conditions. Trajectory-based algorithms have a sizable advantage, however, of being able to perform relative spacing operations between aircraft on different arrival routes and flight profiles without employing ghosting. methods. This comes at the higher cost of substantially increased complexity, however. Additionally, it was shown that earlier initiation of relative spacing operations provided more time for corrections to be made without any significant problems in the spacing operation itself. Initiating spacing farther out, however, would require more of the aircraft to begin spacing before they merge onto a common route.

  16. Control of 2D Flexible Structures by Confinement of Vibrations and Regulation of Their Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhreddine Landolsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the control of 2D flexible structures by vibration confinement and the regulation of their energy flow along prespecified spatial paths. A discretized-model-based feedback strategy, aiming at confining and suppressing simultaneously the vibration, is proposed. It is assumed that the structure consists of parts that are sensitive to vibrations. The control design introduces a new pseudo-modal matrix derived from the computed eigenvectors of the discretized model. Simulations are presented to show the efficacy of the proposed control law. A parametric study is carried out to examine the effects of the different control parameters on the simultaneous confinement and suppression of vibrations. In addition, we conducted a set of simulations to investigate the flow control of vibrational energy during the confinement-suppression process. We found that the energy flow can be regulated via a set of control parameters for different confinement configurations.

  17. Lives saved by laws and regulations that resulted from the Bloomberg road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Swedler, David I

    2018-04-01

    To estimate lives saved during 2008-2023 by traffic safety laws passed in six developing countries while participating in the Bloomberg Road Safety Program (BRSP). BRSP-funded local staff identified relevant laws and described enforcement to the study team. We analyzed road crash death estimates for 2004-2013 from the Global Burden of Disease and projected estimates absent intervention forward to 2023. We amalgamated developing country and US literature to estimate crash death reductions by country resulting from laws governing drink driving, motorcycle helmets, safety belt use, and traffic fines. BRSP helped win approval of traffic safety laws in Brazil, China, Kenya, Mexico, Turkey, and Vietnam. In 2008-2013, those laws saved an estimated 19,000 lives. Many laws only took effect in 2014. The laws will save an estimated 90,000 lives in 2014-2023. Of the 109,000 lives saved, drink driving laws will account for 84%, increased motorcyclist protection for 13%, increased fines and penalty points for 2%, and safety belt usage mandates for 1%. Drink driving reductions in China will account for 56% of the savings and reduced drink driving and motorcycling deaths in Vietnam for 35%. The savings in China will result from a narrow intervention with just 4% estimated effectiveness against drink driving deaths. As a percentage of deaths anticipated without BRSP effort, the largest reductions will be 11% in Vietnam and 5% in Kenya. Viewed as a public health measure, improving traffic safety provided large health gains in developing nations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thorndike’s Law 2.0: Dopamine and the regulation of thrift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is widely associated with reward, motivation and reinforcement learning. Research on dopamine has emphasized its contribution to compulsive behaviors, such as addiction and overeating, with less examination of its potential role in behavioral flexibility in normal, non-pathological states. In the study reviewed here, we investigated the effect of increased tonic dopamine in a two-lever homecage operant paradigm where the relative value of the levers was dynamic, requiring the mice to constantly monitor reward outcome and adapt their behavior. The data were fit to a temporal difference learning model that showed that mice with elevated dopamine exhibited less coupling between reward history and behavioral choice. This work suggests a way to integrate motivational and learning theories of dopamine into a single formal model where tonic dopamine regulates the expression of prior reward learning by controlling the degree to which learned reward values bias behavioral choice. Here I place these results in a broader context of dopamine’s role in instrumental learning and suggest a novel hypothesis that tonic dopamine regulates thrift, the degree to which an animal needs to exploit its prior reward learning to maximize return on energy expenditure. Our data suggest that increased dopamine decreases thriftiness, facilitating energy expenditure and permitting greater exploration. Conversely, this implies that decreased dopamine increases thriftiness, favoring the exploitation of prior reward learning and diminishing exploration. This perspective provides a different window onto the role dopamine may play in behavioral flexibility and its failure, compulsive behavior.

  19. The international law of statehood: craftsmanship for the elucidation and regulation of birth and death in the international society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; d' Argent, P.; Bonafé, B.; Combacau, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues the law of statehood is best construed as a delicate elixir which allows international lawyers, not only to make state creation a legal phenomenon worthy of legal investigation, but also to claim control of the volatile phenomenon of births and deaths in the international

  20. The international law of statehood: craftsmanship for the elucidation and regulation of births and deaths in the international society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues the law of statehood is best construed as a delicate elixir which allows international lawyers, not only to make state creation a legal phenomenon worthy of legal investigation, but also to claim control of the volatile phenomenon of births and deaths in the international

  1. Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and micron-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis is discussed. Airbreathing SSTO vehicles has a mutli-faceted mission that includes orbital operations, as well as re-entry and descent culminating in horizontal landing. However, the most challenging part of the operations is the ascent to orbit. The airbreathing propulsion requires lengthy atmospheric flight that may last as long as 30 minutes and take the vehicle half way around the globe. The vehicles's ascent is characterized by tight payload to orbit margins which translate into minimum fuel orbit as the performance criteria. Issues discussed include: SSTO airbreathing vehicle issues; control system performance requirements; robust control law framework; H(infinity) controller frequency analysis; and mu controller frequency analysis.

  2. Block backstepping design of nonlinear state feedback control law for underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel, generalized approach to the design of nonlinear state feedback control laws for a large class of underactuated mechanical systems based on application of the block backstepping method. The control law proposed here is robust against the effects of model uncertainty in dynamic and steady-state performance and addresses the issue of asymptotic stabilization for the class of underactuated mechanical systems. An underactuated system is defined as one for which the dimension of space spanned by the configuration vector is greater than that of the space spanned by the control variables. Control problems concerning underactuated systems currently represent an active field of research due to their broad range of applications in robotics, aerospace, and marine contexts. The book derives a generalized theory of block backstepping control design for underactuated mechanical systems, and examines several case studies that cover interesting examples of underactuated mechanical systems. The math...

  3. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM). The goal of this... for control and accounting of SNM that is held by a licensee. The MC&A regulations ensure that the...

  4. Laws of Language and Legal Language: A Study of Legal Language in Some Indonesian Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidarta Shidarta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal language must follow the laws of language (grammar that widely known and commonly used by the public, including groups of the scientist. Legal language on the other hand also recognizes specific terminologies. These terminologies were introduced by jurists or by legislative power holders. Accordingly, legal language became the product of legal doctrines or political decisions. The problems arose when a number of compositions and legal terms turned out to be elusive, convoluted, and ambiguous due to the pattern of writing that was once done and because of certain considerations. This article proposed reviewing the factors that result in problems. The author presented a solution to observe using hermeneutic methods of law and legal reasoning. The author argued that the text of the law was not neutral since it was trapped not only by the laws of language but also by the perspective of the interpreters as they believed such a perspective was based on the guidance of legal science. By using legal hermeneutics can be checked the depth of the meaning of the law; while over the legal reasoning can be seen its rationale according to legal science.

  5. Regulations on nuclear materials control of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present 'Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China' were promulgated by the State Council on June 15, 1987, which are enacted to ensure safe and lawful use of nuclear materials, to prevent theft, sabotage, lose, unlawful diversion and unlawful use, to protect the security of the State and the Public and to facilitate the development of nuclear undertakings. The nuclear materials controlled are: 1. Uranium-235 (materials and products); 2. Uranium-233 (material and products); 3. Plutonium-239 (materials and products); 4. tritium (materials and products); 5. lithium-6 (materials and products); 6. Other nuclear materials requiring control. The present regulations are not applicable to the control of uranium ore and its primary products. The control measures for nuclear products transferred to the armed forces shall be laid down by the national defence department

  6. REFLECTIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MINOR'S RIGHTS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: FROM THE NATIONAL REGULATIONS TO THE COMMUNITY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, BONCIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an examination of the development rights of juveniles in conflict with the law in terms of legal regulations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union and its Member States. Approaching the settlement of all matters relating to human rights, including the rights of the child, it searched the extent to provide a mechanism in respect of children's rights and how its rights are reflected both of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Community and of national regulations of the Member States of the European Union. Declarative character of the Community provisions do not provide sufficient protection and uniformity toward juvenile rights in this matter, being treated differently in different countries depending on national and regional legal regime. Analysis of international treaties, customary, and national case law emphasized the need for prevention of juvenile delinquency and juvenile protection by merging rules at Community level in order to ensure a common, reasonable and sufficient protection for the juvenile in general and those found in conflict with law in particular.

  7. Legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsch, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis on legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading include the discussion of the following issues: market abuse, its forms of appearance (market manipulation, insider trade, insider information), electricity spot trading, relevant legislative frame, market abuse regulations (WpHG), interdiction of market manipulation and related regulations.

  8. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  9. Crossing boundaries: a comprehensive survey of medical licensing laws and guidelines regulating the interstate practice of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Leung, Stanley T; Park, Jason Y

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, recent judicial interpretation of interstate licensure laws has found pathologists guilty of malpractice and, more importantly, the criminal practice of medicine without a license. These judgments against pathologists highlight the need for a timely and comprehensive survey of licensure requirements and laws regulating the interstate practice of pathology. For all 50 states, each state medical practice act and state medical board website was reviewed. In addition, each medical board was directly contacted by electronic mail, telephone, or US registered mail for information regarding specific legislation or guidelines related to the interstate practice of pathology. On the basis of this information, states were grouped according to similarities in legislation and medical board regulations. This comprehensive survey has determined that states define the practice of pathology on the basis of the geographic location of the patient at the time of surgery or phlebotomy. The majority of states (n=32) and the District of Columbia allow for a physician with an out-of-state license to perform limited consultation to a physician with the specific state license. Several states (n=5) prohibit physicians from consultation without a license for the specific state. Overall, these results reveal the heterogeneity of licensure requirements between states. Pathologists who either practice in multiple states, send cases to out-of-state consultants, or serve as consultants themselves should familiarize themselves with the medical licensure laws of the states from which they receive or send cases.

  10. The Existence of Customary Rights of Customary Law Community and Its Regulation in the Era of Special Autonomy of Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberth Kurniawan Ruslak Hammar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The protection and recognition of ulayat rights of customery law community is a constitutional obligation as written in 1945 constitution Verse 18B. Therefore, bettering knowledge and comprehension of ulayat rights in every tribe existed in Papua is believed as an effort to minimize potential conflicts among government, businessman and indigenous people of Papua. In addition, the knowledge and understanding should be legitimated as the local law as a means to accelerate the regional development as well as community’s welfare. This research was conducted in Arfak people from 2008 to 2009 and continued in 2016. The purpose of this research is to investigate the existence of ulayat rights in indigenous people of Arfak. It is a normative-empirical study that was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. This study showed that: (1 the protection and implementation of ulayat rights is found in the constitution number 21 year 2001 and implemented in Special Regional Law number 23 year 2008 which says “the ulayat rights of indigenous people is acknowledged and protected by the nation, government, provincial government, district and is implemented by a committee and accommodated in regent or major’s policy.” (2 Indigenous people of Arfak have a graded ulayat rights which are great tribe of Arfak and the smaller tribes which consist of Hatam, Sougb, Meyah, ulayat rights of Mnu, ulayat rights of Keret and the family, as well as the regulation and use of ulayat rights is regulated by their own Mananir.

  11. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail. (Kubozone, M.)

  12. STABLE ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITHOUT USE OF A SUPERVISORY TERM IN THE CONTROL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED BAHITA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a direct adaptive control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems is proposed. The architecture employs a Gaussian radial basis function (RBF network to construct an adaptive controller. The parameters of the adaptive controller are adapted and changed according to a law derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The centres of the RBF network are adapted on line using the k-means algorithm. Asymptotic Lyapunov stability is established without the use of a supervisory (compensatory term in the control law and with the tracking errors converging to a neighbourhood of the origin. Finally, a simulation is provided to explore the feasibility of the proposed neuronal controller design method.

  13. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...) to require the presence of two levels of controlled entities for a controlled group to exist, and... changes would add a new example to illustrate both the mechanics of the controlled group rules as applied...

  14. Control and Regulation of Private Security Providers in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Caonero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available States and different international players have drafted legal frameworks to adequately regulate the phenomenon of privatization of security. Among these initiatives is the Project for a Possible Convention on Private Military and Security Companies, prepared with guidance from the United Nations Human Rights Council. The objective of this proposed convention is to provide a universal framework to regulate these companies.The United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has studied this Proposed Convention and contrasted it with existing national regulations. The objective of this study is to identify whether and how States already comply with some of the provisions contained in this proposal.Based on the study of national private security law, UNLIREC has contrasted it with the Convention Proposal identifying the different items in this document that are referred to in the different national regulations from various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.As a result of this legal contrast, it can be observed that laws in some States in the region include significant legal aspects put forth in the Proposed Convention, such as licenses, registry and training. Other States go beyond that, stipulating specific regulations that can be noted. Others, on the contrary, lack any provisions regarding control and regulation of private security providers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1392

  15. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Baolian; Ding, Zujun; Zhao, Huanyu; Jin, Defei

    2014-01-01

    The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF) operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the ...

  16. Implications of the second law for future directions in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Many existing energy related technologies have developed under the influence of social, economic, or state of the art constraints, and they cannot be viewed as optimum systems according to the second law of thermodynamics. Controlled fusion research presents an opportunity to optimize a nascent technology with respect to second law considerations in order to develop a practical energy source. In its present state of development, fusion research offers several independent approaches that may result in a net power producing fusion reactor. This paper discusses how second law considerations might be used to narrow the range of choices that must be made among various fusion fuel cycles. From a second law point of view, the most desirable fusion reactors are those for which the energy of charged particles can be converted directly into d.c. electrical power, while still allowing the energy that could be recovered by an efficient high-temperature 'blanket' to be transported largely by radiation. Fusion research in all major industrialized countries is developing the deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel cycle for first-generation fusion power plants. It will be shown that other fuel cycles have significant advantages over the D-T fuel cycle according to second law principles. (author)

  17. The passage of tobacco control law 174 in Lebanon: reflections on the problem, policies and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R T; Torossian, L; El Hajj, T; Khalil, J; Afifi, R A

    2018-06-01

    Progress in tobacco control policy making has occurred worldwide through advocacy campaigns involving multiple players- civil society groups, activists, academics, media and policymakers. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first ever global health treaty-outlines evidence-based tobacco control policies. Lebanon ratified the FCTC in 2005, but until 2011, tobacco control policies remained rudimentary and not evidence-based. Beginning in 2009, a concerted advocacy campaign was undertaken by a variety of stakeholders with the aim of accelerating the process of adopting a strong tobacco control policy. The campaign was successful, and Law 174 passed the Lebanese Parliament in August 2011. In this article, we analyse the policy making process that led to the adoption of Law 174 using Kingdon's model. The analysis relies on primary and secondary data sources including historical records of key governmental decisions, documentation of the activities of the concerted advocacy campaign and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. We describe the opening of a window of opportunity as a result of the alignment of the problem, policy and politics streams. Furthermore, findings revealed that despite the challenge of persistent tobacco industry interference and established power relations between the industry, its allies and policymakers; policy entrepreneurs succeeded in supporting the alignment of the streams, and influencing the passage of the law. Kingdon's multiple stream approach was useful in explaining how tobacco control became an emerging policy issue at the front of the policy agenda in Lebanon.

  18. Taking of hostages as an offense in international law and Serbian regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cmiljanić Bajo M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of international relations, hostage-taking was carried out as an insurance against fraud, not keeping obligations, or according to the rules of war law. Earlier taking hostages was more related to armed conflicts, and in modern times it is more related to terrorist acts in international terrorism. The taking of hostages is an international offense, which has its essential elements and characteristics. It is a crime punishable under the national legislation of many countries, and taking of hostages in armed conflicts is a war crime for which the International Criminal Court is responsible. International terrorism is manifested through a variety of terrorist acts, which, through fear and panic aim to achieve a political purpose. The range of these terrorist acts is wide and varied. One of these terrorist activities is the taking of hostages. As an offense established by the norms of international law, this unlawful act must be specifically investigated and clarified, which is the goal of this paper. This paper gives an overview of the features and elements of the offense in the light of international law and the laws of the Republic of Serbia.

  19. Towards sustainability. Major challenges for corporate law, corporate governance and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten-Boddin, C.; de Hoo, S.C.; Renssen, S.; Schwarz, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the presentations held at the launching event of the Institute for Corporate Law, Governance and Innovation Policies (ICGI) at Maastricht University. Contributions are provided by Willem Lageweg (Director of MVO Nederland), Prof. Dr. Jacqueline Cramer (Director of the Utrecht

  20. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  1. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  2. Labor Law Reform: The Regulation of Free Speech and Equal Access in NLRB Representational Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    After examining the existing legal standards governing free speech and equal access in representation elections, the author analyzes various reform possibilities and suggests a unified approach for legislative action. Available from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, 3400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $3.00 sc.…

  3. Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Rott, P.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European

  4. CASE-LAW ASPECTS CONCERNING THE REGULATION OF STATES OBLIGATION TO MAKE GOOD THE DAMAGE CAUSED TO INDIVIDUALS, BY INFRINGEMENTS OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The priority principle of EU law in relation to the internal law of the Member States, a principle enshrined by the Court of Justice case-law and the principle of direct effect allow the national court to give full effect to EU law. Breaching the EU law by Member States draws under certain conditions their responsibilty for the breach thereof. Unlike public international law, the constitutive treaties do not contain provisions relating to liability of Member States for breach of EU law. As in other cases, the Court was the one that, over time, has defined a right of redress, which has its foundation in EU law and in the conditions necessary to engage the victims' right to repair.

  5. Law for controlling the use and applications of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations (Nuclear Law) Decreto Ley No. 11-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This law defines the competent authority on radiation safety and includes all the requirements administrative, disposals on inspections, licensing, transport, records, authorizations and penalties about the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation in Guatemala

  6. 78 FR 68779 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-114122-12] RIN 1545-BK96 Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... controlled group rules related to regulated investment companies. DATES: The public hearing originally...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code, entitled... demonstration that emissions from growth in vehicle miles traveled will not increase motor vehicle emissions and...

  8. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  9. 77 FR 71530 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... operating expenses or other official business of third-country diplomatic or consular missions in Cuba... authorized to process funds transfers for the operating expenses or other official business of third-country... Regulations to authorize the processing of funds transfers for the operating expenses or other official...

  10. Assessment of codes, by-laws and regulations relating to air wells in building design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Sharifah Fairuz Syed; Karamazaman, Nazli

    2017-10-01

    Codes and by-laws concerning air well design (for buildings and lavatories) in Malaysia has been established in the Malaysian Uniform Building By-Laws UBBL number 40 (1) and (2) since the 1980s. Wells are there to fulfill the ventilation and daylighting requirements. The minimum well area according to building storey height are compared between UBBL and the Singapore's well requirements from the Building Construction Authority BCA. A visual and graphical representation (with schematics building and well diagrams drawn to scale) of the minimum well sizes and dimensions is given. It can be seen that if the minimum requirement of well size is used for buildings above 8 storeys high, a thin well resulted which is not proportionate to the building height. A proposed dimension is graphed and given to be used in the UBBL which translated to graphics (3 dimensional buildings drawn to scale) created a much better well proportion.

  11. The Regulation of Religious Freedom in Indonesia And International Law Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    BAKHTIAR, HANDAR SUBHANDI

    2017-01-01

    International Journal Of Law In reality, there are still violations of the rights-violations of religious freedom. The system of democratic societies allow for any differences, including religion, culture and ideology to be communicated and consolidated well. Here in lies the importance of setting and restrictions se in a human rights instruments both internationally and nationally. Through its legal instrument, the mission to ensure security for everyone with neutral behavior or nonpartis...

  12. Agriculture: Laws and Regulations that Apply to Your Agricultural Operation by Farm Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general description of EPA’s requirements applicable to agriculture, and should only be used as a guide. Since rules and regulations may change use this information is a starting place to determine which regulations apply to your agricultural operation.

  13. Regulation tomorrow : What happens when technology is faster than the law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Erik; Fenwick, Mark; Kaal, Wulf A.

    2016-01-01

    In an age of constant, complex and disruptive technological innovation, knowing what, when, and how to structure regulatory interventions has become much more difficult. Regulators can find themselves in a situation where they believe they must opt for either reckless action (regulation without

  14. Regulation of advance directives in Italy: a bad law in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristina, Giuseppe Renato; Martin, Erica; Ranieri, Vito Marco

    2012-11-01

    The Advance Directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, the role of ADs has recently been the subject of heated debate involving political parties and the Roman Catholic Church. In February 2009, the conservative government coalition presented a bill of law on this issue. It has been passed by the Low Chamber and is now being discussed in the Senate. The purpose of the article is to highlight any possible bill's contradiction with Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics (ICME), and Oviedo Convention contents, relevant for intensivists. Analysis of bill's content in the light of Italian Constitution, ICME, Oviedo Convention articles and in comparison with French legislation regarding end of life (Leonetti law). In the Authors' point of view the bill's articles -limit the moral and judicial importance of four main issues as informed consent, permanent incapacity, artificial nutrition/hydration, and withdraw/withhold treatments. In the Authors' opinion the ADs must represent informed preferences made freely by patients within the relationship with their physicians, as part of an advance care planning. When this relationship develops in accordance with the ICME rules, it contains all of the ethical/professional dimensions to legitimate right choices in each case. The law should draw inspiration from ICME principles, assigning them a juridical power, acknowledging their validity in legitimating end-of-life decisions, and defining a framework of juridical legitimacy for these decisions without infringing on patients' right to autonomy with prescriptions on the care.

  15. Development of an optimal automatic control law and filter algorithm for steep glideslope capture and glideslope tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A digital automatic control law to capture a steep glideslope and track the glideslope to a specified altitude is developed for the longitudinal/vertical dynamics of a CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process guidance information from the microwave landing system, and acceleration from body mounted accelerometer data. The filter outputs navigation data and wind velocity estimates which are used in controlling the aircraft. Results from a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  16. Use of ILTV Control Laws for LaNCETS Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses the Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) test to investigate the effects of lift distribution and nozzle-area ratio changes on tail shock strength of an F-15 aircraft. Specific research objectives are to obtain inflight shock strength for multiple combinations of nozzle-area ratio and lift distribution; compare results with preflight prediction tools; and update predictive tools with flight results. The objectives from a stability and control perspective are to ensure adequate aircraft stability for the changes in lift distribution and plume shape, and ensure manageable transient from engaging and disengaging the ILTV research control laws. In order to change the lift distribution and plume shape of the F-15 aircraft, a decade-old Inner Loop Thrust Vectoring (ILTV) research control law was used. Flight envelope expansion was performed for the test configuration and flight conditions prior to the probing test points. The approach for achieving the research objectives was to utilize the unique capabilities of NASA's NF-15B-837 aircraft to allow the adjustment of the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions by engaging the ILTV research control laws. The ILTV control laws provide the ability to add trim command biases to canard positions, nozzle area ratios, and thrust vectoring through the use of datasets. Datasets consist of programmed test inputs (PTIs) that define trims to change the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions. The trims are applied as increments to the normally commanded positions. A LaNCETS non-linear, six-degrees-of-freedom simulation capable of realtime pilot-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, and non-real-time batch support was developed and validated. Prior to first flight, extensive simulation analyses were performed to show adequate stability margins with the changes in lift distribution and plume shape. Additionally, engagement/disengagement transient analysis was also performed to show manageable

  17. The effect of gun control laws on hospital admissions for children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Lane, Rebecca S; Blass, Lawrence W; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-10-01

    Gun control laws vary greatly between states within the United States. We hypothesized that states with strict gun laws have lower mortality and resource utilization rates from pediatric firearms-related injury admissions. Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for accidental (E922), self-inflicted (E955), assault (E965), legal intervention-related (E970), or undetermined circumstance (E985) firearm injuries. Patients were younger than 20 years and admitted for their injuries. Case incidence trends were examined for the study period. Propensity score-matched analyses were performed using 38 covariates to compare outcomes between states with strict or lenient gun control laws. Overall, 38,424 cases were identified, with an overall mortality of 7%. Firearm injuries were most commonly assault (64%), followed by accidental (25%), undetermined circumstance (7%), or self-inflicted (3%). A small minority involved military-grade weapons (0.2%). Most cases occurred in lenient gun control states (48%), followed by strict (47%) and neutral (6%).On 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis, in-hospital mortality by case was higher in lenient (7.5%) versus strict (6.5%) states, p = 0.013. Lenient states had a proportionally higher rate of accidental (31%) and self-inflicted injury (4%) versus strict states (17% and 1.6%, respectively), p gun control contributes not only to worse outcomes per case, but also to a more significant and detrimental impact on public health. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  18. Active Tension Control for WT Wheelchair Robot by Using a Novel Control Law for Holonomic or Nonholonomic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactional characteristics between WT wheelchair robot and stair environment are analyzed, and possible patterns of WT wheelchair robot during the stair-climbing process are summarized, with the criteria of the wheelchair robot for determining the pattern proposed. Aiming at WT wheelchair robot's complicated mechanism with holonomic constraints and combined with the computed torque method, a novel control law that is called active tension control is presented for holonomic or nonholonomic robotic systems, by which the wheelchair robot with a holonomic or nonholonomic mechanism can track the reference input of the constraint forces of holonomic or nonholonomic constraints as well as tracking the reference input of the generalized coordinate of each joint. A stateflow module of Matlab is used to simulate the entire stair-climbing process for WT wheelchair robot. A comparison of output curve with the reference input curve of each joint is made, with the effectiveness of the presented control law verified.

  19. Reconfigurable multivariable control law for commercial airplane using a direct digital output feedback design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a pilot to reconfigure the control surfaces on an airplane after a failure, allowing the airplane to recover to a safe condition for landing, becomes more difficult with increasing airplane complexity. Techniques are needed to stabilize and control the airplane immediately after a failure, allowing the pilot time to make longer range decisions. This paper shows a design of a discrete multivariable control law using four controls for the longitudinal channel of a B-737. Single control element failures are allowed in three of the four controls. The four controls design and failure cases are analyzed by means of a digital airplane simulation, with regard to tracking capability and ability to overcome severe windshear and turbulence during the aproach and landing phase of flight.

  20. Computerized reactor power regulation with logarithmic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossanyi, A.; Vegh, E.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized reactor control system has been operating at a 5 MW WWR-SM research reactor in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, for some years. This paper describes the power controller used in the SPC operating mode of the system, which operates in a 5-decade wide power range with +-0.5% accuracy. The structure of the controller easily limits the minimal reactor period and produces a reactor transient with constant period if the power demand changes. (author)

  1. Some New Locally Optimal Control Laws for Sailcraft Dynamics in Heliocentric Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft is presented. The gravitational and solar radiation forces are considered. The effect of source of radiation pressure and the force due to coronal mass ejections and solar wind on the sailcraft configurations is modeled. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing sailcraft dynamics in heliocentric orbit using lagrange’s planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required direction is maximized by deriving optimal sail cone angle. Ignoring the absorbed and diffusely reflected parts of the radiation, some special cases are obtained. New control laws that maximize thrust to obtain certain required maximization in some particular orbital element are obtained.

  2. Pursuit, Avoidance, and Cohesion in Flight: Multi-Purpose Control Laws and Neuromorphic VLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    spatial navigation in mammals. We have designed, fabricated, and are now testing a neuromorphic VLSI chip that implements a spike-based, attractor...Control Laws and Neuromorphic VLSI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 070402-7705 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0446 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...implementations (custom Neuromorphic VLSI and robotics) we will apply important practical constraints that can lead to deeper insight into how and why efficient

  3. Fitts’ Law in the Control of Isometric Grip Force With Naturalistic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. Thumser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fitts’ law models the relationship between amplitude, precision, and speed of rapid movements. It is widely used to quantify performance in pointing tasks, study human-computer interaction, and generally to understand perceptual-motor information processes, including research to model performance in isometric force production tasks. Applying Fitts’ law to an isometric grip force task would allow for quantifying grasp performance in rehabilitative medicine and may aid research on prosthetic control and design. We examined whether Fitts’ law would hold when participants attempted to accurately produce their intended force output while grasping a manipulandum when presented with images of various everyday objects (we termed this the implicit task. Although our main interest was the implicit task, to benchmark it and establish validity, we examined performance against a more standard visual feedback condition via a digital force-feedback meter on a video monitor (explicit task. Next, we progressed from visual force feedback with force meter targets to the same targets without visual force feedback (operating largely on feedforward control with tactile feedback. This provided an opportunity to see if Fitts’ law would hold without vision, and allowed us to progress toward the more naturalistic implicit task (which does not include visual feedback. Finally, we changed the nature of the targets from requiring explicit force values presented as arrows on a force-feedback meter (explicit targets to the more naturalistic and intuitive target forces implied by images of objects (implicit targets. With visual force feedback the relation between task difficulty and the time to produce the target grip force was predicted by Fitts’ law (average r2 = 0.82. Without vision, average grip force scaled accurately although force variability was insensitive to the target presented. In contrast, images of everyday objects generated more reliable grip forces

  4. Fitts' Law in the Control of Isometric Grip Force With Naturalistic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumser, Zachary C; Slifkin, Andrew B; Beckler, Dylan T; Marasco, Paul D

    2018-01-01

    Fitts' law models the relationship between amplitude, precision, and speed of rapid movements. It is widely used to quantify performance in pointing tasks, study human-computer interaction, and generally to understand perceptual-motor information processes, including research to model performance in isometric force production tasks. Applying Fitts' law to an isometric grip force task would allow for quantifying grasp performance in rehabilitative medicine and may aid research on prosthetic control and design. We examined whether Fitts' law would hold when participants attempted to accurately produce their intended force output while grasping a manipulandum when presented with images of various everyday objects (we termed this the implicit task). Although our main interest was the implicit task, to benchmark it and establish validity, we examined performance against a more standard visual feedback condition via a digital force-feedback meter on a video monitor (explicit task). Next, we progressed from visual force feedback with force meter targets to the same targets without visual force feedback (operating largely on feedforward control with tactile feedback). This provided an opportunity to see if Fitts' law would hold without vision, and allowed us to progress toward the more naturalistic implicit task (which does not include visual feedback). Finally, we changed the nature of the targets from requiring explicit force values presented as arrows on a force-feedback meter (explicit targets) to the more naturalistic and intuitive target forces implied by images of objects (implicit targets). With visual force feedback the relation between task difficulty and the time to produce the target grip force was predicted by Fitts' law (average r 2 = 0.82). Without vision, average grip force scaled accurately although force variability was insensitive to the target presented. In contrast, images of everyday objects generated more reliable grip forces without the visualized

  5. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  6. Establishing Reusable Requirements Derived from Laws and Regulations for Medical Device Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ritsing, Brian

    2016-01-01

    skills and consumes significant effort in product development. Therefore initiating reuse from the analysis and elicitation of requirements from standards and regulations may provide promising potential for gaining efficiency in development and also for assuring sufficient quality of the work...

  7. Countermeasures in the field of human factors in relation, to pedestrian behaviour, regulations, and law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Existing measures and theoretical studies on pedestrian behavior, regulations, and enforcement are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to: types of crossings; traffic signal effectiveness; bridges and subways; traffic training areas for children; characteristic movements of pedestrian

  8. Some issues on the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors Amendment after JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2001-01-01

    As the Amendment of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors on an opportunity of the JCO criticality accident can be almost evaluated at a viewpoint of upgrading on effectiveness of safety regulation, it is thought to remain a large problem to rely on only enforcement of regulation due to amendment of the Law at future accident. In future, it can be also said to be important subjects to further expand a philosophy on the regulation (material regulation) focussed to hazards of nuclear material itself, not only to secure effectiveness on the multi-complementary safety regulation due to the administrative agency and the Nuclear Safety Commission but also to prepare a mechanism reflexible of a new information to the safety regulation, and to prepare a mechanism to assist adequate business execution and so forth of enterprises. (G.K.)

  9. Proposed Food (Control of Irradiation) Regulations 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The paper summarizes proposals UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Proposals for part of a comprehensive range of controls applying to premises using sources of ionising radiation in the processing of food. (UK)

  10. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law concerning the indemnification of nuclear damage''. Atomic energy enterprises who want to get the approval in connection with the Law shall file the applications to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency, in which the name and the address of the applicant, kinds of the operation of nuclear reactors, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of nuclear reactors, the thermal output of the reactors, the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or the things contaminated by such materials to be transported, and the time of starting and the expected time of ending the operation of the reactors, etc. To such applications, shall be attached actually surveyed maps indicating the area of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of the reactors and the documents certifying the conclusion of obligatory insurances and indemnification contracts, etc. The securities which can be deposited and recovering of such securities are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  11. Proposed general amendments to the atomic energy control regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act defines the powers and responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Among these is to make regulations to control the development, application and use of atomic energy. In these proposed general amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations substantial changes are proposed in the designation of the authority of AECB staff, exemptions from licensing, international safeguards, duties of licensees and atomic radiation workers, security of information, and provision for hearings. The scope of the control of atomic energy has been redefined as relating to matters of health, safety, security, international safeguards, and the protection of the environment

  12. Complex motion of a vehicle through a series of signals controlled by power-law phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a vehicle moving through the series of traffic signals controlled by the position-dependent phase of power law. All signals are controlled by both cycle time and position-dependent phase. The dynamic model of the vehicular motion is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The vehicular motion varies in a complex manner by varying cycle time for various values of the power of the position-dependent phase. The vehicle displays the periodic motion with a long cycle for the integer power of the phase, while the vehicular motion exhibits the very complex behavior for the non-integer power of the phase.

  13. Flight Test of L1 Adaptive Control Law: Offset Landings and Large Flight Envelope Modeling Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented include control law evaluation for piloted offset landing tasks as well as results in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and real-time dynamic modeling of the departure-prone edges of the flight envelope.

  14. Oblique-wing research airplane motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mc Neill, Walter E.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    A large piloted vertical motion simulator was used to assess the performance of a preliminary decoupling control law for an early version of the F-8 oblique wing research demonstrator airplane. Evaluations were performed for five discrete flight conditions, ranging from low-altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate-altitude supersonic Mach numbers. Asymmetric sideforce as a function of angle of attack was found to be the primary cause of both the lateral acceleration noted in pitch and the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns. The flight control system was shown to be effective in generally decoupling the airplane and reducing the lateral acceleration in pitch maneuvers.

  15. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  16. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  17. LQG Controller Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammed; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed wind turbine is a complex and nonlinear system, a sophisticated control is required to meet the challenges posed by these systems. This paper is presenting a pitch regulation strategy based on LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) to regulate turbine at its rated power and to reject...

  18. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The atomic energy entrepreneurs wishing to obtain the approval according to Item 1, Article 7 of the Law Concerning Indemnification of Nuclear Damage should file application (one original and one duplicate) describing the following items to the Director of the Science and Technology Agency: (1) in case of taking indemnification measures including the conclusion of responsibility insurance contracts and indemnification contracts, the particulars of the contracts including the sum of money involved, (2) in case of taking indemnification measures including deposit, the particulars of the deposit including the sum of money involved, and (3) in case of taking loss indemnification measures including the conclusion of responsibility insurance contracts and indemnification contracts or other measures than deposit, the particulars of such measures. (Rikitake, Y.)

  19. Implementation of hybrid pollution control techniques to regulate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    1999-05-13

    May 13, 1999 ... regulate the metal finishing industries in the Ethekwini. Municipality ... ment processes, process control methodology and engineering design. ..... standards. There were many barriers that had to be overcome, the most.

  20. Consequences of Uncertainty for Regulation: Law and Economics of the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article analyzes the last financial crisis focussing on the recurrent dynamics of externalities in banking. It shows that two major determinants of the crisis were the uncertainty of a new form of financial intermediation and the failure of regulation to cope with its

  1. Cooperation between the private sector and law enforcement agencies : An area in between legal regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulet, Gertjan; de Hert, Paul; Aden, H.

    2015-01-01

    Our main finding is that the area of cooperation between the private sector and LEAs strongly resembles an “area in between” regulations. The cooperation between private sector and LEAs in the fight against cybercrime is “likely to be occurring independently of the actual existence of any applicable

  2. Environment laws and regulations in China; Chugoku no kankyo hoki oyobi kankyo haishutsu kijun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K.

    1996-01-10

    The water environmental criteria in China consist of the sea water criteria, surface water criteria, fishery water criteria, agricultural water criteria, and scenery and recreational water criteria. This paper describes the problems thereof and the future assignments. The `sea water criteria` among other classifications of the water environmental criteria are under discussions for amendment that plan to increase the kinds of water from three in the conventional criteria to four kinds. Generation of harmful chemical substances has kept on decreasing since the 1980`s. However, as can be seen in part of the river water monitoring data, concentrations of pollutants show a trend of increase since 1994. This is caused by waste waters discharged from small-size chemical factories and hide tanning factories. Adequate regulations are applied to these `local enterprises`. Organic compound substances regulated under the waste water criteria are only seven kinds. As the kinds and amount of harmful chemical substances are anticipated to increase in the future, regulations that can deal with the new situation are required. Improvements are sought in the system of `discharge and contamination fee` imposed on industrial waste waters. Preparing the criteria for a total quantity regulation is an important assignment to be discussed as the forthcoming problem. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Handbook of Laws and Regulations Affecting Public Libraries in New York State. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Joseph, Comp.

    In a looseleaf format which permits easy revision, this handbook synthesizes statutes, opinions, and regulations that affect library operation in New York State. The text consists of excerpts and synopses of statutes and opinions from state agencies and courts. Topics include: (1) library types; (2) establishment and dissolution of libraries; (3)…

  4. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with other... Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C...

  5. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  6. Smoking reduced in urban restaurants: the effect of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Xiurong; Li, Yuqin; Gan, Quan; Liu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation, occurrence of smoking in restaurants was compared before and after the law took effect. A cohort study design was used in a randomly selected sample of 176 restaurants in two districts of Beijing. Undercover visits were paid by investigators to the same restaurants at lunch or dinner time 5 months before the law took effect and 1-month after. The occurrence of smoking and presence of no-smoking signs were observed. Much less smoking was observed (14.8%) in restaurants compared to that before the law took effect (40.3%). The drop in smoking occurrence was more evident in open dining areas (from 32.4% to 5.1%) compared to the men's restrooms of the restaurants (23.8% to 18.8%). No intervention from restaurant staff was observed whenever smoking occurred. Posting of no-smoking signage increased considerably after the law came into effect (from 52.6% to 82.4%), but very few no-smoking signs included the symptom hotline number (38.5%) or the amount of penalty (5.6%). The Beijing Smoking Control Regulation achieved one of its intended goals of reducing smoking occurrences in restaurants, but further effort of strengthening implementation is still needed and should focus on boosting compliance with no-smoking sign requirements, reducing smoking in restrooms of the restaurants and mobilising the restaurant staff to intervene in case of violations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. An analytical guidance law of planetary landing mission by minimizing the control effort expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Hamed Hossein; Novinzadeh, Alireza Basohbat; Roshanian, Jafar

    2009-01-01

    An optimal trajectory design of a module for the planetary landing problem is achieved by minimizing the control effort expenditure. Using the calculus of variations theorem, the control variable is expressed as a function of costate variables, and the problem is converted into a two-point boundary-value problem. To solve this problem, the performance measure is approximated by employing a trigonometric series and subsequently, the optimal control and state trajectories are determined. To validate the accuracy of the proposed solution, a numerical method of the steepest descent is utilized. The main objective of this paper is to present a novel analytic guidance law of the planetary landing mission by optimizing the control effort expenditure. Finally, an example of a lunar landing mission is demonstrated to examine the results of this solution in practical situations

  8. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem, and the design method is given. The simulation and experiment results proved that the proposed variable structure control algorithm can eliminate the chattering problem existing in traditional variable structure control effectively, is insensitive to system disturbance, and has good robustness and fast dynamic response speed and stable DC bus voltage with small fluctuation. The above advantages ensure the compensation effect of APF.

  9. Relevance in print of law of administrative regulations according to paragraph 48 BImSchG in the licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses in great detail the legal problem of administrative regulations according to paragraph 48 of the Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz, BImSchG (Federal Act for the prevention of immissions) and their relevance in point of law in licensing procedures. He very carefully and skilfully presents the different opinions stated in the precedents and by the body of doctrine and quite convincingly explains why he rejects the doctrine of allowing the administration some latitude in their judgement, and thus the doctrine of the defensible opinion with regard to the examination by the court of undefined legal terms. According to the auther's view, the administrative regulations should be regarded as anticipated expert opinions because of the way they are drawn up and because of the way the relevant committees setting up the rules are constituted, i.e. they can serve as a basis for judical decisions. In this connection the author points out that in any case it is left to the court's decisions whether a non-formal expert opinion is deemed to be sufficient, or whether the rules of procedure require a formal expert opinion. Furthermore, several ways of enhancing the binding effect of the administrative regulations pursuant to paragraph 48 of the BImSchG by means of legislatory measures are shown. (UN) [de

  10. Evolution and development of laws, regulations, criteria and human resources to ensure the safe decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinmeesuke, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Research Reactor, TRR-1 (renamed TRR-1/M1 after core replacement) in Thailand has been operated for more than 43 years. This ageing reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Laws and Regulations have been continually developed to assure the safe operation of nuclear facilities, particularly of the research reactor, and to ensure the safe decommissioning of the reactor after its operational life. However, the Thai nuclear legislation is still not applicable to a number of areas. Office of Atoms for Peace is working toward development of a new consolidated Act. In addition, the licensing steps for modification and decommissioning are added to the new Ministerial Regulation and to the new guidance documents on the licensing process for research reactors. Regulations, guidance and criteria for approval of decommissioning are being developed using the IAEA Safety Standards Series as the main basis for drafting. Human resource development is considered as one of the key important factor to ensure safe decommissioning of the installation. Staffing and training of the operating organization and the regulatory body personnel have been addressed to ensure the achievement of competency level. Simple methods and technologies are the best means for implementation while learning from experience of others will help and support us in our attempt to be the 'second First'. IAEA advice and assistance on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in countries with limited resources is desirable. (author)

  11. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  12. Neuroengineering control and regulation of behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Radzewicz, C.; Mankiewicz, L.; Hottowy, P.; Knapska, E.; Konopka, W.; Kublik, E.; Radwańska, K.; Waleszczyk, W. J.; Wójcik, D. K.

    2014-11-01

    To monitor neuronal circuits involved in emotional modulation of sensory processing we proposed a plan to establish novel research techniques combining recent biological, technical and analytical discoveries. The project was granted by National Science Center and we started to build a new experimental model for studying the selected circuits of genetically marked and behaviorally activated neurons. To achieve this goal we will combine the pioneering, interdisciplinary expertise of four Polish institutions: (i) the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (Polish Academy of Sciences) will deliver the expertise on genetically modified mice and rats, mapping of the neuronal circuits activated by behavior, monitoring complex behaviors measured in the IntelliCage system, electrophysiological brain activity recordings by multielectrodes in behaving animals, analysis and modeling of behavioral and electrophysiological data; (ii) the AGH University of Science and Technology (Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences) will use its experience in high-throughput electronics to build multichannel systems for recording the brain activity of behaving animals; (iii) the University of Warsaw (Faculty of Physics) and (iv) the Center for Theoretical Physics (Polish Academy of Sciences) will construct optoelectronic device for remote control of opto-animals produced in the Nencki Institute based on the unique experience in laser sources, studies of light propagation and its interaction with condensed media, wireless medical robotic systems, fast readout opto-electronics with control software and micromechanics.

  13. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: A review of requirements for biological information in federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Biological information concerning Yucca Mountain collected since 1980 is evaluated to determine if it is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the various federal, state, and local laws and regulations that pertain to environmental protection or to development of waste repositories. The pertinent requirements of each law are summarized, missing information is identified, and recommendations are made for studies to fill these gaps. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Controlling occupational radiation exposure. Alternatives to regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.; Squitieri, R.; Wildman, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal strategy adopted for the control of occupational radiation exposure has been the establishment of standards expressed as maximum permissible exposures. The use of such standards is subject to a number of defects, among which is the neglect of the economic impact of imposing such standards. Furthermore, such standards carry the implication of a threshold for radiation effects, a concept now widely challenged. Lastly, the use of standards makes it impossible to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory agency or to compare its performance with other similar agencies. An alternative to the use of standards, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, is discussed. The advantages of this technique meet many of the objections to the use of standards alone and allow health and safety resources to be allocated in a manner most likely to save the most lives. The greatest disadvantage of cost-benefit analysis has been the difficulty in evaluating the benefit side of the equation. Although the risks of radiation exposure are not known with precision, they are nevertheless well understood. Therefore, the application of cost-benefit analysis to occupational radiation exposure is rational. There are a number of barriers to reform in the use of standards and the adoption of cost-benefit analysis. These attitudinal and institutional constraints are discussed. The nature of private or market systems of control are discussed, i.e. the use of liability and insurance mechanisms. These also have shortcomings that require further development but are seen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards. (author)

  16. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The ordinance is set up under the provisions of the law concerning radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment, to enforce it. An application for the license of such a technician shall be filed according to the form prescribed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate of a doctor concerning whether the applicant is an insane, deaf or blind person, or a case of epidemic. The membership registration of such a technician shall include the number and date of the registration, the prefecture of his legal domicile, name birth date and sex distinction, the year and month of his success in the examination for such technicains, the items concerning the cancellation of the license or the suspension of the business, etc. The subjects of the examination for such technicians are physics, radiological physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, general basic medical science, radiological biology, photographing technology, treatment technics and others. An application for the examination for such technicians shall be filed to the Minister of Health and Welfare, attached with a personal history, a study certificate or a diploma of graduation, a photograph of the applicant and other specified documents. (Kubozono, M.)

  17. The Citizen-Victim: Expansion, Opening and Regulation Laws on Vulnerable Lives (Spain, 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spain has enacted legislation that addresses victims of different kinds. From victims of ETA terrorist acts to others of varying origins, these laws addressed an ever broadening range of vulnerabilities for the average everyday individual. In this article, we are interested in discussing the emergence and increase of this kind of legislation, as a trend that promotes the construction of a new subjective type: the victim. Victims in contemporary societies seem to be gaining ground as central figures simultaneously, integrating themselves alongside the average citizen. We will analyze the broadening aspects of the Victims using three distinct stages: first focusing on their political nature, showing a breaking point with the monopoly of ETA victims in public perception, which led to progressive legislative awareness and concern of other kinds of victims. This became a ongoing political trigger. Secondly, broadening the definition of Victim brought it closer to situations, directly connected to “vulnerable citizens”. Lastly, addressing the category itself through a new expression of “citizen-victim”.

  18. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  19. EU COMPETITION LAW AND THE TELECOMS SINGLE MARKET: NETWORK NEUTRALITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE TSM REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí ANGULO GARZARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, a sharp increase in the Internet traffic has been experienced. Technology, once again, has proven to be able to develop faster than regulation. In this endlessly evolving scenario, operators in the technology markets, as well as end-users, often find themselves under-protected. Therefore, it comes as a major concern the need to regulate those technological markets and, more specifically, the use –or abuse– of Internet. All Internet traffic should be treated equally and that is, precisely, what network neutrality aims at. Consequently, network operators may not take advantage of their position in the market to affect competition in related markets. All in all, network neutrality is crucial to achieve the highest degree of competition. In the absence of network neutrality, the Internet would find itself unable to qualify as a market merely driven by innovation, and it would unfailingly turn into one ruled by deal making. Competition law claims that the higher the neutrality is – i.e., the more equal the treatment is, the better it is for the consumer. If network operating companies create an exploitative business model, they might be able to block competitors’ websites and services; in other words, it may facilitate adoption of anticompetitive practices – namely, the abuse of their dominant position. Transcending all the arguments raised against network neutrality –such as the prevention of an overuse of bandwidth–, we will demonstrate that it must be deemed essential from a Competition law perspective. In addition, we will argue, the imperative necessity of leaving the market under the tough scrutiny of competition authorities, which are best placed to assess the anticompetitive character of the practices brought about by market operators.

  20. Efficient robust control of first order scalar conservation laws using semi-analytical solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using initial density control and boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. We then show that this framework can be extended to arbitrary control problems involving the control of subsets of the initial and boundary conditions. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP/MILP. Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality.

  1. Putting article 52a of the Federal Emission Control Law into practice at VEAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitz, W.; Moschke, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operators of installations subject to licensing were already obliged under Article 5 of the Federal Emission Control Law (BImSchG) to provide an environmentally acceptable organisation of their company. The provisions don't go so far as to prescribe the kind of organisation required, i.e., they don't intervene in companies' freedom of organisation. Nevertheless, environment-friendliness of a plant requires not only modern environmental engineering but also an efficient operational organisation. The authors elucidate operational aspects to the shaping of environment management at Vereinigte Energiewerke AG (Veag). (orig.) [de

  2. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  3. N.7 notice presented for the Finances Commission, of the budget control and the economical accounts of the Nation on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.7 avis presente au nom de la commission des Finances, du controle budgetaire et des comptes economiques de la Nation sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Ph

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the privatization of Gaz de France and the new control of the State on this society. It underlines the necessity of a financial independence of the Commission of the Energy regulation (CRE). (A.L.B.)

  4. Sliding Mode Control of DFIG Wind Turbines with a Fast Exponential Reaching Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyun Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel sliding mode control (SMC technique for doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs based on the fast exponential reaching law (FERL. The proposed FERL-based SMC is capable of reducing to a large extent the chattering phenomena existing in the sliding stage. Meanwhile, the reaching stage is accelerated with the introduction of an adaptive gain. The proposed method is employed in a DFIG-based wind energy conversion system (WECS for direct power control (DPC. The FERL-based DPC approach is tested with simulations conducted in Matlab/Simulink under the scenarios of unbalanced grid voltage, grid fault conditions and highly unstable wind speed accompanied by an experimental study. The simulations and experimental results reveal the better performance of the proposed control method in active/reactive power tracking and dc-link voltage maintenance.

  5. Understanding Federal regulations as guidelines for classical biological control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the legislation and rules that provide the foundation for federal regulation of the introduction of natural enemies of insects as biological control agents. It also outlines the steps for complying with regulatory requirements, using biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), as an example. The...

  6. On Secondary Control Approaches for Voltage Regulation in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    Centralized or decentralized secondary controller is commonly employed to regulate the voltage drop raised by the primary controller. However, in the case of high capacity MGs and long feeders with much voltage drop on the line resistances, the conventional methods may not guarantee the voltage r...

  7. On Secondary Control Approaches for Voltage Regulation in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami Akhuleh, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    Centralized or decentralized secondary controller is commonly employed to regulate the voltage drop raised by the primary controller. However, in the case of high capacity MGs and long feeders with much voltage drop on the line resistances, the conventional methods may not guarantee the voltage...

  8. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  9. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  10. Nuclear activity. Decree No. 1.390. Regulation of Law No. 24.804 (27-Nov-1998; B.O. 4-Dec-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This decree regulates various aspects of the National Law of Nuclear Activity of the Argentine Republic, in order to determine its scope, define the procedures for its application, and establish the executive functions of the institutions emerging from this Law: Empresa Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NASA), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), former Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear. The National State shall establish the nuclear policy and shall develop the Research and Development functions through the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and the regulatory and control functions through the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN). The nuclear activities of production, research, development and service rendering which might be organised commercially, shall be implemented within the framework of the nuclear policy and regulation exercised within the competence of the above mentioned organisms. The Commission shall have to assume the responsibility of the management of radioactive wastes of low, medium and high activity and establish the acceptance requirements that shall have to be approved by the ARN. Moreover, it shall determine the shut-down of the nuclear power plants and any other relevant nuclear facility concurrently with ARN, through the Shut-down Project of each facility. With the aim of the privatisation of the nuclear power generation activity depending from the enterprise NASA, the constitution of a society is set up: 'Generadora Nuclear Argentina Sociedad Anonima' (GENUAR SA). Also, the amount of the royalty that shall be paid to CNEA for research and development activities is fixed. The above mentioned society will be the holder of the concession of the use of nuclear goods and the responsible entity for the construction and/or operation licenses

  11. A Control Law Definition of the Open Loop Stepping Electric Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Krasovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an open loop stepping electric drive (SEP with electric crushing of a step and motor fed from the controlled current invertor which should meet the requirement that is to trial a free-form guided trajectory with a split-hair accuracy. It is shown that with traditional programmed control, when the SEP forms motor phase currents of identical amplitude and variable frequency proportional to the set speed of movement, there may be considerable errors reducing a trial accuracy of the set movement trajectory, dynamic indicators provoking oscillatory processes, and even loss of motor synchronism because influence on a dynamic moment of the motor is impossible.The paper offers and proves a new way to define a control algorithm adequate to drive parameters and programmed trajectory of movement, providing error minimization and thereby increasing trial accuracy of set parameters of movement and expanding dynamic capabilities of a drive. The essence of the offered way is to use a modified mathematical model of a drive in d,q coordinates with a motor fed by the current source. In this model a programmed trajectory of movement is chosen as an input action while solving the appropriate equations defines the necessary law of control. The paper describes a developed simulation model of the stepping electric drive in the environment of MATLAB – SIMULINK, which has been used to verify and prove an efficiency of the offered method to define a control law via typical examples.It is established that no error trial of set movement trajectory in case it has breaks (jogs is technically unfeasible, as it demands an infinitely high forcing voltage of the power supply to maintain the instant positive or negative phase shifts of currents formed in the motor windings.The obtained results can be used in designing programmable precision SEPs in robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and assembly equipment.

  12. Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.

  13. [Analysis of difficult problems on European Union laws and regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  15. Biopsychosocial law, health care reform, and the control of medical inflation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Daniel; Mueller, Kathryn; Warren, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    A noteworthy attempt at health care reform was the 1992 Colorado workers' compensation reform bill, which led to the creation of what has been called "biopsychosocial laws." These laws mandated the use of treatment guidelines for patients with injury or chronic pain, which advocated a biopsychosocial model of rehabilitation, and aspired to use a "best practice" approach to controlling costs. The purpose of this study was to examine the financial impact of this health care reform process, and to test the hypothesis that this approach can be an effective strategy to contain costs while providing good care. This study utilized a dataset collected prospectively from 1992 to 2007 in 45 U.S. states for regulatory purposes. These data summarized the medical treatment and disability costs of 520,314 injured workers in Colorado, and an estimated 28.6 million injured workers nationally. As no other state passed a comparable bill, the Colorado worker compensation reform bill created a natural experiment, where a treatment group was created by legally enforceable medical treatment guidelines. In the 15 years following the implementation of the reform, the inflation of medical costs in Colorado workers' compensation was only one third that of the national average, saving an estimated $859 million on patients injured in 2007 alone. Although there were confounding variables, and causality could not be determined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Colorado's 1992 legislative efforts to reform workers compensation law using the biopsychosocial model worked as intended to provide good care while controlling costs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 10997 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations; Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... specific license, or otherwise exempt, the exportation of such services and software from the United States... services and software. Paragraph (c) of each of these two sections provides that specific licenses may be... Iranian Transactions Regulations to authorize the exportation of certain services and software incident to...

  17. 77 FR 57949 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Positive Law Codification of Title 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... establishment and use of electronic commerce in Federal acquisition as required by 41 U.S.C. 2301. 4.502... previously approved under the Office of Management and Budget Control Number 1215-0017, titled: Records to be... executive means the individual appointed pursuant to 41 U.S.C. 1702(c) who is responsible for management...

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Law Enforcement Officers on Rabies and Animal Control Issues in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straily, A; Trevino-Garrison, I

    2017-03-01

    Rabies is a deadly zoonoses endemic in the United States, including Kansas. Animal control programmes that emphasize vaccination of dogs and cats, removal of stray animals and enforcement of licensure programmes have historically been essential in reducing the risk of rabies exposures to humans (Beran, 1991). Kansas does not mandate the use of animal control officers [ACOs] and in areas where there is no designated animal control officer, law enforcement officers [LEOs] are required to fill that role. Little is known about LEOs' knowledge of rabies, their current practices in responding to animal-related calls or if they receive any specialized training to perform the duties of an ACO. A web-based, voluntary and anonymous survey was sent to law enforcement officers in Kansas in January 2014. The survey included questions about animal control practices and a self-assessment of rabies knowledge. The response rate was 16.2%. All respondents indicated LEOs will respond to animal-related calls, even if there was an ACO available in their department or jurisdiction. A majority of respondents indicated they had not received training on safe animal handling (62.9%, 61/97) or zoonoses prevention (85.6%, 83/97), even though a strong majority considered such training important (89.7% and 79.4%, respectively). Most respondents (>80%) were able to correctly identify animals capable of transmitting rabies but were less aware of how rabies was transmitted or the severity of rabies in humans. Our results demonstrate that Kansas LEOs perform animal control duties, many without the proper training, even though most consider such training to be important to be able to perform their duties safely. Training on safe animal handling and zoonoses prevention should be provided to all LEOs in Kansas to enable them to safely execute their duties and provide timely and accurate information to citizens regarding rabies prevention. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Competition and safety in the law on technical inspection and control - is it a contradiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    For some time now, objections have been raised against the argument that technical inspection and control should indeed remain a task exlusively for the Technical Control Boards and their offices, organisations and employed inspectors, because competition in this very safety-related sector would not be a positive factor of selection but rather a mechanism reducing the inspection quality, resulting in a hazardous lowering of the safety level. The objections are primarily raised by the free-lance technical experts and their organisations who would like to enlarge their field of activity in this direction. The book at hand discusses the question how much free manoeuvering space there is for the legislative body to deal with such demands and reconcile the interests of safety and competition. The problem is discussed with a view to the Basic Law, which is said to create no legal basis for the demand for more competition in this field. The Basic Law leaves this decision to the discretion of the legislature. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Law project relative to the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  1. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  2. Doctor-patient confidentiality - right and duty of a doctor in law regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jaroszyński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physician’s professional secrecy is one of the most important duties of a doctor and should be provided with confidentiality regarding his or her health. Generally speaking, there is no legal definition of "physician’s professional secrecy" in Poland, although this concept already appears in the oath of Hippocrates: ‘I will keep secret anything I see or hear professionally which ought not to be told’. The issue of medical confidentiality (physician’s professional secrecy has been regulated in several legal acts such as: The Patient Rights and Patients Ombudsman Act, The Constitution of the Republic of Poland, The Medical Profession Act, The Civil Code Act, The Criminal Code Act and Code of Medical Ethics which is not considered as a legal act. The patient has the right to require confidentiality of the information concerning him and the obligation to keep medical confidentiality will apply to every representative of the medical profession, who obtained certain information by various professional activities.

  3. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. The law as an instrument of technology control and as a basis for technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1998-01-01

    In public debates about German industry's global competitiveness it becomes evident that environmental law and the technology-related law are almost exclusively perceived as systems of law which - for reasons of environmental protection and protection of public health - are setting restraints to technological development. This is a narrow perspective neglecting the functions of the law as an instrument providing legal security and a reliable framework for developments. In a democratic, constitutional state, the environmental law and the technology-related law are instruments providing for protection of the basic, general rights and requirements of technology, and contribute to ensuring general acceptance of technologic development. (orig./CB) [de

  6. General presentation of nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nercy, B. de

    1981-01-01

    This article defines the characteristics and origin of nuclear law, in particular the recent existence of this legal discipline in view of the novelty of atomic energy and the need to take into account radiation protection of workers and the population, the increasing internationalisation of this law, and the importance given to non-proliferation physical protection and to control of nuclear activities. Following an analysis of the main international regulations elaborated in the respective frameworks of Euratom, NEA/OECD and IAEA, the author reviews French legislation in this field and finally, he describes the principal fields of application of nuclear law. (NEA) [fr

  7. Assessment of regulations set up under public law concerning questions of safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiff, A.; Althaus, W.; Dietz, B.; Gross, H.J.; Stasiczek, M.; Salzwedel, J.; Reinhardt, M.

    1992-02-01

    A goal of the preliminary study was to assess the need for a data-processing system, to analyze the goals of such a system, to conceptualize it and examine possibilities for implementing it and to do a cost-benefit analysis of it. It serves as a means of assistance for - licensing and supervisory authorities, - the manufacturers and operators of plants, - the control institutions, - the communes, the governments of the Laender and the federal government, - trade associations and professional associations, - employers' organizations and employees' organizations in their efforts to solve problems and carry out tasks regarding safety technology. Such problems arise during the planning, construction, operation, alteration, closure and removal of plants as well as during the transport and storing of materials and goods. (orig./DG) [de

  8. The mean first passage time in an energy-diffusion controlled regime with power-law distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yanjun; Du, Jiulin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mean first passage time (MFPT) theory, we derive an expression of the MFPT in an energy-diffusion controlled regime with a power-law distribution. We discuss the finite barrier effect (i.e. the thermal energy k B T is not small with respect to the potential barrier E b ) and compare it with Kramers’ infinite barrier result both in a power-law distribution and in a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. It is shown that the MFPT with a power-law distribution extends Kramers’ low-damping result to a relatively low barrier. We pay attention to the energy-diffusion controlled regime, which is of great interest in the context of Josephson junctions, and study how the power-law parameter κ affects the current distribution function in experiments with Josephson junctions. (paper)

  9. Research on fuzzy PID control to electronic speed regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-gang; Chen, Xue-hui; Zheng, Sheng-guo

    2007-12-01

    As an important part of diesel engine, the speed regulator plays an important role in stabilizing speed and improving engine's performance. Because there are so many model parameters of diesel-engine considered in traditional PID control and these parameters present non-linear characteristic.The method to adjust engine speed using traditional PID is not considered as a best way. Especially for the diesel-engine generator set. In this paper, the Fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. Some problems about its utilization in electronic speed regulator are discussed. A mathematical model of electric control system for diesel-engine generator set is established and the way of the PID parameters in the model to affect the function of system is analyzed. And then it is proposed the differential coefficient must be applied in control design for reducing dynamic deviation of system and adjusting time. Based on the control theory, a study combined control with PID calculation together for turning fuzzy PID parameter is implemented. And also a simulation experiment about electronic speed regulator system was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and the Fuzzy-Toolbox. Compared with the traditional PID Algorithm, the simulated results presented obvious improvements in the instantaneous speed governing rate and steady state speed governing rate of diesel-engine generator set when the fuzzy logic control strategy used.

  10. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the above mentioned law this order prescribes the procedures of controls given to the persons who wish to conduct refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to use nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and internationally controlled materials. The common controlling principle prescribed is that the permission or authorization necessary for above listed businesses should be applied for at each factory or each place of business. Based on the principle, the order prescribes: the procedures to apply for the authorization of the refining business, the permission of the change thereof, and the permission of the fabricating business and the change, thereof (the 1st chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission of the construction of reactors and of the change of the construction, as well as the procedure to do periodic inspections of reactor facilities (the 2nd chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials and to change the use thereof, the submission of the report to use nuclear source materials, as well as the procedure to apply for the permission to use internationally controlled materials. In the 4th chapter the order lists up the items on which the competent Ministers may require reports from the person who carries on the relevant business. (Matsushima, A.)

  11. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  12. Ranges of control in the transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Stoyan, Helga; Stoyan, Dietrich

    2009-12-24

    The positioning of genes in the genome is an important evolutionary degree of freedom for organizing gene regulation. Statistical properties of these distributions have been studied particularly in relation to the transcriptional regulatory network. The systematics of gene-gene distances then become important sources of information on the control, which different biological mechanisms exert on gene expression. Here we study a set of categories, which has to our knowledge not been analyzed before. We distinguish between genes that do not participate in the transcriptional regulatory network (i.e. that are according to current knowledge not producing transcription factors and do not possess binding sites for transcription factors in their regulatory region), and genes that via transcription factors either are regulated by or regulate other genes. We find that the two types of genes ("isolated" and "regulatory" genes) show a clear statistical repulsion and have different ranges of correlations. In particular we find that isolated genes have a preference for shorter intergenic distances. These findings support previous evidence from gene expression patterns for two distinct logical types of control, namely digital control (i.e. network-based control mediated by dedicated transcription factors) and analog control (i.e. control based on genome structure and mediated by neighborhood on the genome).

  13. A study of intergranular cavity growth controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.; Martinez, L.; Nix, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    A technique based on pre-creeping and sintering is used to create large, widely spaced cavities at grain boundaries in copper. The size and spacing of the cavities is such that cavity growth is expected to be controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep. The rupture properties of these pre-cavitated samples are studied over a range of stresses and temperatures and the results are compared with the predictions of various theoretical treatments of cavity growth. The stress and temperature dependence of rupture can be described using an analysis of the type suggested by Chen and Argon, provided that the diffusional length is based on the ligament stress rather than the applied stress

  14. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is enacted under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. Any person who engages in refining business shall get designation for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be filed through the director of International Trade and Industry Office in charge of the location of the works or the enterprise with a business program and other specified documents attached. Any person who undertakes processing business shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be submitted with a business program and other documents defined by the Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office. Any person who sets up reactor shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be presented with a financial project and other documents stipulated by the ordinance. Fast breeding reactor, heavy-water moderated boiling water reactor and light-water moderated pressurized water reactor are designated as reactor in the phase of research and development. Each foreign nuclear ship equipped with reactor which enters into Japanese waters shall get permission of the Minister of Transport. The application shall be presented with the papers explaining safety of reactor facilities and other documents provided by the ordinance of the ministry concerned. (Okada, K.)

  15. Reforming the Regulation of Therapeutic Products in Canada: The Protecting of Canadians from Unsafe Drugs Act (Vanessa’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fierlbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enacted November 2014, Vanessa’s Law amends the Food and Drugs Act to give Health Canada greater powers to compel the disclosure of information, recall drugs and devices, impose fines and injunctions, and collect post-market safety information. The Act amends seriously outdated legislation that had been in place since 1954. While the explicit goals of the Act are to improve patient safety and provide transparency, it also establishes a regulatory framework that facilitates investment in the burgeoning field of biotechnology. While regulatory reform was already on the public agenda, public awareness of litigation against large pharmaceutical firms combined with the championing of the legislation by Conservative MP Terence Young, whose daughter Vanessa died from an adverse drug reaction, pushed the legislation through to implementation. Many key aspects of the Act depend upon the precise nature of supporting regulations that are still to be implemented. Despite the new powers conferred by the legislation on the Minister of Health, there is some concern that these discretionary powers may not be exercised, and that Health Canada may not have sufficient resources to take advantage of these new powers. Given experience to date since enactment, the new legislation, designed to provide greater transparency vis-à-vis therapeutic products, may actually have a chilling effect on independent scrutiny.

  16. Community perspectives on the use of regulation and law for obesity prevention in children: A citizens' jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie M; Sisnowski, Jana; Tooher, Rebecca; Farrell, Lucy C; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention. Recommendations fell into the areas of health promotion and education (n=4), regulation of food marketing (n=3), taxation/subsidies (n=2) and a parliamentary enquiry. School-based nutrition education and health promotion and mandatory front-of-pack interpretive labelling of food and drink were ranked 1 and 2 with taxation of high fat, high sugar food and drink third. The recommendations were similar to findings from other citizens' juries held in Australia suggesting that the reticence of decision makers in Australia, and potentially elsewhere, to use legislative and fiscal measures to address childhood obesity is misguided. Supporting relevant informed public discussion could facilitate a politically acceptable legislative approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. Regulierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Ausnahmebereiche des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, M

    1988-01-01

    As a result of other countries' experiences, the Federal Republic has also been affected by the debate about regulation and deregulation. The discussion is centred particularly on exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. This anthology aims to assist in clarifying the debate and gives a systematic account of the exceptions, including the theoretical justifications for regulation. Special weight is given to the description and explanation of the current status of regulation. The nature and scope of today's regulation can only be understood when its historical development is included in the examination. It is against this background that the authors make suggestions either for deregulation or for reformulation. The different chapters deal with: The theoretical basis of regulation, regulation in the areas of: The networked energy industry, telecommunications, traffic, banks, insurance markets. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. Regulierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Ausnahmebereiche des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, M.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of other countries' experiences, the Federal Republic has also been affected by the debate about regulation and deregulation. The discussion is centred particularly on exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. This anthology aims to assist in clarifying the debate and gives a systematic account of the exceptions, including the theoretical justifications for regulation. Special weight is given to the description and explanation of the current status of regulation. The nature and scope of today's regulation can only be understood when its historical development is included in the examination. It is against this background that the authors make suggestions either for deregulation or for reformulation. The different chapters deal with: The theoretical basis of regulation, regulation in the areas of: The networked energy industry, telecommunications, traffic, banks, insurance markets. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  20. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  2. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  3. SOR/88-144, Atomic Energy Control Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These amendments dated 25 February 1988 mainly concern naturally-occurring radioactive prescribed substances (namely, uranium, thorium, radium, etc.). Any naturally-occurring radioactive material in a mineral or other material which has not been related to an activity associated with the development, application or use of atomic energy, is exempted from the scope of the Regulations. The Regulations will therefore not apply to such radioactive substances present in building materials or in minerals commonly used in industrial activities which are not associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. This exemption does not apply to such material in connection with import control and preparation for transport. (NEA)

  4. Accelerated Adoption of Smoke-Free Laws After Ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate the effect of ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on countries enacting smoke-free laws covering indoor workplaces, restaurants, and bars. Methods. We compared adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the FCTC and for countries’ World Bank income group. Results. Ratification of the FCTC significantly (P restaurants and bars. Compared with high-income countries, upper-middle–income countries had a significantly higher probability of smoke-free indoor workplace laws. Conclusions. The FCTC accelerated the adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws, with the greatest effect in the years immediately following ratification. The policy implication is that health advocates must increase efforts to secure implementation of FCTC smoke-free provisions in countries that have not done so. PMID:26562125

  5. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  6. The hydrometeorological implications of zoning laws: Can land use regulations of urban density and sprawl improve a city's resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Ryu, Y. H.; Smith, J. A.; Newburn, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The intensification of heat waves and of the hydrological cycle due to global climate change pose particularly high risks to urban residents. Cities are already hotter than their surroundings due to the urban heat island effect and are known to result in local intensification of rainfall and flooding due to their coupled impacts on the surface and the lower atmosphere. These interacting local and global changes can adversely affect the health and well being of urban residents, and city administrators are increasing efforts to mitigate and adapt to the potential disruptions though various infrastructure and preparedness programs. However, as cities worldwide continue to expand, a key decision is how to manage that urban sprawl and regulate its spatial features to aid in the mitigation and adaptation effort. This study assesses whether alternative zoning regulations that modify the density and extent of a metropolitan region, but have a minimal impact on total population and demographic growth, have an appreciable impact on its response to extreme weather events, and as such, whether they can be used to increase urban resilience. We consider Baltimore (the city and its surrounding suburbs), which in 1967 adopted one of the first urban growth boundaries (UGBs) in the United States, as our test case. Departing from the urban extent circa 1900, we create alternative land use patterns that, compared to the actual current land use baseline, would have resulted from drastically different policy scenarios and approaches to zoning that the city would have undertaken. We consider various alternatives where the city is smaller and denser, due to stricter regulation, versus larger and less dense than the actual baseline, while maintaining the same total population. Our findings indicate that lower densities have significant benefits: compared to the current landscape and to denser patterns, they reduce both extreme temperatures during heat waves and spatio-temporal rainfall

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRADE LAWS: IMPLICATIONS IN THE PRICE CONTROL POLICY OF COMMUNITY NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Engkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Implementation Of Trade Laws: Implications In The Price Control Policy Of Community Needs] Issuing the act no 7 year 2014 about tade, Indonesia has new hope to design the obscene of social basic requirements were going on all this time. The main problem in the research that “increasing and decreasing pricefluctuatively” has became repeatedly in Ramadhan. It has been caused by some factors: Unbalancing Supply and demand not done optimally yet. The aim of the research to collect data, facta and problems analyses them and directly or indirectlywe want to know and increase for academic nuance as theorital, also who want to know about them deeply. The research is qualitative research, using the technical of theresearch are observation, interview, documental history and documental audio visual. The results of research, before, at the moment, after Ramadhan, the price of social basic requirements still increasely and fluctuatively. Government intervention, by short term policy not touched social basic requirements continously yet. So piling them were not clearness of official. Raring supply, increasing demand, It has been caused by social increasing consumption, Finally high increasing price. Conclusion: The price control social basic requirements policy, complately by redesign comprehensive, transparancy, participative and continuosly policy, from central government to local government towards nation autonomy in food. Keywords: Increasing Price, clearness of official, Control.

  8. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Insecticide resistance, control failure likelihood and the First Law of Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance is a broadly recognized ecological backlash resulting from insecticide use and is widely reported among arthropod pest species with well-recognized underlying mechanisms and consequences. Nonetheless, insecticide resistance is the subject of evolving conceptual views that introduces a different concept useful if recognized in its own right - the risk or likelihood of control failure. Here we suggest an experimental approach to assess the likelihood of control failure of an insecticide allowing for consistent decision-making regarding management of insecticide resistance. We also challenge the current emphasis on limited spatial sampling of arthropod populations for resistance diagnosis in favor of comprehensive spatial sampling. This necessarily requires larger population sampling - aiming to use spatial analysis in area-wide surveys - to recognize focal points of insecticide resistance and/or control failure that will better direct management efforts. The continuous geographical scale of such surveys will depend on the arthropod pest species, the pattern of insecticide use and many other potential factors. Regardless, distance dependence among sampling sites should still hold, following the maxim that the closer two things are, the more they resemble each other, which is the basis of Tobler's First Law of Geography. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  12. Laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following subjects - Licensing: classification of licenses, licensing procedure, issuance of license. safety requirements: inspection: penalty under the Act: obstruction of inspection, search or investigation an offence, offence

  13. Neuroendocrine control by kisspeptins: role in metabolic regulation of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-13

    The neurohormonal control of reproduction involves a hierarchical network of central and peripheral signals in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Development and function of this neuroendocrine system is the result of a lifelong delicate balance between endogenous regulators and environmental cues, including nutritional and metabolic factors. Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1, which operate via the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (also known as Kiss1R). These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the HPG axis. They are potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion in various species and physiological settings. Moreover, Kiss1 neurons in the hypothalamus participate in crucial features of reproductive maturation and function, such as brain-level sex differentiation, puberty onset and the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation. Cotransmitters of Kiss1 neurons, such as neurokinin B, with roles in controlling the HPG axis have been identified by genetic, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. In addition, a putative role has been proposed for Kiss1 neurons in transmitting metabolic information to GnRH neurons, although the precise mechanisms are as yet unclear. In this Review, we present the major reproductive features of kisspeptins, especially their interplay with neurokinin B and potential roles in the metabolic control of puberty and fertility, and suggest new avenues for research.

  14. A real-time comparison between direct control, sequential pattern recognition control and simultaneous pattern recognition control using a Fitts' law style assessment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-05-30

    Pattern recognition (PR) based strategies for the control of myoelectric upper limb prostheses are generally evaluated through offline classification accuracy, which is an admittedly useful metric, but insufficient to discuss functional performance in real time. Existing functional tests are extensive to set up and most fail to provide a challenging, objective framework to assess the strategy performance in real time. Nine able-bodied and two amputee subjects gave informed consent and participated in the local Institutional Review Board approved study. We designed a two-dimensional target acquisition task, based on the principles of Fitts' law for human motor control. Subjects were prompted to steer a cursor from the screen center of into a series of subsequently appearing targets of different difficulties. Three cursor control systems were tested, corresponding to three electromyography-based prosthetic control strategies: 1) amplitude-based direct control (the clinical standard of care), 2) sequential PR control, and 3) simultaneous PR control, allowing for a concurrent activation of two degrees of freedom (DOF). We computed throughput (bits/second), path efficiency (%), reaction time (second), and overshoot (%)) and used general linear models to assess significant differences between the strategies for each metric. We validated the proposed methodology by achieving very high coefficients of determination for Fitts' law. Both PR strategies significantly outperformed direct control in two-DOF targets and were more intuitive to operate. In one-DOF targets, the simultaneous approach was the least precise. The direct control was efficient in one-DOF targets but cumbersome to operate in two-DOF targets through a switch-depended sequential cursor control. We designed a test, capable of comprehensively describing prosthetic control strategies in real time. When implemented on control subjects, the test was able to capture statistically significant differences (p

  15. Deregulation and regulation by the national and European antitrust laws. The development and amendment of antitrust laws and their effects on the public utilities. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the meeting discuss the following subjects: The public utilities and their scope of exemptions from provisions of the antitrust laws as established by court rulings; reimbursement for electricity supplied to the grid and the phasing out of franchise agreements; the competition policy of the Federal Cartel Office towards the public utilities; legal and economic implications of the competition policy adopted by the Federal Cartel Office for the structures of the public sector of the power supply industry; ensuring safe and priceworthy power supply in Europe. The five papers can be separately retrieved from the database. (HSCH) [de

  16. Research on radiation control as presented in the Medical Service Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Hisashi; Narimatsu, Takaki; Kawamata, Isao; Miguchi, Hiroshi; Sunayashiki, Tadashi.

    1997-01-01

    We considered it important to determine how each municipal government interprets and promulgates the Medical Service Law as it affects the field of radiology and procedures such as general X-ray diagnosis, CT, RI, radiation therapy and MR imaging. Only the government administrative segment referred to as the medical supervisory body can observe, control and generally administer front-line medical sites such as hospitals and clinics. This administrative body should have better public health care as its objective and should be able to adapt to changes in technology and the environment. We consider that, under the current climate of rapid technological change, medical supervision cannot be effective unless teams of specialists from each field are involved in administrative guidance. With the goal of achieving optimal and effective use of medical radiology, a questionnaire survey was done to gather information. Two questions were raised: Is there sufficient interaction between public medical supervisors and radiologists? and how well do people on the front lines at medical sites understand the current control structure? (author)

  17. Regulation on the organizatjon of radiation safety control bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document on matters of structure, organization, objectives, rights, and responsibilities of agencies enforcing compliance with radiation safety standards set up in Bulgaria. Under Public Health Law and Ministerial Council Decree No. 117, the organization and management of radiation safety in Bulgaria is entrusted to the Ministry of Public Health (MPH). Within its agency, the State Sanitary Control, authorities specialized in the area of radiation safety are as follows: the Radiation Hygiene Division (RHD) of the MPH Hygiene-and Epidemiology Bureau (HEB); the Specialized Radiation Safety Inspectorate of the Research Institute of Radiobiology and Radiation Hygiene (RIRRH); the Radiation Hygiene Sections of country HEBs; and State sanitary Inspectors assigned to large establishments in the country. (G.G.)

  18. Hanford regulated laundry: inventory control and production improvement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C. J.; Imhoff, C. H.; Levine, L. O.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to assist the Hanford regulated laundry facility in reducing processing costs and in improving facility performance. Specific problem areas addressed were: no method for determining optimum manpower requirements, resulting in excessive amounts of employee overtime; no buffer inventory available to offset demand peaks, resulting in additional employee overtime and unmet demand; lack of adequate inventory control, resulting in unnecessary inventory costs; and no detailed analysis of the impact of 100% monitoring.

  19. [Research progress on photosynthesis regulating and controlling soil respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Li; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil respiration and accurately estimate its magnitude are the crucial basis of evaluating global carbon balance. However, the previously built soil respiration forecast models usually neglect the physiological processes that photosynthesis supplies substrates for rhizospheric respiration, leading to the defect in evaluating the mechanisms of soil respiration. This paper summarized the research progress on the mechanisms of photosynthetic regulation and control of soil respiration, introduced the related main research methods, and discussed the existing problems and research hotspots.

  20. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  1. Non-state actors in control of territory as 'actors of protection' in international refugee law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the concept of non-state ‘actors of protection’ in international refugee law. This concept breaks with traditional State-centric readings of international law, as it connotes that a non-state actor may offer ‘protection’ against persecution, comparable to that normally offered

  2. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanmahel Davila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions

  3. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal

  4. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment''. Applications for the license of radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment shall be filed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate by a doctor of whether the applicant is an insane, a deaf, a dumb or a blind person or a person caught by an infectious disease or not. In the register of such technicians, the number and the date of registration, the names of the prefectures where the technicians are legally domiciled, their names and the date of birth, the year and month of passing the examination, the matters concerning withdrawal of the license or suspension of the practice must be written. The date and the place of the examination for such technicians shall be published beforehand on the official gazette. The examinations for such radiation and X-ray technicians are made on the subjects, such as physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, elementary medical science, radiology, photographing technique, medical treatment technique and control technique. (Okada, K.)

  5. Active control law design for flutter suppression and gust alleviation of a panel with piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Fazelzadeh, S; Mohammad Jafari, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an active optimal integral/feedforward control for a supersonic panel under gust disturbance effects with piezoelectric actuators. Classical laminate theory with induced strain actuation and a generalized form of Hamilton's principle are used to formulate the governing equations of motion. The total charge developed on the sensor layer is calculated from the direct piezoelectric equation. The piezoelectric sensor distributed output is also integrated, since the output voltage is dependent on the integrated strain rates over the sensor area. Aerodynamic modeling is accomplished by first-order piston theory with gust velocity effects. The model reduction is performed to the state space system of equations for the control design and the time domain simulation. Moreover, the disturbance dynamics are modeled through the addition to the equations of motion for various conditions. The optimal control problem is set up to minimize the panel deflection using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR). Using an integral control model as a part of the feedback loop, together with a feedforward of the disturbances, greatly enhances the transient response, and the steady state error characteristics of this system are observed. Also, parametric studies for three piezoelectric actuator configurations are demonstrated. Simulation results show that the controller model is effective for flutter suppression and gust alleviation for various piezo configurations

  6. Piloted Evaluation of Modernized Limited Authority Control Laws in the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Vineet; Melkers, Edgar; Faynberg, Alexander; Blanken, Chris L.

    2003-01-01

    The UH-60 BLACK HAWK was designed in the 1970s, when the US Army primarily operated during the day in good visual conditions. Subsequently, the introduction of night-vision goggles increased the BLACK HAWK'S mission effectiveness, but the accident rate also increased. The increased accident rate is strongly tied to increased pilot workload as a result of a degradation in visual cues. Over twenty years of research in helicopter flight control and handling qualities has shown that these degraded handling qualities can be recovered by modifying the response type of the helicopter in low speed flight. Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation initiated a project under the National Rotorcraft Technology Center (NRTC) to develop modern flight control laws while utilizing the existing partial authority Stability Augmentation System (SAS) of the BLACK HAWK. This effort resulted in a set of Modernized Control Laws (MCLAWS) that incorporate rate command and attitude command response types. Sikorsky and the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) conducted a piloted simulation on the NASA-Ames Vertical h4otion Simulator, to assess potential handling qualities and to reduce the risk of subsequent implementation and flight test of these modern control laws on AFDD's EH-60L helicopter. The simulation showed that Attitude Command Attitude Hold control laws in pitch and roll improve handling qualities in the low speed flight regime. These improvements are consistent across a range of mission task elements and for both good and degraded visual environments. The MCLAWS perform better than the baseline UH-60A control laws in the presence of wind and turbulence. Finally, while the improved handling qualities in the pitch and roll axis allow the pilot to pay more attention to the vertical axis and hence altitude performance also improves, it is clear from pilot comments and altitude excursions that the addition of an Altitude Hold function would further reduce workload and improve overall

  7. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  8. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  9. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  10. EZH2: a pivotal regulator in controlling cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Huey; Hung, Mien-Chie; Li, Long-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in stem cell self-renewal, maintenance and lineage differentiation. The epigenetic profiles of stem cells are related to their transcriptional signature. Enhancer of Zeste homlog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic subunit of epigenetic regulator Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), has been shown to be a key regulator in controlling cellular differentiation. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that not only methylates histone H3 on Lys 27 (H3K27me3) but also interacts with and recruits DNA methyltransferases to methylate CpG at certain EZH2 target genes to establish firm repressive chromatin structures, contributing to tumor progression and the regulation of development and lineage commitment both in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In addition to its well-recognized epigenetic gene silencing function, EZH2 also directly methylates nonhistone targets such as the cardiac transcription factor, GATA4, resulting in attenuated GATA4 transcriptional activity and gene repression. This review addresses recent progress toward the understanding of the biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of EZH2 and its targets as well as their roles in stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation.

  11. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  12. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  13. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  14. Using therapeutic jurisprudence and preventive law to examine disputants' best interests in mediating cases about physicians' practices: a guide for medical regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lorraine E

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) and preventive law (PL) are used as two theoretical perspectives from which to examine the best interests of parties in mediation because of a dispute about a physician's practice. The focus is mediation provided by and/or for the medical regulator. The paper reviews the literature on TJ and PL, and their relationship to mediation, and demonstrates how medical regulators could benefit by working within a framework reflecting both these perspectives providing it does not involve an egregious matter. A TJ and PL framework would be of particular value in identifying cases for mediation and in evaluating resolutions to mediated disputes.

  15. Parameter optimization of thermal-model-oriented control law for PEM fuel cell stack via novel genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Deng Zhonghua; Wei Dong; Xu Chunshan; Cao Guangyi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: →We build up the thermal expressions of PEMFC stack. → The expressions are converted into the affine state space control-oriented model for the VSC strategy. → The NGA is developed to optimize the parameter of thermal-model-oriented control law. → Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and rationality of the method proposed. - Abstract: It is critical to understand and manage the thermal effects in optimizing the performance and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. And building up the control-oriented thermal model of PEMFC stack is necessary. The thermal model, a set of differential equations, is established according to the conservation equations of mass and energy, which can be used to reflect truly the actual temperature response of PEMFC stack, however, the expressions of the model are too complicated to be used in the design of control. For this reason, the expressions are converted into the affine state space control-oriented model in detail for the variable structure control (VSC) strategy. Meanwhile, the accurate model must be established for the VSC and the parameters of VSC laws should be optimized. Consequently, a novel genetic algorithm (NGA) is developed to optimize the parameter of thermal-model-oriented control law for PEMFC stack. Finally, numerical test results demonstrate the effectiveness and rationality of the method proposed in this paper. It lays the foundation for the realization of online thermal management of PEMFC stack based on VSC.

  16. SCF(KMD) controls cytokinin signaling by regulating the degradation of type-B response regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-06-11

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that play critical roles in growth and development. In Arabidopsis, the transcriptional response to cytokinin is regulated by action of type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs). Although central elements in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway have been identified, mechanisms controlling output remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a family of F-box proteins, called the kiss me deadly (KMD) family, targets type-B ARR proteins for degradation. KMD proteins form an S-phase kinase-associated PROTEIN1 (SKP1)/Cullin/F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and directly interact with type-B ARR proteins. Loss-of-function KMD mutants stabilize type-B ARRs and exhibit an enhanced cytokinin response. In contrast, plants with elevated KMD expression destabilize type-B ARR proteins leading to cytokinin insensitivity. Our results support a model in which an SCF(KMD) complex negatively regulates cytokinin responses by controlling levels of a key family of transcription factors.

  17. Who controls the uses of organs after death? Law in the books, law in practice and the view of the people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffine, Ngaire; Richards, Bernadette; de Lacey, Sheryl; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Rogers, Wendy

    2012-12-01

    The conventional wisdom is that we are free to dispose of our organs at death and that they will be employed according to our wishes. However, this reflects neither the formal law nor medical practice. This article explores the theory underlying the principle of self-determination after death. It presents an overview of Australian law and the way that the law is interpreted in clinical practice. It then presents the results of a community survey on organ disposition, and identifies a gap between community expectations and the current operation of Australian law. It concludes with some specific recommendations for development of the law to align it more closely with contemporary community views.

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  19. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement.

  20. Positive sliding mode control for blood glucose regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Karima; Mohammadridha, Taghreed; Magdelaine, Nicolas; Abdelaziz, Mourad; Moog, Claude H.

    2017-11-01

    Biological systems involving positive variables as concentrations are some examples of so-called positive systems. This is the case of the glycemia-insulinemia system considered in this paper. To cope with these physical constraints, it is shown that a positive sliding mode control (SMC) can be designed for glycemia regulation. The largest positive invariant set (PIS) is obtained for the insulinemia subsystem in open and closed loop. The existence of a positive SMC for glycemia regulation is shown here for the first time. Necessary conditions to design the sliding surface and the discontinuity gain are derived to guarantee a positive SMC for the insulin dynamics. SMC is designed to be positive everywhere in the largest closed-loop PIS of plasma insulin system. Two-stage SMC is employed; the last stage SMC2 block uses the glycemia error to design the desired insulin trajectory. Then the plasma insulin state is forced to track the reference via SMC1. The resulting desired insulin trajectory is the required virtual control input of the glycemia system to eliminate blood glucose (BG) error. The positive control is tested in silico on type-1 diabetic patients model derived from real-life clinical data.

  1. Digital regulation of a phase controlled power converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, C.; Haque, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, now in construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will use phase controlled power converters for the main dipole and quadrupole magnet strings. The rectifiers in these power supplies will be controlled by a digital regulator based on the TI 320C30 Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The DSP implements the current loop, the voltage loop, and a system to actively reduce the sub-harmonic ripple components. Digital firing circuits consisting of a phase locked lop and counters are used to fire the SCRs. Corrections for the sub-harmonic reduction are calculated by the DSP and stored in registers in the firing circuit. These corrections are added in hardware, to the over-all firing count provided by the DSP. the resultant count is compared to a reference counter to fire the SCRs. This combination of a digital control system and the digital firing circuits allows the correction of the sub-harmonics in a real-time sense. A prototype of the regulator has been constructed, and the preliminary testing indicates a sub-harmonic reduction of 60 dB

  2. Successful emotion regulation requires both conviction and skill: beliefs about the controllability of emotions, reappraisal, and regulation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutentag, Tony; Halperin, Eran; Porat, Roni; Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2017-09-01

    To succeed in self-regulation, people need to believe that it is possible to change behaviour and they also need to use effective means to enable such a change. We propose that this also applies to emotion regulation. In two studies, we found that people were most successful in emotion regulation, the more they believed emotions can be controlled and the more they used an effective emotion regulation strategy - namely, cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the link between beliefs about the controllability of emotion and success in emotion regulation, when reappraisal was measured as a trait (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). Such moderation was found when examining the regulation of disgust elicited by emotion-inducing films (Study 1), and the regulation of anger elicited by real political events (Study 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice in emotion regulation.

  3. The testing of materials within the purview of the laws concerning the control of chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselmann, K.; Linden, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main approach adopted for this book is the question of whether and to what extent the commercially available chemical products (ranging from foodstuffs and drugs to pesticides and similar pollutants) have been assessed for environmental and health safety prior to release. The relevant existing laws concerning the testing and characterisation of substances are analysed and compared with a view to the major environmental principle, to prevent chemicals-induced hazards to health and the environment. The book reviews the following laws (and their implementing provisions): law on chemical substances, pesticides, fertilisers, drugs, detergents, leaded petrol, food and feedstuffs, explosives, and transport of hazardous materials. Environmentally significant laws reviewed include the waste management act, the atomic energy act (non-recycable wastes, plutonium, tritium), the water management act, and the act for protection against harmful effects on the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Sociodemographic characteristics and aggression quotient among children in conflict with the law in India: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Archit; Biddala, Ooha Susmita; Dwivedi, Mandavi; Variar, Prathyaksha; Singh, Aparna; Sen, Soham; Bhat, P Shivaram; Kunte, Renuka; Nair, Velu; Shankar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of juvenile delinquency has increased in the past decade in India and juvenile crimes are increasingly being reported. This has been attributed to many biopsychosocial factors. It is essential to understand these issues in the context of India to determine the response of acts of children in conflict with the law. We aimed to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and the aggression quotient of children in conflict with the law (juvenile delinquents) in observation homes across India and compare them with those who were not. We did a case-control study in five juvenile homes in the cities of Hyderabad, Lucknow and Pune. Ninety inmates (74 boys, 16 girls) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and aggression quotient of children in conflict with the law were evaluated using two separate questionnaires, i.e. a sociodemographic questionnaire and the modified Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire. These were compared with a control group of similar age, sex and income status. All the children in conflict with the law surveyed belonged to the lower socioeconomic strata, had a significantly higher chance (pbroken homes, have addictions, jailed family members and suffered physical and sexual abuse than controls. They also scored higher on all domains of the aggression questionnaire than controls. A collection of sociodemographic attributes such as broken homes, addictions and abuse seem to have an important association with juvenile delinquency. Children in conflict with the law are also more likely to be associated with a higher aggression quotient as compared to children who were not. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  5. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  6. Device for regulating and controlling of fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.N.; Singleton, N.R.; Frisch, E.; Stein, P.C.

    1972-01-01

    A pressure regulating valve for high pressures, suitable for PWR pressurisers, is based on controlled leakage. The valve may also function as a safety valve. The valve and seat surfaces are machined such that an annular space is formed towards the inner edge, and into this space cold fluid may be injected, thus preventing crud deposition and hindering steam formation. Fluid also leaks into the annular space between two bellows, which exert a closing force on the valve, in addition to the closing force provided by springs, whose force is adjustable by means of a screw arrangement. (JIW)

  7. Regulatory control, nuclear safety regulation and waste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the challenges that faces the spanish regulatory authority. The deregulation of electricity industry imposes severe changes in nuclear power economics and forces nuclear power to compete with other sources of electricity. A pressure is perceived for regulatory effectiveness primarily since the cost of regulation is a component of the cost of the product. This effectiveness gain in regulatory control will be reached through systematic strategic analysis, formulation and implementation. The regulatory aspects of plant life extension and of waste management are examined

  8. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of WNF to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of WNF according to disease prevention and control...

  9. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  10. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  11. Design and implementation of robust decentralized control laws for the ACES structure at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas; Hyland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to design controllers that would provide substantial reduction of line-of-sight control errors. The satisfaction of this objective required the controllers to attenuate the beam vibration significantly. Particular emphasis was placed on controller simplicity (i.e., reduced-order and decentralized controller architectures). Complexity reduction in control law implementation is of paramount interest due to stringent limitations on throughput of even state-of-the-art space qualified processors. The results of this experiment successfully demonstrate active vibrator control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the ACES structure at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.

  12. Protection of third parties. The protection of third parties affected by building or plant construction permits under the public construction law, the emission control law, or the atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.

    1993-01-01

    Building construction permits just like plant construction permits under the Federal Emission Control Act or the Atomic Energy Act are typical cases representing the administrative order with a dual effect, or an effect on third parties: decisions supporting the interests of the project owner always affect third parties. Third party protection therefore is a major topic of public construction law or the environmental protection law to be applied to industrial installations. Although actions brought by third parties have become something ordinary for the administrative courts, substantive third party protection continues to pose specific problems. The book in hand develops and explains a way out of the dilemma created by third party protection. The solutions presented are founded on a sound dogmatic basis and take into account the Federal Constitutional Court's rulings in matters of civil rights. The starting point adopted by the authors is the third party rights warranting protection, with the objective protection provided for by the law in general gaining effect as subjective rights as far as the protection is based on the civil rights of the constitution. The scope of protection affordable depends on the individual case and the reconciliation of terests of all parties concerned. The problem solutions set forth very extensively rely on the jurisdiction in matters of third party protection and on approaches published in the relevant literature, so that the book also may serve as a guide to current practice and a helpful source of reference for readers looking for information about the issue of third party protection. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 regulates erythropoiesis by controlling GATA1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Veiga, Diogo Ft; Maslowski, Kendle M; Andina, Nicola; Tardivel, Aubry; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Stilinovic, Martina; Simillion, Cedric; Duchosal, Michel A; Quadroni, Manfredo; Roberts, Irene; Sankaran, Vijay G; MacDonald, H Robson; Fasel, Nicolas; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Schneider, Pascal; Hoang, Trang; Allam, Ramanjaneyulu

    2018-04-02

    Ribosomal proteins (RP) regulate specific gene expression by selectively translating subsets of mRNAs. Indeed, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome, mutations in RP genes lead to a specific defect in erythroid gene translation and cause anemia. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of selective mRNA translation and involvement of ribosomal-associated factors in this process. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 (RNH1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds to and inhibits pancreatic-type ribonucleases. Here, we report that RNH1 binds to ribosomes and regulates erythropoiesis by controlling translation of the erythroid transcription factor GATA1. Rnh1-deficient mice die between embryonic days E8.5 and E10 due to impaired production of mature erythroid cells from progenitor cells. In Rnh1-deficient embryos, mRNA levels of Gata1 are normal, but GATA1 protein levels are decreased. At the molecular level, we found that RNH1 binds to the 40S subunit of ribosomes and facilitates polysome formation on Gata1 mRNA to confer transcript-specific translation. Further, RNH1 knockdown in human CD34+ progenitor cells decreased erythroid differentiation without affecting myelopoiesis. Our results reveal an unsuspected role for RNH1 in the control of GATA1 mRNA translation and erythropoiesis.

  14. Legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading; Marktmissbrauchsrechtliche Regelungen des WpHG und der REMIT-VO im Stromspothandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retsch, Alexander T.

    2014-07-01

    The thesis on legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading include the discussion of the following issues: market abuse, its forms of appearance (market manipulation, insider trade, insider information), electricity spot trading, relevant legislative frame, market abuse regulations (WpHG), interdiction of market manipulation and related regulations.

  15. The prohibition of financing of terrorism in the light of international law and regulations of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cmiljanić Bajo M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts are sometimes carried out in order to obtain funds for financing terrorist organizations and terrorist actions. Therefore, due attention in considering the forms of combat against terrorism has been paid to the connection between money and violence. The issue of prohibition of financing of terrorism is the subject of many international legal documents. Republic of Serbia has devoted many normative documents to this problem, that are harmonized with the international obligations accepted upon the signing of international treaties. The task of this paper is to show the basic norms of international law and the laws of the Republic of Serbia regarding the prohibition of financing of terrorism.

  16. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  17. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  18. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  19. A high-fidelity airbus benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Ph.; Puyou, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a high-fidelity generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus for advanced flight control system research. The main features of this benchmark are described to make the reader aware of the model complexity and representativeness. It is a complete representation including the nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a full set of control surfaces, actuator models, sensor models, flight control laws (FCL), and pilot inputs. Two applications of this benchmark in the framework of European projects are presented: FCL clearance using optimization and advanced fault detection and diagnosis (FDD).

  20. Psychosocial and behavioural factors in the regulation of weight: Self-regulation, self-efficacy and locus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, Lara; Orts-Cortés, María Isabel

    To identify the relationship and behaviour of the variables of self-control, self-efficacy and locus control in weight regulation of obese, overweight and normal weight adults. Transversal study undertaken in the Health Centre of El Coto (Gijón) from 1st April to 30th July 2015. Subjects between 18-65 years of age with a body mass index recording within the last two years. serious medical illness, eating disorders or pregnant women. Behavioural variables: self-regulation of body weight (Inventory of self-control of body weight), perceived self-efficacy in weight regulation (Inventory of perceived self-efficacy in weight regulation) and locus control in weight regulation (Inventory of locus control in weight regulation). Anthropometric variables: weight (kg) and height (m), body mass index. One hundred and six participants were included: 32 were obese, 28 overweight and 46 normal weight. Significant differences were found between the 3 study groups for total scale of self-efficacy (F=61.77; pcontrol (F=13.92; p=.019), other weighty influences of locus control (F=9.21; pcontrol (F=3.50; p=.011). The relationship between body mass index and behavioural variables of self-efficacy, self-regulation and locus control, suggests the need for healthcare professionals to include psychological factors of behaviour in any preventive action and intervention directed at weight control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Legal and administrative regulation of the petroleum industry in Trinidad and Tobago: a study of law and policy in petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, K I.F.

    1984-01-01

    This work has, through an in-depth assessment of the law and institutions employed in the petroleum industry in Trinidad and Tobago, evaluated their viability in achieving declared state objectives and in providing a legal and administrative framework for regulating this industry. After considering the evolution of laws, policies, and institutions, the work focuses mainly on the petroleum contract, the national oil company, taxation of petroleum operations, and the ways of integrating the industry into the national economy and achieving an effective transfer of technology. These central areas are examined from a policy perspective which looks at their role, inter alia, as instruments of development, for securing active state participation, in the creation of an efficient and effective regulatory infrastructure and in allowing an optimum development of the resources, in the interest of the state. Further this examination provides the basis for suggested reforms and improvements to the existing model.

  2. Royal Decree-Law 12/1982 of 27 August regulating State intervention in the Lemoniz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Royal Decree-Law sets out the conditions of intervention by the State in the achievement of the Lemoniz nuclear power plant with a view to accelerating the work. It sets up an Intervention Council responsible for directing the work which is empowered to take the necessary measures for discharging its duties. (NEA) [fr

  3. The Existence of Customary Rights of Customary Law Community and Its Regulation in the Era of Special Autonomy of Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Roberth Kurniawan Ruslak

    2018-01-01

    The protection and recognition of customary rights of Customary Law Community is a constitutional imperative according to the implementation of Article 18B of the 1945 Constitution. In order to minimize the conflict between government, employers and the community, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of customary rights of each tribe…

  4. Radiation doses by radiation diagnostics at the border of a hospital. Calculation model for Nuclear Energy Law regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Thijssen, T.; De Jong, R.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Nuclear Energy Law in the Netherlands radiation doses at the border of a specific institute (e.g. hospitals) must be determined which can not simply be done by measurements. In this article a model calculation for radiation diagnostics is described

  5. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and robust controller design for Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Yuan, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihuan; Li, Yuanzheng

    2017-02-01

    The safety and stability of hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS) in hydropower plants become increasingly important since the rapid development and the broad application of hydro energy technology. In this paper, a novel mathematical model of Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank based on a few state-space equations is introduced to study the dynamic behaviors of the HTRS system, where the existence of possible unstable oscillations of this model is studied extensively and presented in the forms of the bifurcation diagram, time waveform plot, phase trajectories, and power spectrum. To eliminate these undesirable behaviors, a specified fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed. In this hybrid controller, the sliding mode control law makes full use of the proposed model to guarantee the robust control in the presence of system uncertainties, while the fuzzy system is applied to approximate the proper gains of the switching control in sliding mode technique to reduce the chattering effect, and particle swarm optimization is developed to search the optimal gains of the controller. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the designed controller, and the results show that the performances of the nonlinear HTRS system assisted with the proposed controller is much better than that with the commonly used optimal PID controller.

  6. A comparison of volume control and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Guldager, Henrik; Nielsen, Soeren L; Carl, Peder; Soerensen, Mogens B

    1997-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a new mode of ventilation (pressure-regulated volume control; PRVC) is associated with improvements in respiratory mechanics and outcome when compared with conventional volume control (VC) ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. We conducted a randomised, prospective, open, cross over trial on 44 patients with acute respiratory failure in the general intensive care unit of a university hospital. After a stabiliz...

  7. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  8. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Testing a simple control law to reduce broadband frequency harmonic vibrations using semi-active tuned mass dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the control problems related to semi-active tuned mass dampers (TMDs) used to reduce harmonic vibrations, specially involving civil structures. A simplified version of the phase control law is derived and its effectiveness is investigated and evaluated. The objective is to improve the functioning of control systems of this type by simplifying the measurement process and reducing the number of variables involved, making the control system more feasible and reliable. Because the control law is of ON/OFF type, combined with appropriate trigger conditions, the activity of the actuation system may be significantly reduced, which may be of few seconds a day in many practical cases, increasing the durability of the device and reducing its maintenance. Moreover, due to the ability of the control system to command the motion of the inertial mass, the semi-active TMD is relatively insensitive to its initial tuning, resulting in the capability of self-tuning and in the possibility of controlling several vibration modes of a structure over a significant broadband frequency. (paper)

  10. Preventive Command and Control Regulation: A Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Junquera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to evaluate new preventive command-and-control environmental regulation’s competitive effects on automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. The methodology that we have used is a case analysis, and its main aim is to study an unfamiliar situation. Therefore, we have chosen cases from each of the groups: two suppliers and one manufacturer. The new regulation obliges automobile companies to deeply modify their process technologies and their relationships with their suppliers (toughening requirements and strengthening long-term relationships and to require their workers to train in environmental matters. Complying with regulation by suppliers will be possible if product and process designs are modified. However, only organisational actions, which include workers’ training in environmental and quality matters and activities to recover value in factories, are capable to achieve it. In any case, these factories have already been affected by trade-offs between environmental and other more classic manufacturing objectives, especially quality.

  11. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.221 Carriage... custody of an armed law enforcement officer aboard an aircraft for which screening is required unless, in...

  12. Implementation of Close Loop Speed Control with VVVF Control and Slip Regulation on LIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aditya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open loop VVVF control has the disadvantage of low output torque when working at low frequency and poor speed precision at different load conditions.Various performance-improving schemes have been proposed for the basic VVVF control by compensating slips occurring in the low frequency range and slips caused by changing loads. Numerous papers have been published on the close loop speed control of rotary induction motor. In this paper a close loop speed control with VVVF control and slip regulation has been implemented for LIM based conveyor belt test Rig which compensates the disadvantages of traditional Volts/Hz control. SIMULINK results are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  13. The Behavioural Law and Economics of the Precautionary Principle in the EU and Its Impact on Internal Market Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2014-01-01

    The precautionary principle contributes to “the social” of internal market regulation as it counterbalances the loss aversion and availability bias of regulators who may too hastily endorse measures based to further the fundamental freedoms instead of fundamental rights and environmental protection.

  14. Characterizing, Classifying, and Understanding Information Security Laws and Regulations: Considerations for Policymakers and Organizations Protecting Sensitive Information Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaw, David Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Current scholarly understanding of information security regulation in the United States is limited. Several competing mechanisms exist, many of which are untested in the courts and before state regulators, and new mechanisms are being proposed on a regular basis. Perhaps of even greater concern, the pace at which technology and threats change far…

  15. Corruption Crimes from the Point of View of the New Regulations of Law no. 286/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gradinaru

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The corruption phenomenon in Romania is one of the factors that have slowed the progress of economic and political development, and therefore the fight against this phenomenon constitutes a primaryconcern of the entire Romanian society, in order to increase the level of integrity and trust towards state institutions and in order to integrate the Romanian society in the European community. Law no. 286/2009 regarding the new Criminal Code brings a number of changes in terms of corruption offenses, changes that have drawn much criticism. The faulty wording in the general part has resulted in the decriminalization of the largest part of the corruption crimes already committed and, as such, a partial indirect amnesty of thecorruption acts, which have seriously affected the social system and Romania's development. The manner in which a crime is defined by law or the ambiguity of the definitions regarding the criminal nature of an act seriously affects the clarity and predictability of the criminal policy. Moreover, the draft Criminal Code and the draft Criminal Procedure Code contain a number of provisions which are contrary to the Constitutional Court's jurisprudence and may affect the efficiency of the law.

  16. ORACLS- OPTIMAL REGULATOR ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONTROL OF LINEAR SYSTEMS (DEC VAX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H.

    1994-01-01

    This control theory design package, called Optimal Regulator Algorithms for the Control of Linear Systems (ORACLS), was developed to aid in the design of controllers and optimal filters for systems which can be modeled by linear, time-invariant differential and difference equations. Optimal linear quadratic regulator theory, currently referred to as the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problem, has become the most widely accepted method of determining optimal control policy. Within this theory, the infinite duration time-invariant problems, which lead to constant gain feedback control laws and constant Kalman-Bucy filter gains for reconstruction of the system state, exhibit high tractability and potential ease of implementation. A variety of new and efficient methods in the field of numerical linear algebra have been combined into the ORACLS program, which provides for the solution to time-invariant continuous or discrete LQG problems. The ORACLS package is particularly attractive to the control system designer because it provides a rigorous tool for dealing with multi-input and multi-output dynamic systems in both continuous and discrete form. The ORACLS programming system is a collection of subroutines which can be used to formulate, manipulate, and solve various LQG design problems. The ORACLS program is constructed in a manner which permits the user to maintain considerable flexibility at each operational state. This flexibility is accomplished by providing primary operations, analysis of linear time-invariant systems, and control synthesis based on LQG methodology. The input-output routines handle the reading and writing of numerical matrices, printing heading information, and accumulating output information. The basic vector-matrix operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, equation, norm construction, tracing, transposition, scaling, juxtaposition, and construction of null and identity matrices. The analysis routines provide for the following

  17. ORACLS- OPTIMAL REGULATOR ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONTROL OF LINEAR SYSTEMS (CDC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    This control theory design package, called Optimal Regulator Algorithms for the Control of Linear Systems (ORACLS), was developed to aid in the design of controllers and optimal filters for systems which can be modeled by linear, time-invariant differential and difference equations. Optimal linear quadratic regulator theory, currently referred to as the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problem, has become the most widely accepted method of determining optimal control policy. Within this theory, the infinite duration time-invariant problems, which lead to constant gain feedback control laws and constant Kalman-Bucy filter gains for reconstruction of the system state, exhibit high tractability and potential ease of implementation. A variety of new and efficient methods in the field of numerical linear algebra have been combined into the ORACLS program, which provides for the solution to time-invariant continuous or discrete LQG problems. The ORACLS package is particularly attractive to the control system designer because it provides a rigorous tool for dealing with multi-input and multi-output dynamic systems in both continuous and discrete form. The ORACLS programming system is a collection of subroutines which can be used to formulate, manipulate, and solve various LQG design problems. The ORACLS program is constructed in a manner which permits the user to maintain considerable flexibility at each operational state. This flexibility is accomplished by providing primary operations, analysis of linear time-invariant systems, and control synthesis based on LQG methodology. The input-output routines handle the reading and writing of numerical matrices, printing heading information, and accumulating output information. The basic vector-matrix operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, equation, norm construction, tracing, transposition, scaling, juxtaposition, and construction of null and identity matrices. The analysis routines provide for the following

  18. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  19. A NOx control regulation for electric utility boilers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions is becoming an increasingly important part of ozone attainment plans. As a part of its ozone attainment plan, the Ventura County (California) Air Pollution Control Board adopted in June, 1991, a regulation (Rule 59) to limit oxides of nitrogen emissions from four electrical utility boilers in the county. Rule development took two years and involved considerable public input. The emission limit for each of two 750 megawatt units is set at 0.10 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour net after June, 1994. The emission limit for each of two 215 megawatt units is 0.20 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour after June, 1996. Additional limitations are included for fuel oil operation. The rule does not specify an emission control technology. Conventional selective catalytic reduction, urea injection and combustion modifications are considered the technologies most likely to be used to comply. At $17,613 per ton of NO x reduced for the two large boilers and $8.992 per ton of NO x reduced for the small boilers, the rule is considered cost effective. The capital cost for conventional selective catalytic reduction systems on all four boilers is expected to be in excess of $210,000,000

  20. [Preparation of the database and the Internet (WWW) homepage for regulations on chemicals in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Morita, M; Kaminuma, T

    1999-01-01

    We prepared a database on chemical regulations in Japan. The regulations consist of "The Law concerning the Examination and Regulation of Manufacture, etc., of Chemical Substances", "Poisonous and Deleterious Substances", Control Law", "Waterworks Law", "Law for the Control of Household Products containing Harmful Substances", and Pesticide Residues in Food Sanitation Law". We also set up a World Wide Web (WWW) homepage containing an explanation of the law as well as chemical names, CAS registry numbers, and standards. The WWW pages contain lists of chemicals and the retrieval page for the database.

  1. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): anthrax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  2. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  3. Nuclear energy law after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.; Harcher, L.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the legal issues surrounding the possibility of accidents at nuclear installations in Europe. Contents include: Regulations and control by international organizations in the context of a nuclear accident; The role of Euratom; Border installations: the interaction of administrative, European community and public international law; and Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf. Concepts of nuclear liability and the liability of suppliers to nuclear power plants are discussed

  4. Conceptual design of control rod regulating system for plate type fuels of Triga-2000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Priyono; Saminto

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual design of the control rod regulating system for plate type fuel of TRIGA-2000 reactor has been made. Conceptual design of the control rod regulating system for plate type fuel of TRIGA-2000 reactor was made with refer to study result of instrument and control system which is used in BATAN'S reactor. Conceptual design of the control rod regulating system for plate type fuel of TRIGA-2000 reactor consist of 4 segments that is control panel, translator, driver and display. Control panel is used for regulating, safety and display control rod, translator is used for signal processing from control panel, driver is used for driving control rod and display is used for display control rod level position. The translator was designed in 2 modes operation i.e operation by using PLC modules and IC TTL modules. These conceptual design can be used as one of reference of control rod regulating system detail design. (author)

  5. Laws, Regulations, Guidelines and Standards for Animal Care and Use for Scientific Purposes in the Countries of Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnam, Leslie; Chatikavanij, Pradon; Kunjara, Pattamarat; Paramastri, Yasmina A; Goh, Yong Meng; Hussein, Fuzina Nor; Mutalib, Abdul Rahim; Poosala, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    The laws, regulations, guidelines, and standards on animal care and use for scientific purposes in the countries of Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia, and India are described in this manuscript. For each of these five countries, a brief introduction is provided on the history of how the need for animal welfare in research, education, training, and testing came to being. This is followed by some background information leading to the current status of regulations and guidelines in each of the five countries. There is also a description of the responsibilities and functions of institutional animal welfare and ethics oversight bodies, enforcement agencies, penalties, and organizations supporting the industry. Finally, a conclusion with insights into the future of laboratory animal welfare and science in each of these five countries in Asia is provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  7. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  8. Control of striatal signaling by G protein regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang eXie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via heterotrimeric G proteins plays a crucial role in modulating the responses of striatal neurons that ultimately shape core behaviors mediated by the basal ganglia circuitry, such as reward valuation, habit formation and movement coordination. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs by extracellular signals activates heterotrimeric G proteins by promoting the binding of GTP to their α subunits. G proteins exert their effects by influencing the activity of key effector proteins in this region, including ion channels, second messenger enzymes and protein kinases. Striatal neurons express a staggering number of GPCRs whose activation results in the engagement of downstream signaling pathways and cellular responses with unique profiles but common molecular mechanisms. Studies over the last decade have revealed that the extent and duration of GPCR signaling are controlled by a conserved protein family named Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS. RGS proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by the α subunits of G proteins, thus promoting deactivation of GPCR signaling. In this review, we discuss the progress made in understanding the roles of RGS proteins in controlling striatal G protein signaling and providing integration and selectivity of signal transmission. We review evidence on the formation of a macromolecular complex between RGS proteins and other components of striatal signaling pathways, their molecular regulatory mechanisms and impacts on GPCR signaling in the striatum obtained from biochemical studies and experiments involving genetic mouse models. Special emphasis is placed on RGS9-2, a member of the RGS family that is highly enriched in the striatum and plays critical roles in drug addiction and motor control.

  9. Rent Control: A Comparative Analysis | Maass | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. ... KEYWORDS: Constitution; landlord-tenant law; rent control; rent regulation; ...

  10. Assisted suicide: Models of legal regulation in selected European countries and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Claudia; Grosse, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents three different models of the legal regulation of assisted suicide in European countries. First, the current legal regime governing assisted suicide in the Netherlands is described where both euthanasia and assisted suicide have been legalised. This section also includes some empirical data on euthanasia and assisted-suicide practices in the Netherlands, as well as a comparison with the current legal legislation in Belgium and Luxembourg. Next, Switzerland is presented as a country where euthanasia is punishable by law but assisted suicide is legally allowed, provided it is not carried out with selfish motives. This section also focuses on the assisted-suicide-related case law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Last, the current legal situation regarding assisted suicide in Austria and Germany is described. While the Austrian Penal Code explicitly prohibits assisted suicide, assistance with suicide is not specifically regulated by the German Penal Code. However, medical doctors are not allowed to assist suicides according to the professional codes of conduct drawn up by the German medical associations under the supervision of the health authorities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Liability law. Amendment to the legal compensation regulations of August 16th, 1977 - BGBI 1977, I, p. 1577

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    On account of this amendment, the absolute liability, pursuant to section 1 a of the Reichshaftpfichtgesetz (RHG) so far only applicable for gas and electricity lines, has now also been entended to pipes for steam and liquids. Deviating from the present law, not only transport pipelines, but also the production pipelines are included. The maximum liability amounts were increased drastically. For injuries to persons, the compensation to be paid now is 30,000 DM at the most as against 15,000 DM previously. The highest sum for material damage, since 1939 unchanged at 25,000 DM, was put up to 100,000 DM.

  12. Motion of the two-control airplane in rectilinear flight after initial disturbances with introduction of controls following an exponential law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemin, Alexander

    1937-01-01

    An airplane in steady rectilinear flight was assumed to experience an initial disturbance in rolling or yawing velocity. The equations of motion were solved to see if it was possible to hasten recovery of a stable airplane or to secure recovery of an unstable airplane by the application of a single lateral control following an exponential law. The sample computations indicate that, for initial disturbances complex in character, it would be difficult to secure correlation with any type of exponential control. The possibility is visualized that the two-control operation may seriously impair the ability to hasten recovery or counteract instability.

  13. An analytic-numerical method for the construction of the reference law of operation for a class of mechanical controlled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizhidon, A. D.; Mizhidon, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    An analytic-numerical method for the construction of a reference law of operation for a class of dynamic systems describing vibrations in controlled mechanical systems is proposed. By the reference law of operation of a system, we mean a law of the system motion that satisfies all the requirements for the quality and design features of the system under permanent external disturbances. As disturbances, we consider polyharmonic functions with known amplitudes and frequencies of the harmonics but unknown initial phases. For constructing the reference law of motion, an auxiliary optimal control problem is solved in which the cost function depends on a weighting coefficient. The choice of the weighting coefficient ensures the design of the reference law. Theoretical foundations of the proposed method are given.

  14. Order for execution of the law concerning regulation of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The designations according to Item 1, Article 3 and Item 1, Article 13 of the Law must be obtained for each factory or business place where refining and fabrication of nuclear material are to be performed. One who wants to obtain such designation should file an application attached with a business plan and other documents via the director of a regional bureau of international trade and industry having jurisdiction over such factory or business place. When nuclear material refiners and nuclear material fabricators wish to obtain the approval for change stipulated in Item 1, Article 6 and Item 1, Article 16 of the Law, they must file applications to the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry via said directors. Chief handlers of nuclear fuel materials shall be approved among those meeting the strict requirements. One who wishes to install reactors must obtain the approval for each factory or business place where the reactors are to be installed. The permission must be obtained for each nuclear ship entering Japanese waters. The reactors proper and several facilities are subject to periodic inspection. (Rikitake, Y.)

  15. Regulations under the Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982, No. 221 of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These Regulations made under the Radiation Protection and Control Act of 1982, amend several numerical quotations contained in the Radiation Safety (Transport) Regulations, No. 27, 1984, also made under the above mentioned Act. (NEA) [fr

  16. TCR down-regulation controls T cell homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boding, Lasse; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Bodil L

    2009-01-01

    TCR and cytokine receptor signaling play key roles in the complex homeostatic mechanisms that maintain a relative stable number of T cells throughout life. Despite the homeostatic mechanisms, a slow decline in naive T cells is typically observed with age. The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif...... controls TCR down-regulation and plays a central role in fine-tuning TCR expression and signaling in T cells. In this study, we show that the age-associated decline of naive T cells is strongly accelerated in CD3gammaLLAA knock-in mice homozygous for a double leucine to alanine mutation in the CD3gamma di......-leucine-based motif, whereas the number of memory T cells is unaffected by the mutation. This results in premature T cell population senescence with a severe dominance of memory T cells and very few naive T cells in middle-aged to old CD3gamma mutant mice. The reduced number of naive T cells in CD3gamma mutant mice...

  17. Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (I). Crime Statistics and Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the “iron fist,” and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  18. The culture of fear and control in Costa Rica (I): Crime statistics and law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the 'iron fist', and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  19. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Chapeter 1 specifies regulations concerning business management for refining and processing, which cover application for designation of refining operation, application for permission for processing operation, and approval of personnel responsible for handling nuclear fuel. Chapter 2 specifies regulations concerning construction and operation of nuclear reactors, which cover application for construction of nuclear reactors, reactors in a research and development stage, application for permission concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, application for permission for alteration concerning construction of nuclear reactors, application for permission for alteration concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, nuclear reactor facilities to be subjected to regular inspection, nuclear reactor for which submission of operation plan is not required, and application for permission for transfer of nuclear reactor. Chapter 2 also specifies regulations concerning business management for reprocessing and waste disposal. Chapter 3 stipulates regulations concerning use of nuclear fuel substances, nuclear material substances and other substances covered by international regulations, which include rules for application for permission for use of nuclear fuel substances, etc. Supplementary provisions are provided in Chapter 4. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Rhetoric and the law, or the law of rhetoric: How countries oppose novel tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    The tobacco industry has developed an extensive array of strategies and arguments to prevent or weaken government regulation. These strategies and arguments are well documented at the domestic level. However, there remains a need to examine how these arguments are reflected in the challenges waged by governments within the World Trade Organization (WTO). Decisions made at the WTO have the potential to shape how countries govern. Our analysis was conducted on two novel tobacco control measures: tobacco additives bans (Canada, United States and Brazil) and plain, standardized packaging of tobacco products (Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, EU and UK). We analyzed WTO documents (i.e. meeting minutes and submissions) (n = 62) in order to identify patterns of argumentation and compare these patterns with well-documented industry arguments. The pattern of these arguments reveal that despite the unique institutional structure of the WTO, country representatives opposing novel tobacco control measures use the same non-technical arguments as those that the tobacco industry continues to use to oppose these measures at the domestic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.