WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulating organ transplantation

  1. transplanted organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Szadujkis-Szadurski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rho-kinase and GTP-ase Rho are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho-kinase in artery reactions induced by angiotensin II (ANG II and the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the function of intra- and extracellular calcium in these reactions. Experiments were performed on mesenteric superior arteries procured from cadaveric organ donors and conserved under the same conditions as transplanted kidneys. The vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II was measured in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, after ischemia and reperfusion, in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. The maximal response to ANG II was reduced after ischemia, while an increase was observed after reperfusion. Vascular contraction induced by ANG II was decreased by Y-27632. Y-27632 reduced vascular contraction after reperfusion, both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. Reperfusion augments vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 reduces the hypersensitivity to ANG II after reperfusion mediated by both intra- and extracellular calcium. These results confirm the role of Rho-kinase in receptor-independent function of ANG II and in reperfusion-induced hypersensitivity.

  2. Knowledge About Legal Regulations Regarding Organ Transplantation Among High School and University Students in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, E; Nowicki, M

    2016-06-01

    It has been reported in many studies that although young people have positive attitudes towards organ donation, their knowledge about transplantation is insufficient. This study focused on knowledge about legal regulations regarding organ transplantation in Poland. A 59-item, self-designed questionnaire was administered to 1011 young persons from Central Poland. Among the interviewees were 462 high school students, 184 students of the faculty of medicine, and 365 students from other faculties. The survey was divided into 4 parts: knowledge (basic information, maximum of 17 points; statistics, maximum of 5 points and legal regulations - maximum of 6 points), attitude, personal experience and general characteristics of the interviewees. High school and university students received 1.45 ± 1.24 and 1.54 ± 1.1 (P = .26) out of a maximal score of 6 with respect to knowledge of legal regulations. Medical students scored much higher (4.13 ± 1.23). Only 20 respondents (including 19 medical students) answered correctly all 6 questions. Those who were willing to donate their organs after death achieved better result than those who did not want to donate (1.6 ± 1.22 vs 1.34 ± 1.1; P = .002). Personal experiences did not influence knowledge about transplantation. Knowledge about legal regulations regarding organ transplantation is insufficient among young people. Structured, well-considered education programs at various levels of school and academic education are needed to improve public awareness and attitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Error Mental Health in Children and Adolescents Nanotechnology Nature, Human Nature, and Biotechnology Neonatal Care Newborn ... 415. Sean Vincent Murphy and Anthony Atala, "Organ Engineering: Combining Stem Cells, Biomaterials, and Bioreactors to Produce ...

  4. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  5. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  6. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate.

  7. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  8. Transplantation of contaminated organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, J. A.; Tidow, G.; van Saene, H. F. K.; Krom, R. A. F.; Slooff, M. J. H.; Weening, J. J.; Tegzess, A. M.; Meijer, S.; van Boven, W. P. L.

    In cadaveric organ transplantation there is a risk of transfer of infectious agents from donor to recipient. The consequences can be fatal for immuosuppressed recipients. This is illustrated by a case history in which an infection with the fungus Monosporium apiospermum was transferred from a donor

  9. The Economics of Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    To determine the cost effectiveness of transplantation, we analyzed the financial economics of the organ and tissue transplant process. We compared the cost of this process with traditional modalities for treating endstage liver and kidney disease. Medical, surgical, legal, social, ethical, and religious issues are important in organ transplant procedures. Government, health insurance companies, and uninsured individuals are affected by the financial economics of organ transplantation. The distribution of financial burden differs among countries and is dependent on the unique circumstances of each country.

  10. Organ transplantation and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerilli, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular, Genetic, and Clinical Aspects of the HLA System; The Normal Immune Response; Significance of the ABO Antigen System; The Role of Dialysis in the Management of End-Stage Renal Disease; Access for Dialysis; Patient Selection for Renal Transplantation; The Living Donor in Kidney Transplantation; and Kidney Preservation by Cold Storage.

  11. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...

  12. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques.

  13. Infrastructure, logistics and regulation of transplantation: UNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Julie K

    2013-12-01

    Organ transplantation has evolved into the standard of care for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite considering increasingly complex transplant recipients for organs recovered from donors with increasing comorbid conditions, 1-year patient survival following kidney transplantation is 97% in the United States, whereas liver transplant recipient 1-year survival is 90%. There were 16,485 kidney recipients in the United States in 2012, and 6256 patients who underwent liver transplantation. The intent of this review is to highlight the logistics required for transplantation as well as reviewing the current oversight of transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Immunological Markers in Organ Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, J H; Heits, N; Braun, F; Becker, T

    2017-04-01

    The immunological monitoring in organ transplantation is based mainly on the determination of laboratory parameters as surrogate markers of organ dysfunction. Structural damage, caused by alloreactivity, can only be detected by invasive biopsy of the graft, which is why inevitably rejection episodes are diagnosed at a rather progressive stage. New non-invasive specific markers that enable transplant clinicians to identify rejection episodes at an earlier stage, on the molecular level, are needed. The accurate identification of rejection episodes and the establishment of operational tolerance permit early treatment or, respectively, a controlled cessation of immunosuppression. In addition, new prognostic biological markers are expected to allow a pre-transplant risk stratification thus having an impact on organ allocation and immunosuppressive regimen. New high-throughput screening methods allow simultaneous examination of hundreds of characteristics and the generation of specific biological signatures, which might give concrete information about acute rejection, chronic dysfunction as well as operational tolerance. Even though multiple studies and a variety of publications report about important advances on this subject, almost no new biological marker has been implemented in clinical practice as yet. Nevertheless, new technologies, in particular analysis of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome will make personalised transplantation medicine possible and will further improve the long-term results and graft survival rates. This article gives a survey of the limitations and possibilities of new immunological markers in organ transplantation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, George M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate

  16. [Melanoma in organ transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, L; Dalac, S; Dompmartin, A; Louvet, S; Euvrard, S; Catteau, B; Hazan, M; Schollhamer, M; Aubin, F; Dreno, B; Daguin, P; Chevrant-Breton, J; Frances, C; Bismuth, M J; Tanter, Y; Lambert, D

    2000-02-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has rapidly increased in the white population over the last decades. It has been estimated that the incidence doubles world-wide every 10 years. Different risk factors have been identified, including immunosuppression. The aim of our study-was to determine the relative risk of developing melanoma in the organ transplant population and the clinical and histological features of their melanomas. This retrospective study was conducted with the collaboration of 9 University Hospital Centers: Besançon, Brest, Caen, Dijon, Lille, Lyon, Nantes, Paris (Pitié-Salpétrière) and Rennes. A questionnaire was sent to the different departments of dermatology of these hospitals to obtain information on patients who had presented a melanoma after a transplantation between 1971 and 1997. During this period, there were 12,477 organ transplant recipients in the transplantation units of these 9 hospitals. Average follow-up for these patients was about 5 years and the average duration of immunosuppressive therapy was about 4.5 years. Among 12,477 organ transplant recipients, we found 17 cases of melanoma but no data could be obtain on one case: 14 occurred in renal transplant recipients and 3 in cardiac transplant recipients. Clinical and histological data were only available in 16 patients. The average time between transplantation and diagnosis of melanoma was 63 months, but it was 5 times shorter for 2 patients who had a past history of melanoma before transplantation. Two patients had a mucosal melanoma; for the cutaneous melanomas, 2 appeared on Dubreuilh melanosis, 2 were in situ melanomas, 7 were superficial spreading melanomas and 3 were nodular melanomas. The histological review of 11 cutaneous melanomas revealed a precursor nevus in 6 cases and a weak or no stroma reaction in 7/7 cases. Complete excision of the melanoma was performed in all patients except one with anorectal melanoma. Four patients died of visceral metastasis within a mean

  17. Breast Reconstruction After Solid Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Stephanie L; Giles, Brian; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Perdikis, Galen; Waldorf, James; Lemaine, Valerie; TerKonda, Sarvam

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplant patients frequently develop posttransplant malignancies including breast cancer. They may desire breast reconstruction after mastectomy, which could potentially be complicated by their transplant status, immunosuppressive regimen, and previous operations. We review our experience with patients who have undergone solid organ transplant and subsequent breast reconstruction after mastectomy After institutional review board approval, we queried our prospective breast reconstruction and solid organ transplant databases for corresponding patients. Inclusion criteria comprised breast reconstruction after solid organ transplant. A chart review was conducted of identified patients. Seventeen patients were identified: 1 pulmonary transplant, 4 cardiac transplants, 2 liver transplants, 1 pancreas transplant, 2 combined kidney/pancreas transplants, and 7 kidney transplants. Indications for mastectomy included posttransplant malignancy and prophylaxis. Median time from transplant to completion of reconstruction was 186 months (range, 11-336 months). Median age at transplant was 34.5 years (range, 21-65 years) with the median age of the patients at reconstructive surgery 51.5 years (range, 34-71 years). Median body mass index was 25.3 (range, 21.3-46.5). No significant complications were noted after reconstructive surgery. All patients were on full immunosuppression at time of reconstruction. Breast reconstruction is a viable option for transplant patients after mastectomy and should not be refused based on their transplant status. Close coordination with the transplant team and careful preoperative planning is essential for optimal outcomes.

  18. [Ethical problems in organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, J; Treska, V; Hasman, D

    1999-02-01

    Organ transplantation is an accepted therapeutic method with good results, but it is connected with many not only medical but also ethical problems. One of the most important problems is the donor programme. In cadaverous donors the main ethical and legal question is the decision who can issue the consent with organ retrieval; in living donors it is the problem of motivation and financial compensation. Allocation of organs with low compatibility or from non-ideal donors, and the recipient's consent in these cases may involve difficult decisions.

  19. [Ethical considerations of organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigleder, Klaus

    2008-08-01

    For the moral evaluation of organ transplantations, it is not only relevant that they are potentially live-saving or significantly life-improving procedures. It is also relevant that they may have an impact on the integrity or even dignity of possible donors and are a potential strain on the donors' relatives. In order to find out how the different impacts of organ transplantation on the parties involved are to be morally weighed against one other, the concepts of dignity and of negative and positive moral rights are clarified. Against the widely held view that the procurement of organs from brain dead donors is morally suspect while living organ donation is the morally superior option, it is argued that there is a prima facie moral duty to postmortem organ donation. On the other hand, since in the procurement of organs from living donors physicians systematically injure and endanger healthy persons, this practice can only be morally justified in well-defined exceptional cases.

  20. Medical crowdfunding for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Wesley M; Peters, Jillian L; Eltorai, Adam E M; Kalagara, Saisanjana; Osband, Adena J; Daniels, Alan H

    2018-04-23

    An increasing number of patients and families are utilizing online crowdfunding to support their medical expenses related to organ transplantation. The factors influencing the success of crowdfunding campaigns are poorly understood. Crowdfunding campaigns were abstracted from a popular crowdfunding web site. Campaigns were included if they were actively accepting donations to fund medical expenses related to transplantation of selected organs. The primary outcome measure was total amount raised among successful campaigns receiving at least one donation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on various campaign characteristics. A total of 850 campaigns were analyzed. Kidney transplant campaigns were most common (40.5%), followed by liver (33.3%), lung (12.2%), heart (11.3%), and multiorgan (2.7%). 69.1% of campaigns received any donation, and among these, the mean amount raised was $3664 (median $1175). The following factors were significantly associated with amount raised: more positive emotional sentiment in the campaign description (+2.6% per AFINN unit, P < .001), longer campaign description length (+2.4% per 100 characters, P = .001), higher goal amount (+0.6% per $1000 of goal amount, P = .004), and third-person description perspective (+131% vs first person, P < .001). Physicians will likely encounter medical crowdfunding with increasing frequency as it continues to grow in popularity among their patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  2. The Ethics of Organ Tourism: Role Morality and Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2017-11-15

    Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to relist organ tourists. Specifically, I contend that we should locate physicians' duties in these cases within the new role of "transplant physician." This role results from transplant physicians' participation in a system that depends on organ donors' voluntary act of donation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prospective Clinical Testing of Regulatory Dendritic Cells in Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Angus W.; Zahorchak, Alan F.; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.; Metes, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering...

  4. Culture and psychology in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, A S; Marshall, P

    1998-01-01

    The cultural and psychological dimensions of organ transplantation are often overlooked in the process of meeting its exacting technical requirements. This new branch of medicine has brought with it new ways of understanding death, human rights, commerce, gift giving, and ethics. It produces strong emotions in recipients, donors and transplanters alike. These factors need to be taken fully into consideration if organ transplantation is to evolve in ways that are felt to be beneficial for all concerned.

  5. Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer T; Torabi, Mina J; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-02-01

    To review available data describing the epidemiology, outcomes, prevention, and treatment of influenza virus in the solid organ transplant population and to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current literature, with a focus on literature reviewing annual influenza strains and the recent pandemic novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. A systematic literature search (July 1980-June 2011) was performed via PubMed using the following key words: influenza, human; influenza; novel influenza A H1/N1; transplantation; solid organ transplantation; kidney transplant; renal transplant; lung transplant; heart transplant; and liver transplant. Papers were excluded if they were not written in English or were animal studies or in vitro studies. Data from fully published studies and recent reports from international conferences were included. The influenza virus presents a constant challenge to immunocompromised patients and their health care providers. The annual influenza strain introduces a highly infectious and pathogenic risk to solid organ transplant recipients. In 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic as a result of a novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. The pandemic introduced an additional viral threat to solid organ transplant patients at increased risk for infectious complications. The mainstay for prevention of influenza infection in all at-risk populations is appropriate vaccination. Antiviral therapies against influenza for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of infection are available; however, dosing strategies in the solid organ transplant population are not well defined. The solid organ transplant population is at an increased risk of severe complications from influenza infection. Identifying risks, preventing illness, and appropriately treating active infection is essential in this patient population.

  6. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  7. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

  8. Organ transplantation: Legal, ethical and Islamic perspective in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Bakari

    2012-01-01

    /tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country.

  9. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country.

  10. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory's data to describe the current distribution of - and trends in - transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization's Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network.

  12. Organ procurement: Spanish transplant procurement management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, Martí; Mestres, Carlos A; Ballesté, Chloë; Páez, Gloria; Valero, Ricard; Gómez, María Paula

    2011-06-01

    Transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option to save or improve the quality of life when organ failure occurs or tissue replacements are needed. However, the lack of organs is the major limitation. The deceased organ procurement organization and professionals provide the solution to this international problem. In this review, we identify the elements involved in the organ procurement management process to analyze the possibility of implementation of deceased organ procurement for a transplantation program. While the donation rates are subject to several negative factors including religious, economic, cultural, and legal issues, the existence of well-trained professionals may considerably increase them. Professional training in organ donation along with the establishment of a solid organizational system has been identified as the crucial factor in developing efficient organ donation and transplantation programs.

  13. Organ procurement and transplantation: implementation of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-08

    This final rule amends the regulations implementing the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, as amended, (NOTA) pursuant to statutory requirements of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act (HOPE Act), enacted in 2013. In accordance with the mandates of the HOPE Act, this regulation removes the current regulatory provision that requires the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) to adopt and use standards for preventing the acquisition of organs from individuals known to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In its place, this regulation includes new requirements that organs from individuals infected with HIV may be transplanted only into individuals who are infected with HIV before receiving such organs and who are participating in clinical research approved by an institutional review board, as provided by regulation. The only exception to this requirement of participation in such clinical research is if the Secretary publishes a determination in the future that participation in such clinical research, as a requirement for transplants of organs from individuals infected with HIV, is no longer warranted. In addition, this regulatory change establishes that OPTN standards must ensure that any HIV-infected transplant recipients are participating in clinical research in accordance with the research criteria to be published by the Secretary. Alternately, if and when the Secretary determines that participation in such clinical research should no longer be a requirement for transplants with organs from donors infected with HIV to individuals infected with HIV, the regulation mandates that the OPTN adopt and use standards of quality, as directed by the Secretary, consistent with the law and in a way that ensures the changes will not reduce the safety of organ transplantation.

  14. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  15. Design and Methods of the Korean Organ Transplantation Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yang, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. KOTRY, as a systematic Korean transplant cohort, is expected to provide important information on Asian organ transplantation. The processes used to establish KOTRY provide a good model for launching new nationwide transplant cohort studies.

  16. Liver transplantation using organs from deceased organ donors: a single organ transplant center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Yang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Lin-Wei; Hu, An-Bin; Tai, Qiang; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; He, Xiao-Shun

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, a pilot program for deceased organ donation was initiated in China. We describe the first successful series of liver transplants in the pilot program. From July 2011 to August 2012, our center performed 26 liver transplants from a pool of 29 deceased donors. All organ donation and allograft procurement were conducted according to the national protocol. The clinical data of donors and recipients were collected and summarized retrospectively. Among the 29 donors, 24 were China Category II donors (organ donation after cardiac death), and five were China Category III donors (organ donation after brain death followed by cardiac death). The recipients were mainly the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The one-year patient survival rate was 80.8% with a median follow-up of 422 (2-696) days. Among the five mortalities during the follow-up, three died of tumor recurrence. In terms of post-transplant complications, 9 recipients (34.6%) experienced early allograft dysfunction, 1 (3.8%) had non-anastomotic biliary stricture, and 1 (3.8%) was complicated with hepatic arterial thrombosis. None of these complications resulted in patient death. Notably, primary non-function was not observed in any of the grafts. With careful donor selection, liver transplant from deceased donors can be performed safely and plays a critical role in overcoming the extreme organ shortage in China.

  17. Stem-cell-activated organ following ultrasound exposure: better transplant option for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Yu; Ji, Ying-Chang; Lin, Chang-Min; Man, Cheng; Zheng, Xiao-Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Although doctors try their best to protect transplants during surgery, there remain great challenges for the higher survival rate and less rejection of transplants after organ transplantation. Growing evidence indicates that the stem cells could function after injury rather than aging, implying that suitable injury may activate the stem cells of damaged organs. Furthermore, it has been revealed that stem cells can be used to induce tolerance in transplantation and the ultrasound has great biological effects on organs. Basing on these facts, we hypothesize that the stem cells within the transplants can be activated by ultrasound with high-frequency and medium-intensity. Therefore, the stem-cell-activated organs (SCAO) can be derived, and the SCAO will be better transplant option for organ transplantation. We postulate the ultrasound can change the molecular activity and/or quantity of the stem cells, the membrane permeability, the cell-cell junctions, and their surrounding microenvironments. As a result, the stem cells are activated, and the SCAO will acquire more regenerative capacity and less rejection. In the paper, we also discuss the process, methods and models for verifying the theory, and the consequences. We believe the theory may provide a practical method for the clinical application of the ultrasound and stem cells in organ transplantation.

  18. Prospective Clinical Testing of Regulatory Dendritic Cells in Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Angus W; Zahorchak, Alan F; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B; Butterfield, Lisa H; Lakkis, Fadi G; Metes, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering the incidence and severity of rejection and reducing patients' dependence on anti-rejection drugs. Generation of donor- or recipient-derived DCreg that suppress T cell responses and prolong transplant survival in rodents or non-human primates has been well-described. Recently, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade DCreg have been produced at our Institution for prospective use in human organ transplantation. We briefly review experience of regulatory immune therapy in organ transplantation and describe our experience generating and characterizing human monocyte-derived DCreg. We propose a phase I/II safety study in which the influence of donor-derived DCreg combined with conventional immunosuppression on subclinical and clinical rejection and host alloimmune responses will be examined in detail.

  19. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  20. Graft microvascular disease in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinguo; Sung, Yon K; Tian, Wen; Qian, Jin; Semenza, Gregg L; Nicolls, Mark R

    2014-08-01

    Alloimmune inflammation damages the microvasculature of solid organ transplants during acute rejection. Although immunosuppressive drugs diminish the inflammatory response, they do not directly promote vascular repair. Repetitive microvascular injury with insufficient regeneration results in prolonged tissue hypoxia and fibrotic remodeling. While clinical studies show that a loss of the microvascular circulation precedes and may act as an initiating factor for the development of chronic rejection, preclinical studies demonstrate that improved microvascular perfusion during acute rejection delays and attenuates tissue fibrosis. Therefore, preservation of a functional microvasculature may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing chronic rejection. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the role of the microvasculature in the long-term survival of transplanted solid organs. We also highlight microvessel-centered therapeutic strategies for prolonging the survival of solid organ transplants.

  1. Volume and outcome of organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.; Engel, G.L.; Schersten, T.

    1992-01-01

    In general, technically demanding medical procedures are associated with better outcomes when they are carried out in institutions and by physicians with higher volumes of practice. This paper examines the evidence for a volume-outcome relationship in the case of organ transplantation. Although few

  2. An Asian perspective on organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Michael Cheng-tek

    2009-01-01

    The organ transplantation seems to have become a route practice of modern medical treatment when a patient's organ fails providing that she/he can afford the cost and a suitable organ is found. This practice, however, was not without scepticism and reservation at least to some Asians, for instance, Japan has been reluctant to launch a brave search for organs to save any patient whose organs fail. The western world including Vatican has seen donating one's organ for transplantation to save others as an act of love. Compassion is one of the main teachings in Asian tradition too, therefore culturally, Asians should be in favour of this modern medical treatment. But the ancient teachings of Asia also call for respecting parents by carefully safeguarding the gift of body that they gave and abiding in Tao to follow the flow of nature. What will the Asian ancient sages say to this new modern medical technology? This article will examine the teachings of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism to find out how they respond to the procedures of organ transplantation.

  3. Ethical issues in organ and tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, George M

    2003-12-01

    Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell

  4. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the e...

  5. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  6. The European protocol on organ transplant: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2009-09-01

    What is interesting in the philosophy of the European Protocol is the search of a balanced position which acknowledges the medical progress brought by organ transplants and considers the necessity to ensure that human dignity and individual freedom are respected. However, the principles adopted for such regulations at the European level leave on some major issues a great margin of appreciation to the domestic legislation. This is particularly true in areas such as defining death or consenting to organ transplants including the situation of minors and the role of the family. A last point should also be stressed regarding the European protocol: its lack of efficiency concerning a neglected but important issue: organ trafficking.

  7. Quantitative Survey of Laypersons' Attitudes Toward Organ Transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, T; Hsu, E; Aizawa, K; Nakada, H; Toya, W; Matsui, K

    In comparison with foreign countries, living-organ transplantations (LOT) have been performed more frequently than dead organ transplants, including brain-dead organ transplantation (BOT) in Japan. This situation has given rise to organ transplantation tourism. Therefore, we clarify laypersons' preferences regarding organ transplantation that are producing the current situation in Japan, to suggest a possible framework for further efforts. Voluntary completion of a quantitative and anonymous survey was promoted online (a sample size of 1030). The questionnaire had two types of variables concerning demographic characteristics and organ transplantation-related issues. LOT was favored over BOT. However, for willingness to donate to family members, the participants showed a significantly more positive attitude toward brain-dead organ donors (BODs) than living organ donors (LODs). In the evaluation of each transplantation technology, BOT and LOT were positioned in the middle, between transplantation that does not depend on others and the utilization of animal organs. Although LOT was favored over BOT, for participants hypothesized to be in a position to donate and receive organs, BODs received a conversely better reputation than LODs. Our survey and discussion suggest that the present conditions of organ transplantation in Japan might be because there is a lack of deliberation on transplantation tourism and LOT. Therefore, more surveys concerning LOT cases and the implications of avoidance of organs from brain-dead bodies, coupled with more discussions based on these surveys, are necessary to formulate a Japanese transplantation policy for the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual kidney transplantation with organs from extended criteria cadaveric donors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Arcy, Frank T

    2009-10-01

    The critical shortage of kidneys available for transplantation has led to alternate strategies to expand the pool. Transplantation of the 2 kidneys into a single recipient using organs suboptimal for single kidney transplantation was suggested. We assessed results in 24 grafts allocated for dual kidney transplantation vs those in a control group of 44 designated for single kidney transplantation. Each group underwent pretransplant biopsy and recipients were age matched.

  9. Organ donation and transplantation in Mexico. A transplantation health professionals’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hernández-Ibarra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore organ donation and transplantation in Mexico from the point of view of transplantation health professionals. Materials and methods. A qualitative study was carried out. Twenty six organ transplantation health professionals from seven states of Mexico participated. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted mainly in hospital settings. Critical discourse analysis was performed. Results. According to participants, living organ transplantation offers benefits for recipients as well as for donors. Several factors influence the field of transplantation negatively, among them the scarcity of resources that impedes the incorporation of new health personnel, as well as conflicts between transplantation teams with diverse health professionals and authorities. Conclusion. Besides increasing economic resources, transplantation health personnel should be sensitized to find solutions in order to avoid conflicts with different health professionals. Studies on organ donation and transplants also should include other social actors’ viewpoint.

  10. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory’s data to describe the current distribution of – and trends in – transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization’s Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network. PMID:25378744

  11. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "Transplantation of vital organs In experiment" (1960. Transplantation immunity, artifi cial circulation in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article (the fourth of five presents the analysis of the 4th and 5th chapters from V.P.Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of vital organs in experiment" (MedGIz Publisher, Moscow, 1960, where he described his studies of transplantation immunity in originally created models and his use of artificial blood-circulation systems in experimental organ transplantation. It has been shown that V.P.Demikhov changed his views on the tissue biological incompatibility in homoplastic transplants and turned from the Michurin-Pavlov's concepts (1946–1953 to natural-scientific views (1959. Meanwhile, his multiple attempts to study both the morphological and humoral immunological response to transplanted organs did not give conclusive results because of lacking the experience of such studies even in the country's leading scientists and due the imperfection of their techniques. Realizing that the retrieval of a beating heart from a human would have created further problems for its subsequent transplantation, V.P. Demikhov attempted to reanimate human hearts in corpses by means of extracorporeal devices to provide artificial circulation. Methodologically, those devices were based on S.S.Bryukhonenko's research and his "auto-injector" pump modified by V.P.Demikhov. However, by 1960, those studies had not come beyond the experiments.

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma in organ transplant recipients. The Collaborative Transplantation Research Group of Ile de France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, D

    1993-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a tumour of multicentric origin with increased frequency after organ transplantation. To date, only North American data from the Cincinnati Transplant Tumor Registry have given some information about this disease in organ transplant recipients, but its true prevalence still has to be determined. In order to analyze Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney, liver and heart transplantation, we performed a retrospective study using the oldest registry of organ transplant recipients in Europe. Among all 7923 organ transplant recipients recorded in the Groupe Collaboratif de Recherche en Transplantation de l'Ile de France (GCIF) registry from 1968 to 1990, we analyzed the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma in 6229 kidney, 727 liver and 967 heart transplant recipients. In the subgroup of kidney transplant recipients, we assessed the role of cyclosporine on disease evolution. Overall prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma after organ transplantation was 0.52%, but it was significantly higher among liver (1.24%) than among kidney (0.45%) and heart (0.41%) transplant recipients. Chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers were more frequent in liver than in kidney transplant recipients who developed Kaposi's sarcoma (66% vs 21%, p < 0.03). Following kidney transplantation, Kaposi's sarcoma was more severe in patients receiving cyclosporine (n = 16) when compared with those under conventional immunosuppression (n = 12). True prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma among European transplant recipients is high (0.52%) and appeared significantly higher in liver compared with other organ transplant recipients. Cyclosporine seems to increase severity of the disease among kidney transplant recipient.

  13. The policies of organ transplantation in Europe: issues and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defever, M

    1990-11-01

    Transplantation has evolved from an experiment to a routinely performed procedure for a widening range of organs. Transplantation in Europe is dominated by the scarcity of organs from deceased donors leading to problems of selection criteria for recipients, of legal protection for donors and of the empowerment of agencies for allocative decisions. Although public involvement is very emotional, there has been a benign neglect in several European countries by policy makers, accepting implicitly organ transplantation leading to a variety of programs for diffusion, organization, and financing of transplantation. Non-transplanting hospitals play a key role in organ procurement and transplant centers are increasingly subject to quality assessment, whereby the issue of the relation between improved outcome at higher volumes comes to the forefront. International cooperation is critical for the development of effective transplant programs in Europe.

  14. Contraception and fertility awareness among women with solid organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Valerie A; Davis, John S; Sayles, Harlan S; Wu, Serena S

    2013-10-01

    To assess the contraception and fertility counseling provided to women with solid organ transplants. A telephone survey of 309 women aged 19-49 years who had received a solid organ transplant at the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Of the 309 eligible women, 183 responded. Patients were asked 19 questions regarding pretransplant and posttransplant fertility awareness and contraception counseling. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Patients had undergone a variety of solid organ transplantations: 40% kidney (n=73); 32% liver (n=59); 6% pancreas (n=11); 5% heart (n=9); 3% intestine (n=5); and 14% multiple organs (n=26). Before their transplantations, 79 women (44%) reported they were not aware that a woman could become pregnant after transplantation. Only 66 women aged 13 and older at the time of transplantation reported that a health care provider discussed contraception before transplantation. Approximately half of women surveyed were using a method of contraception. Oral contraceptive pills were the most commonly recommended method. Twenty-two of the 31 pregnancies after organ transplantation were planned, which is higher than that of the general population. Few women with transplants are educated regarding the effect of organ transplantation on fertility and are not routinely counseled about contraception or the potential for posttransplant pregnancy. Health care providers should incorporate contraceptive and fertility counseling as part of routine care for women with solid organ transplants. : II.

  15. JURIDICAL ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION RELATED TO THE CRIME OF TRADE IN HUMAN ORGANS FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE KIDNEY ORGAN TRANSPLANT (Comparative Studies Between Indonesia with Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Situmorang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with organ transplant’s evolve especially the kidneys it is necessary to rule out specific health legislation  in dealing with transplantation  of human body’s  organs  to prevent  human  trafficking  of human  organs.  The approaches used is the approach of legislation and comparisons to provide an overview of the regulation of transplantation of human body’s organs in Indonesia, and to know the comparison with other countries that have specific rules on transplants. The result is that the regulations in Indonesia does not have rules on organ transplants from living non-related organ donation and found no legal protection againts the donor. Keywords: Organ   transplant,   kidney   transplant,   human   trafficking,   health legislation.

  16. Physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the level of physical activity after solid organ transplantation and factors associated with this level. Functional recovery after transplantation is not as good as expected. However, higher levels of physical activity after transplantation are associated with better

  17. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation

  18. Prospective clinical testing of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) in organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    ANGUS W THOMSON; ALAN F ZAHORCHAK; Mohamed B. Ezzelarab; Lisa H. Butterfield; Fadi G. Lakkis; Diana M Metes

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering...

  19. What's hot, what's new in clinical organ transplantation: report from the American Transplant Congress 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R S

    2015-11-01

    Innovative and exciting advances in the clinical sciences in organ transplantation were presented at the American Transplant Congress 2015. The full spectrum of transplantation was covered, with important developments in many topics. Key areas covered by presentations included living donor outcomes, optimal utilization and allocation of deceased donors, new immunosuppression regimens, antibody-mediated rejection and tolerance induction. This review highlights some of the most interesting and noteworthy clinical presentations from the meeting. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies and solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, J; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Ríos-Fernández, R; Ortego-Centeno, N

    2015-11-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is considered a high risk factor for any kind of surgery. Considering that all solid organ transplants are critically dependent on the patency of vascular anastomosis, there is much concern about the consequences this pro-thrombotic condition may have on transplantation. Relatively little information is available in the literature assessing the real risk that antiphospholipid syndrome or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies represent in solid organ transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the literature related to transplantation of solid organs in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome or patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The impact of repeated mismatches in kidney transplantations performed after nonrenal solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, J M; Zhang, X; Dahhou, M; Sapir-Pichhadze, R; Foster, B; Cardinal, H

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether kidney transplantations performed after previous nonrenal solid organ transplants are associated with worse graft survival when there are repeated HLA mismatches (RMM) with the previous donor(s). We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Our cohort comprised 6624 kidney transplantations performed between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2015. All patients had previously received 1 or more nonrenal solid organ transplants. RMM were observed in 35.3% of kidney transplantations and 3012 grafts were lost over a median follow-up of 5.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, we found no association between overall graft survival and either RMM in class 1 (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.07) or class 2 (HR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.06). Results were similar for the associations between RMM, death-censored graft survival, and patient survival. Our results suggest that the presence of RMM with previous donor(s) does not have an important impact on allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients who have previously received a nonrenal solid organ transplant. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Nonwhite Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Ellen N; Doyle, Alden; Shaver, Christine M; Miller, Brett; Abdelmalek, Mark; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Malat, Gregory E; Chung, Christina Lee

    2016-12-01

    Organ transplant recipients have a higher incidence of skin cancer. This risk is magnified over time and with continued exposure to immunosuppression. Skin cancer in nonwhite patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality owing to diagnosis at a more advanced stage, which suggests that nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at even higher risk. To describe demographic and clinical factors and the incidence of skin cancer in nonwhite organ transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients who were organ transplant recipients (154 were white and 259 nonwhite [black, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander]) seen from November 1, 2011, to April 18, 2016 at an academic referral center. Variables were analyzed and compared between racial groups, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, Fitzpatrick type, type and location of skin cancer, type of organ transplanted, time to diagnosis of skin cancer after transplantation, and history of condyloma acuminata and/or verruca vulgaris. Most of the 413 patients (62.7%) evaluated were nonwhite organ transplant recipients; 264 were men, and 149 were women. Their mean (SD) age was 60.09 (13.59) years. Nineteen skin cancers were identified in 15 patients (5.8%) representing 3 racial/ethnic groups: black (6 patients), Asian (5), and Hispanic (4). All squamous cell carcinomas in blacks were diagnosed in the in situ stage, located on sun-protected sites, and occurred in patients whose lesions tested positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) and/or who endorsed a history of condyloma acuminata or verruca vulgaris. Most skin cancers in Asians were located on sun-exposed areas and occurred in individuals who emigrated from equatorial locations. Nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at risk for developing skin cancer posttransplantation. Follow-up in a specialized transplant dermatology center and baseline total-body skin examination should be part of posttransplantation care in all organ

  3. Defining death: organ transplants, tradition and technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, E A

    1988-01-01

    This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern medical dilemmas.

  4. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  5. Use of hematopoietic cell transplants to achieve tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Strober, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The goals of tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants are to eliminate the lifelong need for immunosuppressive (IS) drugs and to prevent graft loss due to rejection or drug toxicity. Tolerance with complete withdrawal of IS drugs has been achieved in recipients of HLA-matched and mismatched living donor kidney transplants in 3 medical centers using hematopoietic cell transplants to establish mixed or complete chimerism.

  6. Use of hematopoietic cell transplants to achieve tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Samuel

    2016-03-24

    The goals of tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants are to eliminate the lifelong need for immunosuppressive (IS) drugs and to prevent graft loss due to rejection or drug toxicity. Tolerance with complete withdrawal of IS drugs has been achieved in recipients of HLA-matched and mismatched living donor kidney transplants in 3 medical centers using hematopoietic cell transplants to establish mixed or complete chimerism. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. The kindness of strangers: organ transplantation in a capitalist age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    2001-09-01

    The topic of organ transplantation is examined from the perspective of three authors: Robert Bellah, Jeremy Rifkin, and Margaret Jane Radin. Introduced by reflections on the development of the justification of organ transplantation within the Roman Catholic community and the various themes raised by the historical study in Richard Titmuss's The Gift Relationship, the paper examines how and in what ways the possible commodification of organs will affect our society and the impacts this may have on the supply of organs.

  8. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  9. Social and cultural issues in organ transplantation in Islamic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Al-Jondeby, Mohammad; Kurpad, Ramprasad; Al-Khader, Abdullah A

    2004-01-01

    The importance of religion In Islamic countries is undoubted. Fatwas (opinion from religious scholars) have been passed in most Islamic countries approving the concepts of brain death and organ transplantation. There are some specific points that have be considered while talking of organ transplantation in Islamic countries. They include public attitude, taking organ(s) from donors who have committed suicide, the influence of local Imams as well as feeding breast milk, concept of spousal donation, timing of death as well as soul departure and extended families that exist in these countries. Sound knowledge of these factors is mandatory to any transplant coordinator and lack of sensitivity to these issues could be disastrous.

  10. Solid organ transplantation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective, multicenter study of the EBMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenecke, C; Hertenstein, B; Schetelig, J

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the outcome of solid organ transplantation (SOT) in patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a questionnaire survey was carried out within 107 European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers. This study covered HSCT between 1984...... for underlying malignant diseases was 4% at 5 years (95% CI, 0% to 12%). In summary, this study shows that selected patients receiving SOT after HSCT have a remarkably good overall and organ survival. These data indicate that SOT should be considered in selected patients with single organ failure after HSCT....

  11. Changing Patterns of Foreigner Transplants in Korea and Overseas Organ Transplants Among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyung Joon; Kim, Hwi Won; Han, Miyeun; Jeon, Hee Jung; Kwon, Oh Jung; Ahn, Curie

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the numbers of foreign patients seeking organ transplantation (OT) in Korea and to examine the relationship between the trend of deceased donors in Korea and number of Korean patients seeking OT overseas since 2000. Data on foreigners who received a transplant in Korea were obtained from the Korean Network for Organ Sharing. Data on overseas transplants were obtained from 42 transplant centers surveyed through transplant coordinators. A total of 336 foreigners underwent OT (kidney transplantation [KT], 174; liver transplantation [LT], 162) in Korea between 2006 and 2016. The Mongolians were the most common foreigners who undergo KTs (32%), followed by the Chinese (18%), Americans (9%), and Emiratis (7%). Among foreigners undergoing LTs, the most common country of origin was Mongolia (39%), followed by United Arab Emirates (23%), China (13%), and the United States (6%). A total of 2206 Korean patients underwent overseas OT (KT, 977; LT, 1229) between 2000 and 2016. In 97% of overseas KT cases (n = 942) and 98% (n = 1205) of overseas LT cases, the transplantations were performed in China. The relationship between the number of deceased donors in Korea and the number of overseas transplants after 2006 indicates a highly negative correlation. (ρ = -0.988, P tourism.

  12. Cell Therapy in Organ Transplantation: Our Experience on the Clinical Translation of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Safinia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ dysfunction. Despite improvements in short-term outcome, long-term outcome is suboptimal due to the increased morbidity and mortality associated with the toxicity of immunosuppressive regimens and chronic rejection (1–5. As such, the attention of the transplant community has focused on the development of novel therapeutic strategies to achieve allograft tolerance, a state whereby the immune system of the recipient can be re-educated to accept the allograft, averting the need for long-term immunosuppression. Indeed, reports of “operational” tolerance, whereby the recipient is off all immunosuppressive drugs and maintaining good graft function, is well documented in the literature for both liver and kidney transplantations (6–8. However, this phenomenon is rare and in the setting of liver transplantation has been shown to occur late after transplantation, with the majority of patients maintained on life-long immunosupression to prevent allograft rejection (9. As such, significant research has focused on immune regulation in the context of organ transplantation with regulatory T cells (Tregs identified as cells holding considerable promise in this endeavor. This review will provide a brief introduction to human Tregs, their phenotypic and functional characterization and focuses on our experience to date at the clinical translation of Treg immunotherapy in the setting of solid organ transplantation.

  13. Global initiatives to tackle organ trafficking and transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza; Delmonico, Francis L

    2013-11-01

    The increasing gap between organ supply and demand has opened the door for illegal organ sale, trafficking of human organs, tissues and cells, as well as transplant tourism. Currently, underprivileged and vulnerable populations in resource-poor countries are a major source of organs for rich patient-tourists who can afford to purchase organs at home or abroad. This paper presents a summary of international initiatives, such as World Health Organization's Principle Guidelines, The Declaration of Istanbul, Asian Task Force Recommendations, as well as UNESCO's and the United Nation's initiatives against trafficking of human organs, tissues, cells, and transplant tourism. Beyond the summary, it calls for more practical measures to be taken to implement the existing guidelines and recommendations, in order to prevent exploitation of the poor as organ providers. The paper suggests that an international legally binding agreement in criminalizing organ trafficking would be a step forward to bring a change in the global picture of organ trafficking and transplant tourism.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Organ Transplantation: Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells for application in organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Crop, Meindert

    2010-01-01

    textabstractKidney transplantation is the only effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Transplantation of a donor organ, however, leads to recognition of the foreign donor antigens by the recipient’s immune system, resulting in rejection of the graft. In addition, ischemia-reperfusion injury leads to the initiation of immune responses. To prevent graft rejection, transplant recipients need to use life-long immunosuppressive medication. These drugs, however, can lead to ...

  15. Interprofessional communication in organ transplantation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Facilitators of interprofessional transplant communication included appreciation of its importance to good practice and cohesive individual transplant teams. Barriers to interprofessional communication were observed when individual teams had to come together in a multi-team, interdisciplinary environment, when ...

  16. Extravascular complications following abdominal organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Jaremko, J.L.; Lomas, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of transplants have been performed in the abdomen including liver, kidney, pancreas and islet, bowel, and multivisceral transplants. Imaging plays an important role in graft surveillance particularly to exclude post-transplant complications. When complications occur, therapeutic image-guided interventions are invaluable as these may be graft-saving and even life-saving. Vascular complications following transplantation have been extensively reported in recent reviews. The focus of this review is to discuss post-transplant complications that are primarily extravascular in location. This includes biliary, urological, intestinal, malignancy, infections, and miscellaneous complications. Familiarity with the imaging appearances of these complications is helpful for radiologists as accurate diagnosis and expedient treatment has an impact on graft and patient survival

  17. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners.

  18. [The Declaration of Istanbul on organ trafficking and transplant tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Summit Meeting that convened over 150 representatives of scientific and medical bodies from around the world was held in Istanbul from April 30 to May 2, 2008 to address the urgent and growing problem of organ sales, transplant tourism and trafficking in organ donors in the context of the global shortage of organs. Preparatory work for the meeting was undertaken by a Steering Committee convened by The Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology in Dubai in December 2007. Participants at the Istanbul Summit were selected by the Steering Committee according to the following criteria: The country liaisons with The Transplantation Society representing virtually all countries with transplantation programs; representatives from international societies and the Vatican; key stakeholders in nephrology and transplantation; public policy experts in organ transplantation; and ethicists, anthropologists, sociologists, and legal academic well-recognized for their work on transplantation policy and practice. This Declaration represents the consensus of the Summit participants and is an authorized Spanish translation that will help disseminate this information among Mexican health professionals and interested readers.

  19. Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Deepa; Nanda, Neha

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C. difficile in this population. Preliminary data from animal studies suggests excellent efficacy with immunization against C. difficile toxins. Over the last decade, number of individuals receiving solid organ transplants has increased exponentially making peri-transplant complications a common occurrence.C. difficile is a frequent cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Early and accurate diagnosis of C. difficile requires a stepwise approach. Differentiating between asymptomatic carriage and infection is a diagnostic challenge. Microbial diversity is inversely proportional to risk of C. difficile infection. Antimicrobial stewardship programs help to retain microbial diversity in individuals susceptible to CDI. Recurrent or relapsing C. difficile infection require fecal microbiota transplantation for definitive cure.

  20. Solid organ transplantation: the Italian experience in the international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni Costa, A; De Cillia, C; Di Ciaccio, P; Rizzato, L; Venettoni, S

    2011-01-01

    The Italian experience in the organization of transplantation procedures could represent a relevant example of an internal development at a national level, combined with a strengthening of international collaborations. These results can be attributed first to the creation of the Italian National Transplant Centre (Centro Nazionale Trapianti [CNT]), and then to an ongoing European process that is leading to a greater awareness of the importance of closer collaboration between the organizations already existing and operating in the field of transplantation. This article summarizes the role and the most significant achievements of the CNT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Attitude and Impact Factors Toward Organ Transplantation and Donation Among Transplantation Nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J-F; Wang, C-Y; He, G-P; Ming, Y-Z; Wan, Q-Q; Liu, J; Gong, L-N; Liu, L-F

    Health workers' awareness and knowledge of transplantation medicine can improve people's sensitivity and reduce their degree of opposition to donations. The medical literature contains numerous examples of attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation aimed at university students or medical staff members, but rarely for transplantation nurses. The purposes of the study were to investigate the attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation among transplantation nurses and to explore the impact factors. The study was conducted in 37 transplantation surgery wards in 22 hospitals using cross-sectional approach. SPSS (International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA) 7.0 software was used to analysis descriptive and inferential statistics for data. Five hundred thirty-six effective questionnaires were received and the effective rate was 89.33%. Nurses' mean age was 28.40 years with a mean service length of 6.54 years. Among these nurses, 66.6% and 78.0% were willing to accept organ transplantation surgery for themselves and their relatives, respectively. Of these nurses, 33.4% would donate their organs after death; whereas 39.9% were uncertain. Only 38.2% were willing to register in the national organ donation system. Of these nurses, 28.2% were willing to sign the organ donation consent forms when their relatives became potential organ donors, and 45.7% were uncertain. Eight independent variables that affected nurses' attitudes toward donating their organs from most to least significant were: ratio of nurse to bed, title, employment form, age, length of service, position, monthly income, and the highest educational degree earned. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant correlation among nurses' attitudes toward organ transplantation, organ donation, and online registration. The attitude toward donation and transplantation in the hospitals was not too optimistic, and an improvement in the training regarding transplantation and

  2. Psychological rejection of the transplanted organ and graft dysfunction in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Látos M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Látos,1 György Lázár,1 Zoltán Horváth,1 Victoria Wittmann,1 Edit Szederkényi,1 Zoltán Hódi,1 Pál Szenohradszky,1 Márta Csabai2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Psychology Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Interdisciplinary studies suggest that the mental representations of the transplanted organ may have a significant effect on the healing process. The objective of this study was to examine the representations of the transplanted organ and their relationship with emotional and mood factors, illness perceptions, and the functioning of the transplanted organ. One hundred and sixty-four kidney transplant patients were assessed using the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, the Beck’s Depression Scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and the Transplanted Organ Questionnaire. Medical parameters were collected from the routine clinical blood tests (serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels and biopsy results. Our most outstanding results suggest that kidney-transplanted patients’ illness representations are associated with health outcomes. The Transplanted Organ Questionnaire “psychological rejection” subscale was connected with higher serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that psychological rejection subscale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Posttraumatic Growth Questionnaire total scores were associated with graft rejection. These results may serve as a basis for the development of complex treatment interventions, which could help patients to cope with the bio-psycho-social challenges of integrating the new organ as part of their body and self. Keywords: anxiety, depression, illness representations, posttraumatic growth, psychological rejection, renal transplantation

  3. A glow of HLA typing in organ transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The transplant of organs and tissues is one of the greatest curative achievements of this century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the main goal of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. Cell surface molecules that induce an antigenic stimulus cause the rejection immune response to grafted tissue or organ. A wide variety of transplantation antigens have been described, including the major histocompatibility molecules, minor histocompatibility antigens, ABO blood group antigens and endothelial cell antigens. The sensitization to MHC antigens may be caused by transfusions, pregnancy, or failed previous grafts leading to development of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies that are important factor responsible for graft rejection in solid organ transplantation and play a role in post-transfusion complication Anti-HLA Abs may be present in healthy individuals. Methods for HLA typing are described, including serological methods, molecular techniques of sequence-specific priming (SSP), sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing (SSOP), Sequence based typing (SBT) and reference strand-based conformation analysis (RSCA) method. Problems with organ transplantation are reservoir of organs and immune suppressive treatments that used to decrease rate of rejection with less side effect and complications. PMID:23432791

  4. Successful transplantation of donor organs from a hemlock poisoning victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Preston F; McFadden, Robert; Trevino, Raul; Galliardt, Scott; Kopczewski, Lea Ann; Gugliuzza, Kristene; Gonzalez, Zulma; Wright, Francis

    2003-09-15

    The poison hemlock plant (Conium maculatum) has been a known poison since early in human history, most notably as the agent used for the execution/suicide of Socrates in ancient Greece. No experience has been reported regarding the suitability of a hemlock victim's organs for transplantation. This report documents successful transplantation of the liver, kidney, and pancreas from a 14-year-old girl who died of anoxic encephalopathy from asphyxia after the accidental ingestion of fresh hemlock while on a nature hike. Predonation laboratory values were not remarkable, and liver and kidney biopsy results were normal. All organs in the three recipients had immediate function, and no recipient had any clinical evidence of transmitted toxin. All recipients are well, with functioning transplants at greater than 6 months after transplantation. Poison hemlock intoxication does not seem to be a contraindication to organ donation.

  5. Deceased organ donation for transplantation: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives every year but the shortage of donors is a major limiting factor to increase transplantation rates. To allow more patients to be transplanted before they die on the wait-list an increase in the number of donors is necessary. Patients with devastating irreversible brain injury, if medically suitable, are potential deceased donors and strategies are needed to successfully convert them into actual donors. Multiple steps in the process of deceased organ donation can be targeted to increase the number of organs suitable for transplant. In this review, after describing this process, we discuss current challenges and potential strategies to expand the pool of deceased donors. PMID:27683626

  6. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-03-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  8. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, B R; Uys, H H M

    2004-08-01

    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual's decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  9. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the ... conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other ... may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing ... problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ...

  10. Management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles

    2010-06-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the therapeutic options recommended including reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), transplant organ resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Effective therapy should be instituted before progressive disease results in declining performance status and multi-organ dysfunction. The goal of treatment should be a durable complete remission with retention of transplanted organ function with minimal toxicity.

  11. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on

  12. The complex use of religion in decisions on organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2009-03-01

    Because of its existential character, organ transplantation is strongly connected to a person's view of life. This article describes how participants in a focus group use religious elements in decision-making on transplantation medicine in four European countries. Further these findings are related to two influential theologians: James Gustafson and Paul Ramsey, and their thinking on the role of religion in medical ethics. Both participants' and theologians' use of religious elements is complex, and show significant variety in regard to both content and form. Decisions in transplantation medicine would benefit from considering the complexity of religious views when striving for informed consent as participative involvement.

  13. A Rationale for Age-Adapted Immunosuppression in Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzien, Felix; ElKhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Hector; Hirofumi, Uehara; Gabardi, Steven; Tullius, Stefan G

    2015-11-01

    Demographic changes are associated with a steady increase of older patients with end-stage organ failure in need for transplantation. As a result, the majority of transplant recipients are currently older than 50 years, and organs from elderly donors are more frequently used. Nevertheless, the benefit of transplantation in older patients is well recognized, whereas the most frequent causes of death among older recipients are potentially linked to side effects of their immunosuppressants.Immunosenescence is a physiological part of aging linked to higher rates of diabetes, bacterial infections, and malignancies representing the major causes of death in older patients. These age-related changes impact older transplant candidates and may have significant implications for an age-adapted immunosuppression. For instance, immunosenescence is linked to lower rates of acute rejections in older recipients, whereas the engraftment of older organs has been associated with higher rejection rates. Moreover, new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation is more frequent in the elderly, potentially related to corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors.This review presents current knowledge for an age-adapted immunosuppression based on both, experimental and clinical studies in and beyond transplantation. Recommendations of maintenance and induction therapy may help to improve graft function and to design future clinical trials in the elderly.

  14. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  15. Diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles

    2010-06-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the risk factors predisposing to development, initial features and diagnosis. It is important that the risk of developing PTLD is considered when using post transplant immunosuppression and that the appropriate investigations are carried out when there are suspicions of the diagnosis. These must include tissue for histology and computed tomography scan to assess the extent of disease. These recommendations have been made primarily for adult patients, there have been some comments made with regard to paediatric practice.

  16. Herpes simplex virus-2 transmission following solid organ transplantation: Donor-derived infection and transplantation from prior organ recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesic, Nenad; Abbott, Iain J; Kaye, Matthew; Druce, Julian; Glanville, Allan R; Gow, Paul J; Hughes, Peter D; Korman, Tony M; Mulley, William R; O'Connell, Phillip J; Opdam, Helen; Paraskeva, Miranda; Pitman, Matthew C; Setyapranata, Stella; Rawlinson, William D; Johnson, Paul D R

    2017-10-01

    Owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. We report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) to two clusters of SOT recipients with transmission from the original donor and an HSV-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor. We reviewed medical records of the donors and recipients in both clusters. Pre-transplant serology and virological features of HSV-2 were characterized. Genotyping of HSV-2 isolates to determine potential for donor transmission of HSV-2 through transplantation of organs from prior organ recipients was performed. A kidney-pancreas recipient died day 9 post transplant. Following confirmation of brain death, the lungs and recently transplanted kidney were donated to two further recipients. The liver was not retrieved, but biopsy confirmed HSV-2 infection. Testing on the original donor showed negative HSV-2 polymerase chain reaction and HSV immunoglobulin (Ig)M, but positive HSV-2 IgG. The liver recipient from the original donor developed HSV-2 hepatitis and cutaneous infection that responded to treatment with intravenous acyclovir. In the second cluster, lung and kidney recipients both developed HSV-2 viremia that was successfully treated with antiviral therapy. Genotyping of all HSV-2-positive samples showed 100% sequence homology for three recipients. Donor-derived HSV infection affected two clusters of recipients because of transplantation of organs from a prior organ recipient. HSV should be considered as a possible cause of illness in febrile SOT recipients in the immediate post-transplant period and may cause disseminated disease and re-infection in HSV-2-seropositive recipients. Testing of HSV serology and prophylaxis may be considered in SOT recipients not receiving cytomegalovirus prophylaxis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of hemodialysis patients’ thoughts about kidney transplantation and the national organ transplant system in terms of organ transplantation services management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uzuntarla

    2017-03-01

    Results: It was determined that the hemodialysis patients responding to the survey were in the 20-95 age group with an average age of 58,64±15,64 years. 87,9% of the patients reported that they had been briefed about kidney transplants, 32,2% of those had been briefed said that the information had been delivered by the dialysis physician, 77,7% stated that they wanted a kidney transplant from a cadaver, 49,5% did not want a kidney transplant from a live donor and 35,5% indicated that the national organ transplant system operated adequately. Furthermore, it was noted that 50,9% of the responders were registered on the waiting lists of kidney transplant centers. Conclusions: It was concluded that it is necessary to provide sufficient information to hemodialysis patients about kidney transplants and the national organ transplant system to steer them to transplant centers. It is anticipated that the results of this study will assist officers of the Ministry of Health, politicians involved in health issues, decision makers and health professionals. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 33-37

  18. Prospective clinical testing of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGUS W THOMSON

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering the incidence and severity of rejection and reducing patients’ dependence on anti-rejection drugs. Generation of donor- or recipient-derived DCreg that suppress T cell responses and prolong transplant survival in rodents or non-human primates has been well-described. Recently, good manufacturing practice (GMP-grade DCreg have been produced at our Institution for prospective use in human organ transplantation. We briefly review experience of regulatory immune therapy in organ transplantation and describe our experience generating and characterizing human monocyte-derived DCreg. We propose a phase I/II safety study in which the influence of donor-derived DCreg combined with conventional immunosuppression on subclinical and clinical rejection and host alloimmune responses will be examined in detail.

  19. Ethical criteria for procuring and distributing organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, J F

    1989-01-01

    This article provides an ethical analysis and assessment of various actual and proposed policies of organ procurement and distribution in light of moral principles already embedded in U.S. institutions, laws, policies, and practices. Evaluating different methods of acquisition of human body parts--donation (express and presumed), sales, abandonment, and expropriation--the author argues for laws and policies, including required request, to maintain and facilitate express donation of organs by individuals and their families. Such laws and policies need adequate time for a determination of their effectiveness before society moves to other major alternatives, such as a market. In organ allocation and distribution, which have close moral connections with organ procurement, the author defends the judgment of the federal Task Force on Organ Transplantation that the community should have dispositional authority over donated organs, that professionals should be viewed as trustees and stewards of donated organs, and that the public should be heavily involved in the formation of policies of allocation and distribution. Concentrating on policies being developed in the United Network for Organ Sharing, the author examines the point system for cadaveric kidneys, the access of foreign nationals to organs donated in the U.S., and the multiple listings of patients seeking transplants. He concludes by identifying two major problems of equitable access to donated organs that will have to be addressed by social institutions other than UNOS: access to the waiting list for donated organs and the role of ability to pay in extrarenal transplants.

  20. Organ Donation and Transplantation in Canada: Insights from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Joseph Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: To provide an overview of the transplant component of the Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR. Findings: CORR is the national registry of organ failure in Canada. It has existed in some form since 1972 and currently houses data on patients with end-stage renal disease and solid organ transplants (kidney and/or non-kidney. The transplant component of CORR receives data on a voluntary basis from individual transplant centres and organ procurement organizations across the country. Coverage for transplant procedures is comprehensive and complete. Long-term outcomes are tracked based on follow-up reports from participating transplant centres. The longitudinal nature of CORR provides an opportunity to observe the trajectory of a patient's journey with organ failure over their life span. Research studies conducted using CORR data inform both practitioners and health policy makers alike. Implications: The importance of registry data in monitoring and improving care for Canadian transplant candidates/recipients cannot be over-stated. This paper provides an overview of the transplant data in CORR including its history, data considerations, recent findings, new initiatives, and future directions.

  1. Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basset-Seguin, N; Baumann Conzett, K; Gerritsen, M J P

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) is significantly higher than in immunocompetent patients. Rates of progression and recurrence following treatment are higher too, in part due to the effects of the immunosu......Background The incidence of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) is significantly higher than in immunocompetent patients. Rates of progression and recurrence following treatment are higher too, in part due to the effects...... investigate induced immunosuppression with PDT in healthy volunteers....

  2. Transfusion Medicine and Coagulation Management in Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madisetty, Jaswanth; Wang, Cynthia

    2017-09-01

    Organ transplantation recipients present unusual challenges with regard to blood transfusion. Although this patient population requires a larger proportion of blood product resources, liberal transfusion of allogeneic blood products can lead to a plethora of complications. Recent trends suggest that efforts to minimize bleeding, conserve products, and target transfusion to specific deficits and needs are increasingly becoming the standard practice; these must all occur with optimization of graft function and preservation in mind. With newer monitoring modalities and factor concentrates, the approach toward transfusion and bleeding in organ transplantation has rapidly improved in recent years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance

  4. Is ABPM clinically useful after pediatric solid organ transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Marianne

    2004-10-01

    When ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is performed in populations with a high risk for secondary hypertension, such as solid organ transplant recipients, hypertension or abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability are often discovered even in patients with normal office blood pressure (BP). To discuss whether ABPM should be routinely assessed in pediatric solid organ recipients, the available information on pathological findings, association of ABPM abnormalities with outcome parameters, and treatment options is reviewed. ABPM is a useful tool to optimize therapy in the large proportion of transplant recipients with confirmed hypertension. Whether the use of ABPM on a routine basis should be recommended for pediatric transplantation patients without office hypertension remains to be determined. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Munksgaard

  5. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage ... renal artery thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, ureteric leak or stenosis ... alternative organ source for patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney ... status.27,28 Post-transplant acute tubular necrosis is caused by ischaemic injury to the ...

  6. Organ acquisition cost centers Part I: medicare regulations--truth or consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, M

    2006-12-01

    Organ Acquisition Cost Centers (OACC) were designed to encourage and incentivize hospitals to provide transplantation services. The purpose of this article (Part I) is to familiarize transplant professionals and transplant center administrators with the regulations that govern OACC. An historical perspective of the evolution of these regulations is necessary to better understand the basic principles underlying this complex area of transplant finance. There is a wide variation in transplant center OACC reporting, suggesting under-reporting by some and overreporting by others. Correct reporting is essential since OACC are auditable. We have surveyed 13 audits by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of transplant center OACC in an attempt to identify trends in reporting practices by transplant centers that are not deemed acceptable by the OIG. We discuss these findings in the context of some basic definitions that refer specifically to cost accounting principles necessary for accurate reporting of OACC.

  7. Gerundium: A Comprehensive Public Educational Program on Organ Donation and Transplantation and Civil Law in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, D Á; Mihály, S; Rajczy, K; Zsom, L; Zádori, G; Fedor, R; Eszter, K; Enikő, B; Asztalos, L; Nemes, B

    2015-09-01

    Organ transplantation has become an organized, routine, widely used method in the treatment of several end-stage diseases. Kidney transplantation means the best life-quality and longest life expectancy for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Transplantation is the only available long-term medical treatment for patients with end-stage liver, heart, and lung diseases. Despite the number of transplantations increasing worldwide, the needs of the waiting lists remain below expectations. One of the few methods to increase the number of transplantations is public education. In cooperation with the University of Debrecen Institute for Surgery Department of Transplantation, the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service Organ Coordination Office, and the Local Committee Debrecen of Hungarian Medical Students' International Relations Committee (HuMSIRC), the Gerundium, a new educational program, has been established to serve this target. Gerundium is a special program designed especially for youth education. Peer education means that age-related medical student volunteers educate their peers during interactive unofficial sessions. Volunteers were trained during specially designed training. Medical students were honored by HuMSIRC, depending on their activity on the basis of their own regulations. Uniform slides and brochures to share were designed. Every Hungarian secondary school was informed. The Local Committee Budapest of HuMSIRC also joined the program, which helps to expand our activity throughout Hungary. The aim of the program is public education to help disperse disapproval, if presented. As a multiple effect, our program promotes medical students to have better skills in the field of transplantation, presentation, and communication skills. Our program is a voluntary program with strong professional support and is free of charge for the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organ culture studies for pancreatic islet transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reemtsma, K.; Weber, C.J.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Lerner, R.; Zimmerman, E.; Hardy, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Data support the usefulness of tissue culture in isolation and preservation of islets prior to transplantation. Rodent islet viability in culture was demonstrated histologically and by functional analyses of hormone production. For reasons that remain to be defined, acinar cells disappeared rapidly in tissue culture, yielding an implant preparation relatively rich in islets and devoid of pancreatic exocrine elements. Isografts of cultured and noncultured islets were well tolerated intraperitoneally and intramuscularly; and prompt and lasting reversal of short- and long-standing experimental diabetes was observed regularly. In vitro studies of rodent islet viability after immunosuppressive treatment of donors or islet cultures showed insulin production comparable to that of control experiments, suggesting that immunologic modification of donors or islets might be feasible in eventual human islet allotransplantation

  9. Indirect recognition of HLA epitopes in solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geneugelijk, C.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Alloreactivity due to HLA mismatches between donor and recipient remains the major limiting factor in successful graft outcome after solid organ transplantation. However, the immunogenicity of individual HLA mismatches is highly variable. Therefore, epitope-based HLA matching may be a sophisticated

  10. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  11. Proposal for a future delivery market for transplant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A R

    1986-01-01

    Improvements in surgical procedures and immunosuppressive practices have greatly increased the range and success rate of organ transplants. Unfortunately, supply does not meet demand, and demand is increasing. This paper documents the current level of unsatisfied demand for several transplantable organs, and argues that the extant system of altruistic organ donation is unlikely ever to provide adequate supply because of lack of incentives to donate and the ambiguity surrounding property rights over transplantable organs. A greater reliance on markets would help attenuate these problems. However, unorganized private spot markets for human organs are likely to be both inefficient and inequitable, and are perceived as morally offensive. A feasible alternative is an organized, publicly operated future delivery market, wherein an individual can contract, for valuable consideration, with a government agency for delivery of a specific organ upon death. The implementation of such a market would encounter difficult (but not intractable) problems such as price determination, the selection of a medium of exchange, and contractual issues, particularly the role of minors in such a system. Finally, it is argued that such a market is superior to the much-discussed compulsory expropriation alternative.

  12. Gift Exchange Theory: a critique in relation to organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sque, M; Payne, S A

    1994-01-01

    Organ transplantation is becoming more important as a viable method of treatment for certain severe medical conditions. It is a complex and demanding process for all involved. Nursing as a developing science must respond to cultural and economic changes. Therefore, a need exists to develop a body of empirically based knowledge to understand and support the process of organ transplantation. This paper will argue that as trading in organs is unacceptable to the moral standards of western society and outlawed in many countries, an alternative framework must be considered for understanding the mechanisms through which organs are donated and utilized. The donating and receiving of organs may be equated with gift-giving, as there is no barter of commodities involved. Therefore, a useful framework to explore this phenomenon will be one that underpins the process of giving and receiving of gifts. Gift Exchange Theory will be evaluated and critically examined in relation to organ transplantation and the role of nurses in this process.

  13. Method of cell transplantation promoting the organization of intraarterial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Koji; Shimono, Takatsugu; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Fujinaga, Kazuya; Kajimoto, Masaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Uchida, Atsumasa; Shimpo, Hideto; Yada, Isao; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2005-08-30

    Endovascular aortic repairs have been developed as less invasive treatments for aortic aneurysms. Some aneurismal cavities, however, remain without organization, causing a re-expansion of the aneurysms. We studied cell transplantation into the aneurismal sac to promote the organization of thrombus for the complete healing of aneurysms. Skin fibroblasts and skeletal myoblasts were isolated from rats for cell transplantation. An intraarterial thrombus model was made by ligation of the carotid artery. Culture medium (medium group, n=11), collagen gel (gel group, n=11), fibroblasts with collagen gel (F group, n=15), myoblasts with collagen gel (M group, n=12), or mixture of fibroblasts and myoblasts with collagen gel (F+M group, n=14) were injected into the thrombus. After 28 days, histologically, the arterial lumens of the F and M groups were partly filled with fibrous tissues, whereas in the F+M group organization was almost completed and luminal sizes diminished. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were more abundantly contained in the organized area of the F+M group than in the other groups. We also analyzed cellular function in vitro with immunofluorescence; coculture of fibroblasts and myoblasts showed that the fraction of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts increased. This phenomenon accounts for the rapid organization of thrombus in the F+M group in vivo. Cell transplantation accelerated thrombus organization. Especially, myoblasts enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, contributing to rapid thrombus organization. Cell transplantation into unorganized spaces seems applicable to endovascular treatment of aneurysms.

  14. Percutaneous Dilational Tracheotomy in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Ersoy, Zeynep; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Gedik, Ender; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients may require percutaneous dilational tracheotomy because of prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway issues, but data regarding its safety and effectiveness in solid-organ transplant recipients are scarce. Here, we evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and benefits in terms of lung mechanics, complications, and patient comfort of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy in solid-organ transplant recipients. Medical records from 31 solid-organ transplant recipients (median age of 41.0 years [interquartile range, 18.0-53.0 y]) who underwent percutaneous dilational tracheotomy at our hospital between January 2010 and March 2015 were analyzed, including primary diagnosis, comorbidities, duration of orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, the time interval between transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, tracheotomy-related complications, and pulmonary compliance and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 24.0 (interquartile range, 18.0-29.0). The median interval from transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy was 105.5 days (interquartile range, 13.0-2165.0 d). The only major complication noted was left-sided pneumothorax in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen before and after procedure (170.0 [interquartile range, 102.2-302.0] vs 210.0 [interquartile range, 178.5-345.5]; P = .052). However, pulmonary compliance results preprocedure and postprocedure were significantly different (0.020 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.015-0.030 L/cm H2O] vs 0.030 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.020-0.041 L/cm H2O); P = .001]). Need for sedation significantly decreased after tracheotomy (from 17 patients [54.8%] to

  15. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  16. The Australian and New Zealand Cardiothoracic Organ Transplant Registry: first report 1984-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, A M; Kaan, A

    1992-12-01

    This initial report of the Australian and New Zealand Cardiothoracic Organ Transplant Registry summarises the results of all cardiothoracic transplants performed between February 1984 and April 1992. A total of 549 first cardiothoracic transplant procedures and six cardiac retransplant operations were performed in five transplant units throughout Australia and New Zealand. There were 466 orthotopic cardiac transplants and one heterotopic transplant with overall survival 86% at one year and 80% at five years. Two of six patients who underwent cardiac retransplantation are alive. Fifty-three heart-lung transplants were performed with 72% one year and 42% five year survival. Twenty-nine single lung transplant procedures were undertaken, with actuarial survival 72% at 12 months. Factors influencing waiting period and post-transplant survival for each type of procedure are detailed. The relative lack of donors compared with recipient demand has produced increased waiting times for every type of cardiothoracic organ transplant.

  17. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant – Update and review of some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, R.S.; Philip, J.; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination t...

  18. Teenagers in Rural Areas Faced With Organ Donation and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrero, B; Almela, J; Ríos, A; Ros, I; Pérez-Sánchez, B; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ruiz-Carreño, P; Ferreras, D; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    In rural areas it is common to find unfavorable attitudes toward organ donation, and therefore it is important to find out the attitude and profile of new generations for improving predisposition to organ donation in these areas. Our objective was to analyze the attitude toward organ donation and the related variables of teenagers in a rural area. Students in the final year of compulsory education (mostly 15-16 years of age) were selected from secondary schools in a rural area in southeastern Spain (n = 319; population density donating their organs, 30% (n = 90) were undecided, and 5% (n = 16) were against. Attitude toward the donation of one's own organs was related with sex (P = .015), previous experience of organ donation or transplantation (P = .046), comment on the topic of organ donation within the family (P = .003; odds ratio 2.155), knowing one's mother's opinion about the matter (P = .021), knowing the correct concept of brain death (P = .012; odds ratio 2.076), and religion (P = .014). A favorable attitude of teenagers in rural areas toward organ donation is slightly higher than in the adult population and is determined by many psychosocial variables, above all family discussion about organ donation and transplantation and correct knowledge of the brain death concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Death, organ transplantation and medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Schwartz, Michael A; Bailey, F Amos; Bos, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    A series of papers in Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine (PEHM) have recently disputed whether non-heart beating organ donors are alive and whether non-heart beating organ donation (NHBD) contravenes the dead donor rule. Several authors who argue that NHBD involves harvesting organs from live patients appeal to "strong irreversibility" (death beyond the reach of resuscitative efforts to restore life) as a necessary criterion that patients must meet before physicians can declare them to be dead. Sam Shemie, who defends our current practice of NHBD, holds that in fact physicians consider patients to be dead or not according to physician intention to resuscitate or not. We suggest that criteria for a concept are not necessarily truth conditions for assertions involving the concept. Hence, non-heart beating donors may be declared dead without meeting the criterion of strong irreversibility even though strong irreversibility is implied by the concept of death. Our perception that a concept applies in a given case is determined not by the concept itself but by our necessary skill and judgment when using it. In the case of deciding that a patient is dead, such judgment is learned by physicians as they learn the practice of medicine and may vary according to circumstances. Current practice of NHBD can therefore be defended without abandoning death as an empirical concept, as Shemie appears to do. We conclude that the dead donor rule continues to be viable and ought to be retained so as to guarantee what the public most cares about as regards organ donation: that physicians can be trusted to make determinations of eligibility for organ donation in the interests of patients and not for other purposes such as increasing the availability of organs. PMID:18248665

  20. Transplanting an organization: how does culture matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences are often cited as a major obstacle to the successful transition/integration into new situations of organizations. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process. Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided.

  1. Clinical and immunological relevance of antibodies in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, N K; Baranwal, A K

    2016-12-01

    The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection. Long-term graft survival too is adversely affected by the presence of either pre- or post-transplant DSA. HLA matching status of the recipient - donor pair - is an important factor in the modulation of humoral response following transplantation and in a way affects de novo development of DSA. Data collected over the past decade clearly indicate significantly lower level of DSAs in optimally matched donor-recipient pairs. HLA mismatches especially those on HLA-DR and HLA-C loci have wider implications on post-transplant graft survival. The presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies leads to endothelial damage in the newly grafted organ through complement dependent or independent pathways. Although detection of C4d deposition in renal biopsies serves as an important indicator of humoral rejection, its absence does not preclude the presence of DSAs and humoral rejection, and hence, it cannot be relied upon in every case. The emergence of epitope-based screening for anti-HLA antibodies on Luminex platform with high degree of sensitivity has revolutionized the screening for anti-HLA antibodies and DSAs. Studies indicate that humoral response to non-HLA antigens might also have a detrimental effect on allograft survival. High titres of such circulating antibodies may even lead to hyperacute rejection. Pre-emptive testing of solid organ recipients, especially kidney transplant recipients for anti

  2. Bioprinting scale-up tissue and organ constructs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2015-07-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging field that is having a revolutionary impact on the medical sciences. It offers great precision for the spatial placement of cells, proteins, genes, drugs, and biologically active particles to better guide tissue generation and formation. This emerging biotechnology appears to be promising for advancing tissue engineering toward functional tissue and organ fabrication for transplantation, drug testing, research investigations, and cancer or disease modeling, and has recently attracted growing interest worldwide among researchers and the general public. In this Opinion, I highlight possibilities for the bioprinting scale-up of functional tissue and organ constructs for transplantation and provide the reader with alternative approaches, their limitations, and promising directions for new research prospects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decision support for organ offers in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael L; Goodrich, Nathan; Lai, Jennifer C; Sonnenday, Christopher; Shedden, Kerby

    2015-06-01

    Organ offers in liver transplantation are high-risk medical decisions with a low certainty of whether a better liver offer will come along before death. We hypothesized that decision support could improve the decision to accept or decline. With data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, survival models were constructed for 42,857 waiting-list patients and 28,653 posttransplant patients from 2002 to 2008. Daily covariate-adjusted survival probabilities from these 2 models were combined into a 5-year area under the curve to create an individualized prediction of whether an organ offer should be accepted for a given patient. Among 650,832 organ offers from 2008 to 2013, patient survival was compared by whether the clinical decision was concordant or discordant with model predictions. The acceptance benefit (AB)--the predicted gain or loss of life by accepting a given organ versus waiting for the next organ--ranged from 3 to -22 years (harm) and varied geographically; for example, the average benefit of accepting a donation after cardiac death organ ranged from 0.47 to -0.71 years by donation service area. Among organ offers, even when AB was >1 year, the offer was only accepted 10% of the time. Patient survival from the time of the organ offer was better if the model recommendations and the clinical decision were concordant: for offers with AB > 0, the 3-year survival was 80% if the offer was accepted and 66% if it was declined (P decision support may improve patient survival in liver transplantation. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with tacrolimus in solid organ transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.Q.; Rabbani, M.; Habib, M.; Saleem, T.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving tacrolimus in the post-transplant setting is rare. We describe two such cases in solid-organ transplant recipients. The first patient, a 17-year-old male, presented with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and was managed with intravenous fluids and insulin infusion. He was a known case of Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome and had received a renal transplant 2 years ago and was receiving tacrolimus since then. Although diabetic ketoacidosis resolved in 24 hours, large doses of subcutaneous insulin (unto 130 units per day) were needed to keep serum glucose within the normal range. Substitution of tacrolimus with cyclosporine obviated the need for insulin or oral hypoglycaemics. The second patient, a 55-year-old woman, presented with a history of polyuria for 3 days. She had received a hepatic transplant 2 years ago and tacrolimus was being used since then. Mild diabetic ketoacidosis was managed with fluid resuscitation and subcutaneous insulin. Her insulin requirement after an uneventful recovery has been 54 - 70 units per day. Clinicians should be cognizant of the possibility of hyperglycaemic crisis presenting as sudden onset of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving tacrolimus. Use of an alternative calcineurin inhibitor may provide a safer solution to minimize future morbidity in such patients. (author)

  5. Knowledge and Ethical Issues in Organ Transplantation and Organ Donation: Perspectives from Iranian Health Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Kiani, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Salehi, Bahare

    2018-05-04

    BACKGROUND Organ transplantation is one of the most critical topics in medical ethics that is commonplace in various countries. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and the ethical issues surrounding organ transplantation and organ donation among healthcare personnel in Tehran, Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study performed on 450 healthcare personnel, self-administered questionnaires were used to derive data from individuals. Among the 450 health personnel who received the questionnaires, 377 completed their questionnaires (83.77%). RESULTS The willingness and unwillingness to donate organs among individuals were 47.48% (n=179) and 52.51% (n=198), respectively. Among the individuals who signed the organ donation card, 96.5% (n=55) were willing to donate their organs and 3.5% (n=2) were unwilling to donate their organs. Most of the individuals that were willing (48.34%; n=175) and unwilling (51.66%; n=187) to donate their organs claimed religious support for organ donation (P=0.00). Out of these people, 110 willing people (67.48%) and 53 (32.52%) unwilling people were familiar with the idea of brain death. The individuals who selected cadavers (67.64%; n=255) and brain death (24.4%; n=92) were chosen as the best candidates for organ donation. Most individuals believed that young patients (n=123; 32.62%) and people who had not already had organ transplants (n=90; 23.87%) should be the preferred recipients of organs. Most individuals had learned about organ transplantation from television (30.24%; n=114), newspapers (23.61%; n=89), and the radio (19.89%; n=75). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, there is a need for more educational programs for the improvement of knowledge and ethical consideration with regard to organ transplantation and organ donation among healthcare personnel.

  6. The new chimaera: the industrialization of organ transplantation. International Forum for Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilney, N L; Guttmann, R D; Daar, A S; Hoffenberg, R; Kennedy, I; Lock, M; Radcliffe-Richards, J; Sells, R A

    2001-03-15

    Clinical organ transplantation has evolved through advances in patient care in parallel with investigations in associated biologies. It has developed from a cottage industry to an important medical specialty driven increasingly by the availability of newer and more effective immunosuppressive drugs, and dependent on consistently close collaborations between university-based clinical scientists and the pharmaceutical industry. Particularly during the past decade, however, this industry has undergone striking changes, consolidating into huge multi-national corporations, each competing for patients, their doctors, and for support of the allied hospitals. Because of the growth of "Big Pharma," the relationship between academia and industry has changed. There have been many advantages to such mutually dependent interactions. A combination of university-based expertise and the specialized knowledge and resources of industry have produced important scientific gains in drug development. Commercial sponsorship of applied research has been crucial. The orchestration of multicenter controlled clinical drug trials has provided invaluable information about the effectiveness of newer agents. But there are also disadvantages of increasing concern. Indeed, the power of "Big Pharma" in many medical fields including transplantation is such that presentation of data can be delayed, adverse results withheld, and individual investigations hampered. Clinical trials may be protracted to stifle competition. Monetary considerations may transcend common sense. Several measures to enhance the clinical relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and those involved with organ transplantation are suggested, particularly the use of third party advisors in the production of clinical trials, support for more basic research and in the dissemination of results. In this way, the increasingly problematic phenomenon of commercialization of the field of transplantation can be tempered and

  7. Law and medical ethics in organ transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Tom; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article in the series describes how UK law and medical ethics have evolved to accommodate developments in organ transplantation surgery. August committees have formulated definitions of the point of death of the person which are compatible with the lawful procurement of functioning vital organs from cadavers. Some of the complexities of dead donor rules are examined. Live donors are a major source of kidneys and the laws that protect them are considered. Financial inducements and other incentives to donate erode the noble concept of altruism, but should they be unlawful? PMID:20501013

  8. [Organ transplantation. Questions in the interface of ethics and anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbacher, D

    2014-08-01

    In the field of organ transplantation medical ethics is confronted with a number of problems where the particular difficulty lies in the fact that ethical and anthropological questions interpenetrate. This article discusses two of these problems in this interface both of which are highly controversial: the real or apparent contradiction between the dead-donor rule and the traditional definition of death and the real or apparent contradiction between the ethical desirability of harvesting organs from non-heart beating donors and the irreversibility of brain death.

  9. The Long Road from the Kidney Bazaar: A Commentary on Pakistan’s Progress Towards Self-sufficiency in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique E. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dark history of transplant tourism in Pakistan demonstrates the hazards of unregulated cross-border markets in human organs. Trading on existing national and international social inequities, ‘transplant tourism’ offers dubious benefits for transplant recipients and attractive profits to those facilitating the industry at the expense of the world’s poor. The impact of Pakistan’s 2007 Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Ordinance and the sustained efforts of transplant professionals and societal groups led by the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, show that organ trading can be effectively discouraged and equitable programs of organ procurement and transplantation pursued despite multiple challenges. In this paper, the factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s progress towards self-sufficiency in organ transplantation are identified and discussed. The case of Pakistan highlights the need for countries to protect their own organ and tissue providers who may be vulnerable in the global healthcare market. Pakistan provides an excellent example for other countries in the region and throughout the world to consider when regulating their own transplantation programs and considering the pursuit of national self-sufficiency.

  10. Increasing the pool of deceased donor organs for kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-03-27

    Expanding the pool of available deceased donor kidneys is critical for improving the outcomes of prospective and current renal transplant candidates. A number of interventions have been proposed that may increase the pool of donors in the US. However, these interventions have variable levels of empirical evidence supporting their potential beneficial impact. Proposed interventions include the instigation of policies for presumed donor consent, the expansion of donor registration, increased quality oversight of transplant providers, financial incentives for donors, increased reimbursement for higher risk donors, alterations in organ allocation policies and distribution, and the selective use of donors with potential or known risk for disease transmission. Many of these interventions have contentious elements that may have delayed or impeded their implementation; however, these options should be considered in the context of the diminishing prognoses for prospective transplant patients, given the increasing scarcity of donor organs relative to the population need. In this Review, we outline the proposed interventions and briefly discuss salient issues that characterize the debates concerning their implementation and effectiveness. Ultimately, any intervention must be based on the best evidence available, with consideration of numerous stakeholders and in conjunction with a careful evaluation of long-term and potential unintended consequences.

  11. Future immunosuppressive agents in solid-organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Cerio, Jeffrey

    2004-06-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium, everolimus, and FTY720. Clinical trials and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium, everolimus, and FTY720 in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies and published abstracts were selected for inclusion. Mycophenolate sodium has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Adminstration for marketing in the United States; everolimus and FTY720 are immunosuppressive agents that may soon be available in the United States. These agents have proven efficacy in reducing the incidence of acute rejection in solid-organ transplantation. Clinical trials have shown that these newer agents are relatively well tolerated. The most common adverse events associated with these agents were gastrointestinal and hematologic effects (mycophenolate sodium); hyperlipidemia, increased serum creatinine, and hematologic effects (everolimus): and gastrointestinal effects, headache, and bradycardia (FTY720). Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in some European countries and the United States. Everolimus has been approved in some European countries and a new drug application has been submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. FTY720 is currently in phase III clinical trials and submission to the Food and Drug Administration for approval is a few years away. The approval of these agents will furnish the transplant practitioner with even more options for immunosuppression.

  12. Theological theses on the ethics of organ transplantation and on a law concerning the transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörns, K P

    1994-12-16

    The message of the resurrection from the dead is relevant to human beings living and dying in the unity of body and soul. The personality of man is inseparable connected with this unit--even beyond death. Brain death only marks a (decisive) point during the process of dying, and it cannot be defined as the death of a human being (in general). Theological ethics object to this definition and to a new dualism of brain and body as well as of body and personality (i.e. soul), because this dualism socialises the organs of individuals and denies the personal dignity of disappearing life. Therefore, the explantation of organs must depend on a personal declaration of consent given by the adult sponsor himself. Each information given on organ transplants must clarify that the explanation of organs means an interruption of dying.

  13. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  14. Understanding risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven

    2011-07-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) be required of manufacturers. These REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with drugs and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product, including once the product becomes available as generic. The elements of an individual REMS program consist of three levels: medication guide or patient package insert, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). A medication guide or patient package insert is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patient decision making, and enhance drug adherence. Communication plans are used to educate health care providers and to encourage their compliance with REMS. The ETASU is a restrictive process that is implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure that patients have safe access to products with known serious risks that would otherwise be unavailable. To review the components of REMS and specifically assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplantation arena, a literature search of the MEDLINE database (January 2007-December 2010) was performed, and published materials from the FDA and its Web site were also reviewed. In transplantation, REMS programs exist for both everolimus (medication guide and communication plan) and sirolimus (medication guide). The FDA has stated that all mycophenolic acid derivatives will be subject to a proposed REMS that has not yet been approved; however, both branded mycophenolic acid agents already have approved medication guides. The REMS are a permanent fixture in the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents, and their further implementation in solid organ transplantation is inevitable. Transplantation providers should take a proactive role in patient education and implementation of REMS within the therapeutic area

  15. Recommendations for use of marginal donors in heart transplantation: Brazilian Association of Organs Transplantation guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, A I; Stolf, N A G; Pego-Fernandes, P M; Oliveira Junior, J L; Santos, R H B; Contreras, C A M; Filho, D D L; Dinkhuysen, J J; Moreira, M C V; Mejia, J A C; Castro, M C R

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of heart failure has increased the candidate list for heart transplantation; however, there is a shortage of viable donated organs, which is responsible for the high mortality of patients awaiting a transplantation. Because the marginal donor presents additional risk factors, it is not considered to be an ideal donor. The use of a marginal donor is only justified in situations when the risk of patient death due to heart disease is greater than that offered by the donor. These recommendations sought to expand the supply of donors, consequently increasing the transplant rate. We selected articles based on robust evidence to provide a substratum to develop recommendations for donors who exceed the traditional acceptance criteria. Recipient survival in the immediate postoperative period is intimately linked to allograft quality. Primary allograft failure is responsible for 38% to 40% of immediate deaths after heart transplantation: therefore; marginal donor selection must be more rigorous to not increase the surgical risk. The main donor risk factors with the respective evidence levels are: cancer in the donor (B), female donor (B), donor death due to hemorrhagic stroke (B), donor age above 50 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.5) (B), weight mismatch between donor and recipient 240 minutes (RR = 1.2) (B), left ventricular dysfunction with ejection fraction below 45% (B), and use of high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine > 15 mg/kg·min) (B). Factors that impact recipient mortality are: age over 50 years (RR = 1.5); allograft harvest at a distance; adult recipient weighing more than 20% of the donor; high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine greater than 15 mg/kg·min) and ischemic time >4 hours. The use of a marginal donor is only justified when it is able to increase life expectancy compared with clinical treatment, albeit the outcomes are interior to those using an ideal donor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the Officially Sacred, Donor and Believer: Religion and Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, E

    2015-09-01

    Religious concerns might represent an important issue when donation for transplantation is discussed. Even if no religious tradition formally forbids organ donation and transplantation, members of the same religious group may have differing and often conflicting opinions in their own interpretation of how their religion encourages and/or supports organ donation and transplantation, as discussed in this article. It also should be considered that even if a religion refuses to define concrete rules about organ donation and transplantation, there are a great number of factors that may influence the decision-making process. Examples may include negative perceptions of the cutting and removal of organs or ignorance about the transplantation system, both of which would influence the decision-making process concerning transplantation. Knowledge of these facts may provide useful information, perhaps increasing transplant numbers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobile Health in Solid Organ Transplant: The Time Is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F

    2017-09-01

    Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Organ procurement organization compliance with 21 CFR 1271: a challenge for allogeneic pancreatic islet cell transplantation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, J L; Tran, S A; Gastineau, D A; Padley, D J; Dean, P G; Kudva, Y C

    2009-06-01

    In order to protect tissue recipients, the Food and Drug Administration drafted Title 21, Section 1271 of the Code of Federal Regulations 1271 (21 CFR 1271) to address infectious disease risk. These regulations apply to tissues but not vascularized organs. Pancreatic islet cells are regulated under 21 CFR 1271. These regulations require qualification of suppliers of critical materials and services with regard to 21 CFR 1271 compliance. As part of supplier qualification, all organ procurement organizations (OPOs) in the United States were sent a questionnaire covering the key components of these regulations. Of the 57 OPOs, 29 (51%) were in compliance based upon survey results. Twelve (21%) were not compliant in one or more areas. All indicated plans to become compliant. The remaining 15 (27%) either failed or refused to complete the survey, some indicating 21 CFR 1271 did not apply to OPOs. Using 2006 data, OPOs compliant with 21 CFR 1271 recovered 50% of the organs procured in the United States. These findings represent a challenge for allogeneic islet cell transplant programs whose raw material must comply with 21 CFR 1271. OPOs should work toward understanding and complying with 21 CFR 1271. Regulatory agencies should work toward enhancing safety of the pancreas supply by facilitating compliance through harmonization of requirements.

  19. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, A

    2014-11-01

    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  20. Genetic factors for individual administration of immunosuppressants in organ transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Feng Yu; Li-Hua Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive drugs used worldwide have a narrow therapeutic index, which results in a need to individualize the dose regimen for different recipients. The oxidative enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and the drug eflfux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are two potential factors in the processes of metabolism. Pharmacogenetic study of immunosuppressive drugs has focused on these two enzymes. This review was undertaken to assess the role of single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) of these two enzymes in the individual administration of immunosuppressive drugs. DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search was made using MEDLINE for articles on CYP3A and P-gp in organ transplantation. RESULTS: The SNPs of CYP3A and P-gp are closely correlated to the large variations of cyclosporine and tacrolimus dosage between different patients, although conlficting results were obtained by some authors. CONCLUSIONS: More studies should be conducted to elucidate further the pharmacogenetics of immuno-suppressive drugs in organ transplantation, a deep understanding of which would provide an important step toward drug regimen individualization in the posttransplant therapy.

  1. Change in donor profile influenced the percentage of organs transplanted from multiple organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, C; Van Raemdonck, D; Van Gelder, F; Van Hees, D; Desschans, B; De Roey, J; Vanhaecke, J; Pirenne, J

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that the change in donor profile over the years influenced the percentage of transplantations. We reviewed medical records for all multiple-organ donors (MODs) within our network. The percentage of transplanted organs was compared between 1991-1992 (A) and 2006-2007 (B). In period A, 156 potential MODs were identified compared with 278 in period B. Fifteen potential donors (10%) in period A and 114 (41%) in period B were rejected because they were medically not suitable (40% vs 75%) or there was no family consent (60% vs 25%). Of the remaining effective MODs (141 in period A and 164 in period B), mean (standard deviation = SD) age was 34 (5) years vs 49 (17) years (P organs transplanted in periods A vs B was kidneys, 97% vs 79%; livers, 64% vs 85%; hearts, 60% vs 26%; lungs, 7% vs 35%; and pancreas, 6% vs 13% (P organs (17%), mainly because of medical contraindications. The MOD profile changed to older age, fewer traumatic brain deaths, and longer ventilation time. We transplanted more livers, lungs, and pancreases but fewer kidneys and hearts.

  2. Trend Analysis of Organ and Tissue Donation for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, M J; Leal de Moraes, E; Santini Martins, M; Carlos de Almeida, E; Borges de Barros E Silva, L; Urias, V; Silvano Corrêa Pacheco Furtado, M C; Brito Nunes, Á; El Hage, S

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the tendency toward donations of tissue and organs from donors with brain death between 2001 and 2016 as registered by an organ procurement organization in São Paulo City. This quantitative, retrospective, exploratory study encompassed all Tissue and Organ Donation Terms signed between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied to verify whether there was an upward or downward trend in donation. After statistical analysis, a significant change trend was identified in skin, bones, valve, vessel, heart, lung, and pancreas donations, indicating an increase in the donation rate through the years. The donation rate did not show changes over the years for donations of liver, kidneys, and corneas. The decision-making process regarding organ and tissue donation is restricted not only to the dilemma of whether to donate but another question then arises as well: which organs and tissues are to be donated? The discrepancy between the authorization for organ donation and the authorization for tissue donation, as well as the option for one or another organ and/or tissue, must be thoroughly examined because these factors directly affect the number of transplants and acquirements effectively accomplished. These factors may be related to explaining to one's relatives aspects of the surgery, body reassembling, and usage of such organs and/or tissues. They may also be related to the lack of knowledge concerning organ donation and the symbolism represented by the organ and/or tissue, among other factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  4. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja [Hannover Medical School, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah [Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel [Hannover Medical School, Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Lehner, Frank [Hannover Medical School, General, Abdominal and Transplant Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Braesen, Jan Hinrich [Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja; Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah; Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel; Lehner, Frank; Braesen, Jan Hinrich

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  6. Organ transplant education: the way to form altruistic behaviors among secondary school students toward organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Przybylowski, P; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J

    2010-01-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation is a crucial problem all over the world. Educational intervention may appeal to young people's altruism, increasing organ donation and decreasing the opposition. This study assessed the influence of an educational program, including organ donation and transplantation, to forming students' altruistic behaviors. A total 680 students of 25 secondary schools were asked about their attitudes, intentions, and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation from September 2008 to June 2009 during a 45-minute lesson. In this study, altruistic attitudes were measured through questions about the expression of will to give organs away after death; to give one kidney to relatives; to use the bone marrow from a foreign person; and to sign a donor card. Attitudes were assessed by questions about conversations with relatives, an evaluation of the educational project. More than 1500 donor card were distributed and more than 90% of students wanted to sign them; 73.6% agreed to sign a donor card with the ID card. Before the project, only 8% of students had a signed donor card. Almost everybody is ready to agree to give their organs after death (80.6% male; 92.2% female), or to relatives (100% male; 90.38% female), or bone marrow (80% male; 55.7% female). The students talked to their family, informing them about their decision (36.9% male; 45.9% female). The proposed educational project successfully encouraged teenagers to make well-considered choices with regard to organ donation and created altruistic behaviors.

  7. Non-HLA antibodies post-transplantation: clinical relevance and treatment in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Duska; Hegner, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies and B cells are increasingly recognized as major modulators of allograft function and survival. Improved immunohistochemical and serologic diagnostic procedures have been developed to monitor antibody responses against HLA antigens during the last decade. Acute and chronic allograft rejection can occur in HLA-identical sibling transplants implicating the importance of immune response against non-HLA targets. Non-HLA anti-bodies may occur as alloantiboides, yet they seem to be predominantly autoantibodies. Antigenic targets of non-HLA antibodies described thus far include various minor histocompatibility antigens, vascular receptors, adhesion molecules, and intermediate filaments. Non-HLA antibodies may function as complement- and non-complement-fixing antibodies and they may induce a wide variety of allograft injuries, reflecting the complexity of their acute and chronic actions. Refined approaches considering the subtle mechanistic differences in the individual antibody responses directed against non-HLA antigens may help to define patients at particular risk for irreversible acute or chronic allograft injuries and improve over-all outcomes. We attempted to summarize the current state of research, development in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, and to address some emerging problems in the area of humoral response against non-HLA antigens beyond ABO blood group and MHC class I chain-related gene A and B (MICA and MICB) antigens in solid organ transplantation. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

    2014-05-01

    The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The logistics management and coordination in procurement phase of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Ruhet

    2008-12-01

    The number of organ transplantation surgeries has increased particularly in the last decade due to technological and scientific advances in medicine. Despite this increase, many patients, however, remain in waiting lists for transplantation surgery. Main reasons for these waiting lists are that there are limited number of organ donations and specifically problems in the management of organ transplantation activities. An efficient management of the allocation and transportation of organs (in other words, logistics management of organ transplantation) are thus extremely important. The aim of the paper is to review current practices of logistics management in the procurement phase of organ transplantation. It initially reviews the organizational structures of the international and national coordination centres, which are founded to coordinate organ transplantation activities and to enhance collaboration among physicians and medical staff. The paper, then, focuses on the possible managerial problems encountered during the procurement phase of organ transplantation. With this respect, common transportation difficulties from global and local perspective are also analyzed. This paper tries to take attention to a systematic regard of the organ transplantation from logistics point of view, thus providing applicable solutions to managerial problems in terms of allocation and transportation of organs.

  10. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  11. Impact of HLA Diversity on Donor Selection in Organ and Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tiercy Jean-Marie; Claas Frans

    2013-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex is a multigene system encoding polymorphic human leucocyte antigens (HLA) that present peptides derived from pathogens to the immune system. The high diversity of HLA alleles and haplotypes in the worldwide populations represents a major barrier to organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because HLA incompatibilities are efficiently recognized by T and B lymphocytes. In organ transplantation pre transplant anti HLA antibodies nee...

  12. Regional and international integrated telemedicine network for organ transplant (HC 4028 & IN 4028 European Commission DGXIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, S G; Brugal, G; Godo, F; Bercic, B; Nagy, G; Avar, G; Adelh, D; Lagouarde, P

    2000-01-01

    A substantial portion of future medical practice will depend greatly on improved collaboration between the providers throughout the healthcare sector, and effective sharing of data and expertise by different healthcare professionals. In organ transplant it is a rule, donor organs are matched to recipients via national or multinational organ-sharing organizations. Only through close co-operation between transplant surgeons, immunologists, nephrologists, pathologists, radiologists and other physicians could one increase the efficiency of organ transplantation. Information technology (IT) has become an inevitable and inherent part of transplantation medicine. The RETRANSPLANT project interfaces and integrates IT from the European Union Fourth Framework projects to support the development of regional organ transplant information networks in Central Europe.

  13. Results from the organ and tissue transplant program in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, 1996 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, H; Cabriales, H

    2003-12-01

    Before 1996, solid organs from cadaveric donors (CD) did not account for more than 2% of all transplants. The need for more transplants led the state to undergo several legislative, societal, organizational, and infrastructure changes. A descriptive analysis of the evolution of the transplant program in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico, from 1996 to 2001. Trimester reports have been routinely performed since 1996 from the 14 institutions that are licensed to perform organ and tissue transplants in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. All reports were concentrated and a descriptive analysis is presented herein. From 1996 until 2001, a total of 1457 organ and tissue (OT) transplants have been performed. At the end of this period, there was a 214% increase in the total number of transplants. By 2001, 73% of the program's total of 1457 OT transplants came from cadaveric donors. The state transplant program of Nuevo León has experienced a dramatic growth since 1996. The percent of organs transplanted from cadaveric donors is one of the highest in Mexico. There is still much work to be done at the state and national levels; better epidemiological studies and dialysis registries are needed as well as investment in transplant research.

  14. IL1B and DEFB1 Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Mold Infection After Solid-Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Lecompte, Thanh; Bibert, Stephanie; Manuel, Oriol; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Rüeger, Sina; Berger, Christoph; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Meylan, Pascal R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Methods. Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped among 1101 SOT recipients (715 kidney transplant recipients, 190 liver transplant recipients, 102 lung transplant recipients, 79 heart transplant recipients, and 15 recipients of other transplants) fro...

  15. 75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the Commissioner... cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, as well as topics covered at the hearing by: (1) e-mail... considering ways to quickly identify diseases and other serious medical conditions that obviously meet the...

  16. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Heng; Luo, Meiling; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Chen, Faming; Liu, Ruchun; Chen, Tianmu

    2017-09-01

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

  17. The effect of the Syrian crisis on organ transplantation in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    The war in Syria that started in March 2011 has destroyed much of the country's infrastructure including many hospitals. The total number of kidney transplants performed in Syria in 2010 was 385 transplants before the number gradually declined to 154 transplants in 2013, a decrease of 60%. In addition, the number of operational kidney transplant centers has decreased from 8 to 4 centers. Unrelated-donor kidney transplant decreased from 70% during the years that preceded the crisis to 47% in 2013. More than 50% of physicians and surgeons involved in kidney transplant are not practicing transplant currently in their centers. Difficulties in the provision of immunosuppressive drugs for all patients in all provinces constitute a major challenge for the health authorities and transplant patients, especially patients who cannot arrange an alternate source. The project to initiate liver transplant came to a halt because foreign trainers could not visit Syria. The autologous bone marrow transplant program continued to function, but in a smaller and irregular manner. The commitment of transplant teams despite the large challenges was, and still is, extraordinary. In conclusion, all aspects of organ transplant have been affected, paralyzing new projects and negatively affecting existing programs.

  18. [Transmission of parasites by blood transfusions and organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, G D

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of the present study consists in an updated review concerning the transmission of protozoa and worms by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. Prophylactic regimens and possible modifications will be discussed. The literature devoted to tropical medicine in recent years was screened and a search on Medline was performed. Relevant review articles were selected. Transfusion induced malaria and--especially in Latin America--transfusion associated Chagas' disease are the most important of these diseases. Prophylaxis of transfusion malaria is different in different countries, it is based primarily on donor selection and immunodiagnostic examinations. It is recommended that the German guidelines for prevention of transfusion malaria should be modified and that a donor selection should also take place concerning Chagas' disease.

  19. Organ trafficking and transplant tourism: a commentary on the global realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiani-Saberi, D A; Delmonico, F L

    2008-05-01

    The extent of organ sales from commercial living donors (CLDs) or vendors has now become evident. At the Second Global Consultation on Human Transplantation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) in March 2007, it was estimated that organ trafficking accounts for 5-10% of the kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. Patients with sufficient resources in need of organs may travel from one country to another to purchase a kidney (or liver) mainly from a poor person. Transplant centers in 'destination' countries have been well known to encourage the sale of organs to 'tourist' recipients from the 'client' countries.

  20. Antibody-mediated rejection across solid organ transplants: manifestations, mechanisms, and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole M; Reed, Elaine F

    2017-06-30

    Solid organ transplantation is a curative therapy for hundreds of thousands of patients with end-stage organ failure. However, long-term outcomes have not improved, and nearly half of transplant recipients will lose their allografts by 10 years after transplant. One of the major challenges facing clinical transplantation is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) caused by anti-donor HLA antibodies. AMR is highly associated with graft loss, but unfortunately there are few efficacious therapies to prevent and reverse AMR. This Review describes the clinical and histological manifestations of AMR, and discusses the immunopathological mechanisms contributing to antibody-mediated allograft injury as well as current and emerging therapies.

  1. Allogeneic bone transplants, biostatic, frozen, radiosterilized, for application in the traumatology of the motion organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents statistical analysis of more than three tendon's of clinical cases of the motion organ transplantations. However, to store these organs they should be effectively sterilized. Irradiation should be accounted as one of such methods

  2. Organ donation and transplantation: Awareness and roles of healthcare professionals-A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawoniyi, Oluwafunmilayo; Gormley, Kevin; McGleenan, Emma; Noble, Helen Rose

    2018-03-01

    To examine the role of healthcare professionals in the organ donation and transplantation process. Globally, there remains a perennial disequilibrium between organ donation and organ transplantation. Several factors account for this disequilibrium; however, as healthcare professionals are not only strategically positioned as the primary intermediaries between organ donors and transplant recipients, but also professionally situated as the implementers of organ donation and transplantation processes, they are often blamed for the global organ shortage. Mixed-method systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 checklist. Databases were searched including CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE using the search terms "organ donation," "healthcare professionals," "awareness" and "roles" to retrieve relevant publications. Thirteen publications met the inclusion criteria. The global organ shortage is neither contingent upon unavailability of suitable organs nor exclusively dependent upon healthcare professionals. Instead, the existence of disequilibrium between organ donation and transplantation is necessitated by a web of factors. These include the following: healthcare professionals' attitudes towards, and experience of, the organ donation and transplantation process, underpinned by professional education, specialist clinical area and duration of professional practice; conflicts of interests; ethical dilemmas; altruistic values towards organ donation; and varied organ donation legislations in different legal jurisdictions. This review maintains that if this web of factors is to be adequately addressed by healthcare systems in different global and legal jurisdictions, there should be sufficient organs voluntarily donated to meet all transplantation needs. There is a suggestion that healthcare professionals partly account for the global shortage in organ donation, but there is a need to examine how

  3. Regulatory change for organ procurement organizations: certifying the success of transplantation in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    In June 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services released the final rule for the conditions of participation for organ procurement organizations in the United States. The new guidelines change the way OPOs are measured, shifting from a population-based set of performance measures to a system that is based on eligible donors and conversion rates. In addition to the change in measurement philosophy, CMS has included statements, regarding organizational structure, staffing, and research as standard measures for OPOs. The change from solely donation and transplantation measures is significant for the community, and will result in changes in the way OPOs structure their organizations and governing and clinical boards.

  4. The Constitutional Influence on Organ Transplants with Specific Reference to Organ Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Labuschagne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the influence of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 on the law pertaining to organ transplants with specific reference to methods of organ procurement. These methods include a system of opting-in, presumed consent, required request, required response, the sale of organs, and organ procurement from prisoners. It is argued, in view of the acute shortage of organs, that the various organ procurement methods are in need of review in the context of the question of whether they are acceptable and sustainable within the constitutional framework. To this end, the article deals with the application, limitation and interpretation of the rights in the Bill of Rights and its interface with the various organ procurement methods in the context of a discussion of applicable legislation and relevant case law. It is argued that a constitutional analysis of the topic is indicative that the State has indeed failed to provide a proper or satisfactory legislative and regulatory framework to relieve the critical shortage of human organs available for transplantation, by ultimately failing to uphold the applicable constitutional rights and values as discussed.

  5. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2014 7th REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of

  6. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study's framework for assessing lifelong psychosocial factors in solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Burkhalter, Hanna; Berben, Lut; Bogert, Laura Jane; Denhaerynck, Kris; Glass, Tracy R; Goetzmann, Lutz; Kirsch, Monika; Kiss, Alexander; Koller, Michael T; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2013-09-01

    Understanding outcomes after transplant requires a biopsychosocial model that includes biomedical and psychosocial factors. The latter, to date, are assessed only in a limited way as part of transplant registries or cohort studies. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS) is a nationwide open cohort study (starting May 2008) to systematically and prospectively assess psychosocial factors. This article describes the framework underpinning STCS's psychosocial assessment. The STCS framework was adapted from the multidimensional conceptual perspective of Dew et al to describe transplant psychosocial domains and specific outcomes by adding a time perspective, a system perspective, and interaction among domains. We propose a multidimensional, multilevel biopsychosocial framework representing mutually influencing domains from before to after transplant, and exemplify each domain by factors included in STCS and their measurement. The transplant patient, centrally positioned, is described by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics (eg, socioeconomic status, educational, professional, and relationship status). The following psychosocial domains further describe the patient: (1) physical/functional (eg, perceived health status, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness), (2) psychological (eg, depression, stress), (3) behavioral (eg, medication adherence, smoking, drug use, physical activity, sun protection), (4) social (eg, work capacity/return to work), and (5) global quality of life. Factors associated with health care system level (eg, trust in transplant team) are also included in the model. The STCS's psychosocial framework provides a basis for studying the interplay of biomedical, sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health care system factors in view of transplant outcomes and therefore has the potential to guide biopsychosocial transplant research.

  7. Development of Graft-Site Candidiasis in 3 Solid Organ Transplant Recipients from the Same Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bandar, Nasrin; Kroy, Daniela C; Fuller, Tom Florian; Kramer, Jürgen; Liefeldt, Lutz; Budde, Klemens; Blobel, Conrad; Miller, Kurt; Friedersdorff, Frank

    2017-07-11

    BACKGROUND Graft-site candidiasis rarely develops in solid organ transplant recipients; however, severe life-threatening complications can occur. We report the course of 3 solid organ transplant recipients developing graft-site candidiasis. CASE REPORT All grafts, consisting of 2 kidneys and 1 liver, were procured from a single donor. Patient data were collected from our database. Candida albicans was isolated from a swab taken during multiple-organ recovery. Complications associated with candidiasis occurred in all 3 recipients with preservation of the liver transplant. Both renal transplant recipients had vascular complications, eventually resulting in graft nephrectomy and subsequent return to dialysis. The patients recovered completely without residual effects of their prior fungal infection. CONCLUSIONS Fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients are rare. Since the sequelae of these infections are serious and usually pertain to more than 1 recipient at a time, antifungal prophylaxis may be warranted in select donors.

  8. Organ allocation in pediatric renal transplants: is there an optimal donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Susan C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Doyle, Maria B; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Chapman, William C; Anderson, Christopher D; Shenoy, Surendra; Wellen, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 revised allocation scheme for pediatric renal transplantation made the decision of whether to transplant an available living-donor (LD) kidney or use a deceased-donor (DD) kidney controversial. The aim of this study was to examine kidney allograft utilization, sensitization, and outcomes of pediatric transplant recipients. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 91 consecutive pediatric kidney recipients (transplanted. The LD (n = 38) and DD (n = 53) groups were similar in age, gender, dialysis status at transplant, warm ischemia time, and overall patient survival. LD recipients were more likely to be Caucasian (92 vs. 69%), receive older allografts (39 ± 10 vs. 23 ± 9 yr), and have fewer human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5, p transplant was longer for LD recipients (97%, 91%, 87% vs. DD 89%, 79%, 58%, respectively, p transplant, 17 (33%) DD recipients had an available LD (mean age 40 yr). A greater proportion of all patients were moderately (PRA 21-79%) sensitized post-transplant (p organs was likely due to fewer HLA mismatched in this group. Nonetheless, LD organs appear to provide optimal outcomes in pediatric renal transplants when considering the risk of becoming sensitized post-transplant complicating later use of the LD kidney. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Moving Beyond HLA: A Review of nHLA Antibodies in Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the finite graft life expectancy of HLA identical organ transplants and the recognition of humoral graft injury in the absence of donor directed anti-HLA antibodies, the clinical impact of antibodies against non-HLA (nHLA) antigens in transplant injury is being increasingly recognized. The recognition of the impact of nHLA antigen discrepancies between donor and recipient on transplant outcomes is timely given the advances in rapid and lower cost sequencing methods that can soon provide...

  10. Transplantation of organs from deceased donors with meningitis and encephalitis: a UK registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Summers, Dominic M; Watson, Christopher J E; Bradley, J Andrew; Neuberger, James

    2016-12-01

    Deceased organ donors, where the cause of death is meningitis or encephalitis, are a potential concern because of the risks of transmission of a potentially fatal infection to recipients. Using the UK Transplant Registry, a retrospective cohort analysis of deceased organ donors in the UK was undertaken to better understand the extent to which organs from deceased donors with meningitis and/or encephalitis (M/E) (of both known and unknown cause) have been used for transplantation, and to determine the associated recipient outcomes. Between 2003 and 2015, 258 deceased donors with M/E were identified and the causative agent was known in 188 (72.9%). These donors provided 899 solid organs for transplantation (455 kidneys and 444 other organs). The only recorded case of disease transmission was from a donor with encephalitis of unknown cause at time of transplantation who transmitted a fatal nematode infection to 2 kidney transplant recipients. A further 3 patients (2 liver and 1 heart recipient) died within 30 days of transplantation from a neurological cause (cerebrovascular accident) with no suggestion of disease transmission. Overall, patient and graft survival in recipients of organs from donors with M/E were similar to those for all other types of deceased organ donor. Donors dying with M/E represent a valuable source of organs for transplantation. The risk of disease transmission is low but, where the causative agent is unknown, caution is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2014 Data Report: Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Junchao; Wu, Guosheng; Qing, Annie; Everly, Matthew; Cheng, Elaine; Terasaki, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As of September 19, 2014, 2441 cases of intestinal transplantation have been performed in 46 centers (2400 deceased, 41 living). Eight centers did more than 100 transplants. Annual case numbers peaked in 2007 (N = 198) and steadily decreased to 109 cases in 2013. Short gut syndrome (68%) and functional bowel problems (15%) are two major indications for intestinal transplantation. The 3 major types of transplants involving the intestine include: isolated intestine transplant (I); simultaneous intestine, liver, and pancreas transplant (I+L+P); and, combined intestine and liver (I+L) transplant. Graft survival has significantly improved in recent years, mainly due to improved first year graft survival. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survivals were: 74%, 42%,and 26%, respectively (I); 70%, 50%, and 40%, respectively (I+L+P); and 61%, 46%, and 40%, respectively (I+L). The longest graft survivals for I, l+L+P, and l+L were 19 years, 16 years, and 23 years, respectively. Steroids, Thymoglobulin, and rituximab are 3 major induction agents used in recent years. Prograf, steroids, and Cellcept are 3 major maintenance agents. Induction recipients (68% of all patients) had a significantly lower acute rejection rate than nonrecipients before discharge (60% versus 75%, p compatible transplants. ABO identical transplant recipients had a significantly higher 5-year graft survival rate than ABO compatible recipients (39% versus 21%, p compatible (N = 188, 11%) than in the early decade (p compatible transplants were lower than those of ABO identical transplants. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance (46% versus 49%, p = 0.07). The effect of ABO compatibility on graft outcome was further confirmed by Cox Analysis. ABO incompatible transplants are still rarely performed (N = 4) in intestine. In conclusion, annual case numbers of intestinal transplants have been decreasing, regardless of improved graft survival. ABO compatible intestinal transplants previously

  12. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant - Update and review of some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination techniques with immunoadsorption and anti-CD20 antibodies becoming the norm, and spleenectomy fading out. The implications and practices of transfusion medicine in organ transplant are also undergoing drastic changes. The practice of infusion of one unit of donor's blood preoperatively for immunomodulation is no longer practiced. Use of leuco-reduced products has shown decreasing trends of alloimmunization and graft rejection in cases of multiple surgeries related to organ transplants. Worldwide donor and recipient registry programmes are being setup and existing ones are being upgraded. Such a registry system has been opened in India for kidney transplant cases very recently. Due to such registry programmes the dependency on siblings and directed donations have decreased considerably. This review deals with some of the current issues contributing to the successful outcome of mismatched transplants and the changing concepts of transfusion medicine related to it.

  13. Hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection among solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J P; Wang, H E; Locke, J E; Mannon, R B; Safford, M M; Baddley, J W

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a considerable health issue in the United States and represents the most common healthcare-associated infection. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of CDI, which can affect both graft and patient survival. However, little is known about the impact of CDI on health services utilization posttransplantation. We examined hospital-onset CDI from 2012 to 2014 among transplant recipients in the University HealthSystem Consortium, which includes academic medical center-affiliated hospitals in the United States. Infection was five times more common among transplant recipients than among general medicine inpatients (209 vs 40 per 10 000 discharges), and factors associated with CDI among transplant recipients included transplant type, risk of mortality, comorbidities, and inpatient complications. Institutional risk-standardized CDI varied more than 3-fold across high-volume hospitals (infection ratio 0.54-1.82, median 1.04, interquartile range 0.78-1.28). CDI was associated with increased 30-day readmission, transplant organ complications, cytomegalovirus infection, inpatient costs, and lengths of stay. Total observed inpatient days and direct costs for those with CDI were substantially higher than risk-standardized expected values (40 094 vs 22 843 days, costs $198 728 368 vs $154 020 528). Further efforts to detect, prevent, and manage CDI among solid organ transplant recipients are warranted. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Interprofessional communication in organ transplantation in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Rosanne Etheredge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Communication is essential to the transplant process, but it is challenging in South Africa (SA because of the complexity of the country and the health system, the nature of transplantation as a technical procedure with inherent psychological considerations, and the large number of professionals involved. Transplant communication has not been explored in SA, and this study was the first to use health communication methods to generate empirical evidence relating to it. Objective. To explore communication in transplant settings in Gauteng Province, SA. Methods. Qualitative methods were used to collect data across six hospitals and transplant centres in Gauteng. State and private institutions were equally represented. Health professionals and transplant co-ordinators participated. Thematic analysis of data was undertaken. Results. Facilitators of interprofessional transplant communication included appreciation of its importance to good practice and cohesive individual transplant teams. Barriers to interprofessional communication were observed when individual teams had to come together in a multi-team, interdisciplinary environment, when interchange became aggressive, and when information was not passed on to other health professionals timeously. These barriers had implications for continuity of care and ethics, which could lead to moral distress. Conclusion. Transplantation in Gauteng is characterised by aspects of good teamwork, and the importance of effective communication is acknowledged. Transplantation also faces some challenges in terms of interprofessional communication. Recommendations for mitigating some of the gaps include integrating a health communication specialist into the transplant process, ‘knotworking’, the use of apology, and an advance warning text-message system for transplant professionals.

  15. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Michael

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  16. The Organization of Regulated Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Jeon, Doh-Shin; Menicucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the choice between vertical separation (VS) and vertical integration (VI) when two regulated firms produce complementary inputs with correlated costs and are protected by ex post break-even constraints. First, in the absence of collusion the regulator prefers VI (VS) for negative...

  17. Islet transplantation as safe and efficacious method to restore glycemic control and to avoid severe hypoglycemia after donor organ failure in pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A; Hochuli, Michel; Benediktsdottir, Bara D; Zuellig, Richard A; Tschopp, Oliver; Glenck, Michael; de Rougemont, Olivier; Oberkofler, Christian; Spinas, Giatgen A; Lehmann, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation with subsequent organ failure. Patients undergoing islet transplantation at our institution after pancreas organ failure were compared to a control group of patients with pancreas graft failure, but without islet transplantation and to a group receiving pancreas retransplantation. Ten patients underwent islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation failed and were followed for a median of 51 months. The primary end point of HbA1c islet transplantation and in all three patients in the pancreas retransplantation group, but by none of the patients in the group without retransplantation (n = 7). Insulin requirement was reduced by 50% after islet transplantation. Kidney function (eGFR) declined with a rate of -1.0 mL ± 1.2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 per year during follow-up after islet transplantation, which tended to be slower than in the group without retransplantation (P = .07). Islet transplantation after deceased donor pancreas transplant failure is a method that can safely improve glycemic control and reduce the incidence of severe hypoglycemia and thus establish similar glycemic control as after initial pancreas transplantation, despite the need of additional exogenous insulin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Trend and outcome of Korean patients receiving overseas solid organ transplantation between 1999 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Lee, Suk-Koo; Ha, Jongwon

    2011-01-01

    The disparity between patients awaiting transplantation and available organs forced many patients to go overseas to receive a transplant. Few data concerning overseas transplantation in Korea are available and the Korea Society for Transplantation conducted a survey to evaluate the trend and outcome of overseas transplantation. The survey, conducted on June 2006, included 25 hospitals nationwide that followed up patients after receiving kidney transplant (KT) or liver transplant (LT) overseas. The number of KT increased from 6 in 2001 to 206 in 2005 and for LT from 1 to 261. The information about overseas transplant came mostly from other patients (57%). The mean cost for KT was $21,000 and for LT $47,000. Patients were admitted for 18.5 days for KT and 43.4 days for LT. Graft and patient survival was 96.8% and 96.5% for KT (median follow up 23.1 months). Complication occurred in 42.5% including surgical complication (5.3%), acute rejection (9.7%) and infection (21.5%). Patient survival for LT was 91.8% (median follow up 21.2 months). Complication occurred in 44.7% including 19.4% biliary complication. Overseas KT and LT increased rapidly from 2001 to 2005. Survival of patients and grafts was comparable to domestic organ transplantation, but had a high complication rate.

  19. Annual literature review of donor-specific HLA antibodies after organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneku, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The literature review of post-transplant DSA published in 2011 shows: Observations after kidney and lung transplant in non-sensitized transplant recipients show that monitoring post-transplant HLA antibodies offers limited benefit in predicting acute rejection episodes. It remains to be seen if a different monitoring schedule and/ or studying other organs may show otherwise. Nevertheless, others have shown that monitoring post-transplant antibodies does identify patients at higher risk for chronic rejection. Studies in kidney, heart, and liver patients transplanted in the presence of preformed DSA show that detecting these antibodies early after transplant identifies a group of patients with greater risk for allograft dysfunction. New and larger studies using bortezomib and eculizumab to treat acute antibody-mediated rejection confirm earlier observations that these two therapies are effective in treating and preventing rejections. In general, identification of HLAantibodies and DSA after transplant is associated with higher rates of rejection and poor allograft survival in all organs examined. IgM antibodies appear to play an important role after lung transplants.

  20. Organ Transplantation in Iran; Current State and Challenges with a View on Ethical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Kiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues. Ethical issues in organ transplantation are very complicated due to many social factors such as religion, culture, and traditions of the affected communities. The ethical and legal points of removing organs from the body of a living or cadaveric source, the definition of brain death, the moral and legal conditions of the donor and the recipient, and the financial relationship between them and many others, are all critical issues in organ transplantation. While there may be no available explicit solution to these issues, they should be rigorously considered by the experts. Efforts to systematically eliminate barriers and solve problems in organ transplantation, can not only reduce the costs of maintaining brain-dead patients and encourage patients that need organ transplantation but can also prevent immoral and illegal activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important and current challenges in organ transplantation with a view to the ethical considerations, and we have suggested some strategies to extend it in Iran.

  1. EPICO 3.0. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Aguado, José María; Ferrer, Ricard; Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Maseda, Emilio; Llinares, Pedro; Grau, Santiago; Muñoz, Patricia; Fortún, Jesús; Bouzada, Mercedes; Pozo, Juan Carlos Del; León, Rafael

    Although over the past decade the management of invasive fungal infection has improved, considerable controversy persists regarding antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. To identify the key clinical knowledge and make by consensus the high level recommendations required for antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was conducted anonymously and by e-mail with 30 national multidisciplinary experts, specialists in invasive fungal infections from six national scientific societies, including intensivists, anesthetists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases that responded to 12 questions prepared by the coordination group, after an exhaustive review of the literature in the last few years. The level of agreement achieved among experts in each of the categories should be equal to or greater than 70% in order to make a clinical recommendation. In a second term, after extracting the recommendations of the selected topics, a face-to-face meeting was held with more than 60 specialists who were asked to validate the pre-selected recommendations and derived algorithm. Echinocandin antifungal prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant with major risk factors (retransplantation, renal failure requiring dialysis after transplantation, pretransplant liver failure, not early reoperation, or MELD>30); heart transplant with hemodialysis, and surgical re-exploration after transplantation; environmental colonization by Aspergillus, or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; and pancreas and intestinal transplant in case of acute graft rejection, hemodialysis, initial graft dysfunction, post-perfusion pancreatitis with anastomotic problems or need for laparotomy after transplantation. Antifungal fluconazole prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant without major risk factors and MELD 20-30, split or living

  2. Long-Term Follow-Up of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in a Dual Solid Organ Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bilal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most frequent causes of healthcare-associated infections, and its rates are also increasing in the community. Mounting evidence suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT may be effective; however, as there is paucity of data regarding the use of FMT in patients with solid organ transplants, we present a case of successful FMT in a patient with dual solid organ transplant.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Susan E; Vatsayan, Anant

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first identified human oncovirus and is also one of the most ubiquitous viral infections known with established infections in more than 90% of individuals by early adulthood. EBV establishes latency by controlling expression of the viral genome making it silent to immune surveillance. In immunocompetent individuals, up to 1% of circulating T cells are directed at maintaining control over EBV replication. In addition to being involved in oncogenesis of lymphoid and epithelial tumors in immune-competent individuals, loss of immune surveillance over EBV predisposes individuals to EBV malignancies. Lymphoid proliferations from EBV-infected B cells arise in up to 20% of recipients of solid organ transplants (SOTs). One question not answered is why, when EBV requires such active immune surveillance, EBV malignancies are not even more prevalent in severely immune-compromised individuals. A better understanding of who develops complications related to EBV and what the immunologic risks are will ultimately make it feasible to perform prophylactic trials in those at highest risk. This review summarizes our current understanding of factors in SOT recipients that predispose them to the development of an EBV malignancy and that predict response to initial therapy. We then review the current landscape of those therapies, focusing on the goal of restoring long-term EBV-directed immunity to patients at risk. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Brain death and organ transplantation: ethical dilemmas for nursing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windels-Buhr, D

    1997-06-01

    According to the WHO Program, nurses should be active in public health care as equal members of a multiprofessional team. This position requires competent professional action, which also implies moral competence, especially necessitated by the coming paradigmatic changes caused by shifts in the previous and current boundaries of the paradigm human being. One reason for this shift are the greater medical technical possibilities. The medical definition of brain death as the death of a human being per se is one example of the altered boundary and its consequences. Must future components of the nursing metaparadigm be changed because of this? To what extent is nursing ethically obligated to integrate changes in social values into its metaparadigm, ethics and objectives? The nursing metaparadigm, Henderson's definition of nursing, the ICN's Basic Code of Ethics, and the nursing model according to Roper, Logan & Tierney were used as the basis in the analysis of the subject matter and problems. Furthermore, philosophical viewpoints of Jonas & Harris will be included to clarify the deontological and teleological aspects of standard ethics. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the intra- and interprofessional ethical discourse about brain death and organ transplantation among nursing professionals.

  5. 76 FR 11798 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration published a...

  6. The future of replacement and restorative therapies: from organ transplantation to regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, A S

    2013-01-01

    As we continue to have severe shortages of organs for transplantation, we need to consider alternatives for the future. The most likely to make a real difference in the long term is regenerative medicine (RM), a field that has emerged from the conjunction of stem cell biology and cell therapies; gene therapy; biomaterials and tissue engineering; and organ transplantation. Transplantation and RM share the same essential goal: to replace or restore organ function. Herein I briefly review some major breakthroughs of RM that are relevant to the future of organ transplantation, with a focus on the needs of people in the developing world. A definition of RM is provided and the ethical, legal, and social issues are briefly highlighted. In conclusion, I provide a projection of what the future may be for RM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, B; Burdet, C; François, H; Durrbach, A; Duclos-Vallée, J C; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Poujol, P; Launay, O; Samuel, D; Vittecoq, D; Consigny, P H

    2013-09-01

    Immunization using live attenuated vaccines represents a contra-indication after solid organ transplantation (SOT): consequently, transplant candidates planning to travel in countries where yellow fever is endemic should be vaccinated prior to transplantation. The persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after transplantation has not been studied yet. We measured yellow-fever neutralizing antibodies in 53 SOT recipients vaccinated prior to transplantation (including 29 kidney recipients and 18 liver recipients). All but one (98%) had protective titers of antibodies after a median duration of 3 years (min.: 0.8, max.: 21) after transplantation. The median antibody level was 40 U/L (interquartile range: 40-80). For the 46 patients with a known or estimated date of vaccination, yellow-fever antibodies were still detectable after a median time of 13 years (range: 2-32 years) post-immunization. Our data suggest there is long-term persistence of antibodies to yellow fever in SOT recipients who have been vaccinated prior to transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Transplantation after blunt trauma to the liver: a valuable option or just a "waste of organs"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuer M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Liver injury due to trauma is a rare indication for transplantation. The main indications in such cases were uncontrollable bleeding and insufficient hepatic function. Because of poor results, liver transplantation in these patients is occasionally described as "waste of organs", however based on insufficient data. This study aims to report our experience and to critically question the indication of transplantation in these patients. Methods All liver transplantations at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. This covered 1,529 liver transplants between September 1987 and December 2008. Of them, 6 transplants were performed due to motor-vehicle accidents which caused uncontrollable acute liver trauma in 4 patients. The patients' peri-operative course, short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Results Five deceased-donor liver transplantations (4 full size, 1 split and 1 living donor (right transplantation were performed. The median GCS score was 9/15; the median MELD score was 15. Postoperative complications were observed in 3 patients, requiring re-operation in 2. After a median (range follow-up of 32.95 (10.3-55.6 months, 2 patients are alive and remain well on immunosuppression. Conclusion Liver transplantation in patients with otherwise surgically uncontrollable acute liver injury can be indicated as a life saving procedure and can be performed successfully in highly selected cases.

  9. Benefits of Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) specialized training on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, Melania G; Harrison, Tyler R; Valero, Ricard; Morgan, Susan E; Páez, Gloria; Zhou, Quan; Rébék-Nagy, Gábor; Manyalich, Martí

    2015-04-01

    Training on organ donation and transplantation is relevant for transplantation improvement. This study aimed at investigating the perceived benefits of Transplant Procurement Management training programs on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. An online survey was developed in 5 languages (Spanish, English, Italian, French, and Portuguese) and its link was emailed to 6839 individuals. They were asked to forward it to other professionals in organ donation and transplantation. The link was also shared on Facebook and at relevant congresses. Two research questions on the perceived influence of specialized training programs were identified. A total of 1102 participants (16.1%) took the survey; 87% reported participating in Transplant Procurement Management training programs, of which 95% selected Transplant Procurement Management courses as the most influential training they had participated in. For research question one, 98% reported influence on knowledge (score 4.5 [out of 5]), 93% on technical (4.2) and communication skills (4.1), 89% on attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (4.1), 92% on motivation to work (4.2), 91% on desire to innovate (4.0), 87% and 79% on ability to change organ donation and trans plantation practices (3.9) and policies (3.5). For research question 2, main and interaction effects for position at the time of training and type of training were reported. Transplant Procurement Management training programs had positive perceived effects.

  10. Everolimus: a review of its pharmacologic properties and use in solid organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Huiras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of everolimus. Primary literature was obtained via MEDLINE. Studies and abstracts evaluating everolimus in solid organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies and abstracts only were selected for inclusion. Everolimus, a proliferation signal inhibitor that prevents growth factor-induced cell proliferation, is effective in reducing the incidence of acute rejection in solid organ transplantation. This agent is also useful in reducing cyclosporine-related nephrotoxicity. Everolimus directly inhibits vascular remodelling and intimal thickening, which are often associated with chronic rejection. Clinical trials have shown that everolimus is generally safe. The most commonly reported adverse events were haematologic effects and hyperlipidaemia. Everolimus is the second proliferation signal inhibitor to be proven effective in preventing acute rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. However, its exact role in the transplant immunosuppressive armamentarium is still unknown.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections in allogeneic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, Jörg J; Rüping, Maria J G T; Steinbach, Angela; Cornely, Oliver A

    2010-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are severe complications in patients receiving immunosuppression after solid organ or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extensive study has been conducted on therapeutic strategies for IFD in neutropenic patients, mostly those with hematological malignancy. There is an ongoing discussion on whether these studies may be applied to transplant patients as well. We have reviewed relevant literature on transplantation and clinical mycology of the last 20 years and selected articles relevant for today's treatment decisions. This article reports on the epidemiology of IFD in transplant recipients and current antifungal drugs in the context of tansplantation medicine. For invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis, we give a detailed report of current clinical evidence. This review is intended as a quick-start for clinicians and other care providers new to transplant care and as an update for experienced transplant physicians. In a field in which evidence is scarce and conflicting, we provide evidence-based strategies for diagnosing and treating the most relevant IFD in transplant recipients. Physicians treating transplant patients should maintain a high level of awareness towards IFD. They should know the local epidemiology of IFD to make the optimal decision between current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Prophylaxis or early treatment should be considered given the high mortality of IFD.

  12. Liver transplantation utilizing old donor organs: a German single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchfuss, F; Voigt, R; Dittmar, Y; Heise, M; Settmacher, U

    2010-01-01

    Due to the current profound lack of suitable donor organs, transplant centers are increasingly forced to accept so-called marginal organs. One criterion for marginal donors is the donor age >65 years. We have presented herein the impact of higher donor age on graft and patient survival. Since 2004, 230 liver transplantations have been performed at our center, including 54 donor organs (23.5%) from individuals >65 years of age. We performed a retrospective analysis of recipient and graft survivals. The overall 1-year mortality was 22.2% (12/54) among recipients of organs from older donors versus 19.5% among recipients whose donors were donor organs were grouped according to age, the 1-year mortality in patients receiving organs from donors aged 65-69 years was 30% (6/20); 70-74 years, 29.4% (5/17); and donors >75 years, 5.9% (1/17). There was no significant correlation between mortality rate and the number of additional criteria of a marginal donor organ. The current lack of donor organs forces transplant centers to accept organs from older individuals; increasingly older patients are being recruited for the donor pool. Our results showed that older organs may be transplanted with acceptable outcomes. This observation was consistent with data from the current literature. It should be emphasized, however, that caution is advised when considering the acceptance of older organs for patients with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.

  13. [Efficiency indicators to assess the organ donation and transplantation process: systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Marina Martins; Araujo, Claudia Affonso; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Schirmer, Janine

    2016-08-01

    To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation." Of the 344 articles retrieved, 23 original articles published between 1992 and 2013 were selected and reviewed for analysis of efficiency indicators. The review revealed 117 efficiency indicators, which were grouped according to similarity of content and divided into three categories: 1) 71 indicators related to organ donation, covering mortality statistics, communication of brain death, clinical status of donors and exclusion of donors for medical reasons, attitude of families, confirmation of donations, and extraction of organs and tissues; 2) 22 indicators related to organ transplantation, covering the surgical procedure per se and post-transplantation follow-up; and 3) 24 indicators related to the demand for organs and the resources of hospitals involved in the process. Even if organ transplantation is a recent phenomenon, the high number of efficiency indicators described in the literature suggests that scholars interested in this field have been searching for ways to measure performance. However, there is little standardization of the indicators used. Also, most indicators focus on the donation step, suggesting gaps in the measurement of efficiency at others points in the process. Additional indicators are needed to monitor important stages, such as organ distribution (for example, organ loss indicators) and post-transplantation aspects (for example, survival and quality of life).

  14. The Times, They are a-Changing: HOPE for HIV-to-HIV Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ghady; Singh, Nina

    2017-09-01

    HIV-infected persons who achieve undetectable viral loads on antiretroviral therapy currently have near-normal lifespans. Liver disease is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths, and as a result of longer survival, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease in HIV is increasing. HIV-infected persons undergoing organ transplantation generally achieve comparable patient and graft survival rates compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, despite a nearly threefold increased risk of acute rejection. However, the ongoing shortage of suitable organs can limit transplantation as an option, and patients with HIV have higher waitlist mortality than others. One way to solve this problem would be to expand the donor pool to include HIV-infected individuals. The results of a South Africa study involving 27 HIV-to-HIV kidney transplants showed promise, with 3- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates similar to those of their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Similarly, individual cases of HIV-to-HIV liver transplantation from the United Kingdom and Switzerland have also shown good results. In the United States, HIV-to-HIV kidney and liver transplants are currently permitted only under a research protocol. Nevertheless, areas of ambiguity exist, including streamlining organ allocation practices, optimizing HIV-infected donor and recipient selection, managing donor-derived transmission of a resistant HIV strain, determining optimal immunosuppressive and antiretroviral regimens, and elucidating the incidence of rejection in HIV-to-HIV solid organ transplant recipients.

  15. Evidence of the Association Between Psychology and Tissue and Organ Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J D A; Ariente, L C; Roza, B A; Mucci, S

    2016-09-01

    The addition of psychologists to organ transplant teams is still new in Brazil. In seeking the efficient performance of this professional, the knowledge of the scientific production and the development of research in the area is fundamental. In this sense, this study aims to survey the Brazilian scientific research that has investigated the psychologic aspects involved in tissue and organ transplantation. A literature narrative review was performed with the use of the "Transplante AND Psicologia" descriptors in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the CAPES Journal Portal. Fifty-three articles were found, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria: publications dating from 2000 to 2014 and the main topic of interest of the studies being quality of life, followed by organ donation. The instruments used most frequently were interviews developed by the researchers and the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Recent Brazilian studies on the association between psychology and transplantation are still scarce, possibly because of the recent addition of psychologists to transplantation teams. Therefore, it is suggested that more scientific research is made in the area and that the objects of study are more varied, to ensure adequacy of the psychologist to meet the specific demands of organ and tissue transplantation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medication adherence among adolescent solid-organ transplant recipients: A survey of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pooja; Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Kelly, Sarah L; Buchanan, Cindy; Rawlinson, Alana Resmini

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to medication adherence and to discover recommendations for interventions among providers of pediatric solid-organ transplant patients. An anonymous online survey was administered to a multidisciplinary pool of pediatric transplant providers from February 2015 to March 2016. It consisted of 15 questions regarding transplant providers' attitudes, clinical practice, and beliefs pertaining to medication adherence among teenage solid-organ transplant recipients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were coded and categorized into themes. One hundred ten surveys were completed by providers specializing in pediatric heart, kidney, liver, lung, and/or intestinal transplantation. Commonly cited reasons for poor adherence were forgetting/poor planning (94%), the desire to be normal (86%), lack of support (86%), and poor parental monitoring (79%). Suggestions to improve adherence included increasing peer and family support, providing education, and incorporating technology into adherence regimens. Barriers to adherence in transplant patients are recognized by providers and are both similar to and disparate from patient and family identified barriers published in the literature. Providers recognize the importance of education, social support, and technologically driven interventions on improving outcomes in the transplant population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SOME OF THE MECHANISMS OF EXTRACORPOREAL PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY IN SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the risk of kidney transplant rejection is a perspective trend in modern medical science. One of the promising methods for reducing the activity of immune conflict between the recipient and the donor organ and the achievement of partial immunological tolerance is photochemotherapy. This method is widely used in over- seas heart and lung Transplantation. Domestic experience of applying this method in renal transplant recipients is extremely small. In this review of literature a modern representation of the scientists on the mechanism of action of this method is presented. 

  18. Moving beyond HLA: a review of nHLA antibodies in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, Tara K; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-11-01

    Given the finite graft life expectancy of HLA identical organ transplants and the recognition of humoral graft injury in the absence of donor directed anti-HLA antibodies, the clinical impact of antibodies against non-HLA (nHLA) antigens in transplant injury is being increasingly recognized. The recognition of the impact of nHLA antigen discrepancies between donor and recipient on transplant outcomes is timely given the advances in rapid and lower cost sequencing methods that can soon provide complete maps of all recipient and donor HLA and nHLA mismatch data. In this review, we present a summary of recent reports evaluating the role of nHLA antibodies and their relevance to the field of organ transplantation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alloantibodies in Organ Transplant: A Review of Data Published in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Curtis; Everly, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been multiple studies published on longitudinal and retrospective analysis of anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) antibodies. The focus of these reports was to determine specific characteristics of the impact of donor specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) in organ transplantation. There has been a growing concern about DSA in a multitude of organ transplants. Research efforts are attempting to gain a better understanding of DSA and possible treatment implications for patients with DSA. In 2015, many studies confirm and expand upon both the understanding of the humoral theory and the clinical applications of DSA in transplantation. This review highlights some of these publications and their contributions to the humoral theory of transplantation. Copyright© 2016 by the Terasaki Foundation Laboratory.

  20. Ethical and Legal Implications of Elective Ventilation and Organ Transplantation: “Medicalization” of Dying versus Medical Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Frati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical controversy surrounds the type of allowable interventions to be carried out in patients who are potential organ donors, in an attempt to improve organ perfusion and successful transplantation. The main goal is to transplant an organ in conditions as close as possible to its physiological live state. “Elective ventilation” (EV, that is, the use of ventilation for the sole purpose of retrieving the organs of patients close to death, is an option which offsets the shortage of organ donation. We have analyzed the legal context of the dying process of the organ donor and the feasibility of EV in the Italian context. There is no legal framework regulating the practice of EV, neither is any real information given to the general public. A public debate has yet to be initiated. In the Italian cultural and legislative scenario, we believe that, under some circumstances (i.e., the expressed wishes of the patient, even in the form of advance directives, the use of EV does not violate the principle of beneficence. We believe that the crux of the matter lies in the need to explore the real determination and will of the patient and his/her orientation towards the specific aim of organ donation.

  1. Protein regulation of induced pluripotent stem cells by transplanting in a Huntington's animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, S; Han, L; Zhou, G; Mo, C; Duan, J; He, Z; Wang, Z; Ren, L; Zhang, J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional recovery and protein regulation by transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells in a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD). In a quinolinic acid-induced rat model of striatal degeneration, induced pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the ipsilateral lateral ventricle 10 days after the quinolinic acid injection. At 8 weeks after transplantation, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scan and balance-beam test were performed to evaluate the functional recovery of experimental rats. In addition, immunofluorescence and protein array analysis were used to investigate the regulation of stimulated protein expression in the striatum. At 8 weeks after induced pluripotent stem cell transplantation, motor function was improved in comparison with the quinolinic acid-treated rats. High fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the injured striatum was also observed by PET/CT scans. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that implanted cells migrated from the lateral ventricle into the lesioned striatum and differentiated into striatal projection neurons. Array analysis showed a significant upregulation of GFR (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor) alpha-1, Adiponectin/Acrp30, basic-fibroblast growth factors, MIP-1 (Macrophage-inflammatory protein) alpha and leptin, as well as downregulation of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-3 in striatum after transplantatation of induced pluripotent stem cells in comparison with the quinolinic acid -treated rats. The findings in this work indicate that transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells is a promising therapeutic candidate for HD. © 2016 British Neuropathological Society.

  2. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... KEYWORDS: Ethical, Islamic perspective, legal, Nigeria, .... preservation solution and then placed in two plastic bags and stored at 0-4°C. Samples of donor spleen and ..... transplants: Ethical, social and religious issues in a multi cultural society. Asia Pac J .... Submit good quality color images. Each image ...

  3. Demonstration of SLUMIS: a clinical database and management information system for a multi organ transplant program.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtz, M.; Bennett, T.; Garvin, P.; Manuel, F.; Williams, M.; Langreder, S.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the rapid evolution of the heart, heart/lung, liver, kidney and kidney/pancreas transplant programs at our institution, and because of a lack of an existing comprehensive database, we were required to develop a computerized management information system capable of supporting both clinical and research requirements of a multifaceted transplant program. SLUMIS (ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY MULTI-ORGAN INFORMATION SYSTEM) was developed for the following reasons: 1) to comply with the reportin...

  4. SHOULD WE ALLOW ORGAN DONATION EUTHANASIA? ALTERNATIVES FOR MAXIMIZING THE NUMBER AND QUALITY OF ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives. PMID:20459428

  5. Should we allow organ donation euthanasia? Alternatives for maximizing the number and quality of organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Induction of unresponsiveness to major transplantable organs in adult mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Mollen, N.; Hirasawa, H.; Asano, T.; Ferrebee, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Transplantation of renal allografts obtained from prospectively selected genotypically DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated dogs reconstituted with their own stored bone marrow has produced a state of unresponsiveness to these kidneys in the recipients. Eleven of 18 kidneys transplanted at 12 hours after marrow replacement currently survive with normal function and maintain life in the recipients. Similar results occurred in eight of 13 allografts transplanted at 28 hours and in eight of 13 kidneys grafted at 36 hours after marrow replacement. Only four of 16 recipients of kidneys transplanted at the time of marrow replacement were unresponsive to their allografts. Similarly, only five of 19 recipients of kidneys placed in irradiated dogs at 40 hours before marrow replacement accepted such allografts. When kidney transplants were placed into the recipients 20 hours before removal of marrow, irradiation, and reconstitution with stored marrow, only three of 21 dogs became unresponsive to such allografts. In five of 12 instances, the recipients were also unresponsive to skin allografts obtained from their respective kidney donors. Rejection of these skin grafts had no detectable effect on the function and survival of kidney allografts from the same source. Seven of eight skin grafts obtained from other DLA-identical donors were rejected. Eleven DLA-incompatible skin allografts placed on the recipients at the same time were rejected within 11 to 20 days. Supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow replacement can establish in the adult canine host a privileged phase of immunological reactivity during which exposure to alloantigens produces specific long-term unresponsiveness rather than sensitization. The use of stored autologous rather than allogeneic bone marrow for reconstitution of the irradiated recipient eliminates the hazards of GVH complication usually associated with this procedure

  7. [Short-term outcomes of lung transplant recipients using organs from brain death donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W X; Jiang, C; Liu, X G; Huang, W; Chen, C; Jiang, L; Yang, B; Wu, K; Chen, Q K; Yang, Y; Yu, Y M; Jiang, G N

    2016-12-01

    Objective: To assess short-term outcomes after lung transplantation with organs procured following brain death. Methods: Between April 2015 and July 2016, all 17 recipients after lung transplantation using organs from brain death donors (DBD) at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine were enrolled in this study. All patients were male, aging (60±7) years, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 1 silicosis. Seventeen donors were 16 males and 1 female, with 10 traumatic brain injury, 5 cerebrovascular accident and 2 sudden cardiac death. Of 17 recipients receiving DBD lung transplant, 16 were single lung transplant. Data were collected including intubation duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, incidence of pulmonary infection bronchus anastomosis complications, primary graft dysfunction (PGD), and acute rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) as well as mortality of 90-day after lung transplantation. Results: Median duration of intubation were 2 (2) days ( M ( Q R )) in recipients after lung transplantation. The incidence of pulmonary infection and bronchus anastomosis complications were 15/17 and 5/17, respectively. Median length of stay in hospital were 56 (19) days. The ratio of readmission 1 month after discharge were 10/17. Mortality of 90-day post-transplant were 2/17. The incidence of PGD and BOS were 1/17 and 2/17, respectively. Conclusion: Recipients with DBD lung transplantation have an acceptable survival during short-term follow-up, but with higher incidences of complications related to infection post-transplantation.

  8. Impact of HLA diversity on donor selection in organ and stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Claas, Frans

    2013-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex is a multigene system encoding polymorphic human leucocyte antigens (HLA) that present peptides derived from pathogens to the immune system. The high diversity of HLA alleles and haplotypes in the worldwide populations represents a major barrier to organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, because HLA incompatibilities are efficiently recognized by T and B lymphocytes. In organ transplantation, pre-transplant anti-HLA antibodies need to be taken into account for organ allocation. Although HLA-incompatible transplants can be performed thanks to immunosuppressive drugs, the de novo production of anti-HLA antibodies still represents a major cause of graft failure. The HLAMatchmaker computer algorithm determines the immunogenicity of HLA mismatches and allows to define HLA antigens that will not induce an antibody response. Because of the much higher stringency of HLA compatibility criteria in stem cell transplantation, the best donor is a HLA genotypically identical sibling. However, more than 50% of the transplants are now performed with hematopoietic stem cells from volunteer donors selected from the international registry. The development of European national registries covering populations with different HLA haplotype frequencies is essential for optimizing donor search algorithms and providing the best chance for European patients to find a fully compatible donor.

  9. Routine recovery: an ethical plan for greatly increasing the supply of transplantable organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spital, Aaron; Taylor, James S

    2008-04-01

    All current organ procurement policies require some form of consent. Many families refuse to permit organ recovery from a recently deceased relative; therefore, the major cost of requiring consent is the loss of some lives that could have been saved through transplantation. Here, we argue for a much more efficient approach to organ procurement from brain dead individuals - routine recovery of all transplantable organs without consent. Careful analysis of the relevant literature shows that, compared with its competitors, routine recovery has the greatest potential to increase cadaveric organ procurement and save lives while causing very little harm. Furthermore, a recent survey suggests that 30% of the US public would already accept routine recovery even though the respondents were not educated regarding the value of this approach. Patients on the transplant waiting list are dying while organs that could have saved them are being buried or burned because of family refusal to allow posthumous organ procurement. Routine recovery would eliminate this tragic loss of life-saving organs without violating ethical principles. Indeed, we argue that of all the proposals designed to increase the supply of transplantable cadaveric organs, routine recovery is the best.

  10. Outcomes of Foot and Ankle Surgery in Diabetic Patients Who Have Undergone Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Richard H; Wukich, Dane K

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems are highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Increased rates of surgical site infections and noninfectious complications, such as malunion, delayed union, nonunion, and hardware failure, have also been more commonly observed in diabetic patients who undergo foot and ankle surgery. DM is a substantial contributor of perioperative morbidity in patients with solid organ transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, postoperative foot and ankle complications have not been studied in a cohort of diabetic patients who previously underwent solid organ transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery in a cohort of diabetic transplant patients and to compare these outcomes with those of diabetic patients without a history of transplantation. We compared the rates of infectious and noninfectious complications after foot and ankle surgery in 28 diabetic transplant patients and 56 diabetic patients without previous transplantation and calculated the odds ratios (OR) for significant findings. The diabetic transplant patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery in the present cohort were not at an increased risk of overall complications (OR 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33 to 2.08, p = .67), infectious complications (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.09 to 3.09, p = .49), or noninfectious complications (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.41 to 3.15, p = .81). Four transplant patients (14.3%) died of non-orthopedic surgery-related events during the follow-up period; however, no deaths occurred in the control group. Diabetic patients with previous solid organ transplantation were not at an increased risk of developing postoperative complications after foot and ankle surgery, despite being immunocompromised. The transplant patients had a greater mortality rate, but their premature death was unrelated to their foot and ankle surgery. Surgeons treating transplant patients can recommend foot and ankle surgery when

  11. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  12. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  13. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network; final rule revision of comment period and effective dates--HRSA. Extension of comment period and delay of effective date for the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This document sets forth the revisions required by the Fiscal Year 1998 Supplemental Appropriations Act, Public Law 105-174, signed into law by the President on May 1, 1998. Section 4002 of that Act states that public comments on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Final Rule are permitted until August 31, 1998, and that the OPTN rule will not become effective before October 1, 1998. This document is provided to notify the public about these provisions and to make corresponding changes to the regulation.

  15. Evaluation of the Motivation to Consent to and to Refuse Organ Donation Among Participants of Educational Meetings Concerning Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J; Kapelak, B; Przybyłowski, P

    2016-06-01

    Improvement of the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies applied in many countries aiming to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Research shows that the outlook on organ donation and the degree of the willingness to become an organ donor are associated with a wide range of variables. The main objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the willingness to donate organs and the reasons for refusing consent. The study included 191 participants (135 female and 56 male) aged 16 to 61 years (mean age 26.86 ± 12.88). A cross-sectional study was conducted during educational meetings concerning organ donation that was addressed to students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of attitudes toward transplantation, consisting of 26 closed questions (with the consent of the Statistical Office in Krakow). In all, 97.4% of the respondents accepted transplantation from living donors, and 95.8% accepted deceased donations. Of the respondents, 78.5% agreed to posthumous life-saving organ donation. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex, age, social group, place of living, and the reasons for their willingness to donate organs both posthumously and during their lifetime, as well as reasons for refusal. Our findings showed that the study group in general had favorable views on treatment involving transplantation and declared willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These views vary depending on demographic variables. The education on the subject of organ and tissue donation has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An audit of pregnancy outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients at a metropolitan hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunjing E; Nayyar, Roshini; Diplock, Hayley

    2018-04-22

    Pregnancies in patients with solid organ transplants have higher rates of complications and caesarean sections (CS). To perform an audit of the pregnancy outcomes in transplant recipients, to determine the rate of CS in our cohort, the appropriate skin incision for CS in these patients and to formulate recommendations for preoperative planning. This is a retrospective cohort study. All patients who had a solid organ transplant were identified from the obstetrics database. The operation records of the transplant recipients who delivered by CS were reviewed and the de-identified data were evaluated for pregnancy outcomes. This cohort consisted of 22 women: six had simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplants and 16 had kidney transplants. Over a ten-year period, four women had two pregnancies and one had a twin pregnancy, thus 27 babies were born. The rate of CS was 58% (n = 15) and the surgical approach in 13 of these patients was by Pfannenstiel incision. One patient had an elective midline incision at the first CS, which was repeated in the next pregnancy. Two CS were complicated by bladder injury, both occurring in SPK recipients. Patients with solid organ transplants have a higher rate of CS and SPK patients may be at a higher risk of bladder injuries during CS. Our data suggest that Pfannenstiel skin incision is still suitable for these patients. We recommend reviewing the operative details of the transplant operation and a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for pre-operative planning. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  18. Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Dialogue with American Indian Healers and Western Health-Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Bellanger, Patricia; Norman, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Surgically replacing organs in the human body has become an acceptable and successful procedure in Western medicine. In more recent years, replacing major organs in the human body with those procured from deceased or living donors has become commonplace. Disparities exist at the earliest stages in the donor and transplantation process in that…

  19. The Bioethics Convention of the Council of Europe and organ sharing for transplant recipients in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Lasse A

    2002-01-01

    Even though organ transplantation is often life saving, the lack of donor organs is limiting the number of transplantation procedures. In small countries, like the Scandinavian countries, the small population level highlights this problem of organ availability which is further complicated by the fact that the utilisation of available organs may be prevented by histoincompatibility between the host and donor. This problem can only be solved by sharing both medical information and organs across countries. In Scandinavia, an organ sharing program (Scandiatransplant) was initiated between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in the late 1960's long before the establishment of European Economic Area and the expansion of the European Union in Northern Europe. Even though trade in human organs is prohibited by international conventions, medical procedures and services that are associated with transplant activities are such services whose "free movement" within the Union is guaranteed by the Convention of Rome. These services can thus be offered across the national borders for remuneration. The potential impact of the conventions of the Council of Europe on transplantation services and organ sharing programs within European Union will be discussed.

  20. Impact Factors and Attitudes Toward Organ Donation Among Transplantation Patients and Their Caregivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q-X; Xie, J-F; Zhou, J-D; Xiao, S-S; Liu, A-Z; Hu, G-Q; Chen, Y; Wang, C-Y

    2017-11-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate the attitudes toward organ donation among renal transplantation patients and their caregivers. In addition, we sought to explore the impact factors that affect their attitudes toward deceased organ donation. A self-administrated questionnaire was used, which consisted of two parts: 1) demographic data, and 2) transplantation and donation-related data. This study was conducted in three transplantation follow-up centers in three hospitals using a cross-sectional approach. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analysis descriptive and inferential statistics for data. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. We received 426 effective questionnaires. The renal transplantation patients' mean age was 40.84 years. Among these patients, 67.8% were willing to accept the organ transplantation surgery for their relatives, 67.4% were willing to donate a living kidney to a close relative, 62.7% were willing to donate organs after death, 53.5% were willing to register in the national organ donation system, and 51.4% were willing to sign the organ donation consent when facing their relatives becoming a potential organ donor. Age, marriage status, education level, understanding of transplantation procedures and understanding of donation procedures had statistical significance in the difference of the attitudes toward donate their organs after death (P donate organs after death than their caregivers, but both their attitudes toward deceased donation were not very optimistic. There is a significant relationship between participants' willingness and knowledge of organ donation; patients with more understanding of the transplantation and donation procedure were more willing to donate organs after death. Affected by traditional values such as Confucianism, many people still cannot accept registering in the national organ donation system or sign the organ donation consent when facing their relatives

  1. Ethics and regulation in organ procurement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Terrence F; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the role of ethics and regulation in human research conducted by organ procurement agencies; basic ethical principles for human research are outlined. Organ procurement agencies are not required to observe federal regulations; however, voluntary adherence will ensure that procurement research is conducted according to current standards of ethical practice. Although most organ procurement research will qualify for exempt status, this determination should be made by an institutional review board. Even if studies qualify for exempt status, there is a moral presumption that informed consent should be sought, unless certain narrow conditions for waiver of consent are satisfied. Finally, when future research utilizing organ procurement records is anticipated, procurement coordinators should provide sufficiently detailed information to families about such plans to permit their advance informed consent to research activities.

  2. Imaging spectrum of central nervous system complications of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Bargallo, Nuria [Universitat de Barcelona, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBARS), Resonance Magnetic Image Core Facility, Barcelona (Spain); Floeisand, Yngvar [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Department of Hematology, Oslo (Norway); Sponheim, Jon [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Graus, Francesc [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Neurology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBARS), Neuroimmunology Program, Barcelona (Spain); Hald, John K. [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-02-15

    Neurologic complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a practical imaging approach based on the timeline and etiology of CNS abnormalities, and neurologic complications related to transplantation of specific organs. The lesions will be classified based upon the interval from HSCT procedure: pre-engraftment period <30 days, early post-engraftment period 30-100 days, late post-engraftment period >100 days, and the interval from SOT procedure: postoperative phase 1-4 weeks, early posttransplant syndromes 1-6 months, late posttransplant syndromes >6 months. Further differentiation will be based on etiology: infections, drug toxicity, metabolic derangements, cerebrovascular complications, and posttransplantation malignancies. In addition, differentiation will be based on complications specific to the type of transplantation: allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), heart, lung, kidney, pancreas, and liver. Thus, in this article we emphasize the strategic role of neuroradiology in the diagnosis and response to treatment by utilizing a methodical approach in the work up of patients with neurologic complications after transplantation. (orig.)

  3. Imaging spectrum of central nervous system complications of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, Andres; Bargallo, Nuria; Floeisand, Yngvar; Sponheim, Jon; Graus, Francesc; Hald, John K.

    2017-01-01

    Neurologic complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a practical imaging approach based on the timeline and etiology of CNS abnormalities, and neurologic complications related to transplantation of specific organs. The lesions will be classified based upon the interval from HSCT procedure: pre-engraftment period <30 days, early post-engraftment period 30-100 days, late post-engraftment period >100 days, and the interval from SOT procedure: postoperative phase 1-4 weeks, early posttransplant syndromes 1-6 months, late posttransplant syndromes >6 months. Further differentiation will be based on etiology: infections, drug toxicity, metabolic derangements, cerebrovascular complications, and posttransplantation malignancies. In addition, differentiation will be based on complications specific to the type of transplantation: allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), heart, lung, kidney, pancreas, and liver. Thus, in this article we emphasize the strategic role of neuroradiology in the diagnosis and response to treatment by utilizing a methodical approach in the work up of patients with neurologic complications after transplantation. (orig.)

  4. Altered Osteocyte-Specific Protein Expression in Bone after Childhood Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata C; Valta, Helena; Tumber, Navdeep; Salusky, Isidro B; Jalanko, Hannu; Mäkitie, Outi; Wesseling Perry, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Bone fragility is common post solid organ transplantation but little is known about bone pathology on a tissue level. Abnormal osteocytic protein expression has been linked to compromised bone health in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and immunosuppressant medications may impact osteocyte function. Transiliac bone biopsies were obtained from 22 pediatric solid organ allograft recipients (average age 15.6 years) an average of 6.3 ± 1.2 years after transplantation and from 12 pediatric pre-dialysis CKD patients (average age 13.2 years). Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry for FGF23, DMP1, sclerostin, and osteopontin were performed on all biopsies. FGF23 and sclerostin were increased in transplant recipients relative to non-transplant CKD, regardless of the type of allograft received and despite, in the case of liver and heart recipients, a higher GFR. Bone DMP1 expression was higher in liver or heart than in kidney recipients, concomitant with higher serum phosphate values. Osteopontin expression was higher in CKD than in transplant recipients (pBone FGF23 and sclerostin correlated directly (r = 0.38, pbone FGF23 expression and osteoid thickness correlated inversely (r = - 0.46, ptransplantation is associated with increased FGF23 and sclerostin expression. The contribution of these findings to compromised bone health post transplantation warrants further evaluation.

  5. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia.

  6. High emergency organ allocation rule in lung transplantation: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Julien; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Christie, Jason D; Thabut, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    The scarcity of suitable organ donors leads to protracted waiting times and mortality in patients awaiting lung transplantation. This study aims to assess the short- and long-term effects of a high emergency organ allocation policy on the outcome of lung transplantation. We developed a simulation model of lung transplantation waiting queues under two allocation strategies, based either on waiting time only or on additional criteria to prioritise the sickest patients. The model was informed by data from the United Network for Organ Sharing. We compared the impact of these strategies on waiting time, waiting list mortality and overall survival in various situations of organ scarcity. The impact of a high emergency allocation strategy depends largely on the organ supply. When organ supply is sufficient (>95 organs per 100 patients), it may prevent a small number of early deaths (1 year survival: 93.7% against 92.4% for waiting time only) without significant impact on waiting times or long-term survival. When the organ/recipient ratio is lower, the benefits in early mortality are larger but are counterbalanced by a dramatic increase of the size of the waiting list. Consequently, we observed a progressive increase of mortality on the waiting list (although still lower than with waiting time only), a deterioration of patients' condition at transplant and a decrease of post-transplant survival times. High emergency organ allocation is an effective strategy to reduce mortality on the waiting list, but causes a disruption of the list equilibrium that may have detrimental long-term effects in situations of significant organ scarcity.

  7. Asian American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2012-03-01

    Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.

  8. A Multistep, Consensus-Based Approach to Organ Allocation in Liver Transplantation: Toward a "Blended Principle Model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, U; Burra, P; Mazzaferro, V; Belli, L; Pinna, A D; Spada, M; Nanni Costa, A; Toniutto, P

    2015-10-01

    Since Italian liver allocation policy was last revised (in 2012), relevant critical issues and conceptual advances have emerged, calling for significant improvements. We report the results of a national consensus conference process, promoted by the Italian College of Liver Transplant Surgeons (for the Italian Society for Organ Transplantation) and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, to review the best indicators for orienting organ allocation policies based on principles of urgency, utility, and transplant benefit in the light of current scientific evidence. MELD exceptions and hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed to construct a transplantation priority algorithm, given the inequity of a purely MELD-based system for governing organ allocation. Working groups of transplant surgeons and hepatologists prepared a list of statements for each topic, scoring their quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using the Centers for Disease Control grading system. A jury of Italian transplant surgeons, hepatologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, representatives of patients' associations and organ-sharing organizations, transplant coordinators, and ethicists voted on and validated the proposed statements. After carefully reviewing the statements, a critical proposal for revising Italy's current liver allocation policy was prepared jointly by transplant surgeons and hepatologists. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Family perspectives on organ and tissue donation for transplantation: a principlist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marcelo José; Feito, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not." For the treatment of qualitative data, we chose the method of content analysis and categorical thematic analysis. The study involved 18 nurses who worked in three municipal organ procurement organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, and who conducted family interviews for organ donation. Ethical considerations: The data were collected after approval of the study by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results were classified into four categories and three subcategories. The categories are the principles adopted by principlist bioethics. The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice permeate the family interview and reveal their importance in the organs and tissues donation process for transplantation. The analysis of family interviews for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation with a focus on principlist bioethics indicates that the process involves many ethical considerations. The elucidation of these aspects contributes to the discussion, training, and improvement of professionals, whether nurses or not, who work in organ procurement organizations and can improve the curriculum of existing training programs for transplant coordinators who pursue ethics in donation and transplantation as their foundation.

  10. Organ transplant AN-DRGs: modifying the exceptions hierarchy in casemix classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioch, K; Zhang, X

    2000-01-01

    The study described in this article sought to develop AN-DRG Version 3 classification revisions for organ transplantation through statistical analyses of recommendations formulated by the Australian Casemix Clinical Committee. Two separate analyses of variance were undertaken for AN-DRG Version 2 and for the proposed Version 3 AN-DRGs, using average length of stay as the dependent variable. The committee made four key recommendations which were accepted and incorporated into AN-DRG Versions 3 and 3.1. This article focuses on the classification revisions for organ transplantation.

  11. Function and expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator after small intestinal transplantation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghong Song

    Full Text Available The secretion function of intestinal graft is one of the most important factors for successful intestinal transplantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR mediates HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we made investigation on the expression and function of CFTR in an experimental model of murine small intestinal transplantation. Heterotopic intestinal transplantations were performed in syngeneic mice. The mRNA and protein expressions of CFTR were analyzed by real time PCR and western blot. Murine intestinal mucosal HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions were examined in vitro in Ussing chambers by the pH stat and short circuit current (I(sc techniques. The results showed that forskolin, an activator of CFTR, stimulated jejunal mucosal epithelial HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions in mice, but forskolin-stimulated HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions in donor and recipient jejunal mucosae of mice after heterotopic jejunal transplantation were markedly decreased, compared with controls (P<0.001. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CFTR in donor and recipient jejunal mucosae of mice were also markedly lower than those in controls (P<0.001, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα were markedly increased in donor jejunal mucosae of mice (P<0.001, compared with controls. Further experiments showed that TNFα down-regulated the expression of CFTR mRNA in murine jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, after intestinal transplantation, the function of CFTR was impaired, and its mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated, which may be induced by TNFα.

  12. Nonprescription analgesics and their use in solid-organ transplantation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Luu, Linh

    2004-09-01

    To review the pharmacology, adverse events, drug interactions, and use of the nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplant recipients. Studies evaluating nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies were selected for inclusion. Nonprescription analgesics (aspirin, choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen sodium, and acetaminophen) are the most commonly purchased over-the-counter agents in the United States. These agents, although generally considered safe, have been associated with a number of toxicities. The salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with gastrointestinal damage, hematologic changes, liver and kidney dysfunction, and breathing difficulties. Acetaminophen has been shown to induce hematologic changes and liver and renal dysfunction. A closer look at the nonprescription analgesics reveals their potential for harm when used by solid-organ transplant recipients. In this patient population, the salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should generally be avoided if possible, because of their potential toxicities, especially renal dysfunction. Low-dose aspirin, for the prevention of cardiovascular and cardiocerebral events, appears to be safe, but patients must still be followed closely. Acetaminophen is generally considered the nonprescription analgesic and antipyretic of choice in transplant recipients because of its favorable toxicity profile. However, it is imperative that patients and transplant practitioners are aware that this agent is not without toxicities and proper monitoring is advised.

  13. Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Peter F

    2006-10-01

    In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed.

  14. Some considerations on the current debate about typing resolution in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzi, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of suitable organs and achieved tolerance are uncontested main concerns in transplantation. Long waiting lists for deceased donors and limited numbers of living donors are the current scenarios. Kidney grafts from living donors have better overall survival compared to cadaveric and require less aggressive immunosuppressive regimens. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) labs have the key role to test the recipient and donors compatibility based on typing and antibody profile. The current standard molecular procedure in solid organ transplantation is low-resolution typing, at the antigen level. In this commentary, the merits of high versus low degree of typing resolution in solid organ transplantation are discussed. Critical questions and reasons to bring high-resolution typing as a routine test in health system are considered. Specifically, with the introduction of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) in HLA, the pros and cons in living donation and benefits after deceased donation are critically evaluated. NGS has the potential to improve the transplant rates and the overall graft survival. Alternative strategies to increase in demanding the number of transplants are briefly highlighted.

  15. Pediatric solid organ transplantation and osteoporosis: a descriptive study on bone histomorphometric findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Inari S; Valta, Helena; Jalanko, Hannu; Salminen, Sari; Mäyränpää, Mervi K; Isaksson, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-08-01

    Organ transplantation may lead to secondary osteoporosis in children. This study characterized bone histomorphometric findings in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who were assessed for suspected secondary osteoporosis. Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 19 children (7.6-18.8 years, 11 male) who had undergone kidney (n = 6), liver (n = 9), or heart (n = 4) transplantation a median 4.6 years (range 0.6-16.3 years) earlier. All patients had received oral glucocorticoids at the time of the biopsy. Of the 19 patients, 21 % had sustained peripheral fractures and 58 % vertebral compression fractures. Nine children (47 %) had a lumbar spine BMD Z-score below -2.0. Histomorphometric analyses showed low trabecular bone volume (bone turnover at biopsy, and low turnover was found in 6 children (32 %), 1 of whom had adynamic bone disease. There was a great heterogeneity in the histological findings in different transplant groups, and the results were unpredictable using non-invasive methods. The observed changes in bone quality (i.e. abnormal turnover rate, thin trabeculae) rather than the actual loss of trabecular bone, might explain the increased fracture risk in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

  16. Achieving donor management goals before deceased donor procurement is associated with more organs transplanted per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Daly, Michael C; Patel, Madhukar S; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Foster, Clarence E; Salim, Ali

    2011-10-01

    There is a national shortage of organs available for transplantation. Implementation of preset donor management goals (DMGs) to improve outcomes is recommended, but uniform practices and data are lacking. We hypothesized that meeting DMGs before organ procurement would result in more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The eight organ procurement organization in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 selected 10 critical care end points as DMGs. Each organ procurement organization submitted retrospective data from 40 standard criteria donors. "DMGs met" was defined as achieving any eight DMGs before procurement. The primary outcome was ≥4 OTPD. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of ≥4 OTPD with a pdonors had 3.6±1.6 OTPD. Donors with DMGs met had more OTPD (4.4 vs. 3.3, p50% (OR=4.0), Pao2:FIO2>300 (OR=4.6), and serum sodium 135 to 160 mEq/L (OR=3.4). Meeting DMGs before procurement resulted in more OTPD. Donor factors and critical care end points are independent predictors of organ yield. Prospective studies are needed to determine the true impact of each DMG on the number and function of transplanted organs.

  17. Heart and lung organ offer acceptance practices of transplant programs are associated with waitlist mortality and organ yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Valapour, Maryam; Skeans, Melissa A; Salkowski, Nicholas; Colvin, Monica; Kasiske, Bertram L; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J

    2018-04-19

    Variation in heart and lung offer acceptance practices may affect numbers of transplanted organs and create variability in waitlist mortality. To investigate these issues, offer acceptance ratios, or adjusted odds ratios, for heart and lung transplant programs individually and for all programs within donation service areas (DSAs) were estimated using offers from donors recovered July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Logistic regressions estimated the association of DSA-level offer acceptance ratios with donor yield and local placement of organs recovered in the DSA. Competing risk methodology estimated the association of program-level offer acceptance ratios with incidence and rate of waitlist removals due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant. Higher DSA-level offer acceptance was associated with higher yield (odds ratios [ORs]: lung, 1.04 1.11 1.19 ; heart, 1.09 1.21 1.35 ) and more local placement of transplanted organs (ORs: lung, 1.01 1.12 1.24 ; heart, 1.47 1.69 1.93 ). Higher program-level offer acceptance was associated with lower incidence of waitlist removal due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant (hazard ratios [HRs]: heart, 0.80 0.86 0.93 ; lung, 0.67 0.75 0.83 ), but not with rate of waitlist removal (HRs: heart, 0.91 0.98 1.06 ; lung, 0.89 0.99 1.10 ). Heart and lung offer acceptance practices affected numbers of transplanted organs and contributed to program-level variability in the probability of waitlist mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Everolimus: a proliferation signal inhibitor with clinical applications in organ transplantation, oncology, and cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Baroletti, Steven A

    2010-10-01

    Everolimus, a proliferation signal inhibitor in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) drug class, has many clinical applications, including in organ transplantation, oncology, and cardiology. It currently has United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for prophylaxis against rejection in de novo renal transplant recipients, treatment of renal cell carcinoma, and use as a drug-eluting stent. To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of everolimus, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1997-April 2010) for all English-language articles of in vitro and in vivo studies that evaluated everolimus, as well as abstracts from recent scientific meetings and the manufacturer. In transplantation, everolimus demonstrates immunosuppressive properties and has been used to prevent acute rejection in cardiac, liver, lung, and renal transplant recipients. It appears that this agent may be potent enough to allow for the minimization or removal of calcineurin inhibitors in the long-term management of renal transplant recipients. In oncology, everolimus has been proven effective for the management of treatment-resistant renal cell carcinoma. In cardiology, everolimus is available as a drug-coated stent and is used in percutaneous coronary interventions for prevention of restenosis. In transplant recipients and patients with renal cell carcinoma, everolimus appears to have an extensive adverse-event profile. The pharmacologic properties of everolimus differentiate this agent from other drugs used in these clinical areas, and its pharmacokinetic properties differentiate it from sirolimus.

  19. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  20. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  1. Donor-derived infections in solid organ transplant patients: toward a holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamu, Esther; Wolfe, Cameron R; Montoya, José G

    2017-08-01

    Solid organ demand far exceeds organ supply. Strategies to increase the donor pool include the liberalization of selection criteria without increasing the risk of unexpected donor-derived infection (DDI), a rare complication of transplantation carrying high morbidity and mortality. We review the challenging aspects in the prevention of DDI, focusing on the complexities of data sharing and efficient communication and the role infectious diseases specialists play in the process. Advances in donor screening, transmission recognition and reporting allow for a better estimation of the risk of DDI. However, there is great variability in the frequency and methods with which organ procurement organizations report transmission events.Moreover, the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients provides limited donor and recipient outcome infectious diseases related data. Infectious disease contribution to the allocation process has been found to improve organ donation efficiency and communication between involved parties. Although communication gaps are strongly associated with infection transmission (relative risk 2.36%, confidence interval 1.48-3.78), effective communication minimizes or prevents infection in transplant recipients (X(1) 13.13, P = 0.0003). Prospective research is still required to define optimal screening protocols and further prevent transmission of infection. A holistic approach is likely to result in enhanced transplantation safety. Toward this goal, development of standards of investigation; improvement in reporting and data sharing; and strategies ensuring coordinated and rapid communication among parties involved in the allocation process need to be pursued.

  2. Sex Differences in Mortality Based on United Network for Organ Sharing Status While Awaiting Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsich, Eileen M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Thuita, Lucy; McNamara, Dennis M; Rogers, Joseph G; Ishwaran, Hemant; Schold, Jesse D

    2017-06-01

    There are sex differences in mortality while awaiting heart transplantation, and the reason remains unclear. We included all adults in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients placed on the heart transplant active waitlist from 2004 to 2015. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate survival by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status at the time of listing. Random survival forest was used to identify sex interactions for the competing risk of death and transplantation. There were 33 069 patients (25% women) awaiting heart transplantation. This cohort included 7681 UNOS status 1A (26% women), 13 027 UNOS status 1B (25% women), and 12 361 UNOS status 2 (26% women). During a median follow-up of 4.3 months, 1351 women and 4052 men died. After adjusting for >20 risk factors, female sex was associated with a significant risk of death among UNOS status 1A (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.29) and UNOS status 1B (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.30). In contrast, female sex was significantly protective for time to death among UNOS status 2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.95). Sex differences in probability of transplantation were present for every UNOS status, and >20 sex interactions were identified for mortality and transplantation. When stratified by initial UNOS status, women had a higher mortality than men as UNOS status 1 and a lower mortality as UNOS status 2. With >20 sex interactions for mortality and transplantation, further evaluation is warranted to form a more equitable allocation system. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Consideration of children with intellectual disability as candidates for solid organ transplantation-A practice in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Diekema, Douglas; Goldberg, Aviva

    2018-02-01

    Children with intellectual disability were historically excluded from consideration as recipients of solid organ transplants. In light of an evolution in provider practices, this commentary will define intellectual disability and review the relevant provider attitudes and guidelines and known outcomes of solid organ transplant in this population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessing Transplant Attitudes: Understanding Minority Men's Perspectives on the Multifarious Barriers to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S

    2017-08-01

    African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = Minorities aware of the shortage for organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.

  5. No association between infections, HLA type and other transplant-related factors and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvar, Åsa; Ekström Smedby, Karin; Lindelöf, Bernt; Fernberg, Pia; Bellocco, Rino; Tufveson, Gunnar; Höglund, Petter; Adami, Johanna

    2012-11-01

    Recipients of solid organ transplants are at a markedly increased risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We investigated potential associations between post-transplant infections, HLA type, and other transplant-related factors and risk of SCC, taking immuno-suppressive treatment into account. A population-based case-control study was conducted. All patients who developed SCC during follow-up (1970-1997) were eligible as cases (n = 207). Controls (n = 189) were individually matched to the cases on age and calendar period of transplantation. Detailed exposure information was collected through an extensive, blinded review of medical records. Odds ratios were computed with conditional logistic regression. There were no significant associations with any infectious agents, or with number and timing of infections, specific HLA-type, donor characteristics, or other transplant characteristics and risk of post-transplant SCC. These results suggest that risk of post-transplant SCC is neither closely related to specific post-transplant infectious disorders, nor to the infectious load or specific HLA types.

  6. Awareness on organ transplantation among health care professionals and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedul Karim Ahmad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was conducted in different medical college hospitals of Dhaka city during the months of Jan-March 2009. The objective of this study was to find out the awareness level on organ transplantation amongst the teachers, doctors and nurses working in these medical college hospitals and 1st to 5th year students. A structured questionnaire was given to the respondents. The total number of respondents was 462 of which 103 (22.3% were doctors, 268 (58% were medical students and 91 (19.7% were nurses. Among the study group 31.4% knew that there was an organ transplantation law in Bangladesh and 16.5% said that there was no such law whereas 52.2% had no idea whatsoever about the law. Of the respondents 33.8% were willing to donate their organs after death, 41.6% did not want to donate and 24.2% were not sure. This study revealed that there was a lack of understanding regarding the religious views on organ transplantation. Only 37.1% of respondents thought that were was no religious objection to organ transplantation whereas 27.1% felt that there was religious objection while 35.7% were not sure. The study shows that there is significant lack of awareness regarding organ transplantation issues among the health care professionals and medical students in Bangladesh. The dictates of religion on this matter were also not clear to most of the respondents. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 55-58

  7. Transplant tourism and organ trafficking: Ethical implications for the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfee, Floraidh Ar

    2016-11-01

    Organ availability for transplantation has become an increasingly complex and difficult question in health economics and ethical practice. Advances in technology have seen prolonged life expectancy, and the global push for organs creates an ever-expanding gap between supply and demand, and a significant cost in bridging that gap. This article will examine the ethical implications for the nursing profession in regard to the procurement of organs from an impoverished seller's market, also known as 'Transplant Tourism'. This ethical dilemma concerns itself with resource allocation, informed consent and the concepts of egalitarianism and libertarianism. Transplant Tourism is an unacceptable trespass against human dignity and rights from both a nursing and collective viewpoint. Currently, the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, the Royal college of Nursing Australia, The Royal College of Nursing (UK) and the American Nurses Association do not have position statements on transplant tourism, and this diminishes us as a force for change. It diminishes our role as advocates for the most marginalised in our world to have access to care and to choice and excludes us from a very contemporary real debate about the mismatch of organ demand and supply in our own communities. As a profession, we must have a voice in health policy and human rights, and according to our Code of Ethics in Australia and around the world, act to promote and protect the fundamental human right to healthcare and dignity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Use of vitamin K to decrease allograft failure and patient mortality after organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin; Vermeer, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Poor vitamin K status is provided as an independent risk factor for allograft failure and mortality in patients who received organ transplantation and who are under immunosuppressive medication. Various forms and recommended dosagesof vitamin K, optionally combined with vitamin D and/or other

  9. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  10. Skin carcinomas in organ-transplant recipients : from early oncogenic events to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Ymke Grete Leontien de

    2008-01-01

    Skin carcinomas develop at a high rate in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immune suppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. The present study dealt with a broad range of aspects of this elevated carcinoma risk, starting from the earliest oncogenic events to the ultimate therapy.

  11. Consensus report on therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolic acid in solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kuypers (Dirk); Y. le Meur (Yann); M. Cantarovich (Marcelo); M.J. Tredger (Michael); S.E. Tett (Susan); D. Cattaneo (Dario); B. Tönshoff (Burkhard); D.W. Holt (David); J. Chapman (Jeremy); T. van Gelder (Teun)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing use of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in solid organ transplantation, the need for more accurate drug dosing has become evident. Personalized immunosuppressive therapy requires better strategies for avoidance of drug-related toxicity while maintaining efficacy. Few studies

  12. West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-19

    William Hale reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients.  Created: 11/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2013.

  13. Algerian Immigrants to Spain: Study of Attitude to the Donation of Organs for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Many Africans are emigrating to the European Economic Community from countries with little knowledge of transplantation. This population has not yet been studied. Analyze the attitude toward donation among the Algerian population living in Spain. We studied the population born in Algeria and residing in Spain, over 15 years old, and stratified by age and sex. Attitude was surveyed using a questionnaire of organ donation for transplantation ("PCID-DTO Ríos"). Support from African immigration associations was needed to advise on the location of potential respondents. The completion was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained to assist in the study. Of the 441 respondents, 27% (n = 119) were in favor of donation after death, 43% (n = 191) were against, and 30% (n = 131) were undecided. The variables associated with the attitude toward the donation were sex (P = .033), having offspring (P = .027), having commented on the subject of organ transplantation at the family level (P organ donation and transplantation (P donation of their own organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  15. The Long Road from the Kidney Bazaar: A Commentary on Pakistan’s Progress Towards Self-sufficiency in Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Dominique E.

    2011-01-01

    The dark history of transplant tourism in Pakistan demonstrates the hazards of unregulated cross-border markets in human organs. Trading on existing national and international social inequities, ‘transplant tourism’ offers dubious benefits for transplant recipients and attractive profits to those facilitating the industry at the expense of the world’s poor. The impact of Pakistan’s 2007 Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Ordinance and the sustained efforts of transplant professionals ...

  16. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Alvarez Palomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Potential applications of iPSC technology are rapidly increasing in ambition from discrete cell replacement applications to the iPSC assisted bioengineering of body organs for personalized autologous body organ transplant. Recent work has demonstrated that the generation of organs from iPSCs is a future possibility. The development of embryonic-like organ structures bioengineered from iPSCs has been achieved, such as an early brain structure (cerebral organoids, bone, optic vesicle-like structures (eye, cardiac muscle tissue (heart, primitive pancreas islet cells, a tooth-like structure (teeth, and functional liver buds (liver. Thus, iPSC technology offers, in the future, the powerful and unique possibility to make body organs for transplantation removing the need for organ donation and immune suppressing drugs. Whilst it is clear that iPSCs are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for research into cell replacement therapy and body organ transplantation strategies in humans, it is not known whether (1 such transplants will stimulate host immune responses; and (2 whether this technology will be capable of the bioengineering of a complete and fully functional human organ. This review will not focus on reprogramming to iPSCs, of which a plethora of reviews can be found, but instead focus on the latest developments in direct reprogramming of cells, the bioengineering of body organs from iPSCs, and an analysis of the immune response induced by i

  17. Attitudes and beliefs of South African medical students toward organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobnach, Sanju; Borkum, Megan; Millar, Alastair J W; Hoffman, Ross; Muller, Elmi; McCurdie, Fiona; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the attitudes and beliefs of medical students regarding organ donation, procurement, and transplantation. Medical students at the University of Cape Town were prospectively surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 346 study participants; the mean age was 21 (range 18-33) yr, 38% were male and 62% was female. Only 8% of respondents were registered donors; clinical and white students constituted the majority of this group. Of the 315 "non-donors," the main reason for not donating was "I have not really thought about organ donation" (59%). Most students (91%) would accept an artificial organ; and 87% and 52% of students would accept human and animal organs respectively. Muslim students (11%, preincarnation (18%, p=0.00) were less willing to accept human or animal organs. About 95% of respondents stated that they would like to learn more about transplantation and would keep information about it in their practice but only 18% of respondents knew where to find information for potential donors and recipients. Most students have a favorable attitude toward organ transplantation; religion and belief systems impact on willingness to receive organs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Perception Of The Nurse In The Process Of Donation Of Organs And Fabrics For Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the nurses' perception in the process of organ and tissue donation for transplants. Methods: qualitative research with data collection performed through a semistructured interview with 16 nurses from a hospital. The data were submitted to Bardin content analysis. Results: categories emerged after content analysis were as follows: Organ donation process: nurses' experience; Nursing care for potential donors; Family approach; Main difficulties in the donation process. Conclusion: the research demonstrated the real difficulties of the professionals during the donation process, such as lack of human resources, extensive protocols, and lack of awareness of the society to understand the donation process and the family approach. Keywords: Transplantation of Organs; Obtaining Tissues and Organs; Nursing care.

  19. Smart-grid investments, regulation and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Mikkers, Misja

    2013-01-01

    Grid infrastructure managers worldwide are facing demands for reinvestments in new assets with higher on-grid and off-grid functionality in order to meet new environmental targets. The roles of the current actors will change as the vertical interfaces between regulated and unregulated tasks become blurred. In this paper, we characterize some of the effects of new asset investments policy on the network tasks, assets and costs and contrast this with the assumptions of the current economic network regulation. To provide structure, we present a model of investment provision under regulation between a distribution system operator and a potential investor–generator. The results from the model confirm the hypothesis that network regulation should find a focal point, should integrate externalities in the performance assessment and should avoid wide delegation of contracting-billing for smart-grid investments. - Highlights: ► We review regulatory solutions for smart-grid and DER investments. ► What matters more than upfront incentives is organization and delegation. ► We model regulated investment under private information by a generator or a DSO. ► Highest welfare for high-powered incentives and centralized information. ► Market approaches likely to give poor outcomes for this case.

  20. Organ donation and transplantation statistics in Belgium for 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desschans, B; Evrard, P

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 and 2013 solid organ transplantation statistics were presented during the annual meeting of the Belgian Transplant Society. All data presented were collected from Eurotransplant International Foundation and/or from all individual Belgian transplant centers. It was demonstrated that the highest number of deceased donors detected (1310) from which 47.8% were an effective organ donor that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Out of 626 effective deceased organ donors, 491 (79%) were donors after brain death (DBD) and 135 (21%) donors after circulatory death (DCD), respectively. The majority (125/135; 93%) of DCD donors were DCD Maastricht category III donors and there were 7 (5%) donations following euthanasia. Family refusal tended to be lower for DCD (10.4%) compared to DBD donors (13.4%). Despite the increasing DCD donation rate, DBD donation remains stable in Belgium. The donor age is still increasing, reaching a median age of 53 years (range 0-90). Spontaneous intracranial bleeding (39.3%) and cranio-cerebral trauma (25%) remained the most frequent reasons of death. The number of living related kidney transplantations (57 in 2012 and 63 in 2013) followed the international trend albeit in Belgium it is still very limited. Nevertheless this activity could explain that the number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation (770) reached an absolute minimum in 2013. Except the reduced waiting list for lung transplantation (from 119 patients in 2011 to 85 in 2013), the waiting list remained stable for the other organs but almost 200 patients still died while on the waiting list. Belgium demonstrated the highest number of effective organ donors that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Thus far, and in contrast with other countries, there is no erosion of DBD in the DCD donor organ pool, but it is the important responsibility of all transplant centers and donor hospitals to

  1. Tacrolimus concentration to dose ratio in solid organ transplant patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Michael H; Kraft, Colleen S; Meredith, Erika J; Mehta, Aneesh K; Wang, Tiffany; Mamo, Yafet T; Dhere, Tanvi; Sitchenko, Kaitlin L; Patzer, Rachel E; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J

    2018-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 SOT patients from September 2012-December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent C. difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C/D ratio) 3 months prior to FMT vs 3 months after FMT. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d) was -17.65 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d), P-value .43 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/d) was -0.33 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/d), P-value .28 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Of these patients, 2/10 underwent allograft biopsy for allograft dysfunction in the year after FMT, with no evidence of allograft rejection on pathology. These preliminary data suggest that FMT may not predictably alter tacrolimus levels and support its safety for SOT patients however further study in randomized trials is needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Santos,Marcelo José dos; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation proce...

  3. The View of Religious Officials on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Zeytinburnu District of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat

    2015-12-01

    One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and raise

  4. [Risk factors for skin cancer development in patients after organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imko-Walczuk, Beata; Piesiaków, Maria Luiza; Okuniewska, Aleksandra; Jaśkiewicz, Janusz; Lizakowski, Sławomir; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2012-11-13

    Cancer has become the second most common cause of death in patients after organ transplantation. Among all cancers arising de novo after transplantation skin cancers are the most common, accounting for 95% of all skin neoplasms. Due to the significantly higher morbidity, aggressive, rapid progression of cancer and unfavorable prognosis, the population requires a specific oncological approach. Therefore, special attention should be paid to factors predisposing to the development of cancer, including skin cancer, in patients after organ transplantation. Some of these factors are well understood, while the role of others is still ambiguous. Among the etiological factors mentioned are those that are associated with the recipient. These include genetic factors such as male sex, fair skin and inability to be tanned, and compatibility of the HLA system, and non genetic factors such as patient age, chronic skin ulcers and scars, the type of transplanted organ, immunosuppression, and particularly the type and cumulative doses of drugs. In addition, the pathogenesis of cancer is influenced by environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight and therefore latitude, ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens and viral infections. Knowledge of etiological factors and mechanisms of etiopathogenesis allow for indication and observation of patients with increased risk of cancer as well as faster healing in these patients.  

  5. The Evolution of Organ Allocation for Liver Transplantation: Tackling Geographic Disparity Through Broader Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, David A; Vagefi, Parsia A; Roberts, John P

    2015-08-01

    The liver transplant allocation system has evolved to a ranking system of “sickest-first” system based on objective criteria. Yet, organs continue to be distributed first within OPOs and regions that are largely based on historical practice patterns related to kidney transplantation and were never designed to minimize waitlist death or equalize opportunity for liver transplant. The current proposal is a move to enhance survival though the application of modern mathematical techniques to optimize liver distribution. Like MELDbased allocation, it will never be perfect and should be continually evaluated and revised. However, the disparity in access, which favors those residing in or able to travel to privileged areas, to the detriment of the patients dying on the list in underserved areas, is simply not defensible in 2015.

  6. 76 FR 78216 - Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ..., tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products or HCT/Ps. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... similar supporting statements for OPTN oversight. The commenters agreed that the use of the existing solid... comment stated that VCA do not fit as organs under HRSA oversight due to differences between solid organs...

  7. Anthropology, organ transplantation and the immune system: resituating commodity and gift exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara

    2011-11-01

    This article reflects on contributions from medical anthropology to our understanding of the bio-social and bio-political implications of renal transplantation. Taking up the idea of transplantation as a 'complex', a vast assemblage of people, places, practices and procedures which intersect medical, social and cultural domains, I point to a reliance in the anthropological literature on overly pre-determined conceptual frameworks, organised around a distinct polarisation between organ giving and receiving, where one side (supply) takes analytical, and indeed moral, precedence over the other (receipt). These frameworks tend to fail us when it comes to thinking about the wider social, cultural and political implications of transplant technologies. In an attempt to offer a less polarised view, I draw attention to the material and symbolic role of the immune system in transplantation and the ways in which it simultaneously shapes opportunities for procurement and the lived realities of recipiency. This helps us see the many complex ways in which suffering and inequality are constituted all along the variegated chains of supply and demand that are internal to, and made possible by, transplantation practices themselves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Return to work after thoracic organ transplantation in a clinically-stable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Lucia; Ricotti, Susanna; Michelini, Ilaria; Vitulo, Patrizio; Oggionni, Tiberio; Cascina, Alessandro; D'Armini, Andrea M; Goggi, Claudio; Campana, Carlo; Viganò, Mario; Dalla-Toffola, Elena; Tinelli, Carmine; Klersy, Catherine

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the rate of return to work after transplantation and its determinants in a clinically-stable population of patients transplanted and followed-up at a single institution in Italy. 151 thoracic organ transplant recipients (72 lung, 79 heart) were examined. Patients were asked about daily activities, level of education, employment and clinical condition. A six-minute walking test was performed with measurement of dyspnoea using the Borg scale. Quality of Life was evaluated with the SF-36 and GHQ questionnaires. Before transplantation 131 patients (87%), (70 heart and 61 lung) worked. After transplantation, 51 patients (39%) went back to work and 3 more started working. We found that younger age, a better quality of life (mainly in the mental domain), having had an occupation previously (particularly as an entrepreneur/freelancer), and having been off work for less than 24 months, were independent predictors of return to work. Considering their good, objective and subjective, functional status, some patients who could have returned to work, chose not to. Identifying factors which affect return to work might help health professionals to adopt the best course of treatment and psychological support in order to fulfil this goal; however, return to work should not be considered as the only expression of a patient's real psychophysical condition.

  9. A guide to understanding and implementing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tichy, Eric M

    2013-03-01

    To review the components of the Congressional mandate for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) managed by the Food and Drug Administration and assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplant arena. A non-date-limited search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-June 2012) was conducted by using the following search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, and organ transplant, including a query of the individual organs. Information from the Federal Register and the Food and Drug Administration was also evaluated. REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. Elements of REMS programs may consist of 3 levels: a medication guide, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use. A medication guide is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patients' decision making, and enhance medication adherence. Communication plans help educate health care providers and encourage adherence with REMS. The elements to assure safe use is a restrictive process implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure safe access for patients to products with known serious risks. In transplant medicine, REMS currently exist for belatacept (medication guide and communication plan) and the mycophenolic acid derivatives (medication guide and elements to assure safe use). REMS are another step in the evolution of the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents. Use of REMS in solid-organ transplant is becoming common. Transplant clinicians must provide required patient education and become involved with other aspects of REMS implementation to reduce the serious risks of pharmaceuticals and to improve patients' outcomes.

  10. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like hyperten......Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... hypertension, hypotension, drugs and infections may play a causative role as well. Organ-specific causes include hepatorenal syndrome, cirrhosis, low cardiac function, low respiratory function and diabetes developed both before and after TX. It is important to be able to perform precise and valid measurements...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  11. Letter: Can Islamic Jurisprudence Justify Procurement of Transplantable Vital Organs in Brain Death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y

    2018-01-01

    In their article, "An International Legal Review of the Relationship between Brain Death and Organ Transplantation," in The Journal of Clinical Ethics 29, no. 1, Aramesh, Arima, Gardiner, and Shah reported on diverse international legislative approaches for justifying procurement of transplantable vital organs in brain death. They stated, "In Islamic traditions in particular, the notion of unstable life is a way to justify organ donation from brain-dead patients that we believe has not been fully described previously in the literature." This commentary queries the extent to which this concept is valid in accordance with the primary source of Islamic law, that is, the Quran. Copyright 2018 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  12. Organ Transplantation and the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act: A Fifty-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Blair L; Sadler, Alfred M

    2018-03-01

    Fifty years ago this summer, the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was adopted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and approved by the American Bar Association. The UAGA has provided a sound and stable legal platform on which to base an effective nationwide organ donation system. The cardinal principles of altruism, autonomy, and public trust are still important. At a time when confidence and trust in our government and many private institutions has declined, maintaining trust and confidence in our health care system and its commitment to "first, do no harm" has never been more important. Any policies that override these core ethical principles could cause irreparable damage to the public's faith in our transplant system. While progress has been made to increase organ registration and the number of organs transplanted, much more must be done to realize the potential of life-saving therapy without jeopardizing ethical principles. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  13. A student leadership model for promoting educational programs in organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reville, P; Zhao, C; Perez, T; Nowacki, A S; Phillips, D; Bowen, G; Starling, N; Pflaum, B; Strickland, R; Fung, J; Askar, M

    2013-05-01

    The global organ shortage is the strongest factor for the increase in transplant wait time and deaths on waitlists. Here we describe a model for involving high school students in education research around organ donation and transplantation and capitalize on the strength of a pre-existing educational program offered by the local organ procurement organization (OPO). While training in education research at Cleveland Clinic, a high school student embarked on a collaborative project with the local OPO. The project involved evaluating three educational programs, selecting the most appropriate program for administration at her school, coordinating with the student's school administration and teachers, administering an assessment tool for the effectiveness of the program, and analyzing the results. The local OPO program that was selected for implementation consisted of a video presentation entitled "Share your life, share your decision" prepared by the United States Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), lectures by invited speakers and an educational assessment (pre- and post-education). The assessment survey included 3 multiple choice and 7 true/false questions. Compared to the over 2500 programs administered in the last 5 years by the local OPO, this program had a higher volume of participation (n = 353 compared to an average of 150 students/day). Students correctly classified transplantation status of more organ and tissues post-education (P education (P ≤ .002 for all). This experience included for the first time a formal assessment of the program which will be utilized to address targeted areas for specific improvements. This student collaborative model of involving students in organ donation and transplantation related education research has the potential to promote and maximize the effectiveness of educational programs targeting their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Transplants Growth and Lettuce Yield in Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczech Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of beneficial bacterial strain B125 (Enterobacter sp. and strain PZ9 (Bacillus sp. in lettuce transplants production significantly enhanced seed germination and plant biomass. The best effect was obtained when the mixture of B125 and PZ9 was used. Combined application of these bacteria significantly increased transplants biomass, which was about 45% higher than that in the control. However, after planting these transplants in organic field, generally, there were no differences in yield and nutrient content in plants treated and not treated with the bacteria, except for nitrogen and vitamin C. The lettuce grown from transplants treated with bacterial mixture B125 + PZ9 contained significantly higher nitrogen than plants from other treatments. Opposite to nitrogen, bacterial applications decreased the amount of vitamin C. The growth and organic lettuce composition was affected by planting time. The yield was higher in spring, but the concentration of nutrients in these plants was lower than that in plants harvested in autumn. Climatic and light conditions in the late season were the reasons for increased dry matter content, minerals, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, as well as high concentration of nitrates.

  15. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bio...

  16. Physical Activity Among Organ Recipients: Data Collected From the Latin American Transplant Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamañuk, A N; Ortiz Fragola, J P; Casonu, M; Lirio, C; Graziano, V; Cicora, F

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications after transplantation are an important cause of non-transplant-related deaths. Depression and anxiety are not unusual among organ recipients. Physical activity reduces cardiovascular risk and promotes a sensation of well-being. The aims of the study were to examine how exercise affects psychological well-being sensation in organ recipients and to describe the physician's role in promoting and controlling safe sport training in transplanted patients. A descriptive study was conducted. A questionnaire was answered by participants of the "2012 Latin American Transplant Games." One hundred sixty-six organ recipients completed the questionnaire. Eleven percent heard about the transplant games from a physician. Seventy percent had not received a proper medical pre-competitive evaluation. Only 39% trained in a supervised manner and 53% had experienced some kind of sport-related injury. Self-perception of global health was reported as excellent by 19.75%, very good by 43.95%, good by 30.67%, and regular or poor by 5.73%. An excellent or very good health perception was reported by 47.8% of those who practiced only one kind of sport versus 71.5% of those who practiced more than one sport and by 89.6% of those who performed isometric activity versus 59.3% of those who did not perform isometric activity. Diversity of practiced sports and isometric activity are associated with a better self-reported health condition. Most participants had not received a proper medical pre-competitive evaluation; they trained in an unsupervised manner, and injuries were common. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells in Solid Organ Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Marín

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, solid organ transplantation has been improved both at a surgical and postoperative level. However, despite the improvement in efficiency, safety, and survival, we are still far from obtaining full acceptance of all kinds of allograft in the absence of concomitant treatments. Today, transplanted patients are treated with immunosuppressive drugs (IS to minimize immunological response in order to prevent graft rejection. Nevertheless, the lack of specificity of IS leads to an increase in the risk of cancer and infections. At this point, cell therapies have been shown as a novel promising resource to minimize the use of IS in transplantation. The main strength of cell therapy is the opportunity to generate allograft-specific tolerance, promoting in this way long-term allograft survival. Among several other regulatory cell types, tolerogenic monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Tol-MoDCs appear to be an interesting candidate for cell therapy due to their ability to perform specific antigen presentation and to polarize immune response to immunotolerance. In this review, we describe the characteristics and the mechanisms of action of both human Tol-MoDCs and rodent tolerogenic bone marrow-derived DCs (Tol-BMDCs. Furthermore, studies performed in transplantation models in rodents and non-human primates corroborate the potential of Tol-BMDCs for immunoregulation. In consequence, Tol-MoDCs have been recently evaluated in sundry clinical trials in autoimmune diseases and shown to be safe. In addition to autoimmune diseases clinical trials, Tol-MoDC is currently used in the first phase I/II clinical trials in transplantation. Translation of Tol-MoDCs to clinical application in transplantation will also be discussed in this review.

  19. The ethics of human cadaver organ transplantation: a biologist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1987-01-01

    The rights of the various individuals involved in decision-making in cadaver organ donation are considered, and there is discussion of the relation of human cadavers to the planetary biomass. I conclude that the rights of the potential recipient should outweigh those of the other parties concerned and that education and legislation should recognise and promote this. PMID:3669037

  20. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  1. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  2. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use.

  3. Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia Associated With Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Successfully Treated With Corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam-Phuong Nguyen DO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP is an extremely rare, relatively new, and distinct histological pattern of acute lung injury characterized predominately by the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin and associated organizing pneumonia. AFOP may be idiopathic or associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. It has a variable clinical presentation from mild respiratory symptoms to that similar to the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently there is no consensus on treatment, and corticosteroids previously were of unclear benefit. To date, there are less than 40 cases of AFOP reported in the literature and only one has been linked to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we report the first case series of 2 patients who developed AFOP following allogenic stem cell transplant that were successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

  4. Commercialization of human organs for transplantation intervivos under the perspective of the social bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Buying and selling human organs for transplants from living donors has been discussed worldwide in the bioethical debate and it is becoming a public health problem. This essay discusses, in light of the Social Bioethics, arguments used to justify such practices, which are related to the common good, moral plurality, autonomy and individual freedom. Such justificatory aspects assume liberal and utilitarian characteristics. They present the possibility of double standard, do not consider social vulnerability, and harm dignity and human rights by evidencing an apology to the market laws. Thus, the justifications for buying and selling human organs for transplantations intervivos eventually turn the body, or part of it, into a commodity.

  5. Everolimus: a review of its pharmacologic properties and use in solid organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Huiras, Paul; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of everolimus. Primary literature was obtained via MEDLINE. Studies and abstracts evaluating everolimus in solid organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies and abstracts only were selected for inclusion. Everolimus, a proliferation signal inhibitor that prevents growth factor-induced cell proliferation, is effective in reducing the incidence of acute rejectio...

  6. 2012 annual literature review of donor-specific HLA antibodies after organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneku, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    From the articles reviewed in the present chapter, we observed: 1. The frequency of de novo donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) detection in different organs is very similar: ranging between 15% and 23% in kidney, 23% in pancreas, and 18% in intestinal transplant patients. Apparently, all organs can elicit humoral responses after transplantation at comparable rates. 2. Although rates of de novo DSA formation after kidney transplantation are very similar across different centers--between 15% and 23%--, the mean time to the first detection of de novo DSA is markedly variable between centers (from 8 months to 4 years). Some differences found in the studies that may account for this could be the age of patients (studies including pediatric patients tend to show longer time to DSA detection compared to studies only including adults patients), patients' race, and maintenance immunosuppression regimens. 3. In most organs, alloantibodies against class II HLA--and especially against HLA-DQ antigens--are the most common DSA detected. This finding supports previous studies, but the explanation remains unclear. Poor HLA-DQ matching, paucity of class II HLA antigen expression on cell surface, and technical factors related to the detection of these antibodies (mean fluorescence intensity cutoff, multiple beads with the same antigen, denatured protein on single antigen beads) are some of the potential explanations that need further investigation. 4. Recent focus on histological changes during rejection in the presence of DSA that are independent of C4d deposition may change how antibody-mediated rejection is diagnosed in the near future. 5. More studies are looking into the importance of DSA in non-kidney transplants and now evidence shows that DSA may not only affect survival and rejection rates, but may also be associated with organ-specific lesions like fibrosis and biliary complications in livers or capillaritis in lungs.

  7. Arguments against promoting organ transplants from brain-dead donors, and views of contemporary Japanese on life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Atsushi; Kadooka, Yasuhiro; Aizawa, Kuniko

    2012-05-01

    As of 2009, the number of donors in Japan is the lowest among developed countries. On July 13, 2009, Japan's Organ Transplant Law was revised for the first time in 12 years. The revised and old laws differ greatly on four primary points: the definition of death, age requirements for donors, requirements for brain-death determination and organ extraction, and the appropriateness of priority transplants for relatives. In the four months of deliberations in the National Diet before the new law was established, various arguments regarding brain death and organ transplantation were offered. An amazing variety of opinions continue to be offered, even after more than 40 years have elapsed since the first heart organ transplant in Japan. Some are of the opinion that with the passage of the revised law, Japan will finally become capable of performing transplants according to global standards. Contrarily, there are assertions that organ transplants from brain-dead donors are unacceptable because they result in organs being taken from living human beings. Considering the current conditions, we will organize and introduce the arguments for and against organ transplants from brain-dead donors in contemporary Japan. Subsequently, we will discuss the primary arguments against organ transplants from brain-dead donors from the perspective of contemporary Japanese views on life and death. After introducing the recent view that brain death should not be regarded as equivalent to the death of a human being, we would like to probe the deeply-rooted views on life and death upon which it is based. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Integrity of the oral tissues in patients with solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Gonzalo; Bravo, Loreto; Cordero, Karina; Sepúlveda, Luis; Elgueta, Leticia; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Urzúa, Blanca; Morales, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the use of immunosuppressants in solid-organ transplant patients and oral tissue abnormalities has been recognized. The objective of this study was to determine the state of oral tissue integrity in renal, heart, and liver transplant patients who are on continuous medical and dental control. Forty patients of both sexes were clinically evaluated at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile to identify pathologies of oral mucosa, gingival enlargement (GE), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index, and salivary flow. The average age of the transplant subjects was 49.4 years, and the age range was 19 to 69 years. Most subjects maintained a good level of oral hygiene, and the rate mean of DMFT was 14.7. The degree of involvement of the oral mucosa and GE was low (10%). Unlike other studies, the frequency of oral mucosal diseases and GE was low despite the fact that these patients were immunosuppressed. Care and continuous monitoring seem to be of vital importance in maintaining the oral health of transplant patients.

  9. Integrity of the Oral Tissues in Patients with Solid-Organ Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the use of immunosuppressants in solid-organ transplant patients and oral tissue abnormalities has been recognized. The objective of this study was to determine the state of oral tissue integrity in renal, heart, and liver transplant patients who are on continuous medical and dental control. Forty patients of both sexes were clinically evaluated at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile to identify pathologies of oral mucosa, gingival enlargement (GE, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index, and salivary flow. The average age of the transplant subjects was 49.4 years, and the age range was 19 to 69 years. Most subjects maintained a good level of oral hygiene, and the rate mean of DMFT was 14.7. The degree of involvement of the oral mucosa and GE was low (10%. Unlike other studies, the frequency of oral mucosal diseases and GE was low despite the fact that these patients were immunosuppressed. Care and continuous monitoring seem to be of vital importance in maintaining the oral health of transplant patients.

  10. HLA Mismatching Strategies for Solid Organ Transplantation – A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Andrea A.; Leffell, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    HLA matching provides numerous benefits in organ transplantation including better graft function, fewer rejection episodes, longer graft survival, and the possibility of reduced immunosuppression. Mismatches are attended by more frequent rejection episodes that require increased immunosuppression that, in turn, can increase the risk of infection and malignancy. HLA mismatches also incur the risk of sensitization, which can reduce the opportunity and increase waiting time for a subsequent transplant. However, other factors such as donor age, donor type, and immunosuppression protocol, can affect the benefit derived from matching. Furthermore, finding a well-matched donor may not be possible for all patients and usually prolongs waiting time. Strategies to optimize transplantation for patients without a well-matched donor should take into account the immunologic barrier represented by different mismatches: what are the least immunogenic mismatches considering the patient’s HLA phenotype; should repeated mismatches be avoided; is the patient sensitized to HLA and, if so, what are the strengths of the patient’s antibodies? This information can then be used to define the HLA type of an immunologically optimal donor and the probability of such a donor occurring. A probability that is considered to be too low may require expanding the donor population through paired donation or modifying what is acceptable, which may require employing treatment to overcome immunologic barriers such as increased immunosuppression or desensitization. Thus, transplantation must strike a balance between the risk associated with waiting for the optimal donor and the risk associated with a less than optimal donor. PMID:28003816

  11. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  12. Guinean Population Emigrant to Spain Has Very Little Awareness of the Donation and Transplantation of Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Guinean population is an emerging group in Europe, but the group's awareness of organ donation and transplantation has not been studied. To analyze the attitude toward organ donation among the population born in Guinea living in Spain. The population older than 15 years, born in Guinea, and resident in Spain was studied, stratified by age and sex, according to census data and immigrant assistance associations. The valuation tool used was the attitude questionnaire toward organ donation PCID-DTO RIOS (questionnaire on "Donor International Collaborative Project" on organ donation and transplantation developed by Dr Ríos). A random selection of people to survey was based on stratification. Support from African immigration support associations was needed to advise on the location of potential respondents. The completion was anonymous and self-administered. A descriptive statistic was performed, and Student t, χ 2 , and Fisher tests and a logistic regression analysis were applied. In all, 181 Guineans were surveyed, of whom 32% (n = 58) were in favor of the donation of their own organs after death, 32% (n = 57) were against, and 36% (n = 66) were undecided. The variables that are associated with attitude toward donation are separated mainly into 4 large groups (P donation and organ transplantation; (2) attitude toward the manipulation of the body; (3) religious variables; and (4) sociofamily variables, especially in relation to the couple. The Guinean population emigrant to Spain has an unfriendly attitude toward organ donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulating plant physiology with organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxson, David J; Karady, Michal; Gabrielsson, Roger; Alkattan, Aziz Y; Gustavsson, Anna; Doyle, Siamsa M; Robert, Stéphanie; Ljung, Karin; Grebe, Markus; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2017-05-02

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology. Here, we report the employment of OEIPs for the delivery of the plant hormone auxin to induce differential concentration gradients and modulate plant physiology. We fabricated OEIP devices based on a synthesized dendritic polyelectrolyte that enables electrophoretic transport of aromatic substances. Delivery of auxin to transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vivo was monitored in real time via dynamic fluorescent auxin-response reporters and induced physiological responses in roots. Our results provide a starting point for technologies enabling direct, rapid, and dynamic electronic interaction with the biochemical regulation systems of plants.

  14. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-Ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bioengineered 3D integumentary organ system was fully functional following transplantation into nude mice and could be properly connected to surrounding host tissues, such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscles, and nerve fibers, without tumorigenesis. The bioengineered hair follicles in the 3D integumentary organ system also showed proper hair eruption and hair cycles, including the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. Potential applications of the 3D integumentary organ system include an in vitro assay system, an animal model alternative, and a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglin; Guo Ren; Liu Shikun; Chen Qingjie; Zuo Shanru; Yang Meng; Zuo Xiaocong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressive drug,which is widely used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.However,chronic administration of FK506 leads to hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients,and its molecular mechanisms are much more complicated.In this review,we will discuss the above-mentioned molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed.The terms "FK506" or "tacrolimus" and "hypertension"were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to FK506-induced hypertension and its molecular mechanisms were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results There are several molecular mechanisms attributed to FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.First,FK506 binds FK506 binding protein 12 and its related isoform 12.6 (FKBP12/12.6) and removes them from intracellular ryanodine receptors that induce a calcium ion leakage from the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.The conventional protein kinase C beta II (cPKCβⅡ)-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase at Thr495,which reduces the production of NO,was activated by calcium ion leakage.Second,transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation,endothelial dysfunction,and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.Third,the activation of with-no-K(Lys) kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase/thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter (WNKs/SPAK/NCC) pathway has a central role in tacrolimus-induced hypertension.Finally,the enhanced activity of renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system seems to play a crucial role in

  16. Outcome of Transplantation Using Organs From Donors Infected or Colonized With Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularoni, A; Bertani, A; Vizzini, G; Gona, F; Campanella, M; Spada, M; Gruttadauria, S; Vitulo, P; Conaldi, P; Luca, A; Gridelli, B; Grossi, P

    2015-10-01

    Donor-derived infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in solid organ transplantation, and optimal management options are not clear. In a 2-year period, 30/214 (14%) recipients received an organ from 18/170 (10.5%) deceased donors with infection or colonization caused by a carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria that was unknown at the time of transplantation. Among them, 14/30 recipients (47%) received a transplant from a donor with bacteremia or with infection/colonization of the transplanted organ and were considered at high risk of donor-derived infection transmission. The remaining 16/30 (53%) recipients received an organ from a nonbacteremic donor with colonization of a nontransplanted organ and were considered at low risk of infection transmission. Proven transmission occurred in 4 of the 14 high-risk recipients because donor infection was either not recognized, underestimated, or not communicated. These recipients received late, short or inappropriate posttransplant antibiotic therapy. Transmission did not occur in high-risk recipients who received appropriate and prompt antibiotic therapy for at least 7 days. The safe use of organs from donors with multidrug-resistant bacteria requires intra- and inter-institutional communication to allow appropriate management and prompt treatment of recipients in order to avoid transmission of infection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Early outcomes of liver transplants in patients receiving organs from hypernatremic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Sahmeddini, Mohammad Ali; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossien

    2013-12-01

    Uncorrected hypernatremia in organ donors has been associated with poor graft or patient survival during liver transplants. However, recent studies have found no association between the donor serum sodium and transplant outcome. This study sought to show the negative effect donor hypernatremia has on initial liver allograft function. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio and renal factors of patients with normal and those with hypernatremic donor livers. This study was conducted at the Shiraz Transplant Research Center in Shiraz, Iran, between May 2009, and July 2011. Four hundred seven consecutive adult orthotopic liver transplants were performed at the University of Shiraz Medical Center. There were 93 donors in the group with hypernatremia with terminal serum sodium of 155 mEq/L or greater (group 1), and 314 with terminal serum sodium less than 155 mEq/L (group 2). Posttransplant data after 5 days showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and kidney function did not differ between the groups. Hypernatremia is the most important complication after brain death. Previous studies have suggested donor hypernatremia results in a greater incidence of early postoperative graft dysfunction in liver transplant and is considered one of the extended criteria donor. However, in recent years, this hypothesis has been questioned. Our study shows no difference between patients' initial results of liver and kidney functioning with normal and hypernatremic donor livers. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio as a fundamental factor in defining early allograft dysfunction and renal factors between patients with normal and hypernatremic donor's livers.

  18. [The concept of death in the revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Makoto

    2010-12-01

    The Organ Transplant Law of Japan, enacted in 1997, did not allow organs to be taken from a brain-dead person unless he or she left written consent. The concept of brain death was controversial. It was a product of compromise that a brain-dead person could be recognized as dead only if he/she had given consent to allow organs to be taken in the event of brain death. This law was revised in 2009. It became possible to take organs from a brain-dead person with the consent of the patient's family, even if the wishes of the person who died were not clear. This revision, which took effect in July 2010, also legalizes the removal of organs from brain-dead children under the age of 15. The author of this article considers whether and how the legal definition of brain death was changed through this revision.

  19. Invasive fungal infections and antifungal therapies in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Kubiak, David W; Chandraker, Anil K; Tullius, Stefan G

    2007-12-01

    This manuscript will review the risk factors, prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Primary literature was obtained via MEDLINE (1966-April 2007) and EMBASE. Abstracts were obtained from scientific meetings or pharmaceutical manufacturers and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating IFIs and/or antifungal therapies, with a primary focus on solid organ transplantation, were considered for inclusion. English-language literature was selected for inclusion, but was limited to those consisting of human subjects. Infectious complications following SOT are common. IFIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in this patient population. Determining the best course of therapy is difficult due to the limited availability of data in SOT recipients. Well-designed clinical studies are infrequent and much of the available information is often based on case-reports or retrospective analyses. Transplant practitioners must remain aware of their therapeutic options and the advantages and disadvantages associated with the available treatment alternatives.

  20. Solar UV-radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of organ transplantation in clinical medicine has resulted in a constantly increasing, large population of patients that are chronically on immunosuppressive medication. It is well known that skin cancer, especially SCC, in this population has higher incidence rates, behaves more aggressively and has higher rates of metastasis. OTRs who have been treated for many years with immunosuppressive medication are at the highest risk for developing malignant skin tumors. Therefore, the intensity of surveillance for cutaneous lesions is of high importance in OTRs. A full-body skin exam at least once a year and more frequently if skin cancer or precancerous cutaneous lesions develop is recommended. Clinicians should not hesitate to biopsy or to surgically excise any suspicious skin lesion. Of high importance is also the education of OTRs about their increased risk. Protection against solar and artificial UV-radiation and monthly self-examinations are good ways to prevent and to recognize any new suspicious skin lesions. Patients are advised to always wear solar UV-radiation protection (e.g., clothing, sunscreen) before going outdoors. However, investigations have revealed that solar UV-B-exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels positively correlate with decreased risk for various internal malignancies (e.g., breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer) and other severe diseases. As we have shown previously, renal transplant recipients are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF)-8 reduces the skin's production of vitamin D by 95%. Clothing completely blocks all solar UVB-radiation and this prevents any vitamin D production. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in solid organ transplant recipients. Optimal management of these patients requires communication between the transplant teams and the treating dermatologist and other clinicians. For advanced or metastatic disease, collaboration

  1. Hepatitis C virus genotyping of organ donor samples to aid in transplantation of HCV-positive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Caren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Goldberg, David S; Reese, Peter P; Hasz, Richard D; Abt, Peter; Blumberg, Emily; Farooqi, Midhat S

    2018-02-01

    Given the availability of new highly efficacious anti-HCV therapies, some clinicians have advocated for wider use of kidneys from hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) donors, including transplanting them into HCV-negative recipients. As treatment regimens for HCV are commonly guided by genotype, pretransplant HCV genotyping of tissue donors would be beneficial. To our knowledge, donor HCV genotyping has never been reported. We retrieved archived frozen plasma samples for 17 previous organ donors through a local organ procurement organization. We performed HCV genotyping using the eSensor HCVg Direct Test (GenMark Diagnostics) and also by Sanger sequencing, for confirmation (Retrogen). In addition, viral loads were measured using the COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan system (Roche Diagnostics). We found that most of the samples (n = 14) were HCV Genotype 1a with the remainder being Genotype 2b (n = 1) or Genotype 3 (n = 2). All genotyping results were concordant with Sanger sequencing. The average HCV viral load in the sample group was ~ 1.6 million IU/mL (range: ~16 000 IU/mL to 7 million IU/mL). We demonstrate that viral RNA from organ donor plasma can be successfully genotyped for HCV. This ability suggests that transplantation of HCV+ kidneys into HCV-negative recipients, followed by genotype-guided antiviral therapy, could be feasible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nephro and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors and mechanisms of rejections: A review on tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    In the meadow of medical sciences substituting a diseased organ with a healthy one from another individual, dead or alive, to allow a human to stay alive could be consider as the most string event. In this article we review the history of transplantation, mechanisms of rejection, nephro-neurotoxicity of tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantations. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The first reference to the concept of organ transplantation and replacement for therapeutic purposes appears to be to Hua-To (136 to 208 A.D), who replaced diseased organs with healthy ones in patients under analgesia induced with a mixture of Indian hemp. In 1936, the first human renal transplant performed by Voronoy in Russia. The first liver transplant in humans was performed on March 1, 1963 by Starzl in Denver, USA. Medawar was the first to assert that rejection was an immunological response, with the inflammatory reaction due to lymphocyte infiltration. Consequently, rational immunosuppressive therapies could inhibit deleterious T-cell responses in an antigen specific manner. Searching related to the history of organ transplantation from mythic to modern times suggests that, to prevent graft rejection, minimize nephro and neuro toxicity monitoring of immunosupressive concentrations could provide an invaluable and essential aid in adjusting dosage to ensure adequate immunosuppression.

  3. Recommendations for the proper use of nonprescription cough suppressants and expectorants in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Carter, Danielle; Martin, Spencer; Roberts, Keri

    2011-03-01

    To describe the pharmacology and safety of oral over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants and to present recommendations for the use of these agents in solid-organ transplant recipients based on the potential for adverse drug reactions or drug-disease interactions. Data from journal articles and other sources describing the pharmacology and safety of over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants, drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressive agents, and drug-disease state interactions are reviewed. Potential and documented drug-drug interactions between immunosuppressive agents and over-the-counter cough medications guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, and codeine were evaluated on the basis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles. Interactions between these cough medications and the physiological changes in the body following transplantation also were examined. Diphenhydramine requires additional monitoring when used to treat cough in transplant recipients owing to its anticholinergic properties and the potential for interactions with cyclosporine. Dextromethorphan can be used in most transplant recipients, although greater caution should be exercised if the patient has undergone liver transplant or has liver impairment. Guaifenesin can be used in transplant recipients but should be used with caution in patients receiving kidney or lung transplants and in patients with renal impairment. Codeine combined with guaifenesin is another option for cough and can be used in most transplant patients although those with reduced renal function should be monitored carefully for adverse events.

  4. Organ trafficking and transplant tourism: the role of global professional ethical standards-the 2008 Declaration of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Gabriel M; Chapman, Jeremy; Capron, Alexander M; Levin, Adeera; Abbud-Filho, Mario; Al Mousawi, Mustafa; Bennett, William; Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Couser, William; Dittmer, Ian; Jha, Vivek; Lavee, Jacob; Martin, Dominique; Masri, Marwan; Naicker, Saraladevi; Takahara, Shiro; Tibell, Annika; Shaheen, Faissal; Anantharaman, Vathsala; Delmonico, Francis L

    2013-06-15

    By 2005, human organ trafficking, commercialization, and transplant tourism had become a prominent and pervasive influence on transplantation therapy. The most common source of organs was impoverished people in India, Pakistan, Egypt, and the Philippines, deceased organ donors in Colombia, and executed prisoners in China. In response, in May 2008, The Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology developed the Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism consisting of a preamble, a set of principles, and a series of proposals. Promulgation of the Declaration of Istanbul and the formation of the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group to promote and uphold its principles have demonstrated that concerted, strategic, collaborative, and persistent actions by professionals can deliver tangible changes. Over the past 5 years, the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group organized and encouraged cooperation among professional bodies and relevant international, regional, and national governmental organizations, which has produced significant progress in combating organ trafficking and transplant tourism around the world. At a fifth anniversary meeting in Qatar in April 2013, the DICG took note of this progress and set forth in a Communiqué a number of specific activities and resolved to further engage groups from many sectors in working toward the Declaration's objectives.

  5. Five-Year Follow-Up on Transplanted Organs From Donors After Brain Death After Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatenkova, Vera; Pokorna, Eva; Suchomel, Petr

    2017-08-01

    Efficient intensive care donor management can help alleviate the shortage of organs for transplant. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of management of donors after brain death from our neurointensive care unit. We conducted a prospective observational 5-year follow-up on 29 transplanted organs from 14 brain-dead donors after acute stroke (7 subarachnoid and 4 intracerebral hemorrhages, 3 ischemic strokes). Mean age of donors was 56.2 ± 8.70 years, and mean number of days of artificial ventilation was 5.0 ± 3.84. We transplanted 27 kidneys and 2 livers to 29 patients with mean age of 55.3 ± 9.76 years. No hearts or lungs were transplanted from these donors. Of the 27 patients who underwent kidney transplant, 21 patients (78%) lived 5 years; of those, 17 patients (63%) had functional grafts. One patient (4%) had a primary afunctional graft, and 3 patients (11%) had graft rejection (at 3, 15, and 41 mo). Six patients (22%) died after kidney transplant, with 1 patient in this group having a functional graft, 1 patient having a primary afunctional graft, and 4 patients (15%) having graft rejection (at 1, 12, 44, and 56 mo). The 2 patients with liver transplants lived 5 years with functional grafts. The 5-year follow-up showed that organs from 14 brain-dead donors improved and saved 19 lives, with 17 patients receiving kidney transplants and 2 patients receiving liver transplants. Another 7 patients had only partially improved quality of life.

  6. Regulations in the United States for cell transplantation clinical trials in neurological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhu; Yuanqing Tan; Qi Gu; Weifang Han; Zhongwen Li; Jason S Meyer; Baoyang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a systematic approach to evaluate the current utilization, safety, and effectiveness of cell therapies for neurological diseases in human. And review the present regulations, considering United States (US) as a representative country, for cell transplantation in neurological disease and discuss the challenges facing the field of neurology in the coming decades. Methods:A detailed search was performed in systematic literature reviews of cellular‐based therapies in neurological diseases, using PubMed, web of science, and clinical trials. Regulations of cell therapy products used for clinical trials were searched from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results: Seven most common types of cell therapies for neurological diseases have been reported to be relatively safe with varying degrees of neurological recovery. And a series of regulations in US for cellular therapy was summarized including preclinical evaluations, sourcing material, stem cell manufacturing and characterization, cell therapy product, and clinical trials. Conclusions:Stem cell‐based therapy holds great promise for a cure of such diseases and will value a growing population of patients. However, regulatory permitting activity of the US in the sphere of stem cells, technologies of regenerative medicine and substitutive cell therapy are selective, theoretical and does not fit the existing norm and rules. Compiled well‐defined regulations to guide the application of stem cell products for clinical trials should be formulated.

  7. The influence of carbapenem resistance on mortality in solid organ transplant recipients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gouvêa Erika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of carbapenem resistance and other potential risk factors on the outcome of A. baumannii infection after kidney and liver transplantation. Methods Retrospective study of a case series of A. baumannii infection among liver and renal transplant recipients. The primary outcome was death associated with A. baumannii infection. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the influence of carbapenem resistance and other covariates on the outcome. Results Forty-nine cases of A. baumannii infection affecting 24 kidney and 25 liver transplant recipients were studied. Eighteen cases (37% were caused by carbapenem-resistant isolates. There were 17 (35% deaths associated with A. baumannii infection. In unadjusted analysis, liver transplantation (p = 0.003, acquisition in intensive care unit (p = 0.001, extra-urinary site of infection (p A. baumannii infection. The number of deaths associated with A. baumannii infection was higher among patients infected with carbapenem-resistant isolates, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.28. In multivariate analysis, the risk of A. baumannii-associated mortality was higher in patients with infection acquired in the intensive care unit (odds ratio [OR] = 34.8, p = 0.01 and on mechanical ventilation (OR = 15.2, p = 0.04. Appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy was associated with significantly lower mortality (OR = 0.04, p = 0.03, but carbapenem resistance had no impact on it (OR = 0.73, p = 0.70. Conclusion These findings suggest that A. baumannii-associated mortality among liver and kidney transplant recipients is influenced by baseline clinical severity and by the early start of appropriate therapy, but not by carbapenem

  8. From bioavailability science to regulation of organic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega-Calvo, J.J.; Harmsen, J.; Parsons, J.R.; Semple, K.T.; Aitkin, M.D.; Ajao, C.; Eadsforth, C.; Galay-Burgos, M.; Naidu, R.; Oliver, R.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Römbke, J.; Streck, G.; Versonnen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of organic chemicals in soil and sediment is an important area of scientific investigation for environmental scientists, although this area of study remains only partially recognized by regulators and industries working in the environmental sector. Regulators have recently

  9. Hepatitis B reactivation and rituximab: a new boxed warning and considerations for solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S T; Cardwell, S M; Nailor, M D; Gabardi, S

    2014-04-01

    Use of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at the CD20 antigen, continues to increase in solid organ transplantation (SOT) for several off-label uses. In September 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Drug Safety Communication to oncology, rheumatology and pharmacy communities outlining a new Boxed Warning for rituximab. Citing 109 cases of fatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in persons receiving rituximab therapy with previous or chronic HBV infection documented in their Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), the FDA recommends screening for HBV serologies in all patients planned to receive rituximab and antiviral prophylaxis in any patient with a positive history of HBV infection. There is a lack of data pertaining to this topic in the SOT population despite an increase in off-label indications. Previous reports suggest patients receiving rituximab, on average, were administered six doses prior to HBV reactivation. Recommendations on prophylaxis, treatment and re-challenging patients with therapy after resolution of reactivation remain unclear. Based on data from the FDA AERS and multiple analyses in oncology, SOT providers utilizing rituximab should adhere to the FDA warnings and recommendations regarding HBV reactivation until further data are available in the SOT population. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Regulation of proliferation and functioning of transplanted cells by using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Mari; Kusamori, Kosuke; Oda, Chihiro; Miyazaki, Airi; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yamamoto, Akira

    2018-04-10

    Though cell transplantation is becoming an attractive therapeutic method, uncontrolled cell proliferation or overexpression of cellular functions could cause adverse effects. These unfavorable outcomes could be avoided by regulating the proliferation or functioning of transplanted cells. In this study, we used a combination of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene, a suicide gene, and ganciclovir (GCV) to control the proliferation and functioning of insulin-secreting cells after transplantation in diabetic mice. Mouse pancreatic β cell line MIN6 cells were selected as insulin-secreting cells for transfection with the HSVtk gene to obtain MIN6/HSVtk cells. Proliferation of MIN6/HSVtk cells was suppressed by GCV in a concentration-dependent manner; 0.25 μg/mL GCV maintained a constant number of MIN6/HSVtk cells for at least 16 days. MIN6 or MIN6/HSVtk cells were then transplanted to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Mice transplanted with MIN6 cells exhibited hypoglycemia irrespective of GCV administration. In contrast, normal (around 150 mg/dL) blood glucose levels were maintained in mice transplanted with MIN6/HSVtk cells by a daily administration of 50 mg/kg of GCV. These results indicate that controlling the proliferation and functioning of HSVtk gene-expressing cells by GCV could greatly improve the usefulness and safety of cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Histocompatibility Testing for Organ Transplantation Purposes in Albania: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkena Shyti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and

  12. Post transplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric solid organ transplant patients: A possible role for [{sup 18}F]-FDG-PET(/CT) in initial staging and therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, C. von [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Medical School Hanover), Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: Falck.Christian.von@mh-hannover.de; Maecker, B. [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Medical School Hanover), Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Schirg, E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Medical School Hanover), Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Boerner, A.R.; Knapp, W.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Medical School Hanover), Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Klein, C. [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Medical School Hanover), Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Galanski, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Medical School Hanover), Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a severe complication after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. In pediatric transplant recipients PTLD is the most common malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible role for positron emission tomography with [{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose (FDG) in the initial staging and in therapy monitoring of pediatric patients suffering from biopsy-proven CD20-positive PTLD after solid organ transplantation. Seven pediatric patients were included. All available imaging studies - CT (n = 15), MRI (n = 16) and PET/PETCT (n = 16) - were reviewed on a lesion by lesion base. The performance of FDG-PET in the initial staging and during therapy with a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody was compared to conventional cross sectional imaging and correlated with the clinical outcome. FDG-PET identified all sites of disease as shown by CT/MRI and helped to clarify the significance of equivocal findings. The initial stage of disease was correctly identified by FDG-PET alone when compared to CT/MRI. During therapy, FDG-PET was superior to conventional cross-sectional imaging in the early evaluation of response.

  13. New Organ Allocation System for Combined Liver-Kidney Transplants and the Availability of Kidneys for Transplant to Patients with Stage 4-5 CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, William S; Bia, Margaret J

    2017-05-08

    A new proposal has been created for establishing medical criteria for organ allocation in recipients receiving simultaneous liver-kidney transplants. In this article, we describe the new policy, elaborate on the points of greatest controversy, and offer a perspective on the policy going forward. Although we applaud the fact that simultaneous liver-kidney transplant activity will now be monitored and appreciate the creation of medical criteria for allocation in simultaneous liver-kidney transplants, we argue that some of the criteria proposed, especially those for allocating a kidney to a liver recipient with AKI, are too liberal. We call on the nephrology community to follow the consequences of this new policy and push for a re-examination of the longstanding policy of allocating kidneys to multiorgan transplant recipients before all other candidates. The charge to protect our system of equitable organ allocation is very challenging, but it is a challenge that we must embrace. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Initiating collaboration among organ transplant professionals through Web portals and mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan; Hoy, Haley; Maskey, Manil; Conover, Helen; Gamble, John; Fraley, Anne

    2013-05-13

    The knowledge base for healthcare providers working in the field of organ transplantation has grown exponentially. However, the field has no centralized 'space' dedicated to efficient access and sharing of information. The ease of use and portability of mobile applications (apps) make them ideal for subspecialists working in complex healthcare environments. In this article, the authors review the literature related to healthcare technology; describe the development of health-related technology; present their mobile app pilot project assessing the effects of a collaborative, mobile app based on a freely available content manage framework; and report their findings. They conclude by sharing both lessons learned while completing this project and future directions.

  15. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... or estimates of renal function in these patients, in order to accurately and safely dose immunosuppressive medication and perform and adjust the treatment and prophylaxis of renal dysfunction. This is a short overview and discussion of relevant studies and possible caveats of estimated glomerular filtration...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  16. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-10-01

    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  17. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944): visionary vascular surgeon and pioneer in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Lai

    2014-08-01

    Alexis Carrel was a French surgeon in the 20th century. He made significant contributions to many advances in the fields of vascular surgery, cardiothoracic surgery and organ transplantation. He demonstrated that blood vessels can be united end-to-end and pioneered the triangulation suturing technique in vascular anastomosis. The methods he developed are still in use to this day. He insisted on the importance of absolute asepsis in vascular surgery when such practices were almost unheard of. He was also considered the father of solid organ transplantation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of his work. Together with Charles Lindbergh, he developed the extracorporeal perfusion pump to keep organs alive outside the human body. His contribution to medicine also extended to tissue culture and wound management. He was one of the most controversial figures of his generation, believing in the idea of genetic superiority and eugenics and he was associated with fascism in the 1930s. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Regulation of organic anion transport in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM

    1997-01-01

    In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter

  19. Immunosuppressive therapy after solid-organ transplantation: does the INTERMED identify patients at risk of poor adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaud L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of adherence to medication is a trigger of graft rejection in solid-organ transplant (SOT recipients. Objective: This exploratory study aimed to assess whether a biopsychosocial evaluation using the INTERMED instrument before transplantation could identify SOT recipients at risk of suboptimal post-transplantation adherence to immunosuppressant drugs. We hypothesized that complex patients (INTERMED>20 might have lower medication adherence than noncomplex patients (INTERMED≤20. Methods: Each patient eligible for transplantation at the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, has to undergo a pre-transplantation psychiatric evaluation. In this context the patient was asked to participate in our study. The INTERMED was completed pre-transplantation, and adherence to immunosuppressive medication was monitored post-transplantation by electronic monitors for 12 months. The main outcome measure was the implementation and persistence to two calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, according to the dichotomized INTERMED score (>20 or ≤20. Results: Among the 50 SOT recipients who completed the INTERMED, 32 entered the study. The complex (N=11 and noncomplex patients (N=21 were similar in terms of age, sex and transplanted organ. Implementation was 94.2% in noncomplex patients versus 87.8% in complex patients (non-significant p-value. Five patients were lost to follow-up: one was non-persistent, and four refused electronic monitoring. Of the four patients who refused monitoring, two were complex and withdrew early, and two were noncomplex and withdrew later in the study. Conclusion: Patients identified as complex pre-transplant by the INTERMED tended to deviate from their immunosuppressant regimen, but the findings were not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed to evaluate this association further, as well as the appropriateness of using a nonspecific biopsychosocial instrument such as INTERMED in highly

  20. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  1. A data science approach for quantifying spatio-temporal effects to graft failures in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Diego; Hamad, Farag; Cadeiras, Martin; Menezes, Ronaldo; Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Nezamoddin

    2016-08-01

    The transplantation of solid organs is one of the most important accomplishments of modern medicine. Yet, organ shortage is a major public health issue; 8,000 people died while waiting for an organ in 2014. Meanwhile, the allocation system currently implemented can lead to organs being discarded and the medical community still investigates factors that affects early graft failure such as distance and ischemic time. In this paper, we investigate early graft failure under a spatio-temporal perspective using a data science unified approach for all six organs that is based on complementary cumulative analysis of both distance and ischemic time. Interestingly, although distance seems to highly affect some organs (e.g. liver), it appears to have no effect on others (e.g. kidney). Similarly, the results on ischemic time confirm it affects early graft failure with higher influence for some organs such as (e.g. heart) and lower influence for others such as (e.g. kidney). This poses the question whether the allocation policies should be individually designed for each organ in order to account for their particularities as shown in this work.

  2. Factors That Affect the Attitudes of the Bolivian Population in Spain With Regard to Organ Donation for Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcó, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Bolivian population is an emerging Latin American immigrant group in Spain, several of whom have been transplanted or are awaiting transplant. We aimed to assess attitudes toward organ donation among Bolivians currently residing in Spain. The population screened was born in Bolivia but living in Spain, stratified by gender and age. The appraisal tool used was a questionnaire that assesses attitudes toward organ donation for transplant ("PCID-DTO Ríos"). Support from immigration associations in Spain was needed for advice on locations of potential respondents. Survey participation was anonymized and the questionnaire was self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained before participation. There were 206 respondents: 49% (n = 101) in favor of donating their organs after death; 21% (n = 44) against donation; and 30% (n = 61) undecided. Their attitudes were found to be associated with level of education (P = .008), previous experience with donation and transplant (P = .011), concern regarding mutilation after donation (P = .002), knowing the attitude of their religion toward transplant (P = .001), the opinion of their partner (P organ donation (odds ratio = 16.129; P = .003). Attitudes toward organ donation among Bolivians residing in Spain are far more negative compared with rest of the Spanish population, due to various factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective Regulator Decoupling and Organizations' Strategic Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heese, Jonas; Krishnan, Ranjani; Moers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Organizations often respond to institutional pressures by symbolically adopting policies and procedures but decoupling them from actual practice. Literature has examined why organizations decouple from regulatory pressures. In this study, we argue that decoupling occurs within regulatory agencies

  4. Correction of lysosomal enzyme deficiency in various organs of beta-glucuronidase-deficient mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge, P. M.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Mulder, A. H.; Wagemaker, G.; Dooren, L. J.; Vossen, J. M.; van Bekkum, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    The correction of lysosomal enzyme deficiency was investigated for various organs of beta-glucuronidase-deficient C3H/Rij mice after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an enzymatically normal donor strain (C57BL/Rij). In the hemopoietic organs, the enzyme level increased to levels found in

  5. Attitudes to Organ Donation and Knowledge of Donation and Transplantation among University of Auckland Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Harbour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.

  6. Refining a health-related quality of life assessment strategy for solid organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Irene D; Moore, Derek E; Speroff, Theodore; Liu, Hongxia; Payne, Jerita; Harrison, Connie; Pinson, C Wright

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment instruments were evaluated to identify a reliable, valid, and non-redundant battery to measure longitudinal outcomes in organ transplant patients. Objective functional performance and subjective HRQOL were assessed in 371 solid organ (liver, heart, kidney, lung) transplant patients using the Karnofsky scale, the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS). The surveys' internal-consistency reliability, criterion-related validity, and redundancy were tested. The SF-36 mental (MCS) and physical components (PCS), and PAIS summary scales were internally consistent (all alpha > or = 0.83). Four out of seven PAIS scales (vocational, domestic, sexual, social) were collectively associated with the PCS (R = 0.65, P satisfaction) scale was not associated with the SF-36((R)). The relationship between functional performance and the PCS is stronger (r = 0.52, P global score (r = 0.37, P satisfaction inventory was indicated and was developed.

  7. Family Interview to Enable Donation of Organs for Transplantation: Evidence-based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, E L; Dos Santos, M J; de Barros E Silva, L B; de Lima Pilan, L A S; de Lima, E A A; de Santana, A C; Martins, M S

    2018-04-01

    In this study we propose a theoretical and practical basis for the best practices for interviewing relatives of brain-dead eligible organ donors. This investigation was a reflective study of the methodologic factors of the family interview that affect their decision regarding the donation of a deceased patient's organs for transplantation. The articles that formed the empirical basis of the trial were obtained from PubMed, which is a free-access tool of the MEDLINE database of the United States National Library of Medicine. Published articles that allowed us to reflect on evidence-based family interview practice were selected. Thirty-six scientific articles were used to guide our assessment the family interview, providing evidence for its adequate execution in view of the following prerequisites: When should the family interview be performed? Where should it be done? How many and which people should participate in the interview? Who should perform it? How should it be done? Scientific studies offer evidence to donation and transplantation specialists that can help them in their daily work regarding their interactions with relatives in the process of decisionmaking and family consent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autopsy-determined causes of death following organ transplantation in 25 patients aged 20 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alan G

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to examine the autopsy-determined principal and proximate causes of death in 25 patients aged 20 years or younger who died during the 10-year period from 1990 to 1999 after receiving an organ transplant at the University of Minnesota/Fairview-University Medical Center. The autopsy records of this institution were examined for organ transplant recipients who were aged 20 years or younger at the time of their death. In each case, after review of the clinical and pathological data, the principle cause of death (PCOD), as well as the proximate cause of death (PXCOD) were noted. A total of 25 recipient patients were identified (five heart, five lung, five kidney and 10 liver transplants). Seven patients died 30 days or less post-operatively and 18 died thereafter. The following categories of PCOD were encountered: operative/technical complications 28%, most (6/7) being associated with liver transplantation. Infection (24%) and chronic rejection (12%) were other important PCOD. Respiratory complications accounted for 47% of the PCOD. The following categories of PXCOD were noted: technical problems 16%, pulmonary pathology 24%, miscellaneous 32%, acute rejection 4% and nil 20%. This study revealed that technical problems in liver transplants were an important PCOD; respiratory complications and chronic rejection were additional major causes of mortality in this young age group of transplant recipients. Pulmonary pathology and technical problems were the commonest specific groups contributing to the PXCOD.

  9. Smart-grid Investments, Regulation and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Mikkers, Misja

    2013-01-01

    Grid infrastructure managers worldwide are facing demands for reinvestments in new assets with higher on-grid and off-grid functionality in order to meet new environmental targets. The roles of the current actors will change as the vertical interfaces between regulated and unregulated tasks become...... blurred. In this paper, we characterize some of the effects of new asset investments policy on the network tasks, assets and costs and contrast this with the assumptions of the current economic network regulation. To provide structure, we present a model of investment provision under regulation between...

  10. Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Recipients of Solid Organ Transplantation, a Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J van Adrichem

    Full Text Available Sufficient physical activity is important for solid organ transplant recipients (heart, lung, liver, kidney. However, recipients do not meet the recommended amount or required type of physical activity. The perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in this population are largely unknown.Semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with solid organ transplant recipients in order to explore experienced barriers and facilitators. Qualitative methodology with thematic line-by-line analysis was used for analysis, and derived themes were classified into personal and environmental factors.The most important indicated barriers were physical limitations, insufficient energy level, fear, and comorbidities. The most frequently mentioned facilitators included motivation, coping, consequences of (inactivity, routine/habit, goals/goal priority, and responsibility for the transplanted organ. Neutral factors acting as a barrier or facilitator were self-efficacy and expertise of personnel. A comparison of barriers and facilitators between transplant recipient groups yielded no overt differences.Several personal and environmental factors were indicated that should be considered in intervention development to increase physical activity behavior in solid organ transplant recipients.

  11. KIR and HLA interactions are associated with control of primary CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duin, D; Avery, R K; Hemachandra, S; Yen-Lieberman, B; Zhang, A; Jain, A; Butler, R S; Barnard, J; Schold, J D; Fung, J; Askar, M

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors(KIR) are genetically polymorphic natural killer(NK) cell receptors important in antiviral responses. A retrospective, single-center cohort study was performed to study the interaction of KIR genotype and primary control of CMV infection after transplantation.Time to first CMV viremia was determined for a cohort of 531 CMV serology donor positive/recipient negative solid organ transplant recipients. Of the KIR genes,KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 were most strongly associated with time to CMV viremia in random survival forest analysis. As KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 both interact with HLA-C1, these interactions were evaluated. Seventy six recipients were found to be positive for both KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 and expressed only HLA-C1 antigens in both recipient and donor. These patients had a substantially reduced hazard of CMV viremia in the first year after solid organ transplantation (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.27–0.72, p=0.0012). In KIR2DL3+/KIR2DS2+/HLA-C1/1 recipients who received an organ from a non-C1/1 donor, this protective effect was not observed. These results improve our understanding of human NK cell function in primary CMV infection after transplant.

  12. Effect of organ donation after circulatory determination of death on number of organ transplants from donors with neurologic determination of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vivek; Dhanani, Sonny; MacLean, Janet; Payne, Clare; Paltser, Elizabeth; Humar, Atul; Zaltzman, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To increase the available pool of organ donors, Ontario introduced donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD) in 2006. Other jurisdictions have reported a decrease in donations involving neurologic determination of death (NDD) after implementation of DCD, with a drop in organ yield and quality. In this study, we examined the effect of DCD on overall transplant activity in Ontario. METHODS: We examined deceased donor and organ transplant activity during 3 distinct 4-year eras: pre-DCD (2002/03 to 2005/06), early DCD (2006/07 to 2009/10) and recent DCD (2010/11 to 2013/14). We compared these donor groups by categorical characteristics. RESULTS: Donation increased by 57%, from 578 donors in the pre-DCD era to 905 donors in the recent DCD era, with a 21% proportion (190/905) of DCD donors in the recent DCD era. However, overall NDD donation also increased. The mean length of hospital stay before declaration for NDD was 2.7 days versus 6.0 days before withdrawal of life support and subsequent asystole in cases of DCD. The average organ yield was 3.73 with NDD donation versus 2.58 with DCD (p organs from DCD donors were successfully transplanted. From the pre-DCD era to the recent DCD era, transplant activity in each era increased for all solid-organ recipients, including heart (from 158 to 216), kidney (from 821 to 1321), liver (from 477 to 657) and lung (from 160 to 305). INTERPRETATION: Implementation of DCD in Ontario led to increased transplant activity for all solid-organ recipients. There was no evidence that the use of DCD was pre-empting potential NDD donation. In contrast to groups receiving other organs, heart transplant candidates have not yet benefited from DCD. PMID:28947546

  13. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  14. Projections in donor organs available for liver transplantation in the United States: 2014-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neehar D; Hutton, David; Marrero, Wesley; Sanghani, Kunal; Xu, Yongcai; Lavieri, Mariel

    2015-06-01

    With the aging US population, demographic shifts, and obesity epidemic, there is potential for further exacerbation of the current liver donor shortage. We aimed to project the availability of liver grafts in the United States. We performed a secondary analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database of all adult donors from 2000 to 2012 and calculated the total number of donors available and transplanted donor livers stratified by age, race, and body mass index (BMI) group per year. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention historical data to stratify the general population by age, sex, race, and BMI. We then used US population age and race projections provided by the US Census Bureau and the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service and made national and regional projections of available donors and donor liver utilization from 2014 to 2025. We performed sensitivity analyses and varied the rate of the rise in obesity, proportion of Hispanics, population growth, liver utilization rate, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) utilization. The projected adult population growth in the United States from 2014 to 2025 will be 7.1%. However, we project that there will be a 6.1% increase in the number of used liver grafts. There is marked regional heterogeneity in liver donor growth. Projections were significantly affected by changes in BMI, DCD utilization, and liver utilization rates but not by changes in the Hispanic proportion of the US population or changes in the overall population growth. Overall population growth will outpace the growth of available donor organs and thus potentially exacerbate the existing liver graft shortage. The projected growth in organs is highly heterogeneous across different United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Focused strategies to increase the liver donor pool are warranted. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Health content analysis of organ donation and transplantation news on Turkish television channels and in Turkish print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, M Yavuz; Hekimoglu, D; Ersoy, K; Sozen, F; Haberal, M

    2010-01-01

    The media affects individuals' behaviors, especially by means of news and advertisements. In this study, we evaluated health content of organ donation and transplantation news in the printed media and on television programs for a 1-year period in Turkey. We examined 2449 news items in 230 newspapers and magazines; 1179 news programs on 45 television channels, all concerning organ donation and transplantation. The news obtained from the Media Pursuit Center were transferred to an electronic file to evaluate the format and content of the news. Nine variables were examined about the scope and the formal characteristics of the news: the publication name, its type, the province, the date, the headline, the title length, the presence of a photograph, or its kind, the news size, and the page number. In the content analysis of the news, we also examined 9 variables: the topic, the message of the headline, the property of the words in the title, the identification of photographs in the news, the age, gender of actors in the news, as well as donor or recipient. In a summary, print media and television channels, failed to show sufficient information about organ donation and transplantation. The percentage of news about organ donation and transplantation was small and mostly negative items in the media. On television channels, sufficient place was not given to organ donation and transplantation. The news in printed media and on television channels was not about motivated or altruistic behavior. The pattern of organ donation and transplantation news is important in terms of perception and comment by the public. Furthermore it directly affects the perception of the news by the reader.

  16. Registry of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: first official solid organ and tissue transplantation report - 2008

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    Estela Azeka

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future.

  17. Living Organ Donation by Minors: An Analysis of the Regulations in European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, K; Van Assche, K; Nys, H; Sterckx, S; Borry, P

    2016-12-01

    Living organ donation (LD) is an increasingly established practice. Whereas in the United States and Canada LD by minors has occasionally been reported, LD by minors seems to be largely absent in the European Union (EU). It is currently unclear whether this is the result of a different legal approach. This study is the first to systematically analyze the regulations of EU member states, Norway, and Iceland toward LD by minors. Relevant regulations were identified by searching government websites, translated, compared, and sent for verification to national legal experts. We identified five countries where LD by minors is allowed. In two of these (Belgium and the United Kingdom), some minors may be deemed sufficiently mature to make an autonomous decision regarding LD. In contrast, in the three other countries (Luxembourg, Norway, and Sweden), LD by minors is only allowed subject to parental permission and the assent (or absence of objection) of the donor. Where allowed, regulations differ significantly with regard to the substantive and procedural safeguards in place. In view of the controversial nature of the procedure, as illustrated by recent reports and surveys, we argue for a very cautious approach and greater harmonization in countries where LD by minors is allowed. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. [Impact of Emotion Regulation and Emotional Arousal on Quality of Life and Adherence of Couples after Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Luisa; Franke, Laura; Tkachenko, Daria; Schiffer, Mario; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2018-05-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication increases the risk of graft failure. Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (ERS) seem to be a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas for patients in relationships spousal support appears as a protective resource. Emotional arousal, objectively measured by the fundamental frequency (f 0 ) during spousal supportive communication is associated with supportive behavior. This study examined the relationship between beliefs about immunosuppressive medication, quality of life, ERS, emotions and emotional arousal, assessed during social support interactions of both spouses of N=50 couples after kidney transplantation. Maladaptive ERS of the transplant recipient were associated with lower mental quality of life of the partner, marginally higher own negative affect and lower beliefs about medication. Maladaptive ERS of the partner showed negative correlations with own mental quality of life. Regarding f 0 , gender differences were found. Higher f 0 of the male transplant recipient were associated with more maladaptive ERS of the female partner. Marginally significate correlations were found with lower own beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of the wife of the male transplant recipient showed correlations with lower own positive affect, more negative affect of the male patient and lower beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of female transplant recipients were associated with lower own maladaptive ERS and lower maladaptive ERS of the husband. The findings support the relevance of early interventions focusing on identifying and modifying maladaptive ERS for both the patient and partner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Resource utilization associated with procurement of transplantable organs from donors that do not meet OPTN eligible death criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Derek A; Redden, David T; Bryant, Mary K; Dorn, David P; Fouad, Mona N; Gray, Stephen H; White, Jared A; Locke, Jayme E; Meeks, Christopher B; Taylor, Garry C; Kilgore, Meredith L; Eckhoff, Devin E

    2014-05-27

    The strategy of evaluating every donation opportunity warrants an investigation into the financial feasibility of this practice. The purpose of this investigation is to measure resource utilization required for procurement of transplantable organs in an organ procurement organization (OPO). Donors were stratified into those that met OPTN-defined eligible death criteria (ED donors, n=589) and those that did not (NED donors, n=703). Variable direct costs and time utilization by OPO staff for organ procurement were measured and amortized per organ transplanted using permutation methods and statistical bootstrapping/resampling approaches. More organs per donor were procured (3.66±1.2 vs. 2.34±0.8, Pdonors compared with NED donors. The variable direct costs were significantly lower in the NED donors ($29,879.4±11590.1 vs. $19,019.6±7599.60, Porgan transplanted were significantly higher in the NED donors ($8,414.5±138.29 vs. $9,272.04±344.56, Pdonors where thoracic organ procurement occurred were 67% more expensive than in abdominal-only organ procurement. The total time allocated per donor was significantly shorter in the NED donors (91.2±44.9 hr vs. 86.8±78.6 hr, P=0.01). In contrast, the amortized time per organ transplanted was significantly longer in the NED donors (23.1±0.8 hr vs. 36.9±3.2 hr, Porgan transplanted is significantly higher in donors that do not meet the eligible death criteria.

  20. Multimethod Assessment of Medication Nonadherence and Barriers in Adolescents and Young Adults With Solid Organ Transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Cyd K; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Quast, Lauren F; Liverman, Rochelle; Lee, Jennifer L; Mee, Laura L; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Cushman, Grace; Chiang, Gloria; Romero, Rene; Mao, Chad; Garro, Rouba; Blount, Ronald L

    2018-03-17

    To (a) examine levels of medication nonadherence in adolescent and young adult (AYA) solid organ transplant recipients based on AYA- and caregiver proxy-reported nonadherence to different medication types and the medication-level variability index (MLVI) for tacrolimus, and (b) examine associations of adherence barriers and AYA and caregiver emotional distress symptoms with reported nonadherence and the MLVI. The sample included 47 AYAs (M age = 16.67 years, SD = 1.74; transplant types: 25% kidney, 47% liver, 28% heart) and their caregivers (94 total participants). AYAs and caregivers reported on AYAs' adherence barriers and their own emotional functioning. Nonadherence was measured with AYA self- and caregiver proxy-report and the MLVI for tacrolimus. The majority of AYAs and caregivers denied nonadherence, with lower rates of nonadherence reported for antirejection medications. In contrast, 40% of AYAs' MLVI values indicated nonadherence to tacrolimus. AYAs and caregivers who verbally acknowledged nonadherence had more AYA barriers and greater caregiver emotional distress symptoms compared with those who denied nonadherence. AYAs with MLVIs indicating nonadherence had more barriers than AYAs with MLVIs indicating adherence. Multimethod nonadherence evaluations for AYA transplant recipients should assess objective nonadherence using the MLVI, particularly in light of low reported nonadherence rates for antirejection medications. Assessments should include adherence barriers measures, given associations with the MLVI, and potentially prioritize assessing barriers over gauging nonadherence via self- or proxy-reports. Caregiver emotional distress symptoms may also be considered to provide insight into family or environmental barriers to adherence.

  1. An early look at the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network explant pathology form data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ann M; Edwards, Erick; Washburn, W Kenneth; Heimbach, Julie

    2016-06-01

    In April 2012, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) implemented an online explant pathology form for recipients of liver transplantation who received additional wait-list priority for their diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of the form was to standardize the data being reported to the OPTN, which had been required since 2002 but were submitted to the OPTN in a variety of formats via facsimile. From April 2012 to December 2014, over 4500 explant forms were submitted, allowing for detailed analysis of the characteristics of the explanted livers. Data from the explant pathology forms were used to assess agreement with pretransplant imaging. Explant data were also used to assess the risk of recurrence. Of those with T2 priority, 55.7% were found to be stage T2 on explant. Extrahepatic spread (odds ratio [OR] = 6.8; P based on the number and size of tumors on the explant form was T4 (OR = 2.4; P < 0.01) were the strongest predictors of recurrence. In conclusion, this analysis confirms earlier findings that showed an incomplete agreement between pretransplant imaging and posttransplant pathology in terms of HCC staging, though the number of patients with both no pretransplant treatment and no tumor in the explant was reduced from 20% to <1%. In addition, several factors were identified (eg, tumor burden, age, sex, region, ablative therapy, alpha-fetoprotein, Milan stage, vascular invasion, satellite lesions, etc.) that were predictive of HCC recurrence, allowing for more targeted surveillance of high-risk recipients. Continued evaluation of these data will help shape future guidelines or policy recommendations. Liver Transplantation 22 757-764 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. The dilemma of "to be or not to be": developing electronically e-health & cloud computing documents for overseas transplant patients from Taiwan organ transplant health professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, F-J; Fan, Y-W; Chiu, C-M; Shih, F-Ji; Wang, S-S

    2012-05-01

    The development of mutually accessible e-health documents (ehD) and cloud computing (CC) for overseas organ transplant health professionals (OTHP) in two medical parties (domestic and overseas) would ensure better quality of care. This project attempted to compare pro and con arguments from the perspective of Taiwan's OTHP. A sample was obtained from three leading medical centers in Taiwan. Eighty subjects including transplant surgeons (n = 20), registered nurses (RN; n = 30), coordinating nurses (OTCN; n = 15), and e-health information and communication technologies experts (ehICTs; n = 15) participated in this research. The pros of developing ehD were: (1) better and continuous care through communication and cooperation in two parties (78%); (2) better collaborative efforts between health professionals, information technology experts in two medical parties is (74%); (3) easier retrieval and communication of personal health documents with the trustworthy OTHP in the different countries (71%); and (4) CC may help develop transplant patients medical cloud based on the collaboration between medical systems in political parties of Taiwan and mainland China (69%). The cons of developing ehD and CC included: (1) inadequate knowledge of benefits and manuals of developing ehD and CC (75%); (2) no reliable communication avenues in developing ehD and CC (73%); (3) increased workload in direct care and documentation in developing new ehD and CC (70%); (4) lack of coaching and accreditation systems in medical, electronic, and law aspects to settle discrepancies in medical diagnosis and treatment protocols between two parties (68%); and (5) lacking systematic ehD and CC plans developed by interdisciplinary teams in two parties (60%). In this initial phase, the establishment of an interdisciplinary team including transplant leaders, transplant surgeon, RN, OTCN, ehICTs, and law experts from two parties might be helpful in working out developing plans with careful monitoring

  3. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "TRANSPLANTATION OF VITAL ORGANS IN EXPERIMENT" (1960. HOMOPLASTIC ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: OF AN ISOLATED HEART, ISOLATED LUNG, KIDNEY, HEAD, HALF OF THE TRUNK, AND THE WHOLE TRUNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  (the third one of five presents the analysis of the final part  of the third chapter on homoplastic organ transplantation from V.P.  Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of  vital  organs  in  experiment"  (MedGIz Publ., Moscow,  1960. The article covers the data presented by V.P. Demikhov on his creating the following animal models:  of the isolated  heart  and lung,  kidneys, head, half of the trunk, and the whole  trunk. The isolated  heart  models where  the heart  was positioned in place of the biological one were not successful. The longest  period  of the dog-recipient survival was  15 hours. The  dogs with transplanted lobes of  the  lung  survived up  to 6 days  (there  are no evidence of  a whole lung  transplant in the book; animal-recipients of kidneys survived up to 19 days.  V.P. Demikhov considered that  the graft deaths might be caused  by the biological  tissue  incompatibility between  the donor  and  recipient, and  he stressed the  need  for  its suppression and  the  importance of  choosing the  donor  and  recipient compatible by their  blood group for  successful homoplastic transplantation. By  transplanting the puppies' heads  onto  the cervical  vessels  of  the dogs, starting the experiments from 1954, V.P. Demikhov attempted to prove the role of the central nervous system in the organ engraftment, which was one of the targets  in those experiments. The integration of two bodies, combining their vascular systems, and mixing the blood had two goals: to create the conditions for overcoming the transplantation immunity and to make an animal model  of organ transplant in combination with retaining the organ neurohumoral links. The model of the cross circulation also allowed the formulation and implementation of the organ bank concept in the experiment.

  4. Essays on regulation, institutions, and industrial organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergara, Mario Esteban

    Essay I develops a comparative institutional analysis of network access price regulation and "light-handed" regulation. While the former is a specific-agency-based arrangement with higher political influence, the latter is a court-based system. Consequently, the main trade-off between both frameworks reflects the merits of having efficient political and judicial institutions. Price regulation is superior when distributional concerns are irrelevant and information asymmetries are lower. Poorly functioning political systems and high welfare costs of raising funds make price regulation less attractive. Light regulation is more attractive when potential rents are smaller, the monopolist is more risk averse, the judicial system is more efficient, and the threat of government intervention is more credible. The possibility of private transfers makes price regulation more advantageous. Higher information asymmetries among firms makes light-handed regulation more attractive. The main results are consistent with a plausible interpretation of the drastic deregulatory process in New Zealand. Essay II studies the preliminary effects of the deregulation of direct access in the New Zealand's electricity market. A slight improvement in quality standards and an overall efficiency increase took place after two years of deregulation. Retailers were able to successfully enter in large demand, dense areas, with a large proportion of industrial and commercial users, where incumbents were not distributing electricity efficiently. Pricing policies appears to be influenced by market forces (associated to economic and demographic characteristics) as expected in a light regulatory framework. Essay III focuses on the possibility of endogenous sunk costs and the introduction of new products. Firms that exert some monopoly power in one market and introduce a new good whose demand is determined by a broader set of consumers might be forced to change their competing strategies. If the new product

  5. Travel risk assessment, advice and vaccinations in immunocompromised travellers (HIV, solid organ transplant and haematopoeitic stem cell transplant recipients): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, A K; Trubiano, J A; Spelman, D W

    2015-01-01

    International travellers with immunocompromising conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, solid organ transplantation (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at a significant risk of travel-related illnesses from both communicable and non-communicable diseases, depending on the intensity of underlying immune dysfunction, travel destinations and activities. In addition, the choice of travel vaccinations, timing and protective antibody responses are also highly dependent on the underlying conditions and thus pose significant challenges to the health-care providers who are involved in pre-travel risk assessment. This review article provides a framework of understanding and approach to aforementioned groups of immunocompromised travellers regarding pre-travel risk assessment and management; in particular travel vaccinations, infectious and non-infectious disease risks and provision of condition-specific advice; to reduce travel-related mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of antiviral and immunoglobulin therapy in the prevention of Epstein-Barr virus infection and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease following solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Reyes, J; Webber, S; Rowe, D

    2001-06-01

    The recognition of the importance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, including EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), has led to a new focus on the prevention of this problem. This paper reviews the scientific rationale behind, and clinical experience with, the use of chemoprophylaxis (using acyclovir or ganciclovir) and immunoprophylaxis (using intravenous immunoglobulin) in the prevention of EBV/PTLD. While some centers have already introduced the use of one or both of these agents as standard prophylaxis against the development of this complication, published data in support of these protocols are currently lacking. Well designed clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the potential role of both antiviral and immunoglobulin agents in the prevention of EBV/PTLD in organ transplant recipients.

  7. Simultaneous air transportation of the harvested heart and visceral organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, U; Yazici, P; Kazimi, C; Bozoklar, A; Sozbilen, M; Zeytunlu, M; Kilic, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration for organ procurement including both heart and visceral organs and outcomes of the simultaneous transportation of the teams back to the recipient hospitals. Between March 2005 and March 2007, 37/82 organ procurement was performed in the district hospitals and transported to our institution for organ transplantation. Combined heart and visceral organ procurement which was simultaneously transported to the recipient hospitals by one air vehicle was reviewed. After both the thoracic and abdominal cavities were entered, all intra-abdominal organs were mobilized allowing exposure of the inferior mesenteric vein and aorta. The supraceliac abdominal aorta was elevated. The attachments of the liver in the hilar region were incised and both kidneys and pancreas prepared for removal. After the inferior mesenteric vein and aorta were cannulated, simultaneous aortic cross-clamping was performed and cold preservation solution infused. Harvested organs were packed with ice and removed to the back table for initial preparation and packaging for air transport. The mean duration of 6 procurement procedures was 63 minutes (range 50-75 minutes) to aortic clamping, and 27.5 minutes (range, 20-40 minutes) between clamping and harvesting. Mean cold ischemia times for 6 hearts, 6 livers, 12 kidneys, 2 pancreas, and 1 small intestine were 2.4 hours (range, 2-3.5 hours), 5 hours (range, 3-8 hours), 10.3 hours (range, 8-15 hours), 6.7 hours, and 9.5 hours, respectively. No graft complication was observed to be associated with the procurement procedure. Better collaborations between surgical teams and rapid procurement techniques provide simultaneous air transportation back to the recipient hospital with reduced cold ischemia times of the visceral organs.

  8. Improving the use of donor organs in pancreas and islet of Langerhans transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilling, Denise Eline

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation and islet of Langerhans transplantation are potential solutions to treat patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreas grafts are scarce and there is a shortage of donor pancreata relative to the number of patients needing a transplant. The aim of this thesis was to

  9. Knowledge and attitudes of Canadian First Nations people toward organ donation and transplantation: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sara N; Jhangri, Gian S

    2014-11-01

    Organ donation and transplantation rates are low for aboriginal people in Canada, despite a high demand. An explanatory mixed-methods design was used to describe knowledge of and preferences for organ donation and transplantation among First Nations people and identify factors that may influence these preferences. We recruited on- and off-reservation First Nations adults. A 45-item survey was administered to 198 participants, of whom 21 were assessed further with a qualitative interview using a multiple case study approach. In an iterative process, themes were identified from qualitative data using critical realism as the theoretical framework. Critical realism is an approach that describes the interface between natural and social worlds to explain human behavior. Although 83% of participants were in favor of transplantation, only 38% were willing to donate their organs after death, 44% had not thought about organ donation, and 14% did not believe it was important. Only 18.7% of participants reported that their cultural beliefs influenced their views on organ donation and transplantation. In the multivariable analysis, the only factors associated with willingness to donate organs were higher education and considering organ donation important. Four themes emerged from qualitative data: importance of traditional beliefs, recognition of need due to the epidemic of diabetes among Canadian aboriginal people, reconciliation between traditional beliefs and need, and general apathy in the community. Cultural, socioeconomic, and political diversity exist between and within aboriginal groups. Findings may not be generalizable to other aboriginal communities. Willingness to donate organs was lower in these First Nations participants compared to the general population. Education to address knowledge deficits, emphasize the negative impact of organ failure on the community, and contextualize organ donation within the older traditional native beliefs to help First Nations people

  10. Return to work after organ transplantation: a cross-sectional study on working ability evaluation and employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, A; Verga, F C; Piolatto, P G; Pira, E

    2014-12-01

    Organ transplantation has increased in Italy over the last decade. Thus, an increasing number of workers may face the problem of returning to work. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of working ability of transplant recipients in comparison with their actual employment status. This study was based on 150 patients who underwent transplantation since 1994 and who underwent periodic post-transplantation examination during 2012. Fifty patients who had undergone heart transplantation (HT), 50 liver transplantation (LT), and 50 kidney transplantation (KT) and survived at least 12 months after surgery were eligible for this study. All patients underwent the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health (ICF) questionnaire; ten questions were further applied to those who were employed at the time of the study. X(2) statistics were used to compare working ability evaluation and employment status and for internal comparison among different organ recipients. The employment status was as follows: 92 (61%) patients were in paid employment, 6 (4%) were students or housewives, 36 (24%) were unemployed, and 17 (11%) were retired because of invalidity benefits. According to our fitness evaluation only 4% to 10% of the patients were unfit for any job. When we excluded retired subjects, the X(2) statistics for correlated observations showed a highly significant statistical difference (P working ability evaluation by ICF questionnaire and other questions. This may be due to several factors including health status and the possibility of gaining an adequate job. The ICF questionnaire proved to be a useful framework that can be used for research but also by occupational physicians in their usual practice after specific training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner LD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liam Daniel Turner,1 Peter Beckingsale1,2,31Princess Alexandra Hospital; 2Terrace Eye Centre; 3Laser Sight, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ lung transplant recipient that was effectively treated with topical trifluridine.Methods: A case of a 35-year-old female with herpetic epithelial keratitis resistant to acyclovir is described. The patient presented following treatment for 4 weeks with topical acyclovir ointment five times per day and oral valacyclovir 1 g three times per day for herpetic keratitis with no resolution of the epithelial defect or symptoms. Corneal scrapes and swabs were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and resistance testing. The results were positive for herpes simplex virus 1 and showed acyclovir resistance (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL and foscarnet sensitivity (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL. The patient was treated with topical trifluridine 2-hourly for 3 weeks and weaned off the drops over the following week.Results: The patient showed resolution of the epithelial defect, but did have significant corneal toxicity associated with the use of the trifluridine. At 8 weeks, the patient had some stromal shadowing associated with the recent active infection, but symptoms had settled.Conclusion: This case documents the effective use of topical trifluridine in proven acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis. It highlights three things: (1 the importance of considering topical trifluridine as an alternative to topical acyclovir in unresponsive disease; (2 the need to consider solid-organ transplant recipients in the immunocompromised population with resistant herpetic disease, and (3 the need to look for alternatives to treatment of resistant herpetic disease.Keywords: acyclovir resistance, herpetic keratitis, trifluridine

  12. Dual kidney transplants from adult marginal donors successfully expand the limited deceased donor organ pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farooq, Umar; Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Gautreaux, Michael D; Iskandar, Samy S; Hairston, Gloria; Brim, Elizabeth; Mangus, Margaret; El-Hennawy, Hany; Khan, Muhammad; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The need to expand the organ donor pool remains a formidable challenge in kidney transplantation (KT). The use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) represents one approach, but kidney discard rates are high because of concerns regarding overall quality. Dual KT (DKT) may reduce organ discard and optimize the use of kidneys from marginal donors. We conducted a single-center retrospective review of outcomes in adult recipients of DKTs from adult marginal deceased donors (DD) defined by limited renal functional capacity. If the calculated creatinine clearance in an adult DD was DKT. Over 11.5 yr, 72 DKTS were performed including 45 from ECDs, 17 from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors, and 10 from standard criteria donors (SCD). Mean adult DD and recipient ages were both 60 yr, including 29 DDs and 26 recipients ≥65 yr of age. Mean pre-DKT waiting and dialysis vintage times were 12 months and 25 months, respectively. Actual patient and graft survival rates were 84.7% and 70.8%, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 58 months. One yr and death-censored graft survival rates were 90% and 80%, respectively. Outcomes did not differ by DD category, recipient age, or presence of delayed graft function (DGF). Eleven patients died at a mean of 32 months post-DKT (eight with functioning grafts) and 13 other patients experienced graft losses at a mean of 33 months. The incidence of DGF was 25%; there were two cases (2.8%) of primary non-function. Mean length of initial hospital stay was 7.2 d. Mean serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate levels at 12 and 24 months were 1.5 and 53 and 1.5 mg/dL and 51 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , respectively. DKT graft survival and function were superior to concurrent single ECD and similar to concurrent SCD KTs. Two patients underwent successful kidney retransplantation, so the dialysis-free rate in surviving patients was 87%. The proportion of total renal function transplanted from adult DD to DKT recipients was 77% compared to 56% for

  13. Smart-Grid Investments, Regulation and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    on the network tasks, assets and costs and contrast this with the assumptions implicit or explicit in current economic network regulation. The resulting challenge is identified as the change in the direction of higher asymmetry of information and higher capital intensity, combined with ambiguities in terms......Worldwide, but in particular in North America and Europe, the grid infrastructure managers are facing demands for reinvestments in new assets with higher on-grid and off-grid functionality in order to promote energy efficiency and low-carbon conversion of the energy sector. To meet societal policy...

  14. Multidimensional structure of a questionnaire to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Dekker, Rienk; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the underlying dimensions of the Barriers and Motivators Questionnaire that is used to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity experienced by recipients of solid organ transplantation and thereby improve the application in research and clinical settings. Method: A

  15. Perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin; van de Zande, Saskia C; Dekker, Rienk; Verschuuren, Erik A M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Schans, Cees

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient physical activity is important for solid organ transplant recipients (heart, lung, liver, kidney). However, recipients do not meet the recommended amount or required type of physical activity. The perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in this population

  16. Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Recipients of Solid Organ Transplantation, a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J; van de Zande, Saskia C; Dekker, Rienk; Verschuuren, Erik A M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Schans, van der Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Background Sufficient physical activity is important for solid organ transplant recipients (heart, lung, liver, kidney). However, recipients do not meet the recommended amount or required type of physical activity. The perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in this population

  17. Weight gain, overweight and obesity in solid organ transplantation - a study protocol for a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, Sonja; Ivanović, Nataša; Drent, Gerda; Ruppar, Todd; De Geest, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity, which have a substantial impact on health in the general population, have similar prevalence in solid organ transplant recipients but carry even more serious ramifications. As this group's use of immunosuppressive medication increases the risk for comorbidities,

  18. Multidimensional structure of a questionnaire to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J; Krijnen, Wim P; Dekker, Rienk; Ranchor, Adelita V; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Schans, Cees P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the underlying dimensions of the Barriers and Motivators Questionnaire that is used to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity experienced by recipients of solid organ transplantation and thereby improve the application in research and clinical settings. METHOD: A

  19. IL1B and DEFB1 Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Mold Infection After Solid-Organ Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Gresnigt, M.S.; Lecompte, T.; Bibert, S.; Manuel, O.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Rueger, S.; Berger, C.; Boggian, K.; Cusini, A.; Garzoni, C.; Hirsch, H.H.; Weisser, M.; Mueller, N.J.; Meylan, P.R.; Steiger, J.; Kutalik, Z.; Pascual, M.; Delden, C. van; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Bochud, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHODS: Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped

  20. Utilization of the organ care system for bilateral lung transplantation: preliminary results of a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Mohamed; Sabashnikov, Anton; Mohite, Prashant N; Zych, Bartlomiej; Patil, Nikhil P; García-Sáez, Diana; Koch, Achim; Weymann, Alexander; Soresi, Simona; Wippermann, Jens; Wahlers, Thorsten; De Robertis, Fabio; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R

    2016-09-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) remains the gold standard for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, due to donor organ shortage and brain stem death-related lung injury, only a small proportion of lungs are used increasing the mortality rate on the waiting list. A portable normothermic continuous ex vivo perfusion using the organ care system (OCS) represents one of the tools to increase the pool of donor organs and to improve the function of marginal lungs. We sought to assess mid-term outcomes after LTx using OCS and to compare outcomes including overall survival and freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) with those after conventional preservation. Included were 322 consecutive LTx performed at Harefield Hospital between January 2007 and December 2014. Recipients were divided into two groups depending on the organ storage strategy: the majority of patients (n = 308) were transplanted using lungs after cold storage (cold storage group), whereas 14 organs were preserved using OCS (OCS group). The primary end-points were overall survival and freedom from BOS after LTx. The secondary end-points were perioperative clinical characteristics and adverse events. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of most baseline donor and recipient characteristics. The percentage of heavy smokers among donors [8 (2.9%) vs 6 (42.9%), P < 0.001] and the median number of pack-years smoked by donors [14 (7;24) vs 25 (24;30), P = 0.026] were statistically higher in the OCS group. Patients from the OCS group had significantly better postoperative FEV1 at 3 [69 (54;86) vs 93 (87;89), P < 0.001] and 6 [77 (60;90) vs 94 (84;100), P = 0.006] months. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of cumulative survival and freedom from BOS between the two groups. Results after LTx using OCS are acceptable with excellent survival, and superior early outcome in terms of postoperative lung function despite higher risk in the OCS group. Further

  1. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  2. Attitudes toward reciprocity systems for organ donation and allocation for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkell, Jacquelyn A; Chandler, Jennifer A; Shemie, Sam D

    2013-10-01

    Many of those who support organ donation do not register to become organ donors. The use of reciprocity systems, under which some degree of priority is offered to registered donors who require an organ transplant, is one suggestion for increasing registration rates. This article uses a combination of survey and focus group methodologies to explore the reaction of Canadians to a reciprocity proposal. Our results suggest that the response is mixed. Participants are more convinced of the efficacy than they are of the fairness of a reciprocity system. Those more positive about donation (decided donors and those leaning toward donation) rate the system more positively. Although there is general endorsement of the notion that those who wish to receive should be prepared to give (the Golden Rule), this does not translate into universal support for a reciprocity system. In discussions of efficacy, decided donors focus on the positive impact of reciprocity, whereas undecided donors also reflect on the limits of reciprocity for promoting registration. The results demonstrate divided support for reciprocity systems in the Canadian context, with perceptions of efficacy at the cost of fairness. Further studies are warranted prior to considering a reciprocity system in Canada.

  3. Cytomegalovirus infection management in solid organ transplant recipients across European centers in the time of molecular diagnostics: An ESGICH survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, David; San-Juan, Rafael; Manuel, Oriol; Giménez, Estela; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Hirsch, Hans H; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Aguado, José María

    2017-12-01

    Scant information is available about how transplant centers are managing their use of quantitative molecular testing (QNAT) assays for active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection monitoring in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The current study was aimed at gathering information on current practices in the management of CMV infection across European centers in the era of molecular testing assays. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted by the European Study Group of Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts (ESGICH) of the Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID). The invitation and a weekly reminder with a personal link to an Internet service provider (https://es.surveymonkey.com/) was sent to transplant physicians, transplant infectious diseases specialists, and clinical virologists working at 340 European transplant centers. Of the 1181 specialists surveyed, a total of 173 responded (14.8%): 73 transplant physicians, 57 transplant infectious diseases specialists, and 43 virologists from 173 institutions located at 23 different countries. The majority of centers used QNAT assays for active CMV infection monitoring. Most centers preferred commercially available real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays over laboratory-developed procedures for quantifying CMV DNA load in whole blood or plasma. Use of a wide variety of DNA extraction platforms and RT-PCR assays was reported. All programs used antiviral prophylaxis, preemptive therapy, or both, according to current guidelines. However, the centers used different criteria for starting preemptive antiviral treatment, for monitoring systemic CMV DNA load, and for requesting genotypic assays to detect emerging CMV-resistant variants. Significant variation in CMV infection management in SOT recipients still remains across European centers in the era of molecular testing. International multicenter studies are required to achieve commutability of CMV testing and

  4. IL1B and DEFB1 Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Mold Infection After Solid-Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Gresnigt, Mark S; Lecompte, Thanh; Bibert, Stephanie; Manuel, Oriol; Joosten, Leo A B; Rüeger, Sina; Berger, Christoph; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J; Meylan, Pascal R; Steiger, Jürg; Kutalik, Zoltan; Pascual, Manuel; van Delden, Christian; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2015-05-15

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped among 1101 SOT recipients (715 kidney transplant recipients, 190 liver transplant recipients, 102 lung transplant recipients, 79 heart transplant recipients, and 15 recipients of other transplants) from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. Association between SNPs and the end point were assessed by log-rank test and Cox regression models. Cytokine production upon Aspergillus stimulation was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers and correlated with relevant genotypes. Mold colonization (n = 45) and proven/probable IMI (n = 26) were associated with polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin 1β (IL1B; rs16944; recessive mode, P = .001 for colonization and P = .00005 for IMI, by the log-rank test), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN; rs419598; P = .01 and P = .02, respectively), and β-defensin 1 (DEFB1; rs1800972; P = .001 and P = .0002, respectively). The associations with IL1B and DEFB1 remained significant in a multivariate regression model (P = .002 for IL1B rs16944; P = .01 for DEFB1 rs1800972). The presence of 2 copies of the rare allele of rs16944 or rs419598 was associated with reduced Aspergillus-induced interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α secretion by PBMCs. Functional polymorphisms in IL1B and DEFB1 influence susceptibility to mold infection in SOT recipients. This observation may contribute to individual risk stratification. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization by syndecan transmembrane proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    have recently suggested that signaling through core protein of syndecans can regulate cytoskeletal organization through their clustering, association with cytoskeletal structures, binding to cytoplasmic binding proteins, and intracellular phosphorylation. Here we will review current understanding...... of signaling through syndecans in cytoskeletal organization....

  6. Transmission of dengue virus from deceased donors to solid organ transplant recipients: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Fernando; Pineda, Juan C; Sanz, Ana M; Cedano, Jorge A; Caicedo, Luis A

    Dengue fever is a vector-transmitted viral infection. Non-vectorial forms of transmission can occur through organ transplantation. We reviewed medical records of donors and recipients with suspected dengue in the first post-transplant week. We used serologic and molecular analysis to confirm the infection. Herein, we describe four cases of dengue virus transmission through solid organ transplantation. The recipients had positive serology and RT-PCR. Infection in donors was detected through serology. All cases presented with fever within the first week after transplantation. There were no fatal cases. After these cases, we implemented dengue screening with NS1 antigen detection in donors during dengue outbreaks, and no new cases were detected. In the literature review, additional cases had been published through August 2017. Transmission of Dengue virus can occur through organ donation. In endemic regions, it is important to suspect and screen for dengue in febrile and thrombocytopenic recipients in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). © 2014 The Authors. Transplant International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Steunstichting ESOT.

  8. [Level of information of students at the University of Regensburg concerning organ donation and transplantation--informed or not informed consent in organ donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, B; Bleyer, B; Eckert, M; Gruber, H; Pfirstinger, J; Schaller, O; Dietl, B

    2013-04-01

    As a result of the actual amendment of the German transplantation law, every citizen will be regularly asked by health insurance companies about his attitude towards post-mortem organ donation--without the obligation to decide. The aim is to increase the willingness of donations as well as the availability of organs. Therefore, we investigated the level of information of students at the University of Regensburg and their agreement to organ transplantation regarding an informed consent. Using an interdisciplinary developed questionnaire (Medicine, Theology, Educational Science) the level of information concerning process and possibilities of organ donation, the possession of an organ donor card, as well as the active or passive consent to donate organs was investigated. Out of 1225 respondents 31.5% had an organ donor card, 49.1% wanted to donate organs, 32.1% were unsure. 98% generally favoured organ donation. However, serious information deficits about brain death were identified: 37.4% did not know that brain death is a prerequisite for a post-mortem organ donation, 18% thought brain death is reversible, 52.7% were not aware of the necessity of intensive medical care. Furthermore, providing information about other potential donor organs including lungs, pancreas, small intestine, and tissue is required. Health insurance companies and responsible authorities need to close the identified gaps in knowledge in order to achieve "informed" consent with organ donation, which might increase the availability and number of donor organs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Travel vaccination recommendations and endemic infection risks in solid organ transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A; Johnson, Douglas; Sohail, Asma; Torresi, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed. A review of the literature was performed in order to develop recommendations on vaccination for SOT recipients travelling to high-risk destinations. Whilst immunological failure of vaccination in SOT is primarily the result of impaired B-cell responses, the role of T-cells in vaccine failure and success remains unknown. Vaccination should be initiated at least 4 weeks prior to SOT or more than 6 months post-SOT. Avoidance of live vaccination is generally recommended, although some live vaccines may be considered in the specific situations (e.g. yellow fever). The practicing physician requires a detailed understanding of region-specific endemic pathogen risks. We provide a vaccination and endemic pathogen guide for physicians and travel clinics involved in the care of SOT recipients. In addition, recommendations based on timing of anticipated immunological recovery and available evidence regarding vaccine immunogenicity in SOT recipients are provided to help guide pre-travel consultations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibition regulates inflammation and enhances Tregs after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, S.W.; Gatza, E.; Hou, G.; Sun, Y; Whitfield, J.; Song, Y.; Oravecz-Wilson, K.; Tawara, I.; Dinarello, C.A.; Reddy, P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined immunological responses in patients receiving histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition (vorinostat) for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Vorinostat treatment increased histone acetylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from

  11. The outcomes of simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation using donation after cardiac death organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Tarek; Spatz, Christin; Uemura, Tadahiro; Lehman, Eric; Farooq, Umar

    2014-12-15

    There has been a remarkable increase in simultaneous liver and kidney transplantations (SLK). As organ demand has increased, so has the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD). However, little is known about the outcomes of DCD in SLK. We performed a retrospective analysis using the United Network for Organ Sharing database to compare the outcomes of DCD SLK to donation after brain death (DBD) and determine the impact of donor and recipient factors on allograft and patient survival. Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 3,026 subjects received SLK from DBD and 98 from DCD. Kidney, liver, and patient survival from DCD donors were inferior to DBD at 1, 3, and 5 years (P=0.0056, P=0.0035, and P=0.0205, respectively). With the use of the Cox model, DCD was a significant risk factor for kidney and liver allograft failure and patient mortality. Recipient factors that were associated with worse allograft and patient outcomes included black race, diabetes, being on a ventilator, hospitalization, delayed graft function, hepatocellular carcinoma, and intensive care unit stay. Older age of the donor was also associated with worse outcomes. Despite the decreased allograft and patient survival compared with DBD, DCD SLK provides an acceptable option for SLK, with a survival probability of more than 50% at 5 years.

  12. Difficulties in organ procurement and transplantation in the aboriginal minority people in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, F J; Chang, Y C; Chen, C F; Lin, F J; Huang, Y S; Yan, Y H; Shih, F Jong; Chen, C R

    2012-05-01

    Aboriginal people (AP) are a minority group in Taiwan. Little information on their perspectives on organ transplantation (OT) is available. Their rights for organ donation (OD) and as OT recipients (OTR) are constrained as a vulnerable population in society. This research sought to explore various Highland Aborigine Tribes beliefs systems and concepts related to OT. We employed a qualitative design on a purposive sample including seven categories of Taiwanese AP. Data collected by face-to-face interviews were evaluated by content analysis. Seventy-five informants (45 female and 30 males) of 18 to 82 years from seven tribes completed interviews: Bunun (n = 20), Shao (n = 18), Tsou (n = 15), Amis (n = 12), Truku (n = 4), Rukai (n = 3), and Puyuma (n = 3). Of there, 33% had no idea of OT. All informants reported lack of knowledge of OD, organ procurement, and OTR. Eighty percent (45-82 years) had no willingness for OD or OTR; others might consult family members and health professionals (HP) to learn about OT. Seven hindering factors were identified: (1) having no background of OT; (2) limited impressions obtained from television news reports; (3) negative concepts of donating one's organs to others; (4) OT concepts contrast with cultural meanings of death; (5) possibility of being stigmatized; (6) fear of being rejected by others; and (7) HP had never mentioned OT. Taiwan APs' perspectives of OT concepts showed the majority to be unfamiliar with the concept and benefits of OT. Future research is necessary to explore the possible avenues to facilitate communications between HP and AP leaders, as well as elders in each AP category in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Healthcare professionals' perceptions of Islamic beliefs and traditions as barriers to organ donation and transplantation in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidouni, Nouhad; Briones-Vozmediano, Érica; Garrido Clemente, Pilar; Gil González, Diana

    The aim of this study is to explore healthcare professionals' perception of the influence of Islamic beliefs and traditions concerning organ donation and transplants in Algeria. Exploratory qualitative study using individual semi-structured interviews of 17 healthcare professionals (9 men, 8 women) of different specialties in a University hospital in Algiers (Algeria). Qualitative content analysis of transcripts was performed using the computer software ATLAS.ti 5. Healthcare professionals believe that religious beliefs do not affect living donation but say they have a negative impact on donation of cadaveric organs due to the existence of myths derived from the Islamic religion and lack of knowledge of the Algerian population about the positioning of religious leaders in relation to organ donation and transplantation. There is confusion among the Algerian population on the position of Islam around organ donation and transplantation, mainly to the detriment of the rate of cadaveric donation. Collaboration between the health sector and religious leaders to raise public awareness could improve the willingness of the population to donate organs after death. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The epidemiology and outcomes of invasive Candida infections among organ transplant recipients in the United States: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andes, David R; Safdar, Nasia; Baddley, John W; Alexander, Barbara; Brumble, Lisa; Freifeld, Allison; Hadley, Susan; Herwaldt, Loreen; Kauffman, Carol; Lyon, G Marshall; Morrison, Vicki; Patterson, Thomas; Perl, Trish; Walker, Randall; Hess, Tim; Chiller, Tom; Pappas, Peter G

    2016-12-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a common cause of mortality in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), but knowledge of epidemiology in this population is limited. The present analysis describes data from 15 US centers that prospectively identified IC from nearly 17 000 OTRs. Analyses were undertaken to determine predictors of infection and mortality. A total of 639 cases of IC were identified. The most common species was Candida albicans (46.3%), followed by Candida glabrata (24.4%) and Candida parapsilosis (8.1%). In 68 cases >1 species was identified. The most common infection site was bloodstream (44%), followed by intra-abdominal (14%). The most frequently affected allograft groups were liver (41.1%) and kidney (35.3%). All-cause mortality at 90 days was 26.5% for all species and was highest for Candida tropicalis (44%) and C. parapsilosis (35.2%). Non-white race and female gender were more commonly associated with non-albicans species. A high rate of breakthrough IC was seen in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis (39%). Factors associated with mortality include organ dysfunction, lung transplant, and treatment with a polyene antifungal. The only modifiable factor identified was choice of antifungal drug class based upon infecting Candida species. These data highlight the common and distinct features of IC in OTRs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in Malaysia's multi-ethnic society: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, willingness to donate one's own organ was associated with knowledge score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.22), attitude score (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31), secondary school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.02), and Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Coercion, autonomy, and the preferential option for the poor in the ethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaycox, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    The debate concerning whether to legalize and regulate the global market in human organs is hindered by a lack of adequate bioethical language. The author argues that the preferential option for the poor, a theological category, can provide the grounding for an inductive moral epistemology adequate for reforming the use of culturally Western bioethical language. He proposes that the traditional, Western concept of bioethical coercion ought to be modified and expanded because the conditions of the market system, as viewed from the perspective of organ vendors systemically deprived of access to sufficient resources, are sufficiently exploitative as to diminish the possibility of these vendors giving informed consent. Moreover, empirical studies conducted by professionals in medicine, sociology, psychiatry, economics, and medical anthropology continue to contribute support to the growing interdisciplinary consensus that functionally coercive structural factors exert the most significant influence upon a vendor's decision to sell an organ within any market, regardless of legality or degree of regulation. Therefore any proposal to legalize and regulate the organ market remains patently unethical because doing so would likely function to constrain further the agency of poor potential vendors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  18. Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Piesiaków

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus – HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 – HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus – MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. What’s more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63% as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%. DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%.HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi’s sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long – term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma – MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total

  19. Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Piesiaków

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus – HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 – HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus – MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. What’s more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63% as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%. DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%. HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi’s sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long – term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma – MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total

  20. Liver Transplantation for Urea Cycle Disorders: Analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Rayhill, S C; Hsu, E K; Landis, C S

    2015-10-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCD) are caused by rare inherited defects in the urea cycle enzymes leading to diminished ability to convert ammonia to urea in the liver. The resulting excess of circulating ammonia can lead to central nervous system toxicity and irreversible neurologic damage. Most cases are identified in children. However, UCDs can also be diagnosed in adulthood, and liver transplant is occasionally required. We examined the UNOS database to evaluate outcomes in adult and pediatric patients who underwent liver transplant as treatment for a UCD. We identified 265 pediatric and 13 adult patients who underwent liver transplant for a UCD between 1987 and 2010. The majority (68%) of these patients were transplanted before age 5 years. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency was the most common UCD in both adults and children who underwent transplant. UCD patients who underwent liver transplant were younger, more likely to be male (67%), had lower pediatric end-stage liver disease/model for end-stage liver disease scores, and were more likely to be Caucasian or Asian compared with all other patients transplanted during the same time period. UCD patients did not have an increased utilization of living donor transplantation in this US cohort. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed and did not reveal any significant factors that were predictive of post-transplant death or graft loss. Excellent outcomes were seen in both children and adults with UCDs who underwent transplant with overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year survivals of 93%, 89%, and 87%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Study on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Attitude, and Educational Needs for Brain-Death Organ Transplantation and Donation and Intent to Donate Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, M K; Sim, M K; Son, S Y

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitude, educational needs, and will of nursing students on organ donation from brain-dead donors. Data were collected by using a 40-item questionnaire to measure knowledge, attitude, educational needs, and will for organ donation of 215 nursing college students in one university in Dangjin city from May 11 to May 31, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22 program (Data Solution Inc, Seoul). In the general characteristics, 85.1% of the subjects did not receive education on donation, and 99.5% of the subjects responded that education is needed. The desired methods of education were special lecture in school (55.3%), "webtoons" on the Internet (19.5%), formal curriculum (15.8%). Points to improve to increase brain-death organ transplantation and donation included "active publicity through pan-national campaign activities" (56.3%), "respecting prior consent from brain-dead donors" (21.9%), and "encouragement and increased support for organ donors" (12.1%). There was a significant difference in knowledge according to will for organ donation (t = 3.29, P = .001) and consent to brain-death organ donation in family members (t = 3.29, P = .001). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and knowledge of the subjects regarding brain-death organ donation. The knowledge, attitude, educational need, and will for organ donation of nursing students revealed in this study will be used as basic data to provide systematic transplant education including contents about organ transplantation in the regular nursing curriculum in the future. It will contribute to the activation of organ donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Acute Tacrolimus Toxicity with Phenytoin in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin S. Jantz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus are influenced by many factors, including genetic variability, acute infections, liver dysfunction, and interacting medications, which can result in elevated concentrations. The most appropriate management of acute tacrolimus toxicity has not been defined though case reports exist describing the therapeutic use of enzyme inducers to increase tacrolimus metabolism and decrease concentrations. We are reporting on the utilization of phenytoin to assist in decreasing tacrolimus concentrations in a case series of four solid organ transplant recipients with acute, symptomatic tacrolimus toxicity presenting with elevated serum creatinine, potassium, and tacrolimus trough concentrations greater than 30 ng/mL. All four patients had the potential causative agents stopped or temporarily held and were given 300 to 400 mg/day of phenytoin for two to three days. Within three days of beginning phenytoin, all four patients had a decrease in tacrolimus concentration to less than 15 ng/mL, a return to or near baseline creatinine concentration, and lack of phenytoin-related side effects. Therefore, phenytoin appears to be a safe and potentially beneficial treatment option in patients with symptomatic tacrolimus toxicity.

  3. High Center Volume Does Not Mitigate Risk Associated with Using High Donor Risk Organs in Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Eliza W; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid; Hayes, Don; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Washburn, Kenneth; Tumin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    High-risk donor allografts increase access to liver transplant, but potentially reduce patient and graft survival. It is unclear whether the risk associated with using marginal donor livers is mitigated by increasing center experience. The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult first-time liver transplant recipients between 2/2002 and 12/2015. High donor risk was defined as donor risk index >1.9, and 1-year patient and graft survival were compared according to donor risk index in small and large centers. Multivariable Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with using high-risk donor organs, according to a continuous measure of annual center volume. The analysis included 51,770 patients. In 67 small and 67 large centers, high donor risk index predicted increased mortality (p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high-donor risk index allografts predicted greater mortality hazard at centers performing 20 liver transplants per year (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.49; p donor risk index and center volume was not statistically significant (p = 0.747), confirming that the risk associated with using marginal donor livers was comparable between smaller and larger centers. Results were consistent when examining graft loss. At both small and large centers, high-risk donor allografts were associated with reduced patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Specific strategies to mitigate the risk of liver transplant involving high-risk donors are needed, in addition to accumulation of center expertise.

  4. GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON ESTABLISHMENT A UNIFIED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION OF ORGANS, TISSUES AND CELLS OF HUMAN ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From from February 7th to 9th 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Italian National Transplant Cen- tre and the EU-funded Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin» joined forces to organise a major global consultation that took place in Bologna, Italy. The scope of the project included organs, tissues and cells for transplantation and for assisted reproduction. The participants represented regulatory and non-regulatory government agencies, professional societies and scientific and clinical specialities from all WHO regions. The meeting explored the work already carried out on-line and agreed on priorities for the future deve- lopment of the Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin». 

  5. Management of Patients Who Receive an Organ Transplant Abroad and Return Home for Follow-up Care: Recommendations From the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Martin, Dominique E; López-Fraga, Marta; Van Assche, Kristof; Morris, Michele L; Lavee, Jacob; Erlich, Gilad; Fadhil, Riadh; Busic, Mirela; Rankin, Glynn; Al-Rukhaimi, Mona; OʼConnell, Philip; Chin, Jacqueline; Norman, Triona; Massari, Pablo; Kamel, Refaat; Delmonico, Francis L

    2018-01-01

    Eradicating transplant tourism depends on complex solutions that include efforts to progress towards self-sufficiency in transplantation. Meanwhile, professionals and authorities are faced with medical, legal, and ethical problems raised by patients who return home after receiving an organ transplant abroad, particularly when the organ has been obtained through illegitimate means. In 2016, the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group convened an international, multidisciplinary workshop in Madrid, Spain, to address these challenges and provide recommendations for the management of these patients, which are presented in this paper. The core recommendations are grounded in the belief that principles of transparency, traceability, and continuity of care applied to patients who receive an organ domestically should also apply to patients who receive an organ abroad. Governments and professionals are urged to ensure that, upon return, patients are promptly referred to a transplant center for evaluation and care, not cover the costs of transplants resulting from organ or human trafficking, register standardized information at official registries on patients who travel for transplantation, promote international exchange of data for traceability, and develop a framework for the notification of identified or suspected cases of transnational transplant-related crimes by health professionals to law enforcement agencies.

  6. The Right Organ for the Right Recipient: the Ninth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons' State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Randall S; Abt, Peter L; Desai, Dev M; Garvey, Catherine A; Segev, Dorry L; Kaufman, Dixon B

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of individuals with end-stage organ disease and the increasing success of organ transplantation, the demand for transplants has steadily increased. This growth has led to a greater need to utilize organs from as many donors as possible. As selection criteria have become less stringent to accommodate increasing demand, transplant outcomes are more strongly influenced by recipient and donor factors; thus, finding the right organ for the right recipient is more important than ever. The Ninth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium, entitled "The Right Organ for the Right Recipient," addressed the matching of donor organs to appropriate recipients. Representative dilemmas in the matching of donor organs with recipients were discussed. These included the following: matching by donor and recipient risk characteristics; use of organs with risk for disease transmission; biologic incompatibility; use of organs from donors after cardiac death; the justification for combined organ transplants like liver-kidney and kidney-pancreas; and the role of allocation in facilitating the matching of donors and recipients. Regardless of the particular issue, decisions about donor-recipient matching should be evidence-based, practical, and made with the goal of maximizing organ utilization while still protecting individual patient interests. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expanded and updated to reflect today's thinking, this brand-new edition offers crucial, real-life direction on ... reduced rates in countries with emerging economies • Build awareness of World Organ Day, Transplant Games, and Transplant ...

  8. Deceased donor organ transplantation with expanded criteria donors: a single-center experience from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplani, K R; Firoz, A; Ramakrishana, P; Shah, P R; Gumber, M R; Patel, H V; Vanikar, A V; Trivedi, H L

    2010-01-01

    Deceased donor organ transplantation (DDOT) accounts for DKT) and 19 single (SKT). Fourteen donors had hypertension, a cerebrovascular accident as the cause of death, 9 had both, and 4 had diabetes. Mean donor age was 70.3 +/- 8.9 years. Decisions on the procedure were based upon frozen section biopsy in 13 of 21 donors. Mean DKT donor age was 76 +/- 9.7 years versu 64 +/- 5.7 years of SKT donors. The native kidney diseases were chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 14), diabetic nephropathy (n = 7), tubulointerstitial nephritis (n = 4) and polycystic kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, lupus nephritis and patchy cortical necrosis, (n = 1 each). Mean recipient age of DKT versus SKT was 43.5 versus 42.3 years. All recipients received rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, followed by steroid, mycophenolate mofetil/calcinueurin inhibitor. Over a mean follow-up of 341 days, the mean serum creatinine (SCr) of 25/29 patients was 1.60 mg/dL (range, 1.0-2.6). The mean SCr of SKT patients was 1.59 +/- 0.63 mg/dL and of DKT, 1.62 +/- 0.48 mg/dL. Ten patients had delayed graft function and 11 had biopsy proven acute tubular necrosis. Seven (24%) patients had rejection (grade 3 Banff update '05, type IA; 4, type 2A); 6 responded to antirejection; 1 graft was lost at 7 months due to chronic rejection. Three (10.3%) patients were lost, 1 each due to AMI, sepsis, and CMV disease. In the circumstances of organ shortage, DDOT with expanded criteria donor is a feasible option.

  9. Factor analysis of sources of information on organ donation and transplantation in journalism students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ríos, A; Ramis, G; López-Navas, A; Febrero, B; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2013-01-01

    Journalists and the information they disseminate are essential to promote health and organ donation and transplantation (ODT). The attitude of journalism students toward ODT could influence public opinion and help promote this treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the media through which journalism students receive information on ODT and to analyze the association between the sources of information and psychosocial variables. We surveyed journalism students (n = 129) recruited in compulsory classes. A validated psychosocial questionnaire (self-administered, anonymous) about ODT was used. Student t test and χ(2) test were applied. Questionnaire completion rate was 98% (n = 126). The medium with the greatest incidence on students was television (TV), followed by press and magazines/books. In the factor analysis to determine the impact of the information by its source, the first factor was talks with friends and family; the second was shared by hoardings/publicity posters, health professionals, and college/school; and the third was TV and radio. In the factor analysis between information sources and psychosocial variables, the associations were between information about organ donation transmitted by friends and family and having spoken about ODT with them; by TV, radio, and hoardings and not having spoken in the family; and by TV/radio and the father's and mother's opinion about ODT. The medium with the greatest incidence on students is TV, and the medium with the greatest impact on broadcasting information was conversations with friends, family, and health professionals. This could be useful for society, because they should be provided with clear and concise information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid Organ Transplantation in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Analysis of Transplantation Outcome and IBD Activity in a Large Single Center Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Schnitzler

    Full Text Available Currently, limited data of the outcome of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT are available. We aimed to analyze effects of SOT on the IBD course in a large IBD patient cohort.Clinical data from 1537 IBD patients were analyzed for patients who underwent SOT (n = 31 between July 2002 and May 2014. Sub-analyses included SOT outcome parameters, IBD activity before and after SOT, and efficacy of IBD treatment.4.74% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and 0.84% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD underwent SOT (p = 2.69 x 10(-6, UC vs. CD. 77.4% of patients with SOT underwent liver transplantation (LTx with tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy after SOT. All LTx were due to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC or PSC overlap syndromes. Six patients (19.4% required renal transplantation and one patient (3.2% heart transplantation. A survival rate of 83.9% after a median follow-up period of 103 months was observed. Before SOT, 65.0% of patients were in clinical remission and 5 patients received immunosuppressive therapy (16.1%. After SOT, 61.0% of patients were in remission (p = 1.00 vs. before SOT and 29.0% required IBD-specific immunosuppressive or anti-TNF therapy (p = 0.54 vs. before SOT. 42.9% of patients with worsening of IBD after SOT were at higher risk of needing steroid therapy for increased IBD activity (p = 0.03; relative risk (RR: 10.29; 95% CI 1.26-84.06. Four patients (13.0% needed anti-TNF therapy after SOT (response rate 75%.SOT was more common in UC patients due to the higher prevalence of PSC-related liver cirrhosis in UC. Despite mainly tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens, outcome of SOT and IBD was excellent in this cohort. In this SOT cohort, concomitant immunosuppressive therapy due to IBD was well tolerated.

  11. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELL CONTENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY MARROW USED FOR COMBINED SOLID ORGAN AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Witold B.; Fontes, Paulo A.; Rao, Abdul S.; Winkelstein, Alan; Ricordi, Camillo; Ball, Edward D.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    While cadaveric vertebral bodies (VB) have long been proposed as a suitable source of bone marrow (BM) for transplantation (BMT), they have rarely been used for this purpose. We have infused VB BM immediately following whole organ (WO) transplantation to augment donor cell chimerism. We quantified the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) content of VB BM as well as BM obtained from the iliac crests (IC) of normal allogeneic donors (ALLO) and from patients with malignancy undergoing autologous marrow harvest (AUTO). Patients undergoing WOIBM transplantation also had AUTO BM harvested in the event that subsequent lymphohematopoietic reconstitution was required. Twenty-four VB BM, 24 IC BM-ALLO, 31 IC AUTO, and 24 IC WO-AUTO were harvested. VB BM was tested 12 to 72 hr after procurement and infused after completion ofWO grafting. IC BM was tested and then used or cryopreserved immediately. HPC were quantified by clonal assay measuring CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, and by flow cytometry for CD34+ progenitor cells. On an average, 9 VB were processed during each harvest, and despite an extended processing time the number of viable nucleated cells obtained was significantly higher than that from IC. Furthermore, by HPC content, VB BM was equivalent to IC BM, which is routinely used for BMT. We conclude that VB BM is a clinically valuable source of BM for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:7701582

  12. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  13. Seeking an ethical and legal way of procuring transplantable organs from the dying without further attempts to redefine human death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans David

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because complex organs taken from unequivocally dead people are not suitable for transplantation, human death has been redefined so that it can be certified at some earlier stage in the dying process and thereby make viable organs available without legal problems. Redefinitions based on concepts of "brain death" have underpinned transplant practice for many years although those concepts have never found universal philosophical acceptance. Neither is there consensus about the clinical tests which have been held sufficient to diagnose the irreversible cessation of all brain function – or as much of it as is deemed relevant – while the body remains alive. For these reasons, the certification of death for transplant purposes on "brain death" grounds is increasingly questioned and there has been pressure to return to its diagnosis on the basis of cardiac arrest and the consequent cessation of blood circulation throughout the body. While superficially a welcome return to the traditional and universally accepted understanding of human death, examination of the protocols using such criteria for the diagnosis of death prior to organ removal reveals a materially different scenario in which the circulatory arrest is not certainly final and purely nominal periods of arrest are required before surgery begins. Recognizing the probably unresolvable conflict between allowing enough time to pass after truly final circulatory arrest for a safe diagnosis of death and its minimization for the sake of the wanted organs, Verheijde and colleagues follow others in calling for the abandonment of the "dead donor rule" and the enactment of legislation to permit the removal of organs from the dying, without pretence that they are dead before that surgery. While it may be doubted whether such a "paradigm change" in the ethics of organ procurement would be accepted by society, their call for its consideration as a fully and fairly informed basis for organ

  14. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  15. Transcription factor Runx2 knockdown regulates colon cancer transplantation tumor growth in vitro: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of transcription factor Runx2 knockdown on colon cancer transplantation tumor growth in vitro. Methods: Colon cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and transfected with negative control (NC - shRNA plasmids and Runx2-shRNA plasmids respectively, the colon cancer cells transfected with shRNA were subcutaneously injected into C57 nude mice, and they were included in NC group and Runx2 knockdown group respectively. 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks after model establishment, serum was collected to determine the contents of tumor markers, and tumor lesions were collected to determine proliferation and apoptosis gene expression. Results: CCSA-2, CEA and CA19-9 levels in serum as well as Rac1, Wnt3a, PLD2 and FAM96B protein expression in transplantation tumor lesions of Runx2 knockdown group were significantly lower than those of NC group while MS4A12, ASPP2 and Fas protein expression in transplantation tumor lesions of Runx2 knockdown group were significantly higher than those of NC group. Conclusion: Transcription factor Runx2 knockdown could inhibit the colon cancer transplantation tumor growth in vitro.

  16. Present state of nuclear regulation organizations of main countries in the world. Importance of regulation staffs and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    After Fukushima accident, NRA (Nuclear Regulation Authority) was established in Japan as an independent organization from promotion. In order to perform effective and reliable nuclear regulation, it was important management organization such as nuclear regulation commission worked efficiently, and also requirements for nuclear regulation staffs engaged in actual regulatory works were of importance so as for appropriate decision making or judgments of management organization. Since regulation staffs needed professional expertise and technical judgment capabilities in wide areas including other than nuclear energy, various efforts had been done to get able regulation staffs in US, France and UK nuclear regulation organizations concerned, which became clarified after overseas investigation for this article. Since knowledge in nuclear industry could be used for effective regulation, mid-career recruitment had been employed in regulation organization of each country so as to take such knowledge and so it was important how to utilize industrial knowledge under appropriate conditions compatible with independence of regulation organization. (T. Tanaka)

  17. The affective tone of narration and posttraumatic growth in organ transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that positive affective tone of narratives is connected to the experience of posttraumatic growth among transplant patients. Kidney transplant patients (N = 51 and liver transplant patients (N = 48 participated in the study. In the first stage, about 10 weeks after transplant, the participants told two stories about important, freely chosen events from their lives. During the second meeting 10-12 months later we measured posttraumatic growth. Results indicated that the affective tone of narratives about past events was associated with the level of post-traumatic growth measured 10-12 months later. This proves that the affective tone of narratives about life, understood as a relatively constant individual characteristic, promote posttraumatic growth.

  18. 76 FR 44936 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ..., non-physician transplant professions, nursing, epidemiology, immunology, law and bioethics, behavioral.... Because of the Committee's full agenda and the timeframe in which to cover the agenda topics, public...

  19. 76 FR 7223 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... identification and referral of donors, non-physician transplant professions, nursing, epidemiology, immunology... timeframe in which to cover the agenda topics, public comment will be limited. All public comments will be...

  20. 75 FR 39547 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... referral of donors, non-physician transplant professions, nursing, epidemiology, immunology, law and... and the timeframe in which to cover the agenda topics, public comment will be limited. All public...

  1. Validation of organ procurement and transplant network (OPTN)/united network for organ sharing (UNOS) criteria for imaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathryn J; Karimova, E Jane; Arauz, Anthony R; Saad, Nael E; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Chapman, William C; Heiken, Jay P

    2013-06-27

    Imaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presents an important pathway for transplant exception points and priority for cirrhotic patients. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the validity of the new Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) classification system on patients undergoing transplantation for HCC. One hundred twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for HCC from April 14, 2006 to April 18, 2011; a total of 263 lesions were reported as suspicious for HCC on pretransplantation magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations were reviewed independently by two experienced radiologists, blinded to final pathology. Reviewers identified major imaging features and an OPTN classification was assigned to each lesion. Final proof of diagnosis was pathology on explant or necrosis along with imaging findings of ablation after transarterial chemoembolization. Application of OPTN imaging criteria in our population resulted in high specificity for the diagnosis of HCC. Sensitivity in diagnosis of small lesions (≥1 and based on preoperative imaging but would not have met criteria under the new system. Eleven percent of the patients not meeting OPTN criteria were found to have T2 stage tumor burden on pathology. The OPTN imaging policy introduces a high level of specificity for HCC but may decrease sensitivity for small lesions. Management may be impacted in a number of patients, potentially requiring longer surveillance periods or biopsy to confirm diagnosis.

  2. Long-term results after lung transplantation using organs from circulatory death donors: a propensity score-matched analysis†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Soresi, Simona; Zych, Bartlomiej; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N; García Sáez, Diana; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Wahlers, Thorsten; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wippermann, Jens; Wittwer, Thorsten; De Robertis, Fabio; Bahrami, Toufan; Amrani, Mohamed; Simon, André R

    2016-01-01

    Due to organ shortage in lung transplantation (LTx), donation after circulatory death (DCD) has been implemented in several countries, contributing to an increasing number of organs transplanted. We sought to assess long-term outcomes after LTx with organs procured following circulatory death in comparison with those obtained from donors after brain death (DBD). Between January 2007 and November 2013, 302 LTxs were performed in our institution, whereby 60 (19.9%) organs were retrieved from DCD donors. We performed propensity score matching (DCD:DBD = 1:2) based on preoperative donor and recipient factors that were significantly different in univariate analysis. After propensity matching, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demographics and preoperative donor and recipient characteristics. There were no significant differences regarding intraoperative variables and total ischaemic time. Patients from the DCD group had significantly higher incidence of primary graft dysfunction grade 3 at the end of the procedure (P = 0.014), and significantly lower pO2/FiO2 ratio during the first 24 h after the procedure (P = 0.018). There was a trend towards higher incidence of the need for postoperative extracorporeal life support in the DCD group. Other postoperative characteristics were comparable. While the overall cumulative survival was not significantly different, the DCD group had significantly poorer results in terms of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS)-free survival in the long-term follow-up. Long-term results after LTx with organs procured following DCD are in general comparable with those obtained after DBD LTx. However, patients transplanted using organs from DCD donors have a predisposition for development of BOS in the longer follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of interferon gamma ELISPOT assay to detect human cytomegalovirus specific T-cell responses in solid organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Davide; Saldan, Alda; Forner, Gabriella; Tinto, Daniel; Bianchin, Alice; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-02-01

    Assessing the CMV specific CMI in transplant subjects represents a promising strategy to determine the risk of infection on individual basis. In this study 61 adult CMV IgG seropositive solid organ transplant recipients were examined in order to improve the efficacy of CMI detection. For this purpose, pair-wise comparisons were conducted comparing positive control stimuli PWM and PMA/iono and CMV stimuli, pp65 peptide pool and whole CMV particle. Rosette pre-depletion of blood was also investigated for detecting CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell responses using the IFN-g ELISPOT assay. In the time-points 30-180 days after transplantation, PMA/iono produced statistically significant higher responses compared to PWM, probably because PMA/iono activation pathway is independent from the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The data showed that 11% of transplant patients displayed very low or undetectable responses to pp65 peptide pool antigen while having sustained high responses to whole CMV particle. In addition, in all the subjects analyzed, CMI responses to CMV particle produced a statistically significant higher number of spots compared to pp65 peptide pool antigen. Rosette pre-depletion of whole blood proved to be effective in detecting CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell responses similarly to flow cytometry. Taken together, the following recommendations are suggested to optimize the CMV-ELISPOT for transplantation settings: (1) use PMA/iono as positive control; (2) whole virus particle should be used to avoid peptide-related false negative responses; (3) a rosette pre-depletion step may be useful to detect CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunological monitoring after organ transplantation: potential role of soluble CD30 blood level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Dinh Quang; Darwish, Ahmed A; Gras, Jérémie; Wieërs, Grégoire; Cornet, Anne; Robert, Annie; Mourad, Michel; Malaise, Jacques; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Reding, Raymond; Latinne, Dominique

    2007-06-01

    Analysing the relevance of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in the bloodstream before and after transplantation may be important for the monitoring of transplant recipients. In this study, 27 patients (15 pediatric liver and 12 adult kidney graft recipients) were investigated. In the liver graft group, the patients who developed acute rejection during the first month (n=9) had a slightly higher sCD30 value on pre-transplantation baseline (day 0) and post-transplantation day 7, when compared to patients with normal graft function (n=6) (day 0: 102(1.6) U/ml versus 118(1.5) U/ml, p=0.52) and (day 7: 69(1.5) U/ml versus 83(1.6) U/ml, p=0.47). Increased serum sCD30 was shown to correlate with increased interleukin-10 circulating levels between day 0 and day 7 (r=0.53; p=0.04), whereas, no correlation could be evidenced between interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and sCD30 (r=0.02; p=0.47). Similarly, in the kidney transplantation group, no significant difference was found in sCD30 levels at day 0 in both groups with graft rejection or normal graft function (n=6) (85(1.3) U/ml versus 77(1.6) U/ml, p=0.66), but sCD30 decreased significantly at day 7 post-transplantation from baseline value in the rejection group (n=6) (77(1.6) versus 35(1.4); p=0.02). We conclude that increased serum sCD30 was correlated with increased IL-10 (interleukin-10) circulating levels, but not with IFN-gamma levels in the post-transplantation period. Neither pre-transplantation sCD30 nor sCD30 at day 7 post-transplantation could be correlated with acute rejection in liver graft recipient. The monitoring of sCD30 might constitute a tool to assess the risk of acute rejection in renal transplant but did not appear as a valuable mean for early immunological monitoring in the small group of liver allograft recipients patients analysed in this study.

  5. Commercial Kidney Transplantation: Attitude, Knowledge, Perception, and Experience of Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Fatma; Al Salmi, Issa

    2017-07-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold standard for patients with end-stage kidney disease. In view of shortages of available organs, long wait times for possible transplantation, and strict regulation, many patients opt for commercial transplantation. This study elicits the reasons and motivations for patients with end-stage kidney disease to elect for commercial transplant. A questionnaire-based evaluation was conducted during the period from July 2015 until late December 2015. It consisted of 29 multiple choice questions and was distributed to all patients who underwent commercial kidney transplantation. One hundred and fifty patients were approached to participate and 106 agreed. Of the participants, 60% were male with an average age of 41.5 (SD 14.8) years and ranged from 18 to 83 years. The majority (82%) of our participants were educated ranging from primary to college level. The major reason (71%) for these participants to obtain commercial transplants was stated as the unavailability of a live related donor. Thirteen percent stated that they objected to getting a kidney donated from a family member, and 9% stated that they were worried about taking a kidney from a family member. Finally, 3% of participants stated that they needed prompt transplant and could not wait for a long time for transplant investigations and the workup associated with this program. The study showed that the most common underlying cause for seeking commercial transplantation is the unavailability of a national transplant program, particularly transplantation from deceased sources. All western ethical arguments turn out to become of vital importance in developing countries, because transplantation is the cheapest renal replacement therapy. However, it must be emphasized that commercial transplants should not be an alternative to building a national transplant initiative. The national diseased program must be a priority with full financial and administrative support. All government

  6. Cytokine Release Assays as Tests for Exposure to Leishmania, and for Confirming Cure from Leishmaniasis, in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Carrillo

    Full Text Available Spain has one of the world's largest pools of organ donors and is a global leader in terms of the number of transplants it performs. The current outbreak of leishmaniasis in Fuenlabrada (in the southwest of the region of Madrid, Spain has involved 600 clinical cases since late 2009 (prevalence 0.2%. It may therefore be wise to monitor the town's transplanted population for Leishmania infantum; its members are immunosuppressed and at greater risk of infection and relapse following treatment. The present work examines the use of cytokine release assays to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in this population, and to confirm recovery following treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The humoral and cellular immune responses to L. infantum were characterized in 63 solid organ transplant (SOT recipients from Fuenlabrada, 57 of whom reported no previous episode of VL (NVL subjects, and six of whom had been cured of VL (CVL subjects. Seventeen subjects (12 NVL and 5 CVL showed a patent lymphoproliferative response to soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures and of whole blood with SLA led to the production of different combinations of cytokines that might serve to confirm Leishmania infection or recovery from VL and help prevent cured patients from relapsing into this serious condition.

  7. Unified Protocol for psychiatric and psychological assessment of candidates for transplantation of organs and tissues, PSI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel Kinori, Sara Guila; Alcántara Tadeo, Antonio; Castan Campanera, Esther; Costa Requena, Gemma; Diez Quevedo, Crisanto; Lligoña Garreta, Anna; Lopez Lazcano, Ana; Martínez del Pozo, Montserrat; Rangil Muñoz, Teresa; Peri Nogués, Josep María

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation is the treatment option that offers improved survival and quality of life as compared to organ failure. Psychiatric and psychological aspects of transplant candidates are important, especially in the pre-assessment stage, as the influence of these factors can hinder post-surgical outcome in both the implanted organ survival and the quality of life of the transplanted person. Of particular importance, are the factors related to pathology due to substance use, psychopathology, and psychosocial support. There are currently few guidelines on the correct evaluation of patients eligible for these complex procedures. Nineteen psychiatrists and clinical psychologists from six public hospitals in Catalonia conducted a systematic consensus to determine the design of a Unified Protocol psychological and psychiatric evaluation. An annual work plan was implemented, during which; the objectives were defined, a literature review was conducted, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were discussed, questionnaires were selected, and a structured interview was developed. With the implementation of the work plan, the Assessment Protocol presented in this article was designed. systematic work and improving cooperation between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, has led to homogeneity and consensus on a unified evaluation protocol. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Morris, Michele I; Azevedo, Luiz S; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Petersen, Eskild; Camargo, Luis Fernando A; Wright, Alissa Jade; Beeching, Nicholas J; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme; Len, Oscar; Stucchi, Raquel S B; Manuel, Oriol; Faria, Luciana Costa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Huprikar, Shirish; Molina, Israel; Mourão, Paulo Henrique Orlandi; Kotton, Camille N; Aguado, José María

    2018-02-01

    The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists. The guidelines provide recommendations for risk evaluation and laboratory investigation, as well as management and prevention of infection of the most relevant endemic diseases of Latin America. This summary includes a brief description of the guideline recommendations but does not include the complete rationale and references for each recommendation, which is available in the online version of the article, published in this journal as a supplement. The supplement contains 10 reviews referring to endemic or travel diseases (eg, tuberculosis, Chagas disease [ChD], leishmaniasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, travelers diarrhea, arboviruses, endemic fungal infections, viral hepatitis, and vaccines) and an illustrative section with maps (http://www.pmourao.com/map/). Contributors included experts from 13 countries (Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Italy, Peru, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay) representing four continents (Asia, the Americas and Europe), along with scientific and medical societies.

  9. Rewinding Frankenstein and the body-machine: organ transplantation in the dystopian young adult fiction series Unwind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmann, Anita; Steinberg, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    While the separation of body and mind (and the entailing metaphor of the body as a machine) has been a cornerstone of Western medicine for a long time, reactions to organ transplantation among others challenge this clear-cut dichotomy. The limits of the machine-body have been negotiated in science fiction, most canonically in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818). Since then, Frankenstein's monster itself has become a motif that permeates both medical and fictional discourses. Neal Shusterman's contemporary dystology for young adults, Unwind, draws on traditional concepts of the machine-body and the Frankenstein myth. This article follows one of the young protagonists in the series, who is entirely constructed from donated tissue, and analyses how Shusterman explores the complicated relationship between body and mind and between self and other as the teenager matures into an adult. It will be shown that, by framing the story of a transplanted individual along the lines of a coming-of-age narrative, Shusterman inter-relates the acceptance of a donor organ with the transitional space of adolescence and positions the quest for embodied selfhood at the centre of both developments. By highlighting the interconnections between medical discourse and a literary tradition, the potential contribution of the series to the treatment and understanding of post-transplant patients will be addressed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Deciphering allogeneic antibody response against native and denatured HLA epitopes in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Jonathan; Guidicelli, Gwendaline; Moreau, Jean-François; Lee, Jar-How; Taupin, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    Anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies are deleterious for organ transplant survival. Class I HLA donor-specific antibodies are identified by using the Luminex single antigen beads (LSAB) assay, which also detects anti-denatured HLA antibodies (anti-dHLAs). Anti-dHLAs are thought to be unable to recognize native HLA (nHLA) on the cell surface and therefore to be clinically irrelevant. Acid denaturation of nHLA on LSAB allows anti-dHLAs to be discriminated from anti-nHLAs. We previously defined a threshold for the ratio between mean fluorescence intensity against acid-treated (D for denaturation) and nontreated (N) LSAB, D ≥ 1.2 N identifying the anti-dHLAs. However, some anti-dHLAs remained able to bind nHLA on lymphocytes in flow cytometry crossmatches, and some anti-nHLAs conserved significant reactivity toward acid-treated LSAB. After depleting serum anti-nHLA reactivity with HLA-typed cells, we analyzed the residual LSAB reactivity toward nontreated and acid-treated LSABs, and then evaluated the ability of antibodies to recognize nHLA alleles individually. We observed that sera can contain mixtures of anti-nHLAs and anti-dHLAs, or anti-nHLAs recognizing acid-resistant epitopes, all possibly targeting the same allele(s). Therefore, the anti-HLA antibody response can be highly complex and subtle, as is the accurate identification of pathogenic anti-HLA antibodies in human serum. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [Challenges in the organization of investigator initiated trials: in transplantation medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzbauer, A A; Lamby, P E; Mutzbauer, I; von Hassel, J; Geissler, E K; Schlitt, H J

    2011-03-01

    Transplantation medicine offers multiple translational questions which should preferably be transferred to clinical evidence. The current gold standard for testing such questions and hypotheses is by prospective randomized controlled trials (RCT). The trials should be performed independently from the medical industry to avoid conflicts of interests and to guarantee a strict scientific approach. A good model is an investigator initiated trial (IIT) in which academic institutions function as the sponsor and in which normally a scientific idea stands before marketing interests of a certain medical product. We present a model for an IIT which is sponsored and coordinated by Regensburg University Hospital at 45 sites in 13 nations (SiLVER study), highlight special pitfalls of this study and offer alternatives to this approach. Finances: financial support in clinical trials can be obtained from the medical industry. Alternatively in Germany the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) offers annual grants. The expansion of financial support through foundations is desirable. Infrastructure: sponsorship within the pharmaceutics act (Arzneimittelgesetz) demands excellent infrastructural conditions and a professional team to accomplish clinical, logistic, regulatory, legal and ethical challenges in a RCT. If a large trial has sufficient financial support certain tasks can be outsourced and delegated to contract research organizations, coordinating centers for clinical trials or partners in the medical industry. Clinical scientific advances to improve evidence are an enormous challenge when performed as an IIT. However, academic sponsors can perform (international) IITs when certain rules are followed and should be defined as the gold standard when scientific findings have to be established clinically.

  12. Active Donor Management During the Hospital Phase of Care Is Associated with More Organs Transplanted per Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Madhukar S; De La Cruz, Salvador; Sally, Mitchell B; Groat, Tahnee; Malinoski, Darren J

    2017-10-01

    Meeting donor management goals when caring for potential organ donors has been associated with more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). Concern persists, however, as to whether this indicates that younger/healthier donors are more likely to meet donor management goals or whether active management affects outcomes. A prospective observational study of all standard criteria donors was conducted by 10 organ procurement organizations across United Network for Organ Sharing Regions 4, 5, and 6. Donor management goals representing normal critical care end points were measured at 2 time points: when a catastrophic brain injury was recognized and a referral was made to the organ procurement organization by the DH; and after brain death was declared and authorization for organ donation was obtained. Donor management goals Bundle "met" was defined as achieving any 7 of 9 end points. A positive Bundle status change was defined as not meeting the Bundle at referral and subsequently achieving it at authorization. The primary outcomes measure was having ≥4 OTPD. Data were collected for 1,398 standard criteria donors. Of the 1,166 (83%) who did not meet the Bundle at referral, only 254 (22%) had a positive Bundle status change. On adjusted analysis, positive Bundle status change increased the odds of achieving ≥4 OTPD significantly (odds ratio 2.04; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.81; p management goal Bundle status change during donor hospital management is associated with a 2-fold increase in achieving ≥4 OTPD. Active critical care management of the potential organ donor, as evidenced by improvement in routinely measured critical care end points can be a means by which to substantially increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  14. Influence of intention to adhere, beliefs and satisfaction about medicines on adherence in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon, Amélie; Roustit, Matthieu; Lehmann, Audrey; Saint-Raymond, Christel; Borrel, Elisabeth; Hilleret, Marie-Noëlle; Malvezzi, Paolo; Bedouch, Pierrick; Pansu, Pascal; Allenet, Benoît

    2014-07-27

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive (IS) therapy is associated with poor outcomes. Identifying factors predicting poor adherence is therefore essential. The primary objective of this study was to test whether parameters of a model adapted from the theory of planned behavior, and more specifically attitudes that are influenced by beliefs and satisfaction with medication, could predict adherence in solid organ transplant patients. Adherence was assessed with a self-reported medication adherence scale and IS blood trough concentrations over 6 months, in four transplant units. Satisfaction and beliefs were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines Questionnaire (SATMED-Q) and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), respectively. Theory of planned behavior was assessed with a specific questionnaire exploring intentions, subjective norms, attitudes and perceived behavioral control. Treatment characteristics and socioeconomic data were also collected. One hundred and fifty-three solid organ transplant patients were enrolled, including lung (n=33), heart (n=43), liver (n=42), and kidney (n=44) patients. Satisfaction and positive beliefs about medication were higher in adherent than those in nonadherent patients. Factors independently associated with an increased risk of nonadherence were negative general beliefs about medications (odds ratio [OR]=0.89 [0.83-0.97]), living alone (OR=2.78 [1.09-7.09]), heart transplantation (OR=3.49 [1.34-9.09]), and being on everolimus (OR=5.02 [1.21-20.8]). Negative beliefs toward medications were shown to be an independent risk factor of poor adherence. Therefore, the BMQ could be an effective, easy to implement tool, for use in everyday practice, to identify patients needing interventions to improve adherence to IS.

  15. Association of Sirolimus Use With Risk for Skin Cancer in a Mixed-Organ Cohort of Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients With a History of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Pritesh S; Azzi, Jamil R; Heher, Eliot C; Hills, Victoria M; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are at an increased risk for skin cancer. Prior studies have demonstrated a reduced incidence of skin cancer in renal OTRs treated with sirolimus. However, little information exists on the use of sirolimus for the prevention of skin cancer in nonrenal OTRs or those already diagnosed as having a posttransplant cancer. To compare subsequent skin cancer formation in a mixed-organ cohort of OTRs who were or were not treated with sirolimus after developing a posttransplant index cancer of any type. A 9-year retrospective cohort study at 2 academic tertiary care centers. Electronic medical records were reviewed for OTRs diagnosed as having a posttransplant cancer of any type to determine the type of organ transplanted, pretransplant and posttransplant cancer, and immunosuppressive medications. Patients underwent transplant from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008. Data were collected from July 30, 2011, to December 31, 2012, when follow-up was completed, and analyzed from April 28, 2013, to October 4, 2014. Factors associated with subsequent skin cancer development were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression analysis. Of 329 OTRs with an index posttransplant cancer (100 women and 229 men; mean [SD] age, 56 [19] years), 177 (53.8%) underwent renal transplant; 58 (17.6%), heart transplant; 54 (16.4%), lung transplant; 34 (10.3%), liver transplant; and 6 (1.8%), mixed-organ transplant. Ninety-seven OTRs (29.5%) underwent conversion to sirolimus therapy after diagnosis. One hundred thirty OTRs (39.5%) developed second posttransplant cancers, of which 115 cases (88.5%) were skin cancers. An 11.6% reduction in skin cancer risk was observed in the sirolimus-treated vs non-sirolimus-treated groups overall (26 of 97 [26.8%] vs 89 of 232 [38.4%]; P = .045) and among nonrenal OTRs only (8 of 34 [23.5%] vs 44 of 112 [39.3%], respectively), although the latter difference was not significant (P = .09). Independent predictors of

  16. Technical support organization of national regulators: Challenges and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, S.A.; Maqbul, N.; Kanwal, S.; Hashmi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants has always been a complex activity and so is regulating the nuclear power plants. The rapid innovation in design of nuclear power plants with substantial increase in design life from 40 years to 60 years is now considered a norm. The public acceptability of nuclear as a clean source of energy is also on the increase but with this increase is also the demand for more safety against accidental release of radioactivity. It is therefore essential that high standards of nuclear and radiation safety should be maintained and applied all over the world. However the increase acceptability will also lead to a rapid growth in nuclear energy generation capacity both in terms of construction of new nuclear power plants as well as life extension of older nuclear power plants. This will result in an unprecedented pressure on the national regulators during the licensing process. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, administrative and organizational provisions. There is, therefore, a need to separate the technical review and assessment work from the main licensing process by delegating this responsibility to the technical support organizations so that regulatory decision making is not driven by the time constraints imposed by the licensing process. The paper examines the role technical support organization can play to enhance quality of technical review and thereby the effectiveness of national regulators. For the national regulators that belong to countries that import nuclear power plants and may lack an advanced industrial infrastructure at par with other exporting countries, the establishment of technical support organization within a regulatory body or as a separate organization is gaining increased importance. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) has realized this importance and proposed the Government of Pakistan for allocation of Rs. 480.00 million ($ 8 million) for the establishment of

  17. [Presumptive organ donations for transplants agreement of the Ethics Committee of the University of Chile Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, A; Rosselot, E

    1995-04-01

    The ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile was consulted about the ethical aspects of presumptive organ donation for transplantation. After analyzing the problem, the committee concluded that every human being has the right to make use of his organs freely, voluntarily and according to his own discernment. The society has no right to make obligatory this donation, even after death. The foundations of this agreement were laid in a series of reasons. In fact, the corpse is not a juridical but a ethical asset and deserves respect for whom it was. It cannot be commercialized and is the only non-religious object susceptible of profanation. It is also object of popular affective and religious manifestations. Beliefs and affects must be respected. Organ donation is an act of charity and cannot be compulsory. The organ donation consent must be explicit, voluntary and solemn.

  18. The 40 donors per million population plan: an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, R; Marazuela, R; Domínguez-Gil, B; Coll, E; Mahillo, B; de la Rosa, G

    2009-10-01

    Spain has been showing the highest rate of deceased donor organ recovery in the world for a whole country, namely, 33-35 donors per million population (pmp) during the last years. This activity is attributed to the so-called Spanish Model of organ donation, an integrated approach to improve organ donation since the start of the Organización Nacional de Trasplantes (ONT) in 1989. However, in 2007 there were 7/17 regions with >40 donors pmp and a marked regional variability. Thus, ONT has set a large-scale, comprehensive strategy to achieve a substantial improvement in donation and transplantation in Spain in the coming years: The 40 Donors pmp Plan. The overall objective is to increase the average rate of deceased donors to 40 pmp between 2008 and 2010. The areas of improvement, specific objectives, and actions have come from deep reflection on the data and the material generated from multidisciplinary discussions and open consultation with the donation and transplantation community. Detection and management of brain-dead donors, with 4 specific subareas: access to intensive care units, new forms of hospital management, foreigners and ethnic minorities, and evaluation/maintenance of thoracic organ donors. Expanded criteria donors, with 3 subareas: aging, donors with positive tests to certain viral serologies, and donors with rare diseases. Special surgical techniques. Donation after cardiac death.

  19. An Algorithm Measuring Donor Cell-Free DNA in Plasma of Cellular and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients That Does Not Require Donor or Recipient Genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul MK Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cfDNA has significant potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical conditions but accurately and easily distinguishing the relative proportion of DNA molecules in a mixture derived from two different sources (i.e. donor and recipient tissues after transplantation is challenging. In human cellular transplantation there is currently no useable method to detect in vivo engraftment and blood-based non-invasive tests for allograft rejection in solid organ transplantation are either non-specific (e.g. creatinine in kidney transplantation, liver enzymes in hepatic transplantation or absent (i.e. heart transplantation. Elevated levels of donor cfDNA have been shown to correlate with solid organ rejection but complex methodology limits implementation of this promising biomarker. We describe a cost-effective method to quantify donor cfDNA in recipient plasma using a panel of high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms, next-generation (semiconductor sequencing and a novel mixture model algorithm. In vitro, our method accurately and rapidly determined donor/recipient DNA admixture. For in vivo testing, donor cfDNA was serially quantified in an infant with a urea cycle disorder after receiving six daily infusions of donor liver cells. Donor cfDNA isolated from 1-2 ml of recipient plasma was detected as late as 24 weeks after infusion suggesting engraftment. The percentage of circulating donor cfDNA was also assessed in pediatric and adult heart transplant recipients undergoing routine endomyocardial biopsy with levels observed to be stable over time and generally measuring <1% in cases without moderate or severe cellular rejection. Unlike existing non-invasive methods used to define the proportion of donor cfDNA in solid organ transplant patients, our assay does not require sex mismatch, donor genotyping or whole-genome sequencing and potentially has broad application to detect cellular engraftment or allograft injury after

  20. Social media and online attention as an early measure of the impact of research in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon R

    2014-09-15

    Traditional measures of the impact of published research, such as citation counts, are limited to measuring academic impact. The use of social media and other online tools as alternative measures of research impact is gaining popularity and used by leading medical journals. MEDLINE was searched for articles published with subject headings relating to solid organ transplantation between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012. Citation data were retrieved from SCOPUS, and statistics regarding mentions in social media, social bookmarking sites, news outlets, and expert recommendation sites were retrieved from the data at www.altmetric.com. Data were analyzed for associations between alternative metric data and citation rates. The search retrieved 6,981 publications. Sixty-six percent of the articles had at least one citation. Mentions in social media were 19.3%, 13.1% had social bookmarks, 0.9% had expert recommendations, and online news outlets picked up eight articles. Significantly higher citation rates were associated with mention in social media, expert recommendation, social bookmarking, and for articles identified as meta-analyses, multicenter studies, randomized controlled trials, and reviews (all Psocial media (odds ratio, 2.58; Psocial media are more likely to relate to the more controversial and emotive areas of transplantation. Social media and online attention act as early predictors of the impact of transplant research as measured by later citation rate. Blogging and expert recommendation, in particular, are associated with higher citation rates.

  1. Appraisal of the coordinator-based transplant organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, F; De Simone, P; Mosca, F

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Italian Parliament passed a law aimed at setting the standards of practice and quality in organ, tissue and cell donation, and transplantation. For the first time in the history of Italian transplantation, a coordinator-based model reproducing some of the basic principles of the Spanish system was officially enacted by the Parliament, bringing to an end years of lacking regulation. What differentiates those coordinator-based systems adopted in Southern Europe from Northern European national and multinational transplant organizations is the functional integration of donor and transplant care activities enacted by national governments. The Italian model of transplant health care consists of four levels of transplant coordination: local, regional, interregional, and national. The latter is represented by Centro Nazionale Trapianti (CNT; the Italian National Center for Transplantation). CNT objectives consist of ensuring equitable access to donation and transplant care for all citizens according to the principles of the Italian National Health System. In achieving these goals, CNT acts in cooperation with three interregional transplant agencies: the Nord Italia Transplant program, the Associazione InterRegionale Trapianti, and the Organizzazione Centro Sud Trapianti. Whereas local and interregional coordinators are at the front line of all donation and transplant activities, regional and national coordinators function to monitor, direct, and plan donation and transplant health care activities. Based on the increase in donation and transplant activities recently achieved in those countries that have adopted a governmental coordinator-based transplant care model, we believe that such a system is appropriate to serve patients' interests according to the principles of subsidiary and equity. However, it should further be improved by expansion of the governance model throughout Europe, through implementation of current standards of care, and by adopting the

  2. RNA polymerase III transcription - regulated by chromatin structure and regulator of nuclear chromatin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Chiara; Teichmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription is regulated by modifications of the chromatin. DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones, such as acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation have been linked to Pol III transcriptional activity. In addition to being regulated by modifications of DNA and histones, Pol III genes and its transcription factors have been implicated in the organization of nuclear chromatin in several organisms. In yeast, the ability of the Pol III transcription system to contribute to nuclear organization seems to be dependent on direct interactions of Pol III genes and/or its transcription factors TFIIIC and TFIIIB with the structural maintenance of chromatin (SMC) protein-containing complexes cohesin and condensin. In human cells, Pol III genes and transcription factors have also been shown to colocalize with cohesin and the transcription regulator and genome organizer CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). Furthermore, chromosomal sites have been identified in yeast and humans that are bound by partial Pol III machineries (extra TFIIIC sites - ETC; chromosome organizing clamps - COC). These ETCs/COC as well as Pol III genes possess the ability to act as boundary elements that restrict spreading of heterochromatin.

  3. Long term immune responses to pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyah Baluch

    Full Text Available In solid organ transplant (SOT recipients it is unknown if natural infection with influenza confers protection from re-infection with the same strain during the next influenza season. The purpose of this study was to determine if infection with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1 resulted in a long-term immunologic response. Transplant recipients with microbiologically proven pH1N1 infection in 2009/2010 underwent humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI testing for pH1N1 just prior to the next influenza season. Concurrent testing for A/Brisbane/59/2007 was done to rule-out cross-reacting antibody. We enrolled 22 adult transplant patients after pH1N1 infection. Follow up testing was done at a median of 7.4 months (range 5.8-15.4 after infection. After excluding those with cross-reactive antibody, 7/19 (36.8% patients were seroprotected. Detectable pH1N1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ interferon-γ producing T-cells were found in 11/22 (50% and 8/22 (36.4% patients respectively. Humoral immunity had a significant correlation with a CD4 response. This is the first study in transplant patients to evaluate long-term humoral and cellular response after natural influenza infection. We show that a substantial proportion of SOT recipients with previous pH1N1 infection lack long-term humoral and cellular immune responses to pH1N1. These patients most likely are at risk for re-infection.

  4. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  5. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  6. Multidimensional structure of a questionnaire to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J; Krijnen, Wim P; Dekker, Rienk; Ranchor, Adelita V; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-11-01

    To explore the underlying dimensions of the Barriers and Motivators Questionnaire that is used to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity experienced by recipients of solid organ transplantation and thereby improve the application in research and clinical settings. A cross-sectional study was performed in recipients of solid organ transplantation (n = 591; median (IQR) age = 59 (49; 66); 56% male). The multidimensional structure of the questionnaire was analyzed by exploratory principal component analysis. Cronbach's α was calculated to determine internal consistency of the entire questionnaire and individual components. The barriers scale had a Cronbach's α of 0.86 and was subdivided into four components; α of the corresponding subscales varied between 0.80 and 0.66. The motivator scale had an α of 0.91 and was subdivided into four components with an α between 0.88 to 0.70. Nine of the original barrier items and two motivator items were not included in the component structure. A four-dimensional structure for both the barriers and motivators scale of the questionnaire is supported. The use of the indicated subscales increases the usability in research and clinical settings compared to the overall scores and provide opportunities to identify modifiable constructs to be targeted in interventions. Implications for rehabilitation Organ transplant recipients are less active than the general population despite established health benefits of physical activity. A multidimensional structure is shown in the Barriers and Motivators Questionnaire, the use of the identified subscales increases applicability in research and clinical settings. The use of the questionnaire with its component structure in the clinical practice of a rehabilitation physician could result in a faster assessment of problem areas in daily practice and result in a higher degree of clarity as opposed to the use of the individual items of the questionnaire.

  7. Utilization of organs from donors after circulatory death for vascularized pancreas and islet of Langerhans transplantation: recommendations from an expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Thierry; Boffa, Catherine; Augustine, Titus; Badet, Lionel; de Koning, Eelco; Pratschke, Johann; Socci, Carlo; Friend, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly being used as a source of pancreas allografts for vascularized organ and islet transplantation. We provide practice guidelines aiming to increase DCD pancreas utilization. We review risk assessment and donor selection criteria. We report suggested factors in donor and recipient clinical management and provide an overview of the activities and outcomes of vascularized pancreas and islet transplantation. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  8. Clinical impact of culture-positive preservation fluid on solid organ transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Sabé, N; Tebé, C; Veroux, M; Boin, I F S F; Carratalà, J

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of the preservation fluid (PF) used for donated organs is a potential source of post-transplant infection. However, the information on this issue is scarce. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the incidence of culture-positive PF and its impact on solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Seventeen studies were identified and included. The overall incidence of culture-positive PF was 37% (95% CI: 27% to 49%), and the incidence of PF-related infections among SOT recipients with PF cultures that grew pathogenic microorganisms was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15%). There were differences in the rates of infections due to pathogenic microorganisms between SOT recipients who received pre-emptive treatment and those who did not, but without statistical significance. The mortality rate among SOT recipients with PF-related infection was 35% (95% CI: 21% to 53%). In conclusion, although contamination of the PF of donated organs is frequent, the incidence of PF-related infection is relatively low. A closely clinical and microbiologic monitoring of the SOT recipient in case of culture-positive PF, regardless of the type of microorganism isolated might be do in order to establish a prompt diagnosis of PF-related infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pravastatin Improves Glucose Regulation and Biocompatibility of Agarose Encapsulated Porcine Islets following Transplantation into Pancreatectomized Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S. Gazda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The encapsulation of porcine islets is an attractive methodology for the treatment of Type I diabetes. In the current study, the use of pravastatin as a mild anti-inflammatory agent was investigated in pancreatectomized diabetic canines transplanted with porcine islets encapsulated in agarose-agarose macrobeads and given 80 mg/day of pravastatin (n=3 while control animals did not receive pravastatin (n=3. Control animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 18, 19, and 32. Pravastatin-treated animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 22, 27, and 50. Two animals from each group received a second macrobead implant: control animals remained insulin-free for 15 and 21 days (AUC = 3003 and 5078 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15 and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 62 and 131. Pravastatin treated animals remained insulin-free for 21 and 34 days (AUC = 1559 and 1903 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15 and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 38 and 192. Total incidence (83.3% versus 64.3% and total severity (22.7 versus 18.3 of inflammation on tissue surfaces were higher in the control group at necropsy. These findings support pravastatin therapy in conjunction with the transplantation of encapsulated xenogeneic islets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Formation of modern theoretical regulations about organization concerning management development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhalinska I.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific concepts about an organization as the entity of management concerning management development. The author studies the principal theoretical regulations about an organization within the most spread schools of management and context of development of other managerial concepts in particular, strategic management. It is found out that an organization and its development had not considered as the factor of an effective activity before. Researches paid their attention to single aspects of organization activity where the aspects allowed to increase economic efficiency. However, the objective complication of conditions of enterprises’ activities caused the necessity of scientific research of adequate models of functioning and development of organizations, which currently cannot be provided by traditional management concepts. Thus, theoretical and practical prerequisites arise for a separate scientific set of researches within the science of management such as the theory of an organization. The article describes the main classified approaches to the models of an organization. The paper researches the challenges in present management, and those ones, which have caused the crisis in modern management. It is singled out the following actual aspects of modern organizational processes as the all-round use of modern information and computer systems, the development of integration and in cooperation in management, the appearance of new management technologies, the use of new assessment criteria for organization activity, striving for organizational shifts and innovations. Due to the generalization of the study results, the authors single out such key aspects in the development of the science of management, as the crisis of traditional management influences upon practical activity of modern organizations; the achievements of traditional management schools are becoming necessary, but not determinant factors of organization

  11. FAMILY CONSENT FOR ORGAN OR TISSUE REMOVAL FROM A DECEASED PERSON FOR TRANSPLANTATION PURPOSES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Nedić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Croatia is a country with the system of presumed consent donation of organs and tissues after death, where the consent of the family, according to law, is not one of the conditions for organ or tissue removal for transplantation purposes. However, the consent is a condition required by the Codex of Medical Ethics and Deontology. The author primary proposes harmonization of the Codex with current legislation. Accordingly, this paper primarily analyses the typology of the Codex, ethical issues and ethical and positivist reasons to harmonize the Codex with current legislation. Furthermore, although the author in the first place considers that the Codex should be in line with legislation, he also considers the provision of family consent for organ and tissue removal itself flawed and poorly developed. In this regard, the author considers the comparative legislation and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, analyses current provisions of the Codex in the part of the removal and transplantation of organs and tissues from deceased persons, states the facts that the Codex should contain so as to make the mechanism of family consent for organ and tissue removal and donation after death more effective. In fact, if the author’s original proposal for harmonization of the Codex with the current legislation is not accepted, a more detailed and precise elaboration of the mentioned current provisions of the Codex will be suggested. This will include exact definition of the family and relatives, exact deadlines and ways of informing the family, but also refining the concept of “ethical“ according to the Codex in part of the organ and tissue donation and removal from the deceased person.

  12. Soil organic matter regulates molybdenum storage and mobility in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jade A; Perakis, Steven; King, Elizabeth K.; Pett-Ridge, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is essential to a suite of nitrogen (N) cycling processes in ecosystems, but there is limited information on its distribution within soils and relationship to plant and bedrock pools. We examined soil, bedrock, and plant Mo variation across 24 forests spanning wide soil pH gradients on both basaltic and sedimentary lithologies in the Oregon Coast Range. We found that the oxidizable organic fraction of surface mineral soil accounted for an average of 33 %of bulk soil Mo across all sites, followed by 1.4 % associated with reducible Fe, Al, and Mn-oxides, and 1.4 % in exchangeable ion form. Exchangeable Mo was greatest at low pH, and its positive correlation with soil carbon (C) suggests organic matter as the source of readily exchangeable Mo. Molybdenum accumulation integrated over soil profiles to 1 m depth (τMoNb) increased with soil C, indicating that soil organic matter regulates long-term Mo retention and loss from soil. Foliar Mo concentrations displayed no relationship with bulk soil Mo, and were not correlated with organic horizon Mo or soil extractable Mo, suggesting active plant regulation of Mo uptake and/or poor fidelity of extractable pools to bioavailability. We estimate from precipitation sampling that atmospheric deposition supplies, on average, over 10 times more Mo annually than does litterfall to soil. In contrast, bedrock lithology had negligible effects on foliar and soil Mo concentrations and on Mo distribution among soil fractions. We conclude that atmospheric inputs may be a significant source of Mo to forest ecosystems, and that strong Mo retention by soil organic matter limits ecosystem Mo loss via dissolution and leaching pathways.

  13. The Organ Transplant Debate in Egypt: a Social Anthropological Analysis Le débat sur les greffes d’organe en Égypte : analyse anthropologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine Hamdy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I take the heated debate about the ethics of organ transplantation in Egypt, to ask why Egypt is the only Muslim country in the world that has, for the past three decades, been unable to pass legislation for a national organ transplant program. Why is it that patients and even physicians articulate their antipathy to organ transplantation in terms of “Islam” when most Muslim scholars of Islamic law have argued that the donation of organs is permissible? I argue that we cannot reduce the question of the ethics of organ donation in Egypt to abstract Islamic legal categories (permissible (mubâh or impermissible (harâm – as analysts both within and outside the Muslim world are apt to do. Doing so overlooks the pervasive problem of social inequalities that persist in the Egyptian medical system. In the context of vast discrepancies in health status and health care delivery, ordinary Egyptians are wary of medical institutions’ claims of re-using body parts for the common good.Cet article traite du débat sensible sur l’éthique de la greffe d’organe en Égypte et s’interroge sur la question du pourquoi l’Égypte est le seul pays musulman dans le monde qui a, durant ces trois décennies, été incapable de faire passer une législation pour un programme de transplantation nationale. Pourquoi les patients et même les médecins formulent-ils leur antipathie à la transplantation d’organes en termes d’« islam » quand la plupart des érudits musulmans ont établi que le don d’organe était possible ? Je soutiens qu’on ne peut réduire la question de l’éthique du don d’organe en Égypte à des catégories juridiques islamiques abstraites comme le licite (mubâh ou l’illicite (harâm – ainsi que le font des analyses provenant à la fois de l’intérieur et de l’extérieur du monde musulman. Ce faisant, on néglige le problème majeur des inégalités sociales qui persistent dans le système m

  14. Pharmacokinetics of prolonged-release tacrolimus and implications for use in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria G; Undre, Nasrullah; Keirns, James; Fitzsimmons, William E; Brown, Malcolm; First, M Roy

    2016-08-01

    Prolonged-release tacrolimus was developed as a once-daily formulation with ethylcellulose as the excipient, resulting in slower release and reduction in peak concentration (Cmax ) for a given dose compared with immediate-release tacrolimus, which is administered twice daily. This manuscript reviews pharmacokinetic information on prolonged-release tacrolimus in healthy subjects, in transplant recipients converted from immediate-release tacrolimus, and in de novo kidney and liver transplant recipients. As with the immediate-release formulation, prolonged-release tacrolimus shows a strong correlation between trough concentration (Cmin ) and area under the 24-hour time-concentration curve (AUC24 ), indicating that trough whole blood concentrations provide an accurate measure of drug exposure. We present the pharmacokinetic similarities and differences between the two formulations, so that prescribing physicians will have a better understanding of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The family interview in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation: perceptions of potential donors' relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, M J; Massarollo, M C K B; de Moraes, E L

    2014-01-01

    The family interview is a complex phase of the organ donation process because it involves aspects of the interviewer, the interviewee, the interview location, and ethical and legal issues. However, there are few publications on this phase of the donation process. This study aimed to reveal the meaning assigned to the interview phase, in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation, by the families of potential donors. We performed a qualitative study of the phenomenologic aspect, within the modality "structure situated phenomena." The study included the participation of 10 families. After analyzing the interviews, the meaning of the interview was unveiled by the family members. The statements revealed that the family interview is considered to be an important step for warnings, clarifications, and encouraging families to think about the possibility of donating to save and/or improve the quality of life of people in need for a transplant, and that studies contribute to the technical and scientific qualification of the interviewer as well as stimulate discussion among health professionals to improve the interviewing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reschen ME

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute rejection and graft loss. In 2007, a prolonged release version of tacrolimus became available that allows once daily administration, thus halving the pill burden compared to the standard twice-daily tacrolimus. An increasing number of studies in de novo transplantation and in treatment conversion have evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of prolonged-release tacrolimus. We have reviewed the literature on the use of prolonged-release tacrolimus and hope that this will be of value in the design of protocols for transplant immunosuppression.Keywords: immunosuppression, kidney, hepatic, allograft, adherence

  17. Effect of laughter on mood and heart rate variability in patients awaiting organ transplantation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgoff-Kaspar, Rima; Baldwin, Ann; Johnson, Scott; Edling, Nancy; Sethi, Gulshan K

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that laughter has myriad health benefits, yet the medical community has not implemented it formally as a treatment. Patients awaiting organ transplantation have significant physical disabilities and are at risk for psychological distress. Attenuated heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for a negative long-term outcome in some patients. The study intended to evaluate the clinical utility of laughter yoga in improving psychological and physiological measures in outpatients awaiting organ transplantation. Positive results would indicate promising areas to pursue in a follow-up study. Six participants met for 10 sessions over 4 weeks. The research team measured each participant's heart rate, HRV, blood pressure (BP), and immediate mood before and after the laughter and control interventions. The team assessed participants' longer-term mood (anxiety and depression) at the study's initiation, after a no-treatment control week, and at the end of the study. The study occurred at the Department of Surgery and Medicine at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson. Participants were patients awaiting transplants (three heart and three lung), two women and four men (ages 51-69 y). Participants had received no major surgery in the 3 months prior to the intervention, did not have a hernia or uncontrolled hypertension, and did not fall into the New York Heart Association function class 4. The 20-minute laughter intervention involved breathing and stretching exercises, simulated laughter (ie, unconditional laughter that is not contingent on the environment), chanting, clapping, and a meditation. The 20-minute control intervention involved the study's personnel discussing health and study-related topics with the participants. The research team measured BP, heart rate, and HRV and administered the Profile of Mood States, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II to evaluate immediate and longer-term mood. The team had planned

  18. Effect of laughter yoga on mood and heart rate variability in patients awaiting organ transplantation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgoff-Kaspar, Rima; Baldwin, Ann; Johnson, M Scott; Edling, Nancy; Sethi, Gulshan K

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that laughter has myriad health benefits, yet the medical community has not implemented it formally as a treatment. Patients awaiting organ transplantation have significant physical disabilities and are at risk for psychological distress. Attenuated heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for a negative long-term outcome in some patients. The study intended to evaluate the clinical utility of laughter yoga in improving psychological and physiological measures in outpatients awaiting organ transplantation. Positive results would indicate promising areas to pursue in a follow-up study. Six participants met for 10 sessions over 4 weeks. The research team measured each participant's heart rate, HRV, blood pressure (BP), and immediate mood before and after the laughter and control interventions. The team assessed participants' longer-term mood (anxiety and depression) at the study's initiation, after a no-treatment control week, and at the end of the study. The study occurred at the Department of Surgery and Medicine at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson. Participants were patients awaiting transplants (three heart and three lung), two women and four men (ages 51-69 y). Participants had received no major surgery in the 3 months prior to the intervention, did not have a hernia or uncontrolled hypertension, and did not fall into the New York Heart Association function class 4. The 20-minute laughter intervention involved breathing and stretching exercises, simulated laughter (ie, unconditional laughter that is not contingent on the environment), chanting, clapping, and a meditation. The 20-minute control intervention involved the study's personnel discussing health and study-related topics with the participants. The research team measured BP, heart rate, and HRV and administered the Profile of Mood States, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II to evaluate immediate and longer-term mood. The team had planned

  19. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  20. [Skin cancer screening and treatment costs : Utilisation of the skin cancer screening and skin cancer treatment costs in organ transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, D; Schlothauer, N I; Zeeb, H; Wagner, G; Sachse, M M

    2018-04-12

    Organ transplant recipients have an up to 250-times higher risk to develop skin cancer. This article evaluated the utilisation of skin cancer screening and the treatment costs for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Patients of the health insurance AOK Bremen/Bremerhaven had been identified and the need for skin cancer prevention trainings was derived. The number of organ transplant recipients (ICD code Z94.0-4) with and without any history of skin cancer (ICD code C43/C44), the utilisation of dermatologic health care services, and the costs for treatments with the diagnosis Z94.0-4 with and without C43/C44 were evaluated. The analyses were carried out for the period from 2009-2014 by using the accounting systems of the AOK. Between 2009 and 2014, 231 organ transplant recipients had been recorded. By mid-2014, 20% of these insured persons developed skin cancer and the mean incidence was 2.76% per year. On average, 43% of these patients were seen by a dermatologist at least once a year, whereby only 15% of the organ transplant recipients participated in the annual skin cancer screening. In 29% of the patients without any history of skin cancer, a skin examination was never performed by a dermatologist or a general practitioner. In all, 17 inpatient cases of organ transplant recipients with the primary diagnosis C43/C44 were analyzed. This resulted in total costs of 54,707 € (on average about 3200 € per case). The increased incidence of skin cancer and the associated treatment costs indicate the need for skin cancer prevention training.

  1. Zero risk tolerance costs lives: loss of transplantable organs due to human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid testing of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Teresa J; Schkade, David; Schkade, Lawrence; Geier, Steven S; Orlowski, Jeffrey P; Klintmalm, Goran

    2011-09-01

    Patients' deaths due to the organ donor shortage make it imperative that every suitable organ be transplanted. False-positive results of tests for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result in lost organs. A survey of US organ procurement organizations collected the numbers of donors and ruled-out potential donors who had a positive result on an HIV test from January 1,2006, to October 31, 2008. Sixty-two percent of US organ procurement organizations participated. Of the 12397 donor/nondonor cases, 56 (0.45%) had an initial positive result on an HIV antibody or HIV nucleic acid test, and only 8 (14.3%) of those were confirmed positive. Of the false-positive results, 50% were from HIV antibody tests and 50% were from HIV nucleic acid tests. Organs are a scarce, finite, and perishable resource. Use of HIV antibody testing has produced a remarkably safe track record of avoiding HIV transmission, with 22 years of nonoccurrence between transmissions. Because false positives occur with any test, including the HIV Ab test, adding nucleic acid testing to the standard donor testing panel doubles the number of false-positive HIV test results and thus the number of medically suitable donors lost. The required HIV antibody test is 99.99% effective in preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Adding the HIV nucleic acid test to routine organ donor screening could result in as many as 761 to 1551 unnecessary deaths of patients between HIV transmission events because medically suitable organs are wasted.

  2. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  3. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  4. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The clinical utility of FDG PET/CT among solid organ transplant recipients suspected of malignancy or infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareham, Neval E.; Lundgren, J.D. [Rigshospitalet, Centre for Health and Infectious Disease Research (CHIP), Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cunha-Bang, C. da; Sengeloev, H. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Haematology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gustafsson, F.; Iversen, M. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Johannesen, H.H.; Kjaer, A.; Fischer, B.M. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Rasmussen, A. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Soerensen, S.S. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk of developing infections and malignancies. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may enable timely detection of these diseases and help to ensure early intervention. We aimed to describe the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in consecutive, diagnostic unresolved SOT recipients transplanted from January 2004 to May 2015. Recipients with a post-transplant FDG PET/CT performed as part of diagnostic work-up were included. Detailed chart reviews were done to extract relevant clinical information and determine the final diagnosis related to the FDG PET/CT. Based on a priori defined criteria and the final diagnosis, results from each scan were classified as true or false, and diagnostic values determined. Among the 1,814 recipients in the cohort, 145 had an FDG PET/CT performed; 122 under the indication of diagnostically unresolved symptoms with a suspicion of malignancy or infection. The remaining (N = 23) had an FDG PET/CT to follow-up on a known disease or to stage a known malignancy. The 122 recipients underwent a total of 133 FDG PET/CT scans performed for a suspected malignancy (66 %) or an infection (34 %). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the FDG PET/CT in diagnosing these conditions were 97, 84, 87, and 96 %, respectively. FDG PET/CT is an accurate diagnostic tool for the work-up of diagnostic unresolved SOT recipients suspected of malignancy or infection. The high sensitivity and NPV underlines the potential usefulness of PET/CT for excluding malignancy or focal infections in this often complex clinical situation. (orig.)

  6. The clinical utility of FDG PET/CT among solid organ transplant recipients suspected of malignancy or infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareham, Neval E.; Lundgren, J.D.; Cunha-Bang, C. da; Sengeloev, H.; Gustafsson, F.; Iversen, M.; Johannesen, H.H.; Kjaer, A.; Fischer, B.M.; Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk of developing infections and malignancies. 18 F-FDG PET/CT may enable timely detection of these diseases and help to ensure early intervention. We aimed to describe the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in consecutive, diagnostic unresolved SOT recipients transplanted from January 2004 to May 2015. Recipients with a post-transplant FDG PET/CT performed as part of diagnostic work-up were included. Detailed chart reviews were done to extract relevant clinical information and determine the final diagnosis related to the FDG PET/CT. Based on a priori defined criteria and the final diagnosis, results from each scan were classified as true or false, and diagnostic values determined. Among the 1,814 recipients in the cohort, 145 had an FDG PET/CT performed; 122 under the indication of diagnostically unresolved symptoms with a suspicion of malignancy or infection. The remaining (N = 23) had an FDG PET/CT to follow-up on a known disease or to stage a known malignancy. The 122 recipients underwent a total of 133 FDG PET/CT scans performed for a suspected malignancy (66 %) or an infection (34 %). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the FDG PET/CT in diagnosing these conditions were 97, 84, 87, and 96 %, respectively. FDG PET/CT is an accurate diagnostic tool for the work-up of diagnostic unresolved SOT recipients suspected of malignancy or infection. The high sensitivity and NPV underlines the potential usefulness of PET/CT for excluding malignancy or focal infections in this often complex clinical situation. (orig.)

  7. Chest X-ray and chest CT findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Irai Luis; Schuhmacher Neto, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Marisa; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: "tuberculosis"; "transplants"; "transplantation"; "mycobacterium"; and "lung". The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publication, that met the selection criteria in their title, abstract, or body of text. Articles with no data on chest CT or chest X-ray findings were excluded, as were those not related to solid organ transplantation or pulmonary tuberculosis. We selected 29 articles involving a collective total of 219 patients. The largest samples were in studies conducted in Brazil and South Korea (78 and 35 patients, respectively). The imaging findings were subdivided into five common patterns. The imaging findings varied depending on the transplanted organ in these patients. In liver and lung transplant recipients, the most common pattern was the classic one for pulmonary tuberculosis (cavitation and "tree-in-bud" nodules), which is similar to the findings for pulmonary tuberculosis in the general population. The proportion of cases showing a miliary pattern and lymph node enlargement, which is most similar to the pattern seen in patients coinfected with tuberculosis and HIV, was highest among the kidney transplant recipients. Further studies evaluating clinical data, such as immunosuppression regimens, are needed in order to improve understanding of the distribution of these imaging patterns in this population.

  8. Travel for transplantation in iran: pros and cons regarding Iranian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossareh, Shahrzad; Broumand, Behrooz

    2015-04-01

    Transplant tourism is one of the main unacceptable aspects of medical tourism, implicating travel to another country to receive an allograft. Organ shortages in wealthier countries have persuaded patients to preclude organ waiting lists and travel to other countries for getting organs especially kidneys. On the other hand, in many countries, there is no transplant program, and hemodialysis is expensive. Hence, patients with end-stage kidney disease may have to travel to get a kidney allograft for the sake of their lives. In Iran, a legal compensated and regulated living unrelated donor kidney transplant program has been adopted since 1988, in which recipients are matched with liveunrelated donors through the Iran Kidney Foundation and the recipients are compensated dually by the government and the recipient. In this model regulations were adopted to prevent transplant tourism: foreigners were not allowed to receive a kidney from Iranian donors or donate a kidney to Iranian patients; however, they could be transplanted from donors of their own nationality, after full medical workup, with the authorization of the Ministry of Health. This was first considered as a humanitarian assistance to patients of the countries with no transplant program and limited and low quality dialysis. However, the policy of "foreign nationality transplant" gradually established a spot where residents of many countries, where living-unrelated donor transplant was illegal, could bring their donors and be transplanted mainly in private hospitals, with high incentives for the transplant teams. By June 2014, six hundred eight foreign nationality kidney transplants were authorized by Ministry of Health for citizens for 17 countries. In this review, we examine the negative aspects of transplant for foreign citizens in Iran and the reasons that changed "travel for transplant" to "transplant tourism " in our country and finally led us to stop the program after more than 10 years.

  9. MicroRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) Attenuates the Apoptosis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Transplanted into Infarcted Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Youn; Shin, Sunhye; Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Lim, Kyu Hee; Kim, Hyemin; Choi, Jung-Won; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Seahyung; Lim, Soyeon; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2016-10-20

    Stem cell therapy using adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has produced some promising results in treating the damaged heart. However, the low survival rate of MSCs after transplantation is still one of the crucial factors that limit the therapeutic effect of stem cells. In the damaged heart, oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can cause the death of transplanted MSCs. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) has been implicated in the development of oxidative stress-related pathologic conditions. Thus, we hypothesized that down-regulation of ASK1 in human MSCs (hMSCs) might attenuate the post-transplantation death of MSCs. To test this hypothesis, we screened microRNAs (miRNAs) based on a miRNA-target prediction database and empirical data and investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of selected miRNAs on human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and on rat myocardial infarction (MI) models. Our data indicated that miRNA-301a most significantly suppressed ASK1 expression in hASCs. Apoptosis-related genes were significantly down-regulated in miRNA-301a-enriched hASCs exposed to hypoxic conditions. Taken together, these data show that miRNA-mediated down-regulation of ASK1 protects MSCs during post-transplantation, leading to an increase in the efficacy of MSC-based cell therapy.

  10. MicroRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1 Attenuates the Apoptosis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs Transplanted into Infarcted Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Youn Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy using adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has produced some promising results in treating the damaged heart. However, the low survival rate of MSCs after transplantation is still one of the crucial factors that limit the therapeutic effect of stem cells. In the damaged heart, oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS production can cause the death of transplanted MSCs. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 has been implicated in the development of oxidative stress-related pathologic conditions. Thus, we hypothesized that down-regulation of ASK1 in human MSCs (hMSCs might attenuate the post-transplantation death of MSCs. To test this hypothesis, we screened microRNAs (miRNAs based on a miRNA-target prediction database and empirical data and investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of selected miRNAs on human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs and on rat myocardial infarction (MI models. Our data indicated that miRNA-301a most significantly suppressed ASK1 expression in hASCs. Apoptosis-related genes were significantly down-regulated in miRNA-301a-enriched hASCs exposed to hypoxic conditions. Taken together, these data show that miRNA-mediated down-regulation of ASK1 protects MSCs during post-transplantation, leading to an increase in the efficacy of MSC-based cell therapy.

  11. The impact of meeting donor management goals on the number of organs transplanted per donor: results from the United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 prospective donor management goals study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Patel, Madhukar S; Daly, Michael C; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Salim, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Many organ procurement organizations have implemented critical care end points as donor management goals in efforts to increase organs transplanted per donor after neurologic determination of death. Although retrospective studies have demonstrated an association between meeting donor management goals and organ yield, prospective studies are lacking. In June 2008, nine donor management goals were prospectively implemented as a checklist and every donor after neurologic determination of death was managed to meet them. The donor management goals represented normal cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and endocrine end points. Data were collected for 7 months. Donor management goals "met" was defined a priori as achieving any seven of the nine donor management goals, and this was recorded at the time of consent, 12-18 hrs later, and prior to organ recovery. The primary outcome measure was ≥4 organs transplanted per donor, and binary logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of this outcome with a porgan procurement organizations in the five Southwestern United States (United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5). All standard criteria donors after neurologic determination of deaths. Prospective implementation of a donor management goal checklist. There were 380 standard criteria donors with 3.6±1.7 organs transplanted per donor. Fifteen percent had donor management goals met at the time of consent, 33% at 12-18 hrs, and 38% prior to organ recovery. Forty-eight percent had ≥4 organs transplanted per donor. Donors with ≥4 organs transplanted per donor had significantly more individual donor management goals met at all three time points. Independent predictors of ≥4 organs transplanted per donor were age (odds ratio=0.95 per year), final creatinine (odds ratio=0.75 per 1-unit increase), donor management goals "met" at consent (odds ratio=2.03), donor management goals "met" prior to organ recovery (odds ratio=2.34), and a change in the number of

  12. Determinants of gingival overgrowth severity in organ transplant patients. An examination of the rôle of HLA phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J M; Seymour, R A; Ellis, J S; Kelly, P J; Parry, G; Dark, J; Wilkinson, R; Ilde, J R

    1996-07-01

    The role of HLA phenotype as a risk factor for drug-induced gingival overgrowth was investigated in a cohort of 172 transplant recipients. Clinically significant overgrowth warranting surgical correction was observed in 72 patients (42%). Using stepwise regression modelling, 6 clinical parameters were identified as significant risk factors for the severity of gingival overgrowth. These were; age, sex, creatinine plasma level, duration of therapy, papilla bleeding index and concomitant medication with a calcium channel blocking drug. 3 HLA alleles were also identified as risk factors when adjusted for other clinically significant risk factors (HLA -DR2, A24, B37). However, when the p-values for the HLA variables were corrected to compensate for the use of multiple significance testing, only HLA-B37 remained statistically significant at the 5% level. Organ transplant patients are at risk of developing gingival overgrowth, with approximately 25% medicated with cyclosporin alone requiring corrective gingival surgery. This figure more than doubles in patients concomitantly medicated with a calcium blocking drug. The data at present available would suggest that the severity of gingival overgrowth is also significantly associated with the HLA-B37 phenotype.

  13. 18F-FDG PET/CT for the diagnosis of malignant and infectious complications after solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Nastassja; Hubele, Fabrice; Heimburger, Celine; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Herbrecht, Raoul; Blondet, Cyrille; Imperiale, Alessio; Kessler, Romain; Caillard, Sophie; Epailly, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Infection and malignancy represent two common complications after solid organ transplantation, which are often characterized by poorly specific clinical symptomatology. Herein, we have evaluated the role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in this clinical setting. Fifty-eight consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT after kidney, lung or heart transplantation were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients underwent FDG PET/CT to strengthen or confirm a diagnostic suspicion of malignancies. The remaining 46 patients presented with unexplained inflammatory syndrome, fever of unknown origin (FUO), CMV or EBV seroconversion during post-transplant follow-up without conclusive conventional imaging. FDG PET/CT results were compared to histology or to the finding obtained during a clinical/imaging follow-up period of at least 6 months after PET/CT study. Positive FDG PET/CT results were obtained in 18 (31 %) patients. In the remaining 40 (69 %) cases, FDG PET/CT was negative, showing exclusively a physiological radiotracer distribution. On the basis of a patient-based analysis, FDG PET/CT’s sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were respectively 78 %, 90 %, 78 % and 90 %, with a global accuracy of 86 %. FDG PET/CT was true positive in 14 patients with bacterial pneumonias (n = 4), pulmonary fungal infection (n = 1), histoplasmosis (n = 1), cutaneous abscess (n = 1), inflammatory disorder (sacroiliitis) (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 3) and NSCLC (n = 3). On the other hand, FDG PET/CT failed to detect lung bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, septicemia, endocarditis and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively, in four patients. FDG PET/CT contributed to adjusting the patient therapeutic strategy in 40 % of cases. FDG PET/CT emerges as a valuable technique to manage complications in the post-transplantation period. FDG PET/CT should be considered in patients with severe

  14. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the diagnosis of malignant and infectious complications after solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Nastassja; Hubele, Fabrice; Heimburger, Celine; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Herbrecht, Raoul; Blondet, Cyrille; Imperiale, Alessio [Hautepierre Hospital, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Kessler, Romain; Caillard, Sophie; Epailly, Eric [Nouvel Hopital Civil, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2017-03-15

    Infection and malignancy represent two common complications after solid organ transplantation, which are often characterized by poorly specific clinical symptomatology. Herein, we have evaluated the role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in this clinical setting. Fifty-eight consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT after kidney, lung or heart transplantation were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients underwent FDG PET/CT to strengthen or confirm a diagnostic suspicion of malignancies. The remaining 46 patients presented with unexplained inflammatory syndrome, fever of unknown origin (FUO), CMV or EBV seroconversion during post-transplant follow-up without conclusive conventional imaging. FDG PET/CT results were compared to histology or to the finding obtained during a clinical/imaging follow-up period of at least 6 months after PET/CT study. Positive FDG PET/CT results were obtained in 18 (31 %) patients. In the remaining 40 (69 %) cases, FDG PET/CT was negative, showing exclusively a physiological radiotracer distribution. On the basis of a patient-based analysis, FDG PET/CT’s sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were respectively 78 %, 90 %, 78 % and 90 %, with a global accuracy of 86 %. FDG PET/CT was true positive in 14 patients with bacterial pneumonias (n = 4), pulmonary fungal infection (n = 1), histoplasmosis (n = 1), cutaneous abscess (n = 1), inflammatory disorder (sacroiliitis) (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 3) and NSCLC (n = 3). On the other hand, FDG PET/CT failed to detect lung bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, septicemia, endocarditis and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively, in four patients. FDG PET/CT contributed to adjusting the patient therapeutic strategy in 40 % of cases. FDG PET/CT emerges as a valuable technique to manage complications in the post-transplantation period. FDG PET/CT should be considered in patients with severe

  15. Drinking in the last chance saloon: luck egalitarianism, alcohol consumption, and the organ transplant waiting list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The scarcity of livers available for transplants forces tough choices upon us. Lives for those not receiving a transplant are likely to be short. One large group of potential recipients needs a new liver because of alcohol consumption, while others suffer for reasons unrelated to their own behaviour. Should the former group receive lower priority when scarce livers are allocated? This discussion connects with one of the most pertinent issues in contemporary political philosophy; the role of personal responsibility in distributive justice. One prominent theory of distributive justice, luck egalitarianism, assesses distributions as just if, and only if, people's relative positions reflect their exercises of responsibility. There is a principled luck egalitarian case for giving lower priority to those who are responsible for their need. Compared to the existing literature favouring such differentiation, luck egalitarianism provides a clearer rationale of fairness, acknowledges the need for individual assessments of responsibility, and requires initiatives both inside and outside of the allocation systems aimed at mitigating the influence from social circumstances. Furthermore, the concrete policies that luck egalitarians can recommend are neither too harsh on those who make imprudent choices nor excessively intrusive towards those whose exercises of responsibility are assessed.

  16. Transplanting a Microbial Organ: the Good, the Bad, and the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios A. Antonopoulos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT has received increased attention as a therapy for correcting intestinal dysbiosis and restoring a state of health in patients suffering from either recalcitrant infection by Clostridium difficile or more complex disease states, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The “gut microbial organ” from the donor that is used in these transplants may serve to transfer genetic material between donor and recipient via virus-like particles, specifically bacteriophages, that infect the bacterial component of the microbiota. The recently published study by Chehoud et al. provides evidence for not only the transfer of bacteriophages during FMT but also the transfer of multiple populations of bacteriophages to recipients from the donor microbiota used (C. Chehoud et al., mBio 7:e00322-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00322-16. While the clinical significance of these findings remains unclear, nothing short of a diligent and persistent effort is needed to define the intended and unintended consequences of FMT.

  17. The organic seed regulations framework in Europe - current status and recommendations for future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döring, T.F.; Bocci, R.; Hitchings, R.; Howlett, S.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Pautasso, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Rey, F.; Stubsgaard, A.; Weinhappel, M.; Wilbois, K.P.; Winkler, L.R.; Wolfe, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture regulations, in particular European regulation EC 889/2008, prescribe the use of organically produced seed. For many cultivated plants, however, organic seed is often not available. This is mainly because investment in organic plant breeding and seed production has been low in

  18. Incidence and distribution of transplantable organs from donors after circulatory determination of death in U.S. intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Scott D; Hasz, Richard D; Abt, Peter L

    2013-04-01

    All U.S. acute care hospitals must maintain protocols for recovering organs from donors after circulatory determination of death (DCDD), but the numbers, types, and whereabouts of available organs are unknown. To assess the maximal potential supply and distribution of DCDD organs in U.S. intensive care units. We conducted a population-based cohort study among a randomly selected sample of 50 acute care hospitals in the highest-volume donor service area in the United States. We identified all potentially eligible donors dying within 90 minutes of the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009. Using prespecified criteria, potential donors were categorized as optimal, suboptimal, or ineligible to donate their lungs, kidneys, pancreas, or liver. If only optimal DCDD organs were used, the deceased donor supplies of these organs could increase by up to 22.7, 8.9, 7.4, and 3.3%, respectively. If optimal and suboptimal DCDD organs were used, the corresponding supply increases could be up to 50.0, 19.7, 18.5, and 10.9%. Three-quarters of DCDD organs could be recovered from the 17.2% of hospitals with the highest annual donor volumes-typically those with trauma centers and more than 20 intensive care unit beds. Universal identification and referral of DCDD could increase the supply of transplantable lungs by up to one-half, and would not increase any other organ supply by more than one-fifth. The marked clustering of DCDD among a small number of identifiable hospitals could guide targeted interventions to improve DCDD identification, referral, and management.

  19. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  20. Reciprocal experimental transplantations to assess effects of organic enrichment on the recolonization of benthic macrofauna in a subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Fabiana Regina; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2013-02-15

    Coastal benthic habitats are usually in a state of continuous recolonization as a consequence of natural disturbances or human activities. Recolonization patterns can be strongly affected by the quality of the sediment. We evaluated herein the macrobenthic recolonization of organically enriched sediments through a manipulative experiment involving reciprocal transplants between contaminated and non-contaminated intertidal areas. Regardless of the experimental treatments, the density of the polychaete Capitella sp. was extremely high in the contaminated area as well as the density of the gastropod Cylichna sp. in the non-contaminated area. We rejected the hypothesis that differences in sediment quality would determine macrofaunal recolonization at least in the considered scales of space in meters and time in weeks. The recolonization process in a subtropical estuarine environment was strongly dependent on the migration of adults present in the sediments adjacent to the experimental units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Multivisceral organ procurement for transplantation derived mobilization maneouvres: very helpful auxiliary techniques in the excision of large retroperitoneal masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Shirodkar, S P; Ciancio, G

    2011-04-01

    The excision of large retroperitoneal masses poses a challenge for every surgeon. Sometimes the urologist must face situations that do not fit to any conventional approach or technique previously described. Obtaining adequate exposure for safe and oncologically correct management of these masses is based, on many cases, in the mobilization of anatomical adjacent structures to generate a sufficient field in abdominal areas of difficult access. Complex visceral mobilization maneuvers derived from multivisceral transplantation organ procurement surgery provides ancillary techniques that used properly facilitate their successful resolution. The main purpose of this paper is the description of these surgical maneuvers essential to increase both exposure and vascular control in addressing the ever-dreaded high-volume retroperitoneal masses.

  2. Combination of ablative fractional laser and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lei, Ulrikke; Erlendsson, A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AK) is hampered by pain during illumination and inferior efficacy in organ-transplant recipients (OTR). OBJECTIVES: We assessed ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) (AFL-dPDT) compared...

  3. Utilization of organs from donors after circulatory death for vascularized pancreas and islet of Langerhans transplantation : recommendations from an expert group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berney, Thierry; Boffa, Catherine; Augustine, Titus; Badet, Lionel; de Koning, Eelco; Pratschke, Johann; Socci, Carlo; Friend, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly being used as a source of pancreas allografts for vascularized organ and islet transplantation. We provide practice guidelines aiming to increase DCD pancreas utilization. We review risk assessment and donor selection criteria. We report

  4. If you needed an organ transplant would you have one? The effect of reciprocity priming and mode of delivery on organ donor registration intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haddow, Lorna; Foley, Laura; Quigley, Jody

    2017-09-01

    There are approximately 6,500 people on the UK national transplant waiting list, around 400 of whom die every year. Only 35% of the UK population are currently on the organ donation register. We report two studies examining whether a reciprocity prime, in which participants were asked whether they would accept a donated organ, increased organ donation intentions and behaviour. Between-participants, randomized controlled design. In two studies, participants who were not currently registered organ donors took part either face-to-face or online and were randomly allocated to a reciprocity prime or control condition. Following the manipulation, they were asked to indicate, on either a paper or online questionnaire, their intention to join the organ donor register. Study 2 was similar to Study 1 but with the addition that after reporting intention, participants were then offered an organ donation information leaflet or the opportunity to click a link for further information (proxy behavioural measure). In both studies, reciprocity primed participants reported greater intentions to register than controls. However, in Study 2, no effect on donation behaviour was found. Reciprocal altruism may be a useful tool in increasing intentions to join the organ donor register. Further evaluation is required to determine whether this increase in intention can be translated into organ donation behaviour. Statement of contribution What was already known? Demand for organs in the United Kingdom far outstrips supply, so finding strategies to increase registration on the organ donor register could save hundreds of lives per year. Despite the majority of people in the United Kingdom agreeing that organ donation is a good thing, most people do not register as donors. A limited amount of evidence of the impact of perceived reciprocity suggests that encouraging people to consider themselves as recipients and priming ideas of shared responsibility may increase the likelihood of their

  5. Transplante de órganos en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: Actualización y recomendaciones Organ transplants in HIV infected patients: Update and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barcán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hasta hace pocos años la infección por HIV era una contraindicación absoluta para el trasplante de órganos. Desde la introducción del HAART y el aumento de la superivencia de los pacientes, comenzó a evidenciarse alta mortalidad por enfermedades terminales hepáticas y en menor grado renales. Por estos motivos los pacientes HIV+ hoy son reconsiderados para trasplante. En el año 2008, motivada por la creciente experiencia publicada sobre trasplantes renales y hepáticos en esta población, la Sociedad Argentina de Trasplantes (SAT y la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI decidieron conformar un Grupo de Trabajo para realizar una actualización del tema y emitir recomendaciones. La reunión inicial se llevó a cabo el 4 de diciembre de 2008. La principal conclusión de esta reunión fue que el status HIV+ no era una contraindicación para recibir un trasplante de órgano sólido. Posteriormente se revisó la experiencia acumulada y la bibliografía disponible que dieron lugar al documento actual. Los pacientes HIV+ candidatos a trasplante de órganos sólidos deben cumplir con una serie de requisitos clínicos, inmunológicos, virológicos y psicosociales. La supervivencia a corto y mediano plazo de los receptores HIV+ de trasplante renal y hepático es hoy comparable a la de los pacientes HIV negativos. Todavía no existen datos suficientes como para incluir pacientes HIV+ en lista de espera para trasplante de órganos intratorácicos. Las interacciones entre los inmunosupresores y los antirretrovirales (inhibidores de proteasas en especial son muy importantes y requieren una supervisión y vigilancia estrictas de los niveles sanguíneos de inmunosupresores.Until few years ago, HIV infection was an absolute contraindication to consider organ transplants. Since HAART introduction, patient survival increased dramatically, but high mortality due to liver and kidney diseases became evident. For these reasons, this group of patients is

  6. [Comparative study of needs of transplanted patients or those waiting for an organ transplantation and the nurses' attitudes of these needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, C; Cocula, N; Delran, J; Faubel, E; Foucaud, C; Martins, V

    2000-12-01

    Literature has shown that information, education and support had a beneficial effect on how the patients and their family lived through the transplant process. In our daily practice, we are permanently confronted with requests for information and psychological adjustments from our patients. Do the needs of this population meet the representations of the care-takers? Our theoretical framework is based on the theories of Maslow and Callista Roy, on the concept of social representations according to Moscovici and on the steps of the transplant process. To carry out this survey, we used a questionnaire which we gave to the patients at the different phases of the graft and to the nurses of the services involved in the transplant. There was a similarity of the results between the two populations, despite some differences for certain items. The development of a programme for information and for education will enable an improvement of the care quality thanks to the adaptation of knowledge to the needs of the transplanted patients.

  7. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  8. The Role of Antiviral Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (Uni