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Sample records for regulates offspring quality

  1. Mothers adjust offspring sex to match the quality of the rearing environment.

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    Pryke, Sarah R; Rollins, Lee A

    2012-10-07

    Theory predicts that mothers should adjust offspring sex ratios when the expected fitness gains or rearing costs differ between sons and daughters. Recent empirical work has linked biased offspring sex ratios to environmental quality via changes in relative maternal condition. It is unclear, however, whether females can manipulate offspring sex ratios in response to environmental quality alone (i.e. independent of maternal condition). We used a balanced within-female experimental design (i.e. females bred on both low- and high-quality diets) to show that female parrot finches (Erythrura trichroa) manipulate primary offspring sex ratios to the quality of the rearing environment, and not to their own body condition and health. Individual females produced an unbiased sex ratio on high-quality diets, but over-produced sons in poor dietary conditions, even though they maintained similar condition between diet treatments. Despite the lack of sexual size dimorphism, such sex ratio adjustment is in line with predictions from sex allocation theory because nutritionally stressed foster sons were healthier, grew faster and were more likely to survive than daughters. These findings suggest that mothers may adaptively adjust offspring sex ratios to optimally match their offspring to the expected quality of the rearing environment.

  2. Egg size and offspring quality: a meta-analysis in birds.

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    Krist, Miloš

    2011-08-01

    Parents affect offspring fitness by propagule size and quality, selection of oviposition site, quality of incubation, feeding of dependent young, and their defence against predators and parasites. Despite many case studies on each of these topics, this knowledge has not been rigorously integrated into individual parental care traits for any taxon. Consequently, we lack a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of how parental care modifies offspring phenotypes. This meta-analysis of 283 studies with 1805 correlations between egg size and offspring quality in birds is intended to fill this gap. The large sample size enabled testing of how the magnitude of the relationship between egg size and offspring quality depends on a number of variables. Egg size was positively related to nearly all studied offspring traits across all stages of the offspring life cycle. Not surprisingly, the relationship was strongest at hatching but persisted until the post-fledging stage. Morphological traits were the most closely related to egg size but significant relationships were also found with hatching success, chick survival, and growth rate. Non-significant effect sizes were found for egg fertility, chick immunity, behaviour, and life-history or sexual traits. Effect size did not depend on whether chicks were raised by their natural parents or were cross-fostered to other territories. Effect size did not depend on species-specific traits such as developmental mode, clutch size, and relative size of the egg, but was larger if tested in captive compared to wild populations and between rather than within broods. In sum, published studies support the view that egg size affects juvenile survival. There are very few studies that tested the relationship between egg size and the fecundity component of offspring fitness, and no studies on offspring survival as adults or on global fitness. More data are also needed for the relationships between egg size and offspring behavioural and

  3. Regulation of placental calcium transport and offspring bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGoodfellow

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis causes considerable morbidity and mortality in later life, and the risk of the disease is strongly determined by peak bone mass, which is achieved in early adulthood. Poor intrauterine and early childhood growth are associated with reduced peak bone mass, and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in older age. In this review we describe the regulatory aspects of intrauterine bone development, and then summarise the evidence relating early growth to later fracture risk. Physiological systems include vitamin D, PTH; leptin; GH/ IGF-1; finally the potential role of epigenetic processes in the underlying mechanisms will be explored. Thus factors such as maternal lifestyle, diet, body build, physical activity and vitamin D status in pregnancy all appear to influence offspring bone mineral accrual. These data demonstrate a likely interaction between environmental factors and gene expression, a phenomenon ubiquitous in the natural world (developmental plasticity, as the potential key process. Intervention studies are now required to test the hypotheses generated by these epidemiological and physiological findings, to inform potential novel public health interventions aimed at improving childhood bone health and reducing the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations.

  4. Maternal Attachment Strategies and Emotion Regulation with Adolescent Offspring.

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    Kobak, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between mothers' attachment strategies and emotion regulation in a sample of 42 families with 2 high school-aged siblings. Found that mothers with preoccupied strategies had difficulty regulating emotion during conversations with their older teenagers about them leaving home. Mothers with secure strategies perceived their…

  5. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  6. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

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    Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (Ptotal litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  7. Food quality assessment in parent-offspring dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    When the buyer and the consumer of a food product are not identical, the risk of discrepancies between food quality expectations and experiences is even higher. We introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply it to an exploration of parents' willingness to pay for new and healthier...

  8. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  9. Parents face quantity-quality trade-offs between reproduction and investment in offspring in Iceland.

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    Lynch, Robert Francis

    2016-05-01

    How to optimally allocate time, energy and investment in an effort to maximize one's reproductive success is a fundamental problem faced by all organisms. This effort is complicated when the production of each additional offspring dilutes the total resources available for parental investment. Although a quantity-quality trade-off between producing and investing in offspring has long been assumed in evolutionary biology, testing it directly in humans is difficult, partly owing to the long generation time of our species. Using data from an Icelandic genealogy (Íslendingabók) over two centuries, I address this issue and analyse the quantity-quality trade-off in humans. I demonstrate that the primary impact of parents on the fitness of their children is the result of resources and or investment, but not genes. This effect changes significantly across time, in response to environmental conditions. Overall, increasing reproduction has negative fitness consequences on offspring, such that each additional sibling reduces an individual's average lifespan and lifetime reproductive success. This analysis provides insights into the evolutionary conflict between producing and investing in children while also shedding light on some of the causes of the demographic transition.

  10. The offspring quantity–quality trade-off and human fertility variation

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    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The idea that trade-offs between offspring quantity and quality shape reproductive behaviour has long been central to economic perspectives on fertility. It also has a parallel and richer theoretical foundation in evolutionary ecology. We review the application of the quantity–quality trade-off concept to human reproduction, emphasizing distinctions between clutch size and lifetime fertility, and the wider set of forces contributing to fertility variation in iteroparous and sexually reproducing species like our own. We then argue that in settings approximating human evolutionary history, several factors limit costly sibling competition. Consequently, while the optimization of quantity–quality trade-offs undoubtedly shaped the evolution of human physiology setting the upper limits of reproduction, we argue it plays a modest role in accounting for socio-ecological and individual variation in fertility. Only upon entering the demographic transition can fertility limitation be clearly interpreted as strategically orientated to advancing offspring quality via increased parental investment per child, with low fertility increasing descendant socio-economic success, although not reproductive success. We conclude that existing economic and evolutionary literature has often overemphasized the centrality of quantity–quality trade-offs to human fertility variation and advocate for the development of more holistic frameworks encompassing alternative life-history trade-offs and the evolved mechanisms guiding their resolution. PMID:27022072

  11. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

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    Shona L Kirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH, which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  12. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

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    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Couple relationship quality and offspring attachment security: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

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    Tan, Evelyn S; McIntosh, Jennifer E; Kothe, Emily J; Opie, Jessica E; Olsson, Craig A

    2017-11-16

    This paper provides a meta-analytic examination of strength and direction of association between parents' couple relationship quality and early childhood attachment security (5 years and under). A comprehensive search of four EBSCOhost databases, Informit, Web of Science, and grey literature yielded 24 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Heterogeneity of the couple quality construct and measurement was marked. To disaggregate potentially differentially acting factors, we grouped homogeneous studies, creating two predictor variables defined as "positive dyadic adjustment" and "inter-parental conflict". Associations of each construct with offspring attachment security were examined in two separate meta-analyses. Inter-parental conflict was inversely associated (8 studies, k = 17, r = -0.28, CI = [-0.39 to -0.18]), and dyadic adjustment was not associated with offspring attachment security (5 studies, k = 12, r = 0.14, CI = [-0.03 to 0.32]). The study supports finer distinctions of couple relationship constructs and measurement in developmental research, assessment, and intervention.

  14. The female advantage in natural populations of gynodioecious Plantago coronopus: seed quantity vs. offspring quality.

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    van der Meer, Sascha; Sebrechts, Thomas; Vanderstraeten, Sylvette; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-12-01

    In gynodioecious plant species, females can only persist when they have a reproductive advantage in comparison with hermaphrodites. However, several studies have shown that females do not necessarily produce more seeds than hermaphrodites, since seed production can be affected by population characteristics, such as female frequency or population size. The aim of this study was to quantify the female advantage across a large number of natural populations, examine its relationship with population sex ratio and size, and to assess the role of competition on the magnitude of the female advantage. We sampled 27 populations of Plantago coronopus (nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy) along the Belgian and Dutch coast. In each population, we estimated population sex ratio and size, and assessed seed production per flower and seed production per plant. Subsequently, germination, growth, and competition experiments were performed in the greenhouse to determine the female advantage regarding offspring quality. Females produced fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites (FA = 0.90), and seed production was negatively related to female frequency. Since both sex morphs were equally affected by pollen availability, the female advantage was not related to population sex ratio. On the other hand, offspring of females showed higher germination and growth rates, resulting in higher competitive abilities when seeds of a female and a hermaphrodite were grown together. Overall, these results indicate that differences in competitive abilities between the offspring of females and hermaphrodites may have contributed to the maintenance of females in relatively high frequencies in populations of this short-lived gynodioecious plant species.

  15. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  16. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids regulate offspring obesity through persistent modulation of gut microbiota.

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    Robertson, Ruairi C; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Strain, Conall R; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kang, Jing X

    2018-05-24

    The early-life gut microbiota plays a critical role in host metabolism in later life. However, little is known about how the fatty acid profile of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation influences the development of the offspring gut microbiota and subsequent metabolic health outcomes. Here, using a unique transgenic model, we report that maternal endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) production during gestation or lactation significantly reduces weight gain and markers of metabolic disruption in male murine offspring fed a high-fat diet. However, maternal fatty acid status appeared to have no significant effect on weight gain in female offspring. The metabolic phenotypes in male offspring appeared to be mediated by comprehensive restructuring of gut microbiota composition. Reduced maternal n-3 PUFA exposure led to significantly depleted Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia and higher relative abundance of Clostridia. Interestingly, offspring metabolism and microbiota composition were more profoundly influenced by the maternal fatty acid profile during lactation than in utero. Furthermore, the maternal fatty acid profile appeared to have a long-lasting effect on offspring microbiota composition and function that persisted into adulthood after life-long high-fat diet feeding. Our data provide novel evidence that weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood is mediated by maternal fatty acid status through long-lasting restructuring of the gut microbiota. These results have important implications for understanding the interaction between modern Western diets, metabolic health, and the intestinal microbiome.

  17. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

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    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Fayet, Annette L.; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits. PMID:22815730

  18. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell Stoddard

    Full Text Available Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.

  19. Territory Quality and Plumage Morph Predict Offspring Sex Ratio Variation in a Raptor.

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    Nayden Chakarov

    Full Text Available Parents may adapt their offspring sex ratio in response to their own phenotype and environmental conditions. The most significant causes for adaptive sex-ratio variation might express themselves as different distributions of fitness components between sexes along a given variable. Several causes for differential sex allocation in raptors with reversed sexual size dimorphism have been suggested. We search for correlates of fledgling sex in an extensive dataset on common buzzards Buteo buteo, a long-lived bird of prey. Larger female offspring could be more resource-demanding and starvation-prone and thus the costly sex. Prominent factors such as brood size and laying date did not predict nestling sex. Nonetheless, lifetime sex ratio (LSR, potentially indicative of individual sex allocation constraints and overall nestling sex were explained by territory quality with more females being produced in better territories. Additionally, parental plumage morphs and the interaction of morph and prey abundance tended to explain LSR and nestling sex, indicating local adaptation of sex allocation However, in a limited census of nestling mortality, not females but males tended to die more frequently in prey-rich years. Also, although females could have potentially longer reproductive careers, a subset of our data encompassing full individual life histories showed that longevity and lifetime reproductive success were similarly distributed between the sexes. Thus, a basis for adaptive sex allocation in this population remains elusive. Overall, in common buzzards most major determinants of reproductive success appeared to have no effect on sex ratio but sex allocation may be adapted to local conditions in morph-specific patterns.

  20. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

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    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  1. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

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    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Laboratory Simulation of Parental Investment Decisions: The Role of Future Reproductive Opportunities and Quality of Offspring in Determining Levels of Parental Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie L. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hagen's Defection Hypothesis (2002 predicts that a mother's age and the quality of her offspring are critical factors in determining her investment in her newborn. We tested this hypothesis using hamster races in which 113 college student participants received a hamster (“offspring” and 10 poker chips (“resources” to “invest” into the hamster based on information about the quality of the hamster and about the possibility of future races. Subjects invested the most in low quality offspring when they expected to run only one race and the least in low quality offspring when they expected more racing opportunities in the future. Offspring quality affected investment differently depending on the presence or absence of future investment opportunities and the sex of the subject. Overall, the results supported Hagen's model of parental investment and also suggest that parental investment may be explained by conscious as well as unconscious decision-making.

  3. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA regulation via systematic neonatal novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function

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    Sarah M. Dinces

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother’s ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring HPA regulation. Using a 2x2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel daily during infancy (PND1-21 and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home; we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND54-63 novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring’s ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring’s ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent upon the context of maternal

  4. Association between maternal diet quality and offspring diet quality assessed at age 14 years: longitudinal study in a large contemporary cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Tetens, Inge

    2017-01-01

    -pregnancy BMI, level of education, and maternal smoking. Interpretation  This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine associations between maternal dietary habits during pregnancy and offspring dietary habits during adolescent years in a large contemporary cohort. Diet quality during pregnancy......Background  Emerging evidence suggests that exposures in fetal life may have an impact many years later on the individual's susceptibility to diseases. Study of diet–disease associations over long time-spans is a major methodological challenge. We examined whether overall diet quality during...... pregnancy was associated with adolescent diet quality 15 years later in a prospective cohort representing a typical high-income population. Methods  Dietary intake assessed with a 360-item food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (1996–2003) was matched with offspring dietary intake assessed...

  5. Mother-Offspring Relations: Prey Quality and Maternal Size Affect Egg Size of an Acariphagous Lady Beetle in Culture

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    Eric W. Riddick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated mother-offspring relations in a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise that utilizes spider mites as prey. Our objectives were to determine if (1 prey quality affects egg size, (2 maternal size correlates with egg size, and (3 egg size affects hatching success. We fed predators spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch from lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. foliage in the laboratory. Mothers of unknown body size offered high rather than low quality spider mites since birth produced larger eggs. Mothers of known body size offered only high quality spider mites, produced eggs of variable size, but mean egg size correlated positively with hind femur length. Mothers laid their eggs singly, rather than in batches, and eggs were large relative to femur size. Egg size did not affect hatch success; mean hatch rate exceeded 95% regardless of egg size. In conclusion, the quality of prey consumed by S. punctillum mothers while in the larval stage can affect their size as adults and, consequently, the size of their eggs. The behavior of laying eggs singly, the positive relationship between maternal size and mean egg size, and the high rate of egg hatch suggest that S. punctillum mothers invest heavily in offspring.

  6. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

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    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  7. Related regulation of quality control of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book introduce related regulation of quality control of industrial products, which includes regulations of industrial products quality control, enforcement ordinance of industrial products quality control, enforcement regulation of quality control of industrial products, designated items with industrial production quality indication, industrial production quality test, and industrial production quality test organization and management tips of factory quality by grade.

  8. Quality of service regulation, q follows x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, A.Th.

    2005-01-01

    Both the Electricity Act and Gas Act have been recently amended. One of many changes made, was the addition of a system of 'quality of service regulation' to the existing system of price cap regulation. In this article the author explores the system of quality of service regulation in the Electricity Act. Quality of service regulation aims to counterbalance the possible adverse effects of price cap regulation.The Dutch transmission and distribution systems have always been very reliable, especially compared to those in other countries. Nevertheless, the average duration of interruptions to supply per year has risen slightly in recent years. In order to ensure that price reductions will not lead to a further decrease in the quality of service the Dutch legislator has decided to incorporate the aspect of reliability into the existing system of price cap regulation. Both the Electricity Act and Gas Act provide for a system of yardstick competition, whereby good quality of service is financially rewarded and poor quality of service will lead to additional price reductions.This was achieved by incorporating a quality parameter (an extra variable) in the existing price cap formula. Also, all Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) are required to adopt a quality management system. Every other year DNOs must draw up a 'quality and capacity document' which they must publicise. In this document DNOs wilt have to demonstrate that their quality management systems are adequate. Various aspects of the system of quality of service regulation are detailed in Iower legislation by the Minister of Economic Affairs and in several decisions by the Director of DTe. In a decision of 8 October 2005 the Director of DTe adopted the method by which the quality parameter (or 'q factor') with respect to the second price control period (2004-2006) is to be determined.This decision is also referred to as the 'methode-besluit'. Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) can be penalised or rewarded by

  9. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  10. Short- and long-term effects of egg size and feeding frequency on offspring quality in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Milos

    2009-09-01

    1. Despite the central importance for life-history theory, egg-size effects on offspring fitness are still considered ambiguous. Most previous studies were only observational and consequently might suffer from uncontrolled correlations between egg size and parental/territory quality. Even after cross-fostering is performed, direct genetic effects and parental adjustment of post-natal care might confound our estimates of egg-size effects per se. 2. I performed a full cross-fostering experiment in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) exchanging the whole clutches between pairs of nests. I statistically controlled for direct genetic effects and parental feeding frequencies. I followed young until recruitment to estimate the long-term effects of egg size and parental provisioning. In addition, I compared the effects obtained in the cross-fostering experiment with those obtained from a set of unmanipulated nests. 3. Egg size per se affected offspring morphology in both the short and long term, while having no effect on offspring survival and immunity. Egg-size effects were not confounded by parental post-natal care and direct genetic effects. 4. The number of care-givers was an influential predictor of nestling performance. Apart from the variation caused by this factor, feeding frequencies had no consistent effect on offspring performance. 5. Fitness benefits of large eggs may be difficult to establish due to variation of egg-size effects between years and habitats. Feeding frequency may affect offspring state but offspring state may also affect feeding frequency. Varying causality between feeding rate and offspring state may preclude the detection of a positive effect of the former on the latter.

  11. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  12. Dry eye in the beaver dam offspring study: prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Adam J; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2014-04-01

    To estimate dry eye prevalence in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), including a young adult population, and investigate associated risk factors and impact on health-related quality of life. Cohort study. The BOSS (2005-2008) is a study of aging in the adult offspring of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Questionnaire data on health history, medication use, risk factors, and quality of life were available for 3275 participants. Dry eye was determined by self-report of frequency of symptoms and the intensity of those symptoms. Associations between dry eye and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. The prevalence of dry eye in the BOSS was 14.5%: 17.9% of women and 10.5% of men. In a multivariate model, statistically significant associations were found with female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-2.11), current contact lens use (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53-2.64), allergies (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22-2.08), arthritis (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85), thyroid disease (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-1.99), antihistamine use (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18-2.02), and steroid use (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16-2.06). Dry eye was also associated with lower scores on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (β = -3.9, P < .0001) as well as on the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) (β = -3.4, P < .0001) when controlling for age, sex, and comorbid conditions. The prevalence of dry eye and its associated risk factors in the BOSS were similar to previous studies. In this study, dry eye was associated with lower quality of life on a health-related quality-of-life instrument and the vision-specific NEI VFQ-25. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal stress and diet may influence affective behavior and stress-response in offspring via epigenetic regulation of central peptidergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell, Annika; Nätt, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that maternal stress and malnutrition, or experience of other adverse events, during the perinatal period may alter susceptibility in the adult offspring in a time-of-exposure dependent manner. The mechanism underlying this may be epigenetic in nature. Here, we summarize some recent findings on the effects on gene-regulation following maternal malnutrition, focusing on epigenetic regulation of peptidergic activity. Numerous neuropeptides within the central nervous system are crucial components in regulation of homeostatic energy-balance, as well as affective health (i.e. health events related to affective disorders, psychiatric disorders also referred to as mood disorders). It is becoming evident that expression, and function, of these neuropeptides can be regulated via epigenetic mechanisms during fetal development, thereby contributing to the development of the adult phenotype and, possibly, modulating disease susceptibility. Here, we focus on two such neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), both involved in regulation of endocrine function, energy homeostasis, as well as affective health. While a number of published studies indicate the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in CRH-dependent regulation of the offspring adult phenotype, NPY has been much less studied in this context and needs further work.

  14. Chronic Prenatal Hypoxia Down-Regulated BK Channel Β1 Subunits in Mesenteric Artery Smooth Muscle Cells of the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailin Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic hypoxia in utero could impair vascular functions in the offspring, underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study investigated functional alteration in large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK channels in offspring mesenteric arteries following prenatal hypoxia. Methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to normoxic control (21% O2, Con or hypoxic (10.5% O2, Hy conditions from gestational day 5 to 21, their 7-month-old adult male offspring were tested for blood pressure, vascular BK channel functions and expression using patch clamp and wire myograh technique, western blotting, and qRT-PCR. Results: Prenatal hypoxia increased pressor responses and vasoconstrictions to phenylephrine in the offspring. Whole-cell currents density of BK channels and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs, not the frequency, were significantly reduced in Hy vascular myocytes. The sensitivity of BK channels to voltage, Ca2+, and tamoxifen were reduced in Hy myocytes, whereas the number of channels per patch and the single-channel conductance were unchanged. Prenatal hypoxia impaired NS1102- and tamoxifen-mediated relaxation in mesenteric arteries precontracted with phenylephrine in the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. The mRNA and protein expression of BK channel β1, not the α-subunit, was decreased in Hy mesenteric arteries. Conclusions: Impaired BK channel β1-subunits in vascular smooth muscle cells contributed to vascular dysfunction in the offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

  15. Conspecific and Heterospecific Cues Override Resource Quality to Influence Offspring Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christine W.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Gillespie, Stephanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Animals live in an uncertain world. To reduce uncertainty, animals use cues that can encode diverse information regarding habitat quality, including both non-social and social cues. While it is increasingly appreciated that the sources of potential information are vast, our understanding of how individuals integrate different types of cues to guide decision-making remains limited. We experimentally manipulated both resource quality (presence/absence of cactus fruit) and social cues (conspecific juveniles, heterospecific juveniles, no juveniles) for a cactus-feeding insect, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), to ask how individuals responded to resource quality in the presence or absence of social cues. Cactus with fruit is a high-quality environment for juvenile development, and indeed we found that females laid 56% more eggs when cactus fruit was present versus when it was absent. However, when conspecific or heterospecific juveniles were present, the effects of resource quality on egg numbers vanished. Overall, N . femorata laid approximately twice as many eggs in the presence of heterospecifics than alone or in the presence of conspecifics. Our results suggest that the presence of both conspecific and heterospecific social cues can disrupt responses of individuals to environmental gradients in resource quality. PMID:23861984

  16. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulle, F.; Pawluski, J.L.; Homberg, J.R.; Machiels, B.; Kroeze, Y.; Kumar, N.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Kenis, G.; Hove, D.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has

  17. Influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in Holocaust survivor offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy; Desarnaud, Frank; Bader, Heather N; Makotkine, Iouri; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Differential effects of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The authors examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-1F) gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in Holocaust offspring. Adult offspring with at least one Holocaust survivor parent (N=80) and demographically similar participants without parental Holocaust exposure or parental PTSD (N=15) completed clinical interviews, self-report measures, and biological procedures. Blood samples were collected for analysis of GR-1F promoter methylation and of cortisol levels in response to low-dose dexamethasone, and two-way analysis of covariance was performed using maternal and paternal PTSD as main effects. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to permit visualization of maternal compared with paternal PTSD effects on clinical variables and GR-1F promoter methylation. A significant interaction demonstrated that in the absence of maternal PTSD, offspring with paternal PTSD showed higher GR-1F promoter methylation, whereas offspring with both maternal and paternal PTSD showed lower methylation. Lower GR-1F promoter methylation was significantly associated with greater postdexamethasone cortisol suppression. The clustering analysis revealed that maternal and paternal PTSD effects were differentially associated with clinical indicators and GR-1F promoter methylation. This is the first study to demonstrate alterations of GR-1F promoter methylation in relation to parental PTSD and neuroendocrine outcomes. The moderation of paternal PTSD effects by maternal PTSD suggests different mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related vulnerabilities.

  18. Is maternal obesity related to semen quality in the male offspring? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Thulstrup, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a strong predictor of fecundity and maternal obesity may well program semen quality during pregnancy, but to our knowledge, no published studies have evaluated this hypothesis. METHODS: From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-87, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected...... for a follow-up study conducted from February 2005 to January 2006. Semen and blood samples were analyzed for conventional semen characteristics and reproductive hormones and related to information on maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) that was available for 328 men. Of these, 34 were sons...... of underweight, and 25 sons of overweight, mothers. RESULTS: Inhibin B decreased with increasing maternal BMI (P = 0.04) and the point estimates for sperm concentration, semen volume, percent motile sperm, testosterone and FSH suggested an impaired reproductive status among sons of overweight mothers, but none...

  19. The Optimal Regulation of Product Quality under Monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Zenger

    2006-01-01

    This paper characterizes the optimal quality regulation of a monopolist when quality is observable. In contrast to Sheshinski (1976) it is shown that a minimum quality standard may be desirable even if it induces the firm to reduce output.

  20. Aberrant Epigenetic Gene Regulation in GABAergic Interneuron Subpopulations in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring Following Developmental Exposure to Hexachlorophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yousuke; Abe, Hajime; Nakajima, Kota; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Maternal hexachlorophene (HCP) exposure causes transient disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. We examined epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to this HCP-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were dietary exposed to 0 or 100 ppm HCP from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on PND 21. Validation analyses on methylation identified three genes, Dlx4, Dmrt1, and Plcb4, showing promoter-region hypermethylation. Immunohistochemically, DLX4+, DMRT1+, and PLCB4+ cells in the dentate hilus co-expressed GAD67, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuron marker. HCP decreased all of three subpopulations as well as GAD67+ cells on PND 21. PLCB4+ cells also co-expressed the metabotropic glutamate receptor, GRM1. HCP also decreased transcript level of synaptic plasticity-related genes in the dentate gyrus and immunoreactive granule cells for synaptic plasticity-related ARC. On PND 77, all immunohistochemical cellular density changes were reversed, whereas the transcript expression of the synaptic plasticity-related genes fluctuated. Thus, HCP-exposed offspring transiently reduced the number of GABAergic interneurons. Among them, subpopulations expressing DLX4, DMRT1, or PLCB4 were transiently reduced in number through an epigenetic mechanism. Considering the role of the Dlx gene family in GABAergic interneuron migration and differentiation, the decreased number of DLX4+ cells may be responsible for reducing those GABAergic interneurons regulating neurogenesis. The effect on granule cell synaptic plasticity was sustained until the adult stage, and reduced GABAergic interneurons active in GRM1-PLCB4 signaling may be responsible for the suppression on weaning.

  1. Does relationship satisfaction and financial aid from offspring influence the quality of life of older parents?: a longitudinal study based on findings from the Korean longitudinal study of aging, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yeong Jun; Han, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Woorim; Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-07-26

    Quality of life (QoL) in old age is of major importance because the global population is aging rapidly. Offspring support, including financial and emotional support, is important in later life and directly affects the wellbeing of elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between QoL in older parents and offspring support. We used baseline data from the 2006-2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, from 3,274 individuals aged 65 years or older. We measured the individual's QoL using a visual analog scale and included both relationship satisfaction and regular economic support as variables. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to perform longitudinal regression analysis on the data. Regarding the QoL of older parents, those with an unsatisfying relationship with their offspring had a QoL of -21.93 (SE = 0.55; P financial aid from their offspring had a QoL of -0.92 (SE = 0.38; P = 0.0171) compared to those who received such economic support. Combination effects were observed, with cases living alone - and having poor offspring relationships and no regular financial support from their offspring - showing the most drastic decrease in QoL (-23.46; SE = 1.03; P < 0.0001). Offspring support influences the QoL of elderly individuals, and Korean children appear to play a crucial role in the QoL of their (older) parents. Considering that the role of offspring is rapidly diminishing due to industrialization policies, initiatives are required to revitalize offspring support for elderly parents.

  2. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  3. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, Leonardo; Capadona, Nancy M.; Lopez Vietri, Jorge R.; Panzino, Marina; Ceballos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms [es

  4. Regulating and Quality-Assuring VET: International Developments. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The opening-up of the market for education and training, including vocational education and training (VET), has increased the importance of regulation and quality assurance mechanisms in ensuring the integrity of qualifications. This report investigates approaches to the regulation and quality assurance of vocational education and training in a…

  5. Do Less Regulated Markets Attract Lower Quality Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines whether the moderately regulated London AIM market is at a disadvantage in attracting high quality firms. The results show that firms listed on AIM are of the same quality level as firms listed in the US and in Continental Europe, albeit smaller in size. Furthermore, the delist......The paper examines whether the moderately regulated London AIM market is at a disadvantage in attracting high quality firms. The results show that firms listed on AIM are of the same quality level as firms listed in the US and in Continental Europe, albeit smaller in size. Furthermore...... equivalent to firms listing in more regulated markets...

  6. Future directions in water quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, F.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 have imposed new requirements on the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish drinking water regulations. The regulatory process has been revised and now requires the use of sound science. Costs, benefits, and competing risks may also be considered. Current regulations for fluoride, volatile organic chemicals, total coliforms, surface water treatment, Phase 2 and Phase 5 synthetic organic and inorganic contaminants, and lead and copper remain basically unchanged. New deadlines are established for the regulation of arsenic, sulfate, radon, disinfectants and disinfection by-products, enhanced surface water treatment, and groundwater disinfection

  7. Toxic effects of irgarol and diuron on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus early development, fertilization, and offspring quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, S; Buono, S; Cremisini, C

    2006-07-01

    Irgarol and Diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replaced organotin compounds in antifouling paints. It cannot be assumed beforehand that their use will have no environmental impact: more ecotoxicological data and a significant environmental monitoring are required. Spermio and embryotoxicities of the biocides Irgarol and Diuron were investigated on Paracentrotus lividus, the dominant echinoid species of the Mediterranean Sea. Spermiotoxicity was studied by assessing the effects of sperm exposure on fertilization rate as well as on the induction of transmissible damages to the offspring. Embryotoxicity was studied by assessing the developmental defects in the exposed larvae. The experimental results show a Diuron EC50 of 2.39 (+/- 0.21) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.25 mg/L for embryos, and of 5.09 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.5 mg/L for sperms, respectively. Data obtained from the embryotoxicity test on Irgarol [EC50 0.99 (+/- 0.69) mg/L] are of the same order of magnitude as the literature data about Japanese urchins. Spermiotoxicity tests show an Irgarol EC50 of 9.04 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.1 mg/L. These data show the different sensitivities of the two tests: embryos are more sensitive than sperms for both the tested chemicals and Diuron seems to be the less toxic one. Moreover, as a major output of the experimental work, tested herbicides exert transmissible damage to spermatozoa evidenced by larval malformations in the offspring, mainly P1 type (skeletal alterations). The comparison of the endpoints results offers an interesting indication of a probable different mode of action (Irgarol seems to interact with calcium homeostasis) of the two biocides.

  8. Effects of Offspring and Parental Inbreeding on Parent-Offspring Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, Sarah N; Richardson, Jon; Ratz, Tom; Smiseth, Per T

    2018-06-01

    There is mounting evidence that inbreeding can have complex effects on social interactions among inbred and outbred individuals. Here, we investigate effects of offspring and maternal inbreeding on parent-offspring communication in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on maternal behavior. Outbred females provided more direct care toward inbred larvae, while inbred females provided similar levels of direct care toward inbred and outbred larvae. Furthermore, we find direct and indirect effects of offspring inbreeding on offspring begging and maternal behavior, respectively. Inbred larvae spent less time begging than outbred larvae, and (outbred) females provided more direct care and less indirect care toward inbred larvae. Finally, we find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on larval body mass. Inbred and outbred offspring grew to a similar size when the female was outbred, while inbred offspring were of a smaller size when the female was inbred. Our results suggest that outbred females provided more care toward inbred offspring to compensate for their poor genetic quality. Our study advances our understanding of inbreeding by showing that inbreeding can have direct effects on the behavior of inbred individuals and indirect effects on the behavior of outbred individuals and that indirect effects on outbred individuals may in turn influence the fitness of inbred individuals.

  9. Maternal Exposure of Rats to Isoflurane during Late Pregnancy Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory in the Offspring by Up-Regulating the Expression of Histone Deacetylase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Foquan; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Weilu; Zuo, Zhiyi; Yu, Qi; Liu, Zhiyi; Lin, Jiamei; Feng, Yunlin; Li, Binda; Wu, Liuqin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that most general anesthetics can harm developing neurons and induce cognitive dysfunction in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Our previous results showed that maternal exposure to general anesthetics during late pregnancy impaired the offspring's learning and memory, but the role of HDAC2 in it is not known yet. In the present study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane in 100% oxygen for 2, 4 or 8 hours or to 100% oxygen only for 8 hours on gestation day 18 (E18). The offspring born to each rat were randomly subdivided into 2 subgroups. Thirty days after birth, the Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess learning and memory in the offspring. Two hours before each MWM trial, an HDAC inhibitor (SAHA) was given to the offspring in one subgroup, whereas a control solvent was given to those in the other subgroup. The results showed that maternal exposure to isoflurane impaired learning and memory of the offspring, impaired the structure of the hippocampus, increased HDAC2 mRNA and downregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) mRNA, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 subunit B (NR2B) mRNA and NR2B protein in the hippocampus. These changes were proportional to the duration of the maternal exposure to isoflurane and were reversed by SAHA. These results suggest that exposure to isoflurane during late pregnancy can damage the learning and memory of the offspring rats via the HDAC2-CREB -NR2B pathway. This effect can be reversed by HDAC2 inhibition.

  10. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and semen quality in the male offspring: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Toft, G; Jensen, M S

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol exposure has been associated with reduced fecundity, but no studies have estimated the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on male fecundity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, semen quality and levels...

  11. Effect Mechanism of Penstock on Stability and Regulation Quality of Turbine Regulating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect mechanism of water inertia and head loss of penstock on stability and regulation quality of turbine regulating system with surge tank or not and proposes the construction method of equivalent model of regulating system. Firstly, the complete linear mathematical model of regulating system is established. Then, the free oscillation equation and time response of the frequency that describe stability and regulation quality, respectively, are obtained. Finally, the effects of penstock are analysed by using stability region and response curves. The results indicate that the stability and regulation quality of system without surge tank are determined by time response of frequency which only depends on water hammer wave in penstock, while, for system with surge tank, the time response of frequency depending on water hammer wave in penstock and water-level fluctuation in surge tank jointly determines the stability and regulation quality. Water inertia of penstock mainly affects the stability and time response of frequency of system without surge tank as well as the stability and head wave of time response of frequency with surge tank. Head loss of penstock mainly affects the stability and tail wave of time response of frequency with surge tank.

  12. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware River...

  13. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  14. Regulation and quality in nuclear medicine 2 october 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, B.; Huriet, C.; Le Deaut, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this meeting is to examine how the regulations are liable to decrease the patient taking charge. The problem of the public information and opinion in the nuclear medicine domain is also presented. The nineteen presentations are proposed in 2 sessions. The first one deals with the state of the art of the nuclear medicine in France (techniques and regulations). The second one deals with the environment of the nuclear medicine (irradiation limits, public opinion, doctors and medicine quality). (A.L.B.)

  15. Quality Control in diagnostic radiology according to national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienik, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the main aspects of quality control of radiological devices according to the current national regulations. Explanation of the physical principles of image formation by different test phantoms used to measure focal spot sizes is presented in appendix. The obligation for quality assurance (QA) for all X-ray systems which follows European standards was enforced in updated '' Atomic Law Act '' of 29 November 2000 . This document is the main regulatory act which establishes the basic safety standards for radiation protection in Poland. The main modifications introduced by this new Act concerned the issue of radiation protection of individuals undergoing medical examinations with the use of ionizing radiation which is regulated by EC Directive 97/43 Euratom. According to this Directive quality assurance programmes, including quality control measures need to be implemented by the holder of the radiological installation. Therefore, in the above Act the Minister of Health has been obligated to impose specific regulations describing the way of implementation of general principles laid down in the Directive. Some of these regulations, like those concerning QC tests and tolerances, have already been mentioned in the document titled '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine ''. For example, the QC program in radiography is being considered; the obligatory tests- acceptance, routine and annual- are discussed and specific procedures are being indicated. The main idea of the document '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine '' which concerns radiation protection of patients and staff against ionizing radiation used in medicine is to implement the surveillance of all X-ray systems in form of acceptance tests followed by internal tests (routine and annual) performed in accordance with European standards. (author)

  16. Staff report on Ontario gas distributor service quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-29

    This report provides the basis for consultation regarding a framework for building principles and minimum standards regarding service quality measures for gas distributors. It begins with a general overview of current concerns expressed by Ontario natural gas consumers regarding service quality. Customer complaints logged with the Ontario Energy Board between 2003 and 2004 include common issues such as slow telephone response time, failure to obtain regular meter reads, inaccurate billing, long payment processing times, long reconnection times, long new connection times, and slow response to emergencies. This report also presents the historical experience in Ontario's energy sector regarding performance monitoring of services within an incentive based rate making framework for electricity and gas distributors. The Ontario Energy Board's Natural Gas Forum report reveals that a service quality framework would ensure that cost saving initiatives are not implemented at the expense of customer service or safe operation of the distribution system. Although the Board intends to implement a service quality framework, it will not include direct financial incentives. Rather, it will monitor service quality performance and utilities will be subject to a compliance process. A brief summary was also included of service quality regulations in the electricity sector and in other jurisdictions such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Pennsylvania, and Alberta. A list of issues that remain to be addressed before implementing a framework in Ontario was then presented. 2 appendices.

  17. PARENTAL CHILDHOOD ADVERSITY, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, AND PARENTING QUALITY: EFFECTS ON TODDLER SELF-REGULATION IN CHILD WELFARE SERVICES INVOLVED FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J; Oxford, Monica L; Fleming, Charles B; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2018-01-01

    Parents who are involved with child welfare services (CWSI) often have a history of childhood adversity and depressive symptoms. Both affect parenting quality, which in turn influences child adaptive functioning. We tested a model of the relations between parental depression and child regulatory outcomes first proposed by K. Lyons-Ruth, R. Wolfe, A. Lyubchik, and R. Steingard (2002). We hypothesized that both parental depression and parenting quality mediate the effects of parental early adversity on offspring regulatory outcomes. Participants were 123 CWSI parents and their toddlers assessed three times over a period of 6 months. At Time 1, parents reported on their childhood adversity and current depressive symptoms. At Time 2, parents' sensitivity to their child's distress and nondistress cues was rated from a videotaped teaching task. At Time 3, observers rated children's emotional regulation, orientation/engagement, and secure base behavior. The results of a path model partly supported the hypotheses. Parent childhood adversity was associated with current depressive symptoms, which in turn related to parent sensitivity to child distress, but not nondistress. Sensitivity to distress also predicted secure base behavior. Depression directly predicted orientation/engagement, also predicted by sensitivity to nondistress. Sensitivity to distress predicted emotion regulation and orientation/engagement. Results are discussed in terms of intervention approaches for CWSI families. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated

  19. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  20. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  1. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y

    2003-02-01

    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  2. The selection of quality assurance regulations by a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The negotiations of Framatome in recent years with potential customers (both advanced and developing countries) have led to the following conclusions. A developing country which orders a nuclear power plant may adopt one of several attitudes to quality assurance: (1) it may show no interest at all, though this category of customer is on the wane; (2) it may establish its own regulations, but this course poses problems of both cost and competence; (3) it may use American standards, which are also indirectly applied to French PWR plants since the reference power plants used are American. Up to 1979, Framatome advocated the last approach in its negotations. The American nuclear quality assurance standards are the oldest in existence and reflect the experience gained from the longest period of application. In addition, the application of those standards is monitored in the USA by the organizations which issue or adopt them. (4) The country may adopt other equivalent regulations available on the market. Although not American, these provide the same guarantees and benefit from the experience on which the deserved popularity of the American standards is based. Since 1979, Framatome has considered that the IAEA Code of Practice meets these specifications and will from now on suggest in its export bids that this Code be applied. The Code is an international guide, published in four languages, and advocates the same guarantees as American texts. In addition, since EDF and Framatome have decided to apply the IAEA Code to French PWR plants as of 1980, experience gained through applying the Code and the resultant legal knowledge will quickly build up. The adoption of the Code of Practice by purchasing countries should further their relations with suppliers, facilitate the technical assistance provided by the latter, and enable the purchaser to find in most supplier countries the same code as that which he applies himself and to employ a variety of suppliers, if need be, without

  3. Resolution 29/003. It approve the Regulation of quality electricity distribution service with annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This decree approve the Regulation of quality electricity distribution service. It establishes that the public electricity service should be provided with an appropriate level of quality for the users

  4. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Katie E; Bell, Alison M

    2014-11-07

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring-not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  6. Power Quality Regulation from an Economical and a Technical Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, Jarmo; Viljainen, Satu; Lassila, Jukka; Honkapuro, Samuli; Tahvanainen, Kaisa; Jaerventausta, Pertti; Maekinen, Antti; Kivikko, Kimmo

    2005-06-01

    An essential guideline for the implementation of power quality regulation - or any regulation for that matter - is that it needs to find the right balance between the interests of the different stakeholders. This is particularly important when assessing the inconvenience caused to customers by the failures in the electricity supply. Customers' experiences should obviously not be underestimated but it is equally important that excessive requirements concerning the power quality developments are not laid on the distribution companies, either - especially if they are not provided with adequate means to carry out the necessary developments. After all, regulation should encourage innovations, both organisational and technological, that benefit the industry in the long run - this applies to power quality developments as well as any other developments within the industry. Failing to do this, the investors will soon loose their interest in the electricity distribution business, and this will be extremely harmful for the capital-intensive industry. Regulators are currently developing versatile power quality regulation schemes in different countries. At this point it might be worth considering what benefits could be achieved if the framework for the power quality regulation schemes that are applied in different countries was the same - after all the goals are principally the same anyway. One of the obvious benefits would be that the regulators would have more comparable data on the observed power quality levels in different countries. In addition, those companies that operate in various markets could more easily transfer their best practices concerning the power quality developments from one market to another

  7. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago (United States); Jamasb, Tooraj [Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, Sidgwick Avenue, Austin Robinson Building, Cambridge, CB3 9DE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tooraj.jamasb@econ.cam.ac.uk; Pollitt, Michael [Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches.

  8. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches

  9. Does immunity regulate ejaculate quality and fertility in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A. Skau; Ivar Folstad

    2005-01-01

    The production of high-quality ejaculates may represent significant costs during male reproduction. Spermatozoa are perceived as nonself by the immune system and are exposed to immunological attacks in the male reproductive tract. Autoimmunity to spermatozoa results in the production of antisperm antibodies that reduce sperm quality and hence fertility. Thus, males are dependent on the testis being an immunoprivileged site to reduce immunological reactions against their own sperm, and immunop...

  10. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  11. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  12. Use of quality assurance criteria in the work of the regulating body: Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabia Molina, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows experiences obtained by CNSN, a competent organization in charge of radiological nuclear security and accounting and control of nuclear materials in the Republic of Cuba. It analyses quality assurance criteria while carrying out functions and responsibilities entrusted to it by the regulation in force. This paper also shows main advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of quality assurance methods in the regulation and control as well as on its evolution in time and also in the near future

  13. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Preschoolers with Autism: Associations with Parent Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather Joy; Hedley, Darren; Tseng, Chen Hsiang; Begeer, Sander; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Children with autism experience challenges with emotion regulation. It is unclear how children's management of their emotions is associated with their family's quality of life. Forty-three preschoolers with autism and 28 typically developing preschoolers were coded on emotion regulation strategies used during low-level stress tasks. Parents…

  14. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  15. Implementing quality assurance with multiple contractors under changing regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the tools and techniques used to establish the responsibilities for quality implementation on the California Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project. The project is structured to use the traditional nuclear-oriented quality assurance criteria in the non-traditional application of scientific investigations required for site characterization activities. It has required a careful blending of approaches and mentalities from backgrounds in both nuclear QA and EPA QA as well as the selective application of guidance from both of the agencies. As a significant portion of the work was subcontracted to organizations which ranged from a small group of college professors to a multi-national corporation, the program needed to be versatile, easy to implement but yet definitive. The author describes some of the misconceptions encountered and areas of weakness to be identified and strengthened

  16. Regulation of assimilate partitioning by daylength and spectral quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, S.J. [USDA-Climate Stress Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants utilize light energy to assimilate and transform carbon dioxide into products that support growth and development. The preceding review provides an excellent summary of photosynthetic mechanisms and diurnal patterns of carbon metabolism with emphasis on the importance of gradual changes in photosynthetically-active radiation at dawn and dusk. In addition to these direct effects of irradiance, there are indirect effects of light period duration and spectral quality on carbohydrate metabolism and assimilate partitioning. Both daylength and spectral quality trigger developmental phenomena such as flowering (e.g., photoperiodism) and shade avoidance responses, but their effects on partitioning of photoassimilates in leaves are less well known. Moreover, the adaptive significance to the plants of such effects is sometimes not clear.

  17. Quality approach and professional regulations; Demarche qualite et regles professionnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, J. [Association Francaise de Froid (AFF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a review of the main performance and environmental issues related to the utilization of alternative refrigerant fluids in refrigerating systems, the thermo-pump concept is proposed for space heating and air conditioning. Performances of reverse heat pumps have been greatly enhanced through the use of scroll and screw compressors, electronic reducing valves and brazed plate exchangers. Installation regulations have been developed in order to ensure optimal operating conditions for residential systems with a power range inferior to 30 kW: information is given on radiating floors with hot and cooled water, the hydraulic network in individual houses, the implementation of underground collectors, and the operation of thermo-pumps

  18. Biomass chemicals: improvement in quality and quantity with physiological regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuth, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The search for alternative biomass energy forms has centered on two approaches: (1) production of cellulose fiber in biomass of low net energy value per unit weight, such as wood and bagasse, and (2) hydrocarbons of high net energy value per unit weight for use as chemical feedstocks and substitutes for petroleum. Major plant chemical products include oleoresin from pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. palustris Mill.) rubber from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.), and guayule shrub (Parthenium argentatum Gray) and sugar from sugarcane (Saccharum species). Ethylene may be a unifying natural bioregulator that can increase deposition of biomass chemicals in all four of these systems. Examples of bioregulators include the use of paraquat, diquat, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) for stimulating the synthesis of oleoresin, CEPA for prolonging the flow of rubber and increasing rubber synthesis in the rubber tree, and triethylamines of chlorinated phenoxy compounds for stimulating rubber production in guayule. In sugarcane, gibberellic acid (GA3) increases internodal elongation. Glyphosate, CEPA and other regulators increase the deposition of sucrose, diquat and CEPA inhibit flowering, and paraquat desiccates leaves to facilitate leaf removal or burning just prior to harvest. The cellular compartmentalization for the synthesis of these plant chemicals is unique for each species, and dictates cultural and harvest techniques. The mode of action and pathways for the success of these physiological regulators are discussed. 42 references.

  19. Quality Assurance of Quality Assurance Agencies from an Asian Perspective: Regulation, Autonomy and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Angela Yung-Chi; Ince, Martin; Tsai, Sandy; Chiang, Chung Lin

    2015-01-01

    As quality guardians of higher education, quality assurance agencies are required to guarantee the credibility of the review process and to ensure the objectivity and transparency of their decisions and recommendations. These agencies are therefore expected to use a range of internal and external approaches to prove the quality of their review…

  20. Structural Elements Regulating AAA+ Protein Quality Control Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Wen; Lee, Sukyeong; Tsai, Francis T F

    2017-01-01

    Members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+) superfamily participate in essential and diverse cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life by harnessing the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive their biological functions. Although most AAA+ proteins share a ring-shaped architecture, AAA+ proteins have evolved distinct structural elements that are fine-tuned to their specific functions. A central question in the field is how ATP binding and hydrolysis are coupled to substrate translocation through the central channel of ring-forming AAA+ proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss structural elements present in AAA+ proteins involved in protein quality control, drawing similarities to their known role in substrate interaction by AAA+ proteins involved in DNA translocation. Elements to be discussed include the pore loop-1, the Inter-Subunit Signaling (ISS) motif, and the Pre-Sensor I insert (PS-I) motif. Lastly, we will summarize our current understanding on the inter-relationship of those structural elements and propose a model how ATP binding and hydrolysis might be coupled to polypeptide translocation in protein quality control machines.

  1. FRIENDLY regulates mitochondrial distribution, fusion, and quality control in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawily, Amr M; Schwarzländer, Markus; Finkemeier, Iris; Johnston, Iain G; Benamar, Abdelilah; Cao, Yongguo; Gissot, Clémence; Meyer, Andreas J; Wilson, Ken; Datla, Raju; Macherel, David; Jones, Nick S; Logan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are defining components of most eukaryotes. However, higher plant mitochondria differ biochemically, morphologically, and dynamically from those in other eukaryotes. FRIENDLY, a member of the CLUSTERED MITOCHONDRIA superfamily, is conserved among eukaryotes and is required for correct distribution of mitochondria within the cell. We sought to understand how disruption of FRIENDLY function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to mitochondrial clustering and the effects of this aberrant chondriome on cell and whole-plant physiology. We present evidence for a role of FRIENDLY in mediating intermitochondrial association, which is a necessary prelude to mitochondrial fusion. We demonstrate that disruption of mitochondrial association, motility, and chondriome structure in friendly affects mitochondrial quality control and leads to mitochondrial stress, cell death, and strong growth phenotypes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Tightening water quality regulations produces an innovative separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welther, P.B.; Broussard, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of the recent proposed changes in the water quality standards for offshore producing platforms is having a far reaching effect on the oil and gas industry. At a time when oil companies are cutting back their work forces and reducing capital outlays in order to stay competitive in the market, water treatment equipment manufacturing companies are aggressively seeking innovative and cost effective solutions to meet the environmental requirements. Necessity drives advancements in technology, so Monosep Corporation has accepted the challenge to improve induced gas flotation technology and to develop enhanced gravity separation. This system of improved gas flotation and enhanced gravity separation can be used to consistently meet the proposed new guideline of an ''oil and grease'' maximum monthly average of 29 mg/l (milligrams per liter) in the discharged water from offshore platforms. The results demonstrated in the field suggest that adding enhanced gravity separation upstream of existing gas flotation units can improve performance sufficient to meet the Proposed stricter discharge limits. For platforms that do not have efficient gas flotation units, the old units can be replaced or modified to include the new features improved gas flotation technology like the Veirsep. For those few platforms are having difficulty meeting the current discharge requirements, both a new improved gas flotation unit, as well as a more sophisticated upstream gravity separator like the Cyclosep, may need to be installed. Chemical additives are sometimes a required necessity, but must be used sparingly due to the potential for creating soluble oil problems

  3. Does enhanced regulation improve EIA report quality? Lessons from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandham, L.A., E-mail: luke.sandham@nwu.ac.za [Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Heerden, A.J. van [Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Jones, C.E. [School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Retief, F.P.; Morrison-Saunders, A.N. [Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)

    2013-01-15

    Recently, various EIA systems have been subjected to system review processes with a view to improve performance. Many of these reviews resulted in some form of legislative reform. The South African Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations were modified in 2006 with the express intent to improve EIA effectiveness. In order to evaluate to what extent the desired outcome was achieved, the quality of EIA reports produced under the 2006 regulations was investigated for comparative analysis with the preceding regime. A sample of EIA reports from the two legislative regimes was reviewed using an adapted version of a well established method known colloquially as the 'Lee and Colley' review package. Despite some improvements in certain aspects, overall report quality has decreased slightly from the 1997 EIA regime. It therefore appears that the modifications to the regulations, often heralded as the solution to improvements in performance have not resulted in improved quality of EIA reports. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA regulations in South Africa were revised and became more comprehensive in 2006. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The report quality of a sample of EIAs was reviewed using the Lee and Colley review package. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report quality showed a slight decline from the previous regulatory regime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA good practice needs flexibility rather than over-detailed regulation.

  4. Does enhanced regulation improve EIA report quality? Lessons from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, L.A.; Heerden, A.J. van; Jones, C.E.; Retief, F.P.; Morrison-Saunders, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, various EIA systems have been subjected to system review processes with a view to improve performance. Many of these reviews resulted in some form of legislative reform. The South African Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations were modified in 2006 with the express intent to improve EIA effectiveness. In order to evaluate to what extent the desired outcome was achieved, the quality of EIA reports produced under the 2006 regulations was investigated for comparative analysis with the preceding regime. A sample of EIA reports from the two legislative regimes was reviewed using an adapted version of a well established method known colloquially as the “Lee and Colley” review package. Despite some improvements in certain aspects, overall report quality has decreased slightly from the 1997 EIA regime. It therefore appears that the modifications to the regulations, often heralded as the solution to improvements in performance have not resulted in improved quality of EIA reports. - Highlights: ► EIA regulations in South Africa were revised and became more comprehensive in 2006. ► The report quality of a sample of EIAs was reviewed using the Lee and Colley review package. ► Report quality showed a slight decline from the previous regulatory regime. ► EIA good practice needs flexibility rather than over-detailed regulation.

  5. Paternal stress prior to conception alters DNA methylation and behaviour of developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, R; Harker, A; Ilnytskyy, S; Gibb, R

    2013-06-25

    Although there has been an abundance of research focused on offspring outcomes associated with maternal experiences, there has been limited examination of the relationship between paternal experiences and offspring brain development. As spermatogenesis is a continuous process, experiences that have the ability to alter epigenetic regulation in fathers may actually change developmental trajectories of offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paternal stress prior to conception on behaviour and the epigenome of both male and female developing rat offspring. Male Long-Evans rats were stressed for 27 consecutive days and then mated with control female rats. Early behaviour was tested in offspring using the negative geotaxis task and the open field. At P21 offspring were sacrificed and global DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were analysed. Paternal stress prior to conception altered behaviour of all offspring on the negative geotaxis task, delaying acquisition of the task. In addition, male offspring demonstrated a reduction in stress reactivity in the open field paradigm spending more time than expected in the centre of the open field. Paternal stress also altered DNA methylation patterns in offspring at P21, global methylation was reduced in the frontal cortex of female offspring, but increased in the hippocampus of both male and female offspring. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that paternal stress during spermatogenesis can influence offspring behaviour and DNA methylation patterns, and these affects occur in a sex-dependent manner. Development takes place in the centre of a complex interaction between maternal, paternal, and environmental influences, which combine to produce the various phenotypes and individual differences that we perceive. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermoregulatory deficits in adult long evans rat offspring exposed perinatally to the antithyroidal drug, propylthiouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting toxicants has been shown to alter a variety of physiological processes in mature offspring. Body (core) temperature (Tc) is a tightly regulated homeostatic system but is susceptible to disruptors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid...

  7. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  8. Osteocyte-Intrinsic TGF-β Signaling Regulates Bone Quality through Perilacunar/Canalicular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Dole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor bone quality contributes to bone fragility in diabetes, aging, and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the mechanisms controlling bone quality are not well understood, contributing to the current lack of strategies to diagnose or treat bone quality deficits. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signaling is a crucial mechanism known to regulate the material quality of bone, but its cellular target in this regulation is unknown. Studies showing that osteocytes directly remodel their perilacunar/canalicular matrix led us to hypothesize that TGF-β controls bone quality through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR. Using inhibitors and mice with an osteocyte-intrinsic defect in TGF-β signaling (TβRIIocy−/−, we show that TGF-β regulates PLR in a cell-intrinsic manner to control bone quality. Altogether, this study emphasizes that osteocytes are key in executing the biological control of bone quality through PLR, thereby highlighting the fundamental role of osteocyte-mediated PLR in bone homeostasis and fragility.

  9. Osteocyte-Intrinsic TGF-β Signaling Regulates Bone Quality through Perilacunar/Canalicular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Neha S; Mazur, Courtney M; Acevedo, Claire; Lopez, Justin P; Monteiro, David A; Fowler, Tristan W; Gludovatz, Bernd; Walsh, Flynn; Regan, Jenna N; Messina, Sara; Evans, Daniel S; Lang, Thomas F; Zhang, Bin; Ritchie, Robert O; Mohammad, Khalid S; Alliston, Tamara

    2017-11-28

    Poor bone quality contributes to bone fragility in diabetes, aging, and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the mechanisms controlling bone quality are not well understood, contributing to the current lack of strategies to diagnose or treat bone quality deficits. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial mechanism known to regulate the material quality of bone, but its cellular target in this regulation is unknown. Studies showing that osteocytes directly remodel their perilacunar/canalicular matrix led us to hypothesize that TGF-β controls bone quality through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR). Using inhibitors and mice with an osteocyte-intrinsic defect in TGF-β signaling (TβRII ocy-/- ), we show that TGF-β regulates PLR in a cell-intrinsic manner to control bone quality. Altogether, this study emphasizes that osteocytes are key in executing the biological control of bone quality through PLR, thereby highlighting the fundamental role of osteocyte-mediated PLR in bone homeostasis and fragility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The effect of mandatory regulation on corporate social responsibility reporting quality: evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianling; Tian, Gaoliang; Fan, Weiguo; Luo, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure has attracted attention from regulatory bodies and academics over the past few decades. Due to the unreliability resulted from CSR voluntary disclosure, an increasing number of researchers are calling for more government regulation on CSR disclosure. Based on 1830 standalone CSR reports disclosed by the Chinese-listed firms during 2009-2012, we examine the effect of mandatory regulation on CSR\\ud reporting quality. We further hypothesize and te...

  11. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  12. The economic impact of strengthening fuel quality regulation-reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.J.; Cho, G.L.; Kim, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of strengthening vehicle emission regulation on economic activities. The government attempts to use three regulation measures to protect air quality from transportation emission. The measures include the aggregate limit (bubbles), the vehicle emission standard, and the fuel quality standard. Especially, we focus on the economic impact of reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel quality standard. Sulfur content in diesel fuel is one of the main factors in worsening local air quality. The emission from diesel vehicle accounts for 51.8% of total vehicle emission in Korea. If sulfur content reduction regulation is implemented, then the petroleum industry should build more facility to produce low sulfur content diesel, leading to additional production costs and increasing prices and decreasing outputs. We use computable general equilibrium model to analyze how the sulfur reduction regulation affects economic activities and trace out local emission reduction cost and GDP loss. And we suggest the tax-recycling mechanism to mitigate the negative economic costs due to the sulfur reduction regulation

  13. Review and comparison of quality standards, guidelines and regulations for laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd A.M. Datema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variety and number of laboratory quality standards, guidelines and regulations (hereafter: quality documents makes it difficult to choose the most suitable one for establishing and maintaining a laboratory quality management system. Objectives: There is a need to compare the characteristics, suitability and applicability of quality documents in view of the increasing efforts to introduce quality management in laboratories, especially in clinical diagnostic laboratories in low income and middle income countries. This may provide valuable insights for policy makers developing national laboratory policies, and for laboratory managers and quality officers in choosing the most appropriate quality document for upgrading their laboratories. Method: We reviewed the history of quality document development and then selected a subset based on their current use. We analysed these documents following a framework for comparison of quality documents that was adapted from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guideline GP26 Quality management system model for clinical laboratory services. Results: Differences were identified between national and international, and non-clinical and clinical quality documents. The most salient findings were the absence of provisions on occurrence management and customer service in almost all non-clinical quality documents, a low number of safety requirements aimed at protecting laboratory personnel in international quality documents and no requirements regarding ethical behaviour in almost all quality documents. Conclusion: Each laboratory needs to investigate whether national regulatory standards are present. These are preferred as they most closely suit the needs of laboratories in the country. A laboratory should always use both a standard and a guideline: a standard sums up the requirements to a quality management system, a guideline describes how quality management can be integrated in the laboratory

  14. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Maria; Fornes, Romina; Qi, Xiaojuan; Folmerz, Elin; Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2018-03-22

    Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with hyperandrogenism, is suggested to increase anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Because PCOS is closely linked to obesity, we investigated the impact of an adverse hormonal or metabolic maternal environment and offspring obesity on anxiety in the offspring. The obese PCOS phenotype was induced by chronic high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) consumption together with prenatal dihydrotestosterone exposure in mouse dams. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in adult offspring with the elevated-plus maze and open-field tests. The influence of maternal androgens and maternal and offspring diet on genes implicated in anxiety were analyzed in the amygdala and hypothalamus with real-time PCR ( n = 47). Independent of diet, female offspring exposed to maternal androgens were more anxious and displayed up-regulation of adrenoceptor α 1B in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone ( Crh). By contrast, male offspring exposed to a HFHS maternal diet had increased anxiety-like behavior and showed up-regulation of epigenetic markers in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic Crh. Overall, there were substantial sex differences in gene expression in the brain. These findings provide novel insight into how maternal androgens and obesity exert sex-specific effects on behavior and gene expression in the offspring of a PCOS mouse model.-Manti, M., Fornes, R., Qi, X., Folmerz, E., Lindén Hirschberg, A., de Castro Barbosa, T., Maliqueo, M., Benrick, A., Stener-Victorin, E. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

  16. Quality of service regulation, q follows x; Kwaliteitsregulering, na x komt q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, A.Th. [Pels Rijcken en Droogleever Fortuijn, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2005-04-01

    Both the Electricity Act and Gas Act have been recently amended. One of many changes made, was the addition of a system of 'quality of service regulation' to the existing system of price cap regulation. In this article the author explores the system of quality of service regulation in the Electricity Act. Quality of service regulation aims to counterbalance the possible adverse effects of price cap regulation.The Dutch transmission and distribution systems have always been very reliable, especially compared to those in other countries. Nevertheless, the average duration of interruptions to supply per year has risen slightly in recent years. In order to ensure that price reductions will not lead to a further decrease in the quality of service the Dutch legislator has decided to incorporate the aspect of reliability into the existing system of price cap regulation. Both the Electricity Act and Gas Act provide for a system of yardstick competition, whereby good quality of service is financially rewarded and poor quality of service will lead to additional price reductions.This was achieved by incorporating a quality parameter (an extra variable) in the existing price cap formula. Also, all Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) are required to adopt a quality management system. Every other year DNOs must draw up a 'quality and capacity document' which they must publicise. In this document DNOs wilt have to demonstrate that their quality management systems are adequate. Various aspects of the system of quality of service regulation are detailed in Iower legislation by the Minister of Economic Affairs and in several decisions by the Director of DTe. In a decision of 8 October 2005 the Director of DTe adopted the method by which the quality parameter (or 'q factor') with respect to the second price control period (2004-2006) is to be determined.This decision is also referred to as the 'methode-besluit'. Distribution Network Operators

  17. 75 FR 391 - Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product Life... on Risk Management through the Product Life Cycle.'' This public workshop is intended to provide... discussed at the workshop: (1) Standards and guidance, (2) risk management in design, (3) risk management in...

  18. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  19. 76 FR 295 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... and development of water resources of the Delaware River Basin during the implementation of natural... states and Federal government work together to manage water resources in an integrated manner for the... new Article 7 of DRBC's Water Quality Regulations to protect the water resources of the Basin during...

  20. Improving Emotion Regulation and Sibling Relationship Quality: The More Fun with Sisters and Brothers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Denise E.; Kramer, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) in improving sibling relationship quality (SRQ) by evaluating the More Fun With Sisters and Brothers Program where 4- to 8-year-old siblings from 95 families were taught emotional and social competencies. Parents reported on SRQ and ER, and sibling interactions were observed in homes. SRQ and ER…

  1. The public’s voice about healthcare quality regulation policies: a population-based survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Jong, J.D. de; Robben, P.; Friele, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the wake of various high-profile incidents in a number of countries, regulators of healthcare quality have been criticised for their ‘soft’ approach. In politics, concerns were expressed about public confidence. It was claimed that there are discrepancies between public opinions

  2. Quality of childcare influences children's attentiveness and emotional regulation at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Mittinty, Murthy N; Zubrick, Stephen R; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between domain-specific qualities of formal childcare at age 2-3 years and children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation at age 4-5 and 6-7 years. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 1038). Three domain-specific aspects of childcare quality were assessed: provider and program characteristics of care, activities in childcare, and carer-child relationship. Two self-regulatory abilities were considered: task attentiveness and emotional regulation. Associations between domain-specific qualities of childcare and self-regulation were investigated in linear regression analyses adjusted for confounding, with imputation for missing data. There was no association between any provider or program characteristics of care and children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation. The quality of activities in childcare were associated only with higher levels of emotional regulation at age 4-5 years (β = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.03-0.44) and 6-7 years (β = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.04-0.48). Higher-quality carer-child relationships were associated with higher levels of task attentiveness (β = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.36) and emotional regulation at age 4-5 years (β = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34) that persisted to age 6-7 years (β = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.42; β = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.47). Among children using formal childcare, those who experienced higher-quality relationships were better able to regulate their attention and emotions as they started school. Higher emotional regulation was also observed for children engaged in more activities in childcare. Beneficial effects were stable over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On the quality of regulating impact of labor law in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya O. Almayeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove that the development of the legislation quality theory in labor law is of great practical importance. Methods the methodological basis of research is universal dialectic method of cognition as well as other general theoretical methods. Taking into account the impossibility to research and solve problems through the use of exclusively legal matter the specific scientific methods were also widely used formallogical comparativelegal etc. Results basing on the analysis of scientific works on the topic it is concluded that the integral characteristics of the labour standards quality requires consideration of not only legal but also social political and moral points of view. With this approach it is logical to allocate not only legal but also sociopolitical and moral quality of the labour law. It is recognized that the existing theoretical legal works on the problem of labor laws quality do not allow to speak about creation of the quality concept development of the research methodology of labour quality standards. It is concluded that the quality of the regulatory impact of labour legislation in Russia is not always at the proper level. Moreover among the main reasons for the imperfection of the normative base regulating sociallabour relations it is necessary to allocate objective and subjective reasons and their quotsymbiosisquot. Scientific novelty it was found that the definition of the quality of the law regulating sociolabour relations should have an indication of properties of their components the content of legal norms which allow to establish whether a particular law is a quality one. Practical significance the theoretical principles formulated in the article can be used in scientific legislative and law enforcement activity educational process of higher vocational education institutions of the legal profile to improve the skills of practitioners and scientificpedagogical staff in the field of jurisprudence. nbsp

  4. The philosophy of quality assurance in France and its implementation in the regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubresse, G.

    1978-01-01

    In conclusion, quality assurance has developed in France from american ideas and the systems which are being used or are under development remain close to the american ones, but differ from them by their flexibility, adaptability, and by a greater room left to the acceptance of situations not absolutely in conformity with the rules, as long as a real assurance of quality is given. Taking into account the french situation regarding codes and regulations, the efficiency of a good organization of quality management demands, at the very beginning, a clear definition of the quality looked for, and of the technical means to obtain it. That is why, at any level, from the nuclear equipment area to the most classical industries, quality assurance appears as a means to a better mastery of quality, firstly through a definition of the latter in every case, secondly, through technical and organization requirements tuned to the level of quality demanded. Quality assurance is sought through a better organization rather than through an increase of measurements and tests. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Use of a customer satisfaction survey by health care regulators: a tool for total quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, N; Lagua, R T

    1997-01-01

    To conduct a survey of health care providers to determine the quality of service provided by the staff of a regulatory agency; to collect information on provider needs and expectations; to identify perceived and potential problems that need improvement; and to make changes to improve regulatory services. The authors surveyed health care providers using a customer satisfaction questionnaire developed in collaboration with a group of providers and a research consultant. The questionnaire contained 20 declarative statements that fell into six quality domains: proficiency, judgment, responsiveness, communication, accommodation, and relevance. A 10% level of dissatisfaction was used as the acceptable performance standard. The survey was mailed to 324 hospitals, nursing homes, home care agencies, hospices, ambulatory care centers, and health maintenance organizations. Fifty-six percent of provider agencies responded; more than half had written comments. The three highest levels of customer satisfaction were in courtesy of regulatory staff (90%), efficient use of onsite time (84%), and respect for provider employees (83%). The three lowest levels of satisfaction were in the judgment domain; only 44% felt that there was consistency among regulatory staff in the interpretation of regulations, only 45% felt that interpretations of regulations were flexible and reasonable, and only 49% felt that regulations were applied objectively. Nine of 20 quality indicators had dissatisfaction ratings of more than 10%; these were considered priorities for improvement. Responses to the survey identified a number of specific areas of concern; these findings are being incorporated into the continuous quality improvement program of the office.

  6. A scheme for regulating toxic substances to water quality of Chamsil upstream water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Suk; Kim, Jee Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study asserts to reflect a concept of toxicity thoroughly in the present water quality concept. It presents an appropriate solution to control toxic substances flowing into the Chamsil upstream water system. Although a regulation of toxic substances into major rivers in Korea other than Han river is also required urgently, it will be studied in future. It is expected that this study on Chamsil upstream would be a cornerstone for establishing a national regulation policy of toxic substances into water system. 28 refs., 1 fig., 36 tabs.

  7. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  8. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  9. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  10. Evidence of Oxidative Shielding of Offspring in a Wild Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma I. K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesized that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. We suggest that further advance in understanding of life history variation could benefit from theoretical and empirical exploration of the potential transgenerational costs of reproduction.

  11. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies

  12. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  13. The temperature control and water quality regulation for steam generator secondary side hydrostatic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bo; Liu Dongyong

    2014-01-01

    The secondary side hydrostatic test for the steam generator of M310 unit is to verify the pressure tightness of steam generator secondary side tube sheet and related systems. As for the importance of the steam generator, the water temperature and water quality of hydrostatic test has strict requirements. The discussion on the water temperature control and water quality regulation for the secondary loop hydrostatic test of Fuqing Unit 1 contribute greatly to the guiding work for the preparation of the steam generator pressure test for M310 unit. (authors)

  14. USE OF PLANT EXTRACTS AS REGULATORS OF QUALITY OF MOMORDIKA FRUIT (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gribova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica (Momordica charantia L. is unconventional crop of the Cucurbitaceae family for the central regions of the Russian. Fruits of this crop have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect. The influence of promising growth regulators from plants on the qualitative composition of fruits momordika has been studied. The positive effect of leaf extract yakon as phytoregulator on productivity increasing and fruit quality of momordika is shown.

  15. Validation of the self regulation questionnaire as a measure of health in quality of life research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssing A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Several epidemiological studies address psychosomatic 'self regulation' as a measure of quality of life aspects. However, although widely used in studies with a focus on complementary cancer treatment, and recognized to be associated with better survival of cancer patients, it is unclear what the 'self regulation' questionnaire exactly measures. Design and setting In a sample of 444 individuals (27% healthy, 33% cancer, 40% other internal diseases, we performed reliability and exploratory factor analyses, and correlated the 16-item instrument with external measures such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Herdecke Quality of Life questionnaire, and autonomic regulation questionnaire. Results The 16-item pool had a very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.948 and satisfying/good (rrt = 0.796 test-retest reliability after 3 months. Exploratory factor analysis indicated 2 sub-constructs: (1 Ability to change behaviour in order to reach goals, and (2 Achieve satisfaction and well-being. Both sub-scales correlated well with quality of life aspects, particularly with Initiative Power/Interest, Social Interactions, Mental Balance, and negatively with anxiety and depression. Conclusions The Self Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ was found to be a valid and reliable tool which measures unique psychosomatic abilities. Self regulation deals with competence and autonomy and can be regarded as a problem solving capacity in terms of an active adaptation to stressful situations to restore wellbeing. The tool is an interesting option to be used particularly in complementary medicine research with a focus on behavioural modification.

  16. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  17. Maternal modulation of paternal effects on offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoodh, Rahia; Habrylo, Ireneusz B; Gudsnuk, Kathryn M; Pelle, Geralyn; Champagne, Frances A

    2018-03-14

    The paternal transmission of environmentally induced phenotypes across generations has been reported to occur following a number of qualitatively different exposures and appear to be driven, at least in part, by epigenetic factors that are inherited via the sperm. However, previous studies of paternal germline transmission have not addressed the role of mothers in the propagation of paternal effects to offspring. We hypothesized that paternal exposure to nutritional restriction would impact male mate quality and subsequent maternal reproductive investment with consequences for the transmission of paternal germline effects. In the current report, using embryo transfer in mice, we demonstrate that sperm factors in adult food restricted males can influence growth rate, hypothalamic gene expression and behaviour in female offspring. However, under natural mating conditions females mated with food restricted males show increased pre- and postnatal care, and phenotypic outcomes observed during embryo transfer conditions are absent or reversed. We demonstrate that these compensatory changes in maternal investment are associated with a reduced mate preference for food restricted males and elevated gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Therefore, paternal experience can influence offspring development via germline inheritance, but mothers can serve as a modulating factor in determining the impact of paternal influences on offspring development. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. The impact of U.S. environmental regulations on fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, K.H.; Dukek, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act passed in 1990 focused attention on the emissions from mobile sources, such as automobiles and trucks, as they degrade air quality, particularly in urban areas. In legislating the 1990 amendments, it was recognized that a change in gasoline composition could have as great an effect on improved air quality as design changes in the automobile itself. Without lead available to meet vehicle octane requirements, the refiners increased the use of isoparaffinic and aromatic streams as blending components and began a search for replacement octane enhancers. More reforming units were added in refineries to produce streams of high aromatic content, a step that fortuitously produced more hydrogen gas for treating other products, such as jet fuel and heavier middle distillates, to reduce sulfur content and improve stability. The close relationship between motor gasoline and the quality of other products explains why the advent of reformulated gasoline in the 1990s is viewed with concern by refiners, particularly because the government has now decided to also mandate improvements in diesel fuel quality that will require much of the hydrogen that was counted on to treat jet fuels. As a consequence, the fuel subcommittees of Committee D-2 on Petroleum Products decided that the best forum for highlighting the interrelationships between all major fuels and the impending regulations to improve air quality was a symposium. The symposium began with the latest thinking of the Federal and State governments on air quality regulations and results were then presented from the industry Auto/Oil Air Quality Research Program. The impact of these pending changes on petroleum refining was then discussed. Later, the impact on fuel users for various applications and the effect on ASTM standards was presented. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  20. Offspring sex and parental health and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Øyvind; Mortensen, Laust H.; Vikanes, Åse

    2017-01-01

    ) number of total boy and girl offspring, 2) sex of the first and second offspring and 3) proportion of boys to total number of offspring. A sub-cohort (n = 50,736 mothers, n = 44,794 fathers) from survey data was analysed for risk factors. Mothers had increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality...... that was consistent across approaches: cardiovascular mortality of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11) per boy (approach 2), 1.04 (1.01-1.07) if the first offspring was a boy, and 1.06 (1.01-1.10) if the first two offspring were boys (approach 3). We found that sex of offspring was not associated with total or cardiovascular...

  1. 78 FR 47241 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the Human Health Water Quality Criteria for PCBs in Zones 2... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  2. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  3. Parents' perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; de Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G; Abma, Tineke A; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled prevention trial was terminated due to lack of patient inclusion. Research on mentally-ill parents' perceptions of offspring's risk and need for preventive intervention may shed light on this issue, and may enhance family participation in prevention activities and trials. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 parents (patients with anxiety or depression, or their partners). An inductive content analysis of the data was performed. Five research questions were investigated regarding parents' perceptions of anxiety, depression, and offspring risk; anxiety, depression, and parenting; the need for offspring intervention and prevention; and barriers to and experiences with participation in preventive research. Parental perceptions of the impact of parental anxiety and depression on offspring greatly differed. Parents articulated concerns about children's symptomatology, however, most parents did not perceive a direct link between parent symptoms and offspring quality of life. They experienced an influence of parental symptoms on family quality of life, but chose not to discuss that with their children in order to protect them. Parents were not well aware of the possibilities regarding professional help for offspring and preferred parent-focused rather than offspring-focused interventions such as parent psycho-education. Important barriers to participation in preventive research included parental overburden, shame and stigma, and perceived lack of necessity for intervention. This study highlights the importance of educating parents in adult health care. Providing psycho-education regarding offspring risk, communication in the family, and parenting in order

  4. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  6. Social cost-efficient service quality. Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation. Evidence from the case of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany); Jamasb, Tooraj [University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities. (author)

  7. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian, E-mail: c.growitsch@wik.or [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany); Jamasb, Tooraj [University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics (United Kingdom); Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  8. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S

    1996-01-01

    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  9. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  10. Effect of growth regulators application on the quality maintenance of 'Brookfield' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main goal of the present study was to elucidate the effect of growth regulators at harvest and postharvest quality of 'Brookfield' apples stored under controlled atmosphere through a multivariate approach. Thus, an experiment with two steps (field and storage was carried out. The treatments in field were applied with an output of 1,000 L ha–1 of water. The following treatments were tested: Control: only water application; AVG (aminoethoxyvinylglycine: 0.83 kg ha–1 of Retain® applied 30 days before harvest (BH; NAA (naphthalene acetic acid: 40g ha–1of naphthalene acetic acid applied 7 days BH; Ethephon: 2.0 L ha–1 of Ethrel® applied 10 days BH; 1-MCP: 0.625µL L–1 of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene: applied during postharvest (storage; LE (low ethylene: with the allocation of potassium permanganate sachets during postharvest. Fruits treated with AVG in the field showed an opposite response to the fruits with NAA. AVG application followed by another growth regulator (AVG + Ethephon and AVG + NAA showed an advance in maturation, nearing these fruits to the control treatment, this effect is likely related to the higher ethylene production by these fruits compared to fruits with AVG alone. AVG, 1-MCP and LE kept a similar response on quality maintenance. Ethephon application prevented the negative effect of NAA at harvest, but after storage, the combined NAA + ethephon application increased the physiological disorders, reducing internal quality.

  11. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Meher

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12 diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD, vitamin B12 deficient (BD and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO. Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05 levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05 in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05 levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05 SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05 PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01 in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05 by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  12. Quality assurance in X-ray mammography. Comparison of proposed EUREF guidelines with relevant German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaers, J.; Brix, G.; Woudenberg, S. van

    1997-01-01

    The Program 'Europe against Cancer' published the 2nd edition of quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening in June 1996. For the enforcement of these guidelines, a European network of reference centres (EUREF) is being established. Although the EUREF protocol contains guidelines for all disciplines involved in breast cancer screening, this article concentrates on the physical and technical aspect. The comparison with the German regulations (DIN Norms) demonstrates the high requirements requested by the EUREF guidelines with its tighter limits and more extensive and more frequent tests. (orig.) [de

  13. Why might poor sleep quality lead to depression? A role for emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kimberly; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Disordered sleep is strongly linked to future depression, but the reasons for this link are not well understood. This study tested one possibility - that poorer sleep impairs emotion regulation (ER), which over time leads to increased depressive symptoms. Our sample contained individuals with a wide range of depression symptoms (current depression, N = 54, remitted depression, N = 36, and healthy control, N = 53), who were followed clinically over six months and reassessed for changes in depressive symptom levels. As predicted, maladaptive ER mediated both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between poor sleep quality and depression symptoms. In contrast, an alternative mediator, physical activity levels, did not mediate the link between sleep quality and depression symptoms. Maladaptive ER may help explain why sleep difficulties contribute to depression symptoms; implications for interventions are discussed.

  14. Regulation EM-GT-8. Guidance for quality control of mammography equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide practical guidance of technical procedures for carrying out quality control in mammography equipment. Scope: This guide applies to mammography equipment. A number of methods which require the appointed instrumentation described, some of which can be implemented in radiology services own country given the low complexity of themselves and others that require specific equipment and can be performed by specialized groups external to these units. The guide does not constitute a mandatory, however, the parameters evaluated according to the tests described therein and their tolerances form the basis of regulations that establish the CCEEM about these teams. Overview: The success of mammographic studies depends on obtaining high-quality images combined with a low rate of patient dose. To ensure this objective the establishment of quality assurance programs on all aspects involving these services is necessary. This guide provides a number of quality control procedures aimed at x-ray equipment, which must be performed at least on an annual basis or when some maintenance occurs at x-ray equipment.

  15. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....... until weaning, giving four dietary groups. Results: At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid...... oxidation, VLDL transport and insulin receptor were down-regulated, whereas FGF21 expression was up-regulated. Independent of postnatal litter size, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams aged 21 days had still increased hepatic TG and up-regulated FGF21 expression, while plasma insulin started...

  16. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  17. Modelling air quality according to INSPIRE data specifications, ISO standards and national regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachelski Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment is an activity of many institutions, organizations and communities from global to regional and local scales. Any activity in this area needs structured database records, using advanced methodology, given, among others, in INSPIRE documents, ISO standards of 19100 series, and national regulations. The goal of this paper is to analyse both the legal provisions related to the air quality and also data sources associated with the prevention of air pollution. Furthermore, the UML application schema of the spatial data related to the air protection is proposed, for the use by urban planners. Also, the overview of the methodology of geographic information is given, including the Unified Modelling Language (UML, as well as the basic concepts of conceptual models within the INSPIRE project. The study is based on the relevant literature and documents, as well as on the expert knowledge gained through urban planning practice, as well as on the analysis of the spatial planning regulations. The UML application schema for different aspects related to the air protection, as presented in this paper, is an example of how to use the methodology also in other fields of the environment protection. Spatial planners know how to improve the air quality, but in the present state of law they often suffer from the lack of planning tools for real actions. In the spatial planners work an important issue are data that allow a thorough analysis of the area.

  18. Air quality in natural areas: Interface between the public, science and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; Karnosky, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315 million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O 3 ) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O 3 exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O 3 impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O 3 risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy. - Appropriate endpoints and exposure-response indices can improve assessment of air pollutant risk to forests in natural areas

  19. Air quality in natural areas: Interface between the public, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, K.E. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5P7 (Canada)], E-mail: kpercy@nrcan.gc.ca; Karnosky, D.F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315 million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O{sub 3}) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O{sub 3} exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O{sub 3} impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O{sub 3} risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy. - Appropriate endpoints and exposure-response indices can improve assessment of air pollutant risk to forests in natural areas.

  20. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  1. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornela De Gasperin

    Full Text Available Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites, and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  2. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gasperin, Ornela; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2016-01-01

    Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality) versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites), and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  3. Low folate and selenium in the mouse maternal diet alters liver gene expression patterns in the offspring after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Bermingham, Emma N; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A; Hesketh, John E; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-05-08

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  4. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P.G. Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, selenium (Se and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate and DNA oxidation (Se. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H, or marginally deficient in (diet L, Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis, methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  5. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyu Wei

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU. This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT, provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  6. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Peletz; Emily Kumpel; Mateyo Bonham; Zarah Rahman; Ranjiv Khush

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did no...

  7. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear.In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents.We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  8. A pH-Regulated Quality Control Cycle for Surveillance of Secretory Protein Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassori, Stefano; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Caserta, Imma R.; Fagioli, Claudio; Mossuto, Maria F.; Fornili, Arianna; van Anken, Eelco; Degano, Massimo; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary To warrant the quality of the secretory proteome, stringent control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface, preventing the release of nonnative products. Incompletely assembled oligomeric proteins that are deemed correctly folded must rely on additional quality control mechanisms dedicated to proper assembly. Here we unveil how ERp44 cycles between cisGolgi and ER in a pH-regulated manner, patrolling assembly of disulfide-linked oligomers such as IgM and adiponectin. At neutral, ER-equivalent pH, the ERp44 carboxy-terminal tail occludes the substrate-binding site. At the lower pH of the cisGolgi, conformational rearrangements of this peptide, likely involving protonation of ERp44’s active cysteine, simultaneously unmask the substrate binding site and −RDEL motif, allowing capture of orphan secretory protein subunits and ER retrieval via KDEL receptors. The ERp44 assembly control cycle couples secretion fidelity and efficiency downstream of the calnexin/calreticulin and BiP-dependent quality control cycles. PMID:23685074

  9. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  10. Photoperiodism of Male Offspring Production in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenji; Sato, Tomomi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2017-08-01

    Photoperiodism is a biological seasonal timing system utilized to regulate development and reproduction in organisms. The freshwater micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex displays environmental sex determination, the precise physiological mechanisms of which are largely unknown due to the lack of an experimental system to induce female or male offspring production by alterations of the rearing environment. We recently found that D. pulex, WTN6 strain, produces female or male offspring in response to long-day or short-day conditions, respectively. Taking advantage of this system, here we report the photoperiodic response curve for male offspring production, showing 12 hours as natural critical daylength (50% incidence of male-producing mothers), and that male offspring inducibility is highly sensitive to photoperiodic alterations. By using monochromatic light emitting diode (LED) devices, we found that the effective wavelength is red-light (627 nm), which stably induces male offspring production. This suggests that the red-light photoreceptor may be decisive in the primary step of sex determination process in this strain. Our findings provide the first insights into photoperiodism and red-light as key factors in triggering male offspring production in daphnids.

  11. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  12. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  13. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  14. Centenarian offspring: a model for understanding longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Candore, Giuseppina; Accardi, Giulia; Buffa, Silvio; Bulati, Matteo; Martorana, Adriana; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    A main objective of current medical research is to improve the life quality of elderly people as priority of the continuous increase of ageing population. This phenomenon implies several medical, economic and social problems because of dramatic increase in number of non autonomous individuals affected by various pathologies. Accordingly, the research interest is focused on understanding the biological mechanisms involved in determining the positive ageing phenotype, i.e. the centenarian phenotype. In achieving this goal the choice of an appropriate study models is fundamental. Centenarians have been used as an optimal model for successful ageing. However, this model shows several limitations, i.e. the selection of appropriate controls and the use itself of the centenarians as a suitable model for healthy ageing. Thus, the interest has been centered on centenarian offspring, healthy elderly people. They may represent a model for understanding exceptional longevity for the following reasons: they exhibit a protective genetic background, cardiovascular and immunological profile, as well as a reduced rate of cognitive decline than age-matched people without centenarian relatives. Several of these aspects are summarized in this review based on the literature and the results of our studies.

  15. Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed.

  16. Family dissolution and offspring depression and depressive symptoms: A systematic review of moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Manno, Laura; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Knight, Tess

    2015-12-01

    Parental separation is associated with increased risk for offspring depression; however, depression outcomes are divergent. Knowledge of moderators could assist in understanding idiosyncratic outcomes and developing appropriately targeted prevention programs for those at heightened risk of depression following parental separation. Therefore, the objective of the review was to identify and evaluate studies that examined moderators of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression A search of scientific, medical and psychological databases was conducted in April 2015 for longitudinal research that had evaluated any moderator/s of the relationship between parental separation or divorce and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. Papers were assessed for quality by evaluating the study's sample, attrition rates, methodology and measurement characteristics. Fourteen quantitative studies from five countries assessed sixteen moderating factors of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. A number of factors were found to moderate this relationship, including offspring gender, age (at assessment and at depression onset), genotype, preadolescent temperament, IQ, emotional problems in childhood and maternal sensitivity. While robust longitudinal research was selected for inclusion, common issues with longitudinal studies such as low rates of participation and attrition were among the methodological concerns evident in some of the reviewed papers. The current review is the first to assess interaction effects of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. While further research is recommended, this assessment is critical in understanding variation in heterogeneous populations and can inform targeted policy and prevention.

  17. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis in Women during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Higher Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2007-01-01

    Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.

  18. A literature review on the impact of IAS/IFRS and regulations on quality of financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadesango Newman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB in its objectives and preamble, presume that IFRS adoption and perceived compliance to regulatory framework is associated with increased financial reporting quality. Based on these assumptions, this desktop study reviewed several documents to determine whether the IFRS adoption has led to increased financial reporting quality in Zimbabwe. The researchers reviewed literature on how the IAS/IFRS and regulations affect the financial reporting quality of listed companies. The factors around IFRS adoption were identified (mandatory, voluntary and convergence and discussed in relation to the financial reporting quality. Evidence from previous studies conducted in line with this same issue shows that there is no conclusive evidence on how IFRS and regulations affect the financial reporting quality. Issues to be addressed in further studies include the importance of financial statements prepared under IFRS framework and the importance of compliance with accounting and auditing requirements

  19. Accounting for failure: risk-based regulation and the problems of ensuring healthcare quality in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussier, Anne-Laure; Demeritt, David; Griffiths, Alex; Rothstein, Henry

    2016-05-18

    In this paper, we examine why risk-based policy instruments have failed to improve the proportionality, effectiveness, and legitimacy of healthcare quality regulation in the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Rather than trying to prevent all possible harms, risk-based approaches promise to rationalise and manage the inevitable limits of what regulation can hope to achieve by focusing regulatory standard-setting and enforcement activity on the highest priority risks, as determined through formal assessments of their probability and consequences. As such, risk-based approaches have been enthusiastically adopted by healthcare quality regulators over the last decade. However, by drawing on historical policy analysis and in-depth interviews with 15 high-level UK informants in 2013-2015, we identify a series of practical problems in using risk-based policy instruments for defining, assessing, and ensuring compliance with healthcare quality standards. Based on our analysis, we go on to consider why, despite a succession of failures, healthcare regulators remain committed to developing and using risk-based approaches. We conclude by identifying several preconditions for successful risk-based regulation: goals must be clear and trade-offs between them amenable to agreement; regulators must be able to reliably assess the probability and consequences of adverse outcomes; regulators must have a range of enforcement tools that can be deployed in proportion to risk; and there must be political tolerance for adverse outcomes.

  20. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  1. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...... (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1...

  2. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulated deficit irrigation effects on yield, fruit quality and vegetative growth of Navelina citrus trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasque, M.; Granero, B.; Turegano, J. V.; Gonzalez-Altozano, P.

    2010-07-01

    An experiment on regulated deficit irrigation (Redi) was performed during two growing seasons (2007 and 2008) in a drip-irrigated orchard of Navelina/Cleopatra in Senyera (Valencia, Spain). Two RDI treatments, where water application was reduced to 40% and 60% of the irrigation dose (ID), were carried out during the initial fruit enlargement phase (Stage II, 17th July to 2nd September). The rest of the year they were irrigated at 110% ID. These treatments were compared with a control, where irrigation was applied without restriction during the whole year at 110% ID. The ID was obtained from the evapotranspiration data, as well as from the characteristic variables of drip irrigation for the specific experimental orchard. The effects of the treatments on yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth are discussed in relation to tree water status (midday stem water potential, ?st). Minimal ?st values reached in the treatment with the highest stress intensity were -1.71 and - 1.60 MPa in 2007 and 2008 respectively. These ?st values reached as a consequence of the water reduction in the RDI summer treatments applied in this study did not affect yield or fruit quality, allowing water savings between 16% and 23%. In conclusion, water restriction during summer, and once June drop has finished, favours the better use of water resources by Navelina citrus trees, achieving an increase of water use efficiency (between 14% and 27% in this case), provided that an appropriate irrigation in autumn allows for tree recovery. (Author) 39 refs.

  4. Classifying indicators of quality: a collaboration between Dutch and English regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Alex; Vesseur, Jan; Hamblin, Richard; Long, Paul; Den Ouden, Lya

    2011-12-01

    Many approaches to measuring quality in healthcare exist, generally employing indicators or metrics. While there are important differences, most of these approaches share three key areas of measurement: safety, effectiveness and patient experience. The European Partnership for Supervisory Organisations in Health Services and Social Care (EPSO) exists as a working group and discussion forum for European regulators. This group undertook to identify a common framework within which European approaches to indicators could be compared. A framework was developed to classify indicators, using four sets of criteria: conceptualization of quality, Donabedian definition (structure, process, outcome), data type (derivable, collectable from routine sources, special collections, samples) and data use (judgement (singular or part of framework) benchmarking, risk assessment). Indicators from English and Dutch hospital measurement programmes were put into the framework, showing areas of agreement and levels of comparability. In the first instance, results are only illustrative. The EPSO has been a powerful driver for undertaking cross-European research, and this project is the first of many to take advantage of the access to international expertize. It has shown that through development of a framework that deconstructs national indicators, commonalities can be identified. Future work will attempt to incorporate other nations' indicators, and attempt cross-national comparison.

  5. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  6. Quality regulation will make the goals of asset management specific; Zielkonkretisierung des Asset Managements durch die Qualitaetsregulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Wolfgang [Consentec Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Vennegeerts, Hendrik [Forschungsgemeinschaft fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft e.V. (FGH), Aachen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The asset management of a network operator is responsible for decisions concerning the design, upkeep, modernisation and operation of networks. These decisions have an impact on costs and various quality aspects. Due to the absence of stringent instructions in some of its areas, asset management holds a substantial optimisation potential for network operators. Creative leeway exists in particular with regard to network reliability. Nowadays the level of reliability of a network has no immediate impact on the operator's turnover. However, this will change with the introduction of quality regulation through the Incentive Regulation Ordinance. This article discusses basic models for the resulting concretisation of goals and outlines the current debate as to how quality regulation should be framed.

  7. Influence of Superheated Steam Temperature Regulation Quality on Service Life of Boiler Steam Super-Heater Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of change in quality of superheated steam temperature regulations on service life of super-heater metal. А dependence between metal service life and dispersion value for different steel grades has been determined in the paper. Numerical values pertaining to increase of super-heater metal service life in case of transferring from manual regulation to standard system of automatic regulation (SAR have been determined and in case of transferring from standard SAR to improved SAR. The analysis of tabular data and plotted dependencies makes it possible to conclude that any change in conditions of convection super-heater metal work due to better quality of the regulation leads to essential increase of time period which is left till the completion of the service life of a super-heater heating surface.

  8. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background. Links are well established between both family history of diabetes and reduced birthweight and increased risk of diabetes in adulthood. Objectives. 1) To investigate the influence of parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on offspring birthweight and adult offspring glucose tolera...

  9. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  10. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  11. Regulation on governmental quality control during erection and reconstruction of nuclear power plants in the GDR dated 20 July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Regulation enters into force on 1 October 1988 and provides for governmental quality control of products, plants and services intended for the erection and reconstruction of nuclear power plant systems. It covers the following provisions: quality control; licensing of enterprises; approval of the use of products manufactured in the GDR; acceptance of products manufactured in the GDR; clearance of plants and services; clearance of imported products; labelling; consulting of experts; penalties, and interim provisions

  12. Becoming a refinery leader by changing operations to match new product quality regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Global environmental concerns have forced the automotive and oil industries to increase efficiency and reduce emissions, which has led to the tightening of fuels specifications around the world. The implementation of ultra-low sulphur transport fuels has become a worldwide trend with growing momentum. Compliance with these standards requires the refiner to make decisions in advance of the implementation date. Therefore, in order to make changes on time, refiners are currently assessing options and changes required to comply with regulations by 2016. Similar regulations have been implemented in Europe already and KBC has the methodology and experience to assess the existing refinery configuration, unit capability and facility infrastructure to provide the basis for decision making. This paper focus on KBC's methodology which looks at the molecular management needed to produce the low levels of sulfur and toxic required in today's refined products. A key element to the study is the use of Petro-SIM for development of a representative detailed non-linear model, of the refinery which has been used to test ideas and configurations and help confirm the Refinery LP development activities. Using a Petro-SIM representation, KBC is able to make an assessment of the impact of imposing Tier 3 gasoline (sulphur to < 10 ppm) on the refinery, examining critical blending constraints, unused stream qualities and quantities and likely type and scale of capital investment that would be required while optimising unit operations and maximising margins. This paper illustrates KBC's current thinking based on studies done to date to review clean fuels and Tier 3 specifications options for specific refinery configurations. (author)

  13. Peer effects on self-regulation in adolescence depend on the nature and quality of the peer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; McLaughlin, Katie A; Silk, Jennifer; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2017-11-21

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of self-regulation, and peer interactions are thought to strongly influence regulation ability. Simple exposure to peers has been found to alter decisions about risky behaviors and increase sensitivity to rewards. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of the type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). Little is known about how the nature of interactions with peers influences different dimensions of self-regulation. We examined how randomization to acceptance or rejection by online "virtual" peers influenced multiple dimensions of self-regulation in a multisite community sample of 273 adolescents aged 16-17 years. Compared to a neutral condition, exposure to peers produced increases in cold cognitive control, but decreased hot cognitive control. Relative to peer acceptance, peer rejection reduced distress tolerance and increased sensitivity to losses. These findings suggest that different dimensions of adolescent self-regulation are influenced by the nature of the peer context: basic cognitive functions are altered by mere exposure to peers, whereas more complex decision making and emotion regulation processes are influenced primarily by the quality of that exposure.

  14. Maternal High-Fat Diet and Obesity Impact Palatable Food Intake and Dopamine Signaling in Nonhuman Primate Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Kievit, Paul; Kirigiti, Melissa A.; Bauman, Leigh Ann; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Dean, Tyler A.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Frazee, Tim; Douville, Luke; Majer, Jordan; Smith, M. Susan; Grove, Kevin L.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food. We will also examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. Methods The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. We also examined the influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopamine system at 13 months of age. Results During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 protein. Conclusion Our findings reveal that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling. PMID:26530932

  15. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  16. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce R.S. Raimundo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure, cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure.

  17. Decreasing maternal myostatin programs adult offspring bone strength in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Arin K; Kamp, William M; McCray, Marcus G; Carleton, Stephanie M; Karasseva, Natalia; Lenz, Kristin L; Jeong, Youngjae; Daghlas, Salah A; Yao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yong; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Schulz, Laura C; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2016-11-22

    During fetal development, the uterine environment can have effects on offspring bone architecture and integrity that persist into adulthood; however, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass. Parental myostatin deficiency (Mstn tm1Sjl/+ ) increases muscle mass in wild-type offspring, suggesting an intrauterine programming effect. Here, we hypothesized that Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams would also confer increased bone strength. In wild-type offspring, maternal myostatin deficiency altered fetal growth and calvarial collagen content of newborn mice and conferred a lasting impact on bone geometry and biomechanical integrity of offspring at 4 mo of age, the age of peak bone mass. Second, we sought to apply maternal myostatin deficiency to a mouse model with osteogenesis imperfecta (Col1a2 oim ), a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by abnormalities in the structure and/or synthesis of type I collagen. Femora of male Col1a2 oim/+ offspring from natural mating of Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams to Col1a2 oim/+ sires had a 15% increase in torsional ultimate strength, a 29% increase in tensile strength, and a 24% increase in energy to failure compared with age, sex, and genotype-matched offspring from natural mating of Col1a2 oim/+ dams to Col1a2 oim/+ sires. Finally, increased bone biomechanical strength of Col1a2 oim/+ offspring that had been transferred into Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams as blastocysts demonstrated that the effects of maternal myostatin deficiency were conferred by the postimplantation environment. Thus, targeting the gestational environment, and specifically prenatal myostatin pathways, provides a potential therapeutic window and an approach for treating osteogenesis imperfecta.

  18. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  19. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Centenarian offspring: start healthier and stay healthier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Nolan, Vikki G; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T; Terry, Dellara F

    2008-11-01

    To assess the relative incidence of age-related diseases in a group of centenarian offspring who have thus far been considered to be predisposed to "healthy" aging. Longitudinal study. Nationwide sample. Four hundred forty centenarian offspring and 192 referent cohort subjects who met inclusion criteria of having initial and follow-up health questionnaire data available. Median age of both cohorts was 72 at the initial health questionnaire. Initial health questionnaires were collected from 1997 to 2006. Follow-up questionnaires were collected from 2004 to 2007. The mean period of follow-up was 3.5+/-1.7 years for the centenarian offspring and 3.9+/-2.2 years for the referent cohort. During the follow-up period, centenarian offspring had a 78% lower risk of myocardial infarction (Padvantages over time over similarly aged referent cohort subjects. These findings reinforce the notion that there may be physiological reasons that longevity runs in families and that centenarian offspring are more likely to age in better cardiovascular health and with a lower mortality than their peers.

  1. Offering offspring as food to cannibals: oviposition strategies of Amazonian poison frogs (Dendrobates ventrimaculatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Species utilizing distinct resources for offspring production often show plasticity in reproductive strategies as a function of resource quality. For species using ephemeral pools, strategies are mainly shaped by a time constraint related to pool stability, resource availability and the colonizing

  2. Voyageurs National Park: Water-level regulation and effects on water quality and aquatic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; LeDuc, Jaime F.

    2018-01-01

    Following dam installations in the remote Rainy Lake Basin during the early 1900s, water-level fluctuations were considered extreme (1914–1949) compared to more natural conditions. In 1949, the International Joint Commission (IJC), which sets rules governing dam operation on waters shared by the United States and Canada, established the first rule curves to regulate water levels on these waterbodies. However, rule curves established prior to 2000 were determined to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Therefore, the IJC implemented an order in 2000 to change rule curves and to restore a more natural water regime. After 2000, measured chlorophyll-a concentrations in the two most eutrophic water bodies decreased whereas concentrations in oligotrophic lakes did not show significant water-quality differences. Fish mercury data were inconclusive, due to the variation in water levels and fish mercury concentrations, but can be used by the IJC as part of a long term data set.

  3. Scrap supply in Bosnian after war situation - sources, quality, regulation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihura, Dervis

    1999-01-01

    Before the war, the Bosnian foundry and steel industry were supplied with scrap partly from domestic sources but mainly from foreign market. The annual steel production before the war recorded 130,000 tonnes of casting and 2,000.000 tonnes of crude steel. Most of the scrap was imported to secure and stabilize the production. During and after the war, despite a significant loss of production, efforts have been made to return to the normal production level in many ways. In the wake of the war, there has been a growing concern over the import of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap or low quality raw materials which are uncontrolled or of unidentified sources. In this regard, it is urgently required to establish an effective system to prevent from, to detect and to control the flow of the radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap. The system should be established in such a way that all sorts of radioactive metallurgical elements should be controlled and prevented from use in all the metallurgical manufacturing processes, ferrous and non-ferrous alike. The coverage of control should start from the border or (air) port checkpoint where the flow of the scrap begins to the final steel product. The control system should take a form of internationally common and acceptable standards and regulations. Equipments and measurement techniques should also be internationally common. (author)

  4. Is there a mismatch between the perspectives of patients and regulators on healthcare quality? : A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.D.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Internationally, healthcare quality regulators are criticized for failing to respond to patients' complaints. Patient involvement is, therefore, an important item on the policy agenda. However, it can be argued that there is a discrepancy between the patients' perspective and current

  5. Is there a mismatch between the perspectives of patients and regulators on healthcare quality? A survey study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Internationally, healthcare quality regulators are criticized for failing to respond to patients' complaints. Patient involvement is, therefore, an important item on the policy agenda. However, it can be argued that there is a discrepancy between the patients' perspective and current

  6. Individual differences in effects of child care quality : The role of child affective self-regulation and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands.

  7. Linear Modeling and Regulation Quality Analysis for Hydro-Turbine Governing System with an Open Tailrace Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the state–space method (SSM, a novel linear mathematical model of the unsteady flow for the tailrace system with an open channel is proposed. This novel model is an elastic linearized model of water hammer. The validity of the model has been verified by several examples of numerical simulation, which are based on a finite difference technique. Then, the complete mathematical model for the hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with an open tailrace channel, which is used for simulating the transient process of the hydro-turbine governing system under load disturbance, is established by combining the models of hydro-turbine, generator, governor and open tailrace channel. Finally, according to the complete model, the regulation quality for hydro-turbine governing system with an open tailrace channel under load disturbance is studied, and the effects of open tailrace channel and tailrace surge tank on regulation quality are analyzed. The results indicate that: The open tailrace channel has a strong influence on the regulation quality by observing the water level fluctuations in tailrace surge tank. The surge shows a piecewise periodical change along with the variation in the length of an open channel. The open tailrace channel can be used to improve the regulation quality of hydro-turbine governing system.

  8. Visualization of regulations to support design and quality control--a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomé, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to visualize design regulations of furniture by means of interactive technology based on earlier studies and practical examples. The usage of the visualized regulations was evaluated on two occasions: at the start when the first set of regulations was presented, and after six years of usage of all regulations. The visualized regulations were the result of a design process involving experts and potential users in collaboration with IKEA of Sweden AB. The evaluations by the different users showed a very positive response to using visualized regulations. The participative approach, combining expertise in specific regulations with visualization of guidelines, resulted in clear presentations of important regulations, and great attitudes among the users. These kinds of visualizations have proved to be applicable in a variety of product areas at IKEA, with a potential for further dissemination. It is likely that the approaches to design and visualized regulations in this case study could function in other branches.

  9. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  10. Maternal house dust mite exposure during pregnancy enhances severity of house dust mite-induced asthma in murine offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Phoebe K; Yamani, Amnah; Chougnet, Claire A; Lewkowich, Ian P

    2017-11-01

    Atopic status of the mother and maternal exposure to environmental factors are associated with increased asthma risk. Moreover, animal models demonstrate that exposure to allergens in strongly sensitized mothers influences offspring asthma development, suggesting that in utero exposures can influence offspring asthma. However, it is unclear whether maternal exposure to common human allergens such as house dust mite (HDM), in the absence of additional adjuvants, influences offspring asthma development. We sought to determine whether maternal HDM exposure influences asthma development in offspring. Pregnant female mice were exposed to PBS or HDM during pregnancy. Using offspring of PBS- or HDM-exposed mothers, the magnitude of HDM or Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) extract-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, immunoglobulin production, T H 2-associated cytokine synthesis, and pulmonary dendritic cell activity was assessed. Compared with offspring of PBS-exposed mothers, offspring of HDM-exposed mothers demonstrate increased AHR, airway inflammation, T H 2 cytokine production, and immunoglobulin levels and a modest decrease in the phagocytic capacity of pulmonary macrophage populations following HDM exposure. Increased sensitivity to AF-induced airway disease was not observed. Offspring of HDM-exposed B-cell-deficient mothers also demonstrated increased HDM-induced AHR, suggesting that transfer of maternal immunoglobulins is not required. Our data demonstrate that maternal exposure to HDM during pregnancy increases asthma sensitivity in offspring in an HDM-specific manner, suggesting that vertical transmission of maternal immune responses may be involved. These findings have important implications for regulation of asthma risk, and suggest that exposure to HDM in the developed world may have underappreciated influences on the overall prevalence of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  11. Problem partners and parenting: exploring linkages with maternal insecure attachment style and adolescent offspring internalizing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.

  12. Promotion of self-regulated learning in classrooms : investigating frequency, quality, and consequences for student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistner, Saskia; Rakoczy, Katrin; Otto, Barbara; Dignath -van Ewijk, Charlotte; Buettner, Gerhard; Klieme, Eckhard

    An implication of the current research on self-regulation is to implement the promotion of self-regulated learning in schools. Teachers can promote self-regulated learning either directly by teaching learning strategies or indirectly by arranging a learning environment that enables students to

  13. Cognitive emotion regulation: characteristics and effect on quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jinqiang

    2015-05-06

    In recent decades, researchers and clinicians have sought to determine how to improve the quality of life (QOL) of women with breast cancer. Previous research has shown that many women have particular behavioral coping styles, which are important determinants of QOL. As behavior is closely associated with cognition, these patients may also have particular cognitive coping styles. However, the cognitive coping characteristics and their effects on QOL in women with breast cancer remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to characterize cognitive coping styles among women with breast cancer and explore the effects of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on QOL. The Chinese version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was used to assess cognitive coping strategies in 665 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 662 healthy women. QOL of patients was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer Scale. Independent-samples t-tests were performed to investigate group differences in reporting of cognitive coping strategies. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of cognitive coping strategies on QOL in patients after controlling for sociodemographic and medical variables. Compared with control subjects, patients reported less frequent use of self-blame, rumination, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, positive reappraisal, and blaming others, and more frequent use of acceptance and catastrophizing (all p < 0.01). The three strongest predictors of group membership were catastrophizing (B = -0.35), acceptance (B = -0.29), and positive reappraisal (B = 0.23). All nine coping strategies were significantly correlated with QOL in patients (all p < 0.05). After controlling for sociodemographic and medical variables, self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively affected QOL (all p < 0.05), whereas acceptance and positive reappraisal had positive effects (all p

  14. Compartmentalized Regulation of Parkin-Mediated Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Drosophila Nervous System In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun; Tandarich, Lauren C.; Nguyen, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    In neurons, the normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are considered essential for maintaining the functions of the large asymmetric cell and its diverse compartments. Parkin, a E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson's disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal in cells including neurons. However, it is not clear how Parkin functions in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, or whether Parkin-dependent events of the mitochondrial life cycle occur in all neuronal compartments. Here, using the live Drosophila nervous system, we investigated the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics, distribution, morphology, and removal. Contrary to our expectations, we found that Parkin-deficient animals do not accumulate senescent mitochondria in their motor axons or neuromuscular junctions; instead, they contain far fewer axonal mitochondria, and these displayed normal motility behavior, morphology, and metabolic state. However, the loss of Parkin did produce abnormal tubular and reticular mitochondria restricted to the motor cell bodies. In addition, in contrast to drug-treated, immortalized cells in vitro, mature motor neurons rarely displayed Parkin-dependent mitophagy. These data indicate that the cell body is the focus of Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control in neurons, and argue that a selection process allows only healthy mitochondria to pass from cell bodies to axons, perhaps to limit the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkin has been proposed to police mitochondrial fidelity by binding to dysfunctional mitochondria via PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and targeting them for autophagic degradation. However, it is unknown whether and how the PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates the mitochondrial life cycle in neurons in vivo. Using Drosophila motor neurons, we show that parkin disruption generates an abnormal mitochondrial network in cell

  15. Late gestational intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in male adult offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Cortese, Rene; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Ye, Honggang; Bao, Riyue; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2017-04-15

    genes. Pathway analyses showed that genes affected by LG-IH were mainly associated with molecular processes related to metabolic regulation and inflammation. LG-IH induces metabolic dysfunction as reflected by increased body weight and adiposity index in adult male offspring that is paralleled by epigenomic alterations and inflammation in VWAT. Thus, perturbations to fetal environment by OSA during pregnancy can have long-term detrimental effects on the fetus, and lead to persistent metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  16. Specifications and Quality of Technetium99m Produced diopharmaceuticals According to Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudaia, Jamal; Ben Othman, Monji H.; Maatoug, Maatoug A.; Maatoug, M. Omar

    2003-01-01

    A Technological revolution has occurred in the last two decades of this century in field of Cold Kits preparations processed by Lyophilization technique (A drying process while frozen) which are labeled afterwards with Technetium-99m radionuclide. Such materials are intended to be used as Radiopharmaceutical probes in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of dynamic and static conditions of organs, and therefore; uncovering of diseases and syndromes targeting humans. Preferability and the advantages of such kits labeled with Technetium-99m radionuclide over other types of radiopharmaceuticals is attributed to the unique physical properties of the radionuclide including its short half life of 6.02 hours, low photon energy of 140 keV, lacking of alpha and beta particles which are usually exposing patients to have additional exposed doses. Moreover, simplicity in obtaining such radionuclide in form portable generators containing the mother radionuclide Molybdenum - 99 (i.e. solvent extraction generators or adsorption column chromatographic generators) for-on-the- spot-labeling, and the ability of formulating the cold kits as chemical complexes located at different organs of human body. Those lyophilized kits intended for radiopharmaceutical preparations labeled with Technetium - 99m radionuclide must stand for quality assurance standards and assessments for the sake of safety, efficiency, apyrogenecity, radiochemical purity, in- vivo stability and suitability for the endeavor planed for. Therefore, in order to control and optimize those considerations, implementations of the so-called GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE composed of regulations and constitutional laws related to the process of preparation and final produced preparation must take place.(author)

  17. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myoung-suk; Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  18. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  19. Unique contributions of emotion regulation and executive functions in predicting the quality of parent-child interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks. In our analyses, we accounted for parent education, financial stress, and social support as socioeconomic factors that likely relate to parent executive function and emotion regulation skills. In a diverse sample of primary caregivers (N = 102), we found that direct assessment of parent inhibitory control was positively associated with sensitive/responsive behaviors, whereas parent self-reported difficulties in using emotion regulation strategies were associated with lower levels of positive and collaborative dyadic behaviors. Parent education and financial stress predicted inhibitory control, and social support predicted emotion regulation difficulties; parent education was also a significant predictor of sensitive/responsive behaviors. Greater inhibitory control skills and fewer difficulties identifying effective emotion regulation strategies were not significantly related in our final path model. We discuss our findings in the context of current and emerging parenting interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study: 12-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other psychopathology. Method: The Dutch bipolar offspring cohort is a fixed cohort initiated in 1997 (N=140; age range at baseline, 12-21 years). Bipolar offspring were psychiatrically evaluated at baseline and a...

  1. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  2. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  3. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  4. Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 431/2011 of 16 November 2011 on the quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Regulation lays down details of the requirements for the scope, content, hierarchy, structure and review of the quality management system of subjects seeking for licences and of licensees, requirements for the scope, content, hierarchy, and structure of the quality management system documentation, details of the requirements for quality assurance at nuclear facilities, details of the requirements for quality assurance at selected facilities, and details of the scope of their licensing. The Regulation has the following Annexes: (1) Requirements for the quality management system; (2) Requirements for quality management system documentation; (3) Scope of quality management system documentation to be approved; (4) Requirements for quality assurance programs of nuclear facilities; (5) Requirements for quality plans of selected facilities; (6) Requirements for the quality of selected facilities; (7) Requirements for accompanying technical documentation of selected facilities; (P.A.)

  5. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  6. Maternal Diet, Metabolic State, and Inflammatory Response Exert Unique and Long-Lasting Influences on Offspring Behavior in Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Thompson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status influences brain health and gestational exposure to metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and diabetes increases the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of maternal Western-style diet (WSD, metabolic state, and inflammatory factors in the programming of Japanese macaque offspring behavior. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we investigated the relationships between maternal diet, prepregnancy adiposity, third trimester insulin response, and plasma cytokine levels on 11-month-old offspring behavior. Maternal WSD was associated with greater reactive and ritualized anxiety in offspring. Maternal adiposity and third trimester macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC exerted opposing effects on offspring high-energy outbursts. Elevated levels of this behavior were associated with low maternal MDC and increased prepregnancy adiposity. This is the first study to show that maternal MDC levels influence offspring behavior. We found no evidence suggesting maternal peripheral inflammatory response mediated the effect of maternal diet and metabolic state on aberrant offspring behavior. Additionally, the extent of maternal metabolic impairment differentially influenced chemokine response. Elevated prepregnancy adiposity suppressed third trimester chemokines, while obesity-induced insulin resistance augmented peripheral chemokine levels. WSD also directly increased maternal interleukin-12. This is the first non-human primate study to delineate the effects of maternal diet and metabolic state on gestational inflammatory environment and subsequent offspring behavior. Our findings give insight to the complex mechanisms by which diet, metabolic state, and inflammation during pregnancy exert unique influences on offspring behavioral regulation.

  7. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Wang

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris, semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus. Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED, Cla005404 (NCED, Cla020673 (CYP707A, Cla006655 (UGT and Cla020180 (SnRK2, varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A and one single SNP (-701, G/A in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2 exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into

  8. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  9. 76 FR 6727 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... location. Written comments will be accepted through the close of business on March 16, 2011. Locations: The... Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Provide for Regulation of Natural Gas Development Projects... proposed rule containing tentative dates and locations for public hearings on proposed amendments to its...

  10. The Relationship of Spiritual Health with Quality of Life,Mental Health, and Burnout: The Mediating Role of Emotional Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi akbari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The World Health Organization's definition of health now stands open to severe criticism due to changes in today's world and the accompanying mental void; in addition to physical, psychological, and social aspects, spiritual health and its interaction with the other aspects has been studied in scientific literature and recent research. The present study was conducted to investigate the mediating role of emotional regulation in the relationship between spiritual health with quality of life, psychological health, and burnout.Method: In this study, 231 staff from Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences completed Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF, General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28, and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. The gathered data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, Hierarchical Regression analysis, and Sobel’s test.Results: All variables were correlated with one another (p<0.001. The hierarchical regression analysis and Sobel’s test indicated that the emotional regulation have a relative mediating role in the relationship between spiritual health and quality of life (ß=0.53, Z=4.05, p<0.001 and a complete mediating role in the relationship between spiritual health with mental health (ß=0.68, Z=5.62, p<0.001 and burnout (ß=0.70, Z=6.12, p<0.001.Conclusion: There is a complex and non-linear relationship between spiritual health and the areas of quality of life, mental health and burnout. This relationship is potentially influenced by emotional regulation.

  11. Antenatal hypoxia induces programming of reduced arterial blood pressure response in female rat offspring: role of ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to adverse environmental factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal hypoxia causes a gender-dependent programming of altered arterial blood pressure response (BP in adult offspring. Time-dated pregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation groups. The experiments were conducted in adult offspring. Antenatal hypoxia caused intrauterine growth restriction, and resulted in a gender-dependent increase Angiotensin II (Ang II-induced BP response in male offspring, but significant decrease in BP response in female offspring. The baroreflex sensitivity was not significantly altered. Consistent with the reduced blood pressure response, antenatal hypoxia significantly decreased Ang II-induced arterial vasoconstriction in female offspring. Ovariectomy had no significant effect in control animals, but significantly increased Ang II-induced maximal BP response in prenatally hypoxic animals and eliminated the difference of BP response between the two groups. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized animals significantly decreased the BP response to angiotensin II I only in control, but not in hypoxic animals. The result suggests complex programming mechanisms of antenatal hypoxia in regulation of ovary function. Hypoxia-mediated ovary dysfunction results in the phenotype of reduced vascular contractility and BP response in female adult offspring.

  12. Does regulation stimulate productivity? The effect of air quality policies on the efficiency of US power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, Rachel; Alexander, Rob; Bretschneider, Stuart; Popp, David

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of air quality regulations on the productivity of US power plants based on both economic and environmental outputs. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate an efficiency measure incorporating both economic and environmental outcomes, we look at changes in efficiency in US power plants over an eleven-year time period (1994-2004) during which several different regulations were implemented for the control of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The paper then models how estimated efficiency behaves over time as a function of regulatory changes. Findings suggest mixed effects of regulations on power plant efficiency when pollution abatement and electricity generation are both included as outputs.

  13. Comparing Life Quality Strategies and Emotion Regulation in People with Congenital and Non-Congenital Motor Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zeynab Miraghaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare emotion regulation strategies and life quality of people with congenital and non-congenital motor disabilities. Method: This study is a casual-comparative study and its population consisted of all people with congenital and non-congenital motor disability in Kahrizak Charity Foundation in Tehran in 2016. To conduct the study, available sampling method was used, and congenital and non-congenital disabled people were selected (200 people. To collect data, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Scale by Granovsky and life quality questionnaire were used. Research hypotheses were tested using multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The findings of this study showed that there is a significant difference between emotion regulation components in people with congenital and non-congenital disabilities (p<0.05. Also, according to the findings, a significant difference was observed between life quality dimensions (physical and mental health in people with congenital and non-congenital disabilities (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the significant difference between two groups of subjects, necessary measures regarding consultation and psychotherapy should be taken into consideration to let people benefit from desirable mental health level.

  14. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness. PMID:26500814

  15. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18-80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness.

  16. Risk factors for suicide in offspring bereaved by sudden parental death from external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Lisa Victoria; Mehlum, Lars; Qin, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Parentally bereaved offspring have an increased suicide risk as a group, but the ability to identify specific individuals at risk on the basis of risk and protective factors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate to what degree different risk factors influence suicide risk in offspring bereaved by parental death from external causes. Based on Norwegian registers, individual-level data were retrieved for 375 parentally bereaved suicide cases and 7500 parentally bereaved gender- and age-matched living controls. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Bereaved offspring with low social support, indicated by offspring's single status and repeated changes in marital status and residence, had a significantly increased suicide risk compared to bereaved offspring with high social support. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, having an immigration background, having lost both parents and loss due to suicide significantly increased suicide risk. Several variables relevant to bereavement outcome, such as coping mechanisms and the quality of the parent-offspring relationship are impossible to examine by utilizing population registers. Moreover, the availability of data did not enable the measurement of marital stability and residence stability across the entire lifespan for older individuals. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the additional risk posed by the identified risk factors and incorporate this knowledge into existing practice and risk assessment in order to identify individuals at risk and effectively target bereaved family and friends for prevention and intervention programs. Ideal follow-up for bereaved families should include a specific focus on mobilizing social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect and regulation of drying on quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ya-Ru; Li, Yuan-Hui; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yue, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xue-Cheng; Xiong, Yao-Kun; Yang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    The dry quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills is the hot spot of pills research, because their quality has a crucial effect on the efficacy and development of dosage forms. Through literature research and statistical analysis, we would review the current problems on the drying of traditional Chinese medicine pills in this paper, and surrounding the evaluation system for traditional Chinese medicine pills, analyze the characteristics of common drying equipment and processes as well as their effect on quality of pills, discuss the problems in drying equipment and process as well as quality, and put forward the corresponding strategies, hoping to provide new ideas and new methods for the quality improvement of traditional Chinese medicine pills and quality standards. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. BDNF and BMI effects on brain structures of bipolar offspring: results from the global mood and brain science initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, R B; Brietzke, E; McIntyre, R S; Cao, B; Lee, Y; Japiassú, L; Chen, K; Lu, R; Lu, W; Li, T; Xu, G; Lin, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and healthy controls (HCs) and investigate the effects of BDNF levels and body mass index (BMI) on brain structures. Sixty-seven bipolar offspring and 45 HCs were included (ages 8-28). Structural images were acquired using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Serum BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted. Significantly higher BDNF levels were observed among bipolar offspring, relative to HCs (P > 0.025). Offspring status moderated the association between BDNF and BMI (F 1 =4.636, P = 0.034). After adjustment for relevant covariates, there was a trend for a significant interaction of group and BDNF on neuroimaging parameters (Wilks'λ F 56,94 =1.463, P = 0.052), with significant effects on cerebellar white matter and superior and middle frontal regions. Brain volume and BDNF were positively correlated among HCs and negatively correlated among bipolar offspring. Interactions between BDNF and BMI on brain volumes were non-significant among HCs (Wilks'λ F 28,2 =2.229, P = 0.357), but significant among bipolar offspring (Wilks'λ F 28,12 =2.899, P = 0.028). Offspring status and BMI moderate the association between BDNF levels and brain structures among bipolar offspring, underscoring BDNF regulation and overweight/obesity as key moderators of BD pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Transmission of stress-induced learning impairment and associated brain gene expression from parents to offspring in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Red junglefowl (RJF, ancestors of modern chickens and domesticated White Leghorn (WL chickens were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light-dark rhythm and control animals in similar pens, but on a 12/12 h light-dark rhythm. WL in both treatments had poorer spatial learning ability than RJF, and in both populations, stress caused a reduced ability to solve a spatial learning task. Offspring of stressed WL, but not RJF, raised without parental contact, had a reduced spatial learning ability compared to offspring of non-stressed animals in a similar test as that used for their parents. Offspring of stressed WL were also more competitive and grew faster than offspring of non-stressed parents. Using a whole-genome cDNA microarray, we found that in WL, the same changes in hypothalamic gene expression profile caused by stress in the parents were also found in the offspring. In offspring of stressed WL, at least 31 genes were up- or down-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary compared to offspring of non-stressed parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, in WL the gene expression response to stress, as well as some behavioural stress responses, were transmitted across generations. The ability to transmit epigenetic information and behaviour modifications between generations may therefore have been favoured by domestication. The mechanisms involved remain to be investigated; epigenetic modifications could either have been inherited or acquired de novo in the specific egg environment. In both cases, this would offer a novel explanation to

  20. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers' first 11 years of their child's life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775

  2. Regulation of protein quality control by UBE4B and LSD1 through p53-mediated transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Periz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein quality control is essential for clearing misfolded and aggregated proteins from the cell, and its failure is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we identify two genes, ufd-2 and spr-5, that when inactivated, synergistically and robustly suppress neurotoxicity associated with misfolded proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of human orthologs ubiquitination factor E4 B (UBE4B and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, respectively encoding a ubiquitin ligase and a lysine-specific demethylase, promotes the clearance of misfolded proteins in mammalian cells by activating both proteasomal and autophagic degradation machineries. An unbiased search in this pathway reveals a downstream effector as the transcription factor p53, a shared substrate of UBE4B and LSD1 that functions as a key regulator of protein quality control to protect against proteotoxicity. These studies identify a new protein quality control pathway via regulation of transcription factors and point to the augmentation of protein quality control as a wide-spectrum antiproteotoxicity strategy.

  3. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II: Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.; Mindykowski, J.; Tarasiuk, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of lowered voltage quality in ship power systems on windings temperature of low-power induction cage machines. The results of investigations carried out with experimental and analytical methods are presented. The thermal impact of power quality disturbances permitted by ship classification societies is discussed. A proposal of new power quality regulations for ship classification societies is made.

  4. Latent profiles of non-residential father engagement six years after divorce predict long term offspring outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    This study examined profiles of non-residential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) six to eight years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, nine years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of non-residential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed nine years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes nine years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother’s remarriage, mother’s income, and gender, age and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems nine years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long-term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456

  5. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peletz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies, served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05. Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  6. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  7. Report on the service quality incentive regulations for gas network operators and ERDF. 2009-2010 Report Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The latest natural gas transmission network tariffs, called 'ATRT4', and the tariffs for natural gas distribution network, 'ATRD3', as well as the 3. tariffs for using the public electricity networks, 'TURPE 3', constitute a regulatory framework offering incentives to gas transmission and distribution operators, as well as the electricity distributor ERDF, to control their costs and improve the quality of service provided for network users. For gas and electricity distribution system operators (DSO), the incentive-based regulation for quality of service implemented through the tariffs is complementary to the supervision powers of the licensing authorities. It operates by means of concession contracts which imply that the concessionaire has to deliver activity reports and that the licensing authorities have to publish monitoring reports of the concessionaire's activity. The licensing authorities act on the local level, whereas the incentive regulation is of national scope. The actions of the licensing authorities and of the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) contribute together to assess and enhance the quality of service of the DSO. As the service quality monitoring exercises are conducted successively, the analysis will become more refined as a greater data history is acquired. The quality of service from the gas network operators (GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF) and the electricity distributor (ERDF) has been improving gradually over the period of the monitoring, or has stabilised at a satisfactory level for the areas that are most important for the correct functioning of the market. Some objectives set by the tariffs have been met or even exceeded, which earns financial bonuses for the operators in question. This second service quality monitoring report on the gas network operators and ERDF is going to be used by the CRE, in consultation with all the market players, to refine the incentive mechanisms already in place. Contents: 1

  8. Obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in offspring of diabetic mothers: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Maki; Miyazaki, Celine; Mori, Rintaro; Kikuchi, Toru; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Ota, Erika

    2018-01-01

    Background Rising prevalence of childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an emerging public health issue. Objectives To investigate the association of maternal hyperglycemia exposure during pregnancy with obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in offspring, and the age at occurrence. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies on obesity and diabetes in offspring of diabetic mothers (gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM), and those on non-diabetic mothers. We performed fixed effect meta-analysis for all studies except when heterogeneity was detected. The quality of studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS) Results Twenty observational studies were included involving a total of 26,509 children. Offspring of GDM mother had higher BMI z-score in childhood (pooled MD: 0.14, 95%CI: 0.04–0.24, seven studies, 21,691children, low quality of evidence). Offspring of T1DM mothers had higher BMI z-score from prepubertal to adolescent (pooled MD: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13–0.58, three studies, 844 children, low quality of evidence) compared with control. After adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, this association remained in offspring of T1DM, but disappeared in those of GDM mothers. Offspring of GDM mother had higher 2-hour plasma glucose from prepubertal to early adulthood (pooled MD: 0.43 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.18–0.69, five studies, 890 children), while those of T1DM mothers had higher rate of T2DM in 2–5 years old to early adulthood (pooled odds ratio [OR], 6.10: 95% CI: 1.23–30.37, two studies, 448 children, very low quality of evidence) compared with control. As there was only one study with offspring of T2DM mothers, evidence is sparse. Limitations Only observational studies were included, with a few adequately adjusted for covariables. Conclusions Exposure to maternal hyperglycemia was associated with offspring obesity and abnormal

  9. Obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in offspring of diabetic mothers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Maki; Arata, Naoko; Miyazaki, Celine; Mori, Rintaro; Kikuchi, Toru; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Ota, Erika

    2018-01-01

    Rising prevalence of childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an emerging public health issue. To investigate the association of maternal hyperglycemia exposure during pregnancy with obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in offspring, and the age at occurrence. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies on obesity and diabetes in offspring of diabetic mothers (gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM), and those on non-diabetic mothers. We performed fixed effect meta-analysis for all studies except when heterogeneity was detected. The quality of studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Twenty observational studies were included involving a total of 26,509 children. Offspring of GDM mother had higher BMI z-score in childhood (pooled MD: 0.14, 95%CI: 0.04-0.24, seven studies, 21,691children, low quality of evidence). Offspring of T1DM mothers had higher BMI z-score from prepubertal to adolescent (pooled MD: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.58, three studies, 844 children, low quality of evidence) compared with control. After adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, this association remained in offspring of T1DM, but disappeared in those of GDM mothers. Offspring of GDM mother had higher 2-hour plasma glucose from prepubertal to early adulthood (pooled MD: 0.43 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.18-0.69, five studies, 890 children), while those of T1DM mothers had higher rate of T2DM in 2-5 years old to early adulthood (pooled odds ratio [OR], 6.10: 95% CI: 1.23-30.37, two studies, 448 children, very low quality of evidence) compared with control. As there was only one study with offspring of T2DM mothers, evidence is sparse. Only observational studies were included, with a few adequately adjusted for covariables. Exposure to maternal hyperglycemia was associated with offspring obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance especially in offspring of T1DM mothers, but the evidence

  10. Obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in offspring of diabetic mothers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kawasaki

    Full Text Available Rising prevalence of childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is an emerging public health issue.To investigate the association of maternal hyperglycemia exposure during pregnancy with obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in offspring, and the age at occurrence.We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies on obesity and diabetes in offspring of diabetic mothers (gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, and those on non-diabetic mothers. We performed fixed effect meta-analysis for all studies except when heterogeneity was detected. The quality of studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS.Twenty observational studies were included involving a total of 26,509 children. Offspring of GDM mother had higher BMI z-score in childhood (pooled MD: 0.14, 95%CI: 0.04-0.24, seven studies, 21,691children, low quality of evidence. Offspring of T1DM mothers had higher BMI z-score from prepubertal to adolescent (pooled MD: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.58, three studies, 844 children, low quality of evidence compared with control. After adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, this association remained in offspring of T1DM, but disappeared in those of GDM mothers. Offspring of GDM mother had higher 2-hour plasma glucose from prepubertal to early adulthood (pooled MD: 0.43 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.18-0.69, five studies, 890 children, while those of T1DM mothers had higher rate of T2DM in 2-5 years old to early adulthood (pooled odds ratio [OR], 6.10: 95% CI: 1.23-30.37, two studies, 448 children, very low quality of evidence compared with control. As there was only one study with offspring of T2DM mothers, evidence is sparse.Only observational studies were included, with a few adequately adjusted for covariables.Exposure to maternal hyperglycemia was associated with offspring obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance especially in offspring of T1DM mothers, but the

  11. 75 FR 34950 - Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... customers that those products were derived from walnuts that meet quality standards under the order. The... process by eliminating the need for multiple inspections for the same product, and would improve handler... the size must be noted on the inspection certificate. The end product quality must be equal to or...

  12. Lonizing radiation regulations and the dental practitioner: 3. Quality assurance in dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, John; Brown, Jackie

    2012-06-01

    This is the last in a series of three articles on X-ray dose reduction and covers aspects of quality assurance. The first outlined radiation physics and protection and the second the legislation relating to radiation safety. Quality assurance is an essential part of dental radiography and is required to produce images of a consistently high standard, necessary for accurate diagnosis.

  13. Regulators' Views of Quality in Early Childhood Care and Education Settings in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafin, Sinéad

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature on the importance of good-quality early childhood care and education services. There is also, however, some agreement that service quality is a nebulous concept which is difficult to define and therefore difficult to assess. While there is growing literature in the area, the views of one stakeholder group--that of…

  14. Quality Managment Program (QMP) report: A review of quality management programs developed in response to Title 10, Section 35.32 of the Code of Federal Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    In July of 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published a Final Rule in the Federal Register amending regulations governing medical therapeutic administrations of byproduct material and certain uses of radioactive sodium iodide. These amendments required implementation of a Quality Management Program (QMP) to provide high confidence that the byproduct material -- or radiation from byproduct material -- will be administered as directed by an authorized user physician. Herein, this rule is referred to as the QM rule. The Final Rule was published after two proposed rules had been published in the Federal Register.

  15. Maternal high-fat diet induces metabolic stress response disorders in offspring hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long The; Saad, Sonia; Tan, Yi; Pollock, Carol; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Maternal obesity has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and related disorders in the offspring, which has been partially attributed to changes of appetite regulators in the offspring hypothalamus. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been implicated in hypothalamic neuropeptide dysregulation, thus may also play important roles in such transgenerational effect. In this study, we show that offspring born to high-fat diet-fed dams showed significantly increased body weight and glucose intolerance, adiposity and plasma triglyceride level at weaning. Hypothalamic mRNA level of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased, while the levels of the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), NPY1 receptor (NPY1R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) were significantly downregulated. In association, the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) markers including glucose-regulated protein (GRP)94 and endoplasmic reticulum DNA J domain-containing protein (Erdj)4 was reduced. By contrast, protein levels of autophagy-related genes Atg5 and Atg7, as well as mitophagy marker Parkin, were slightly increased. The administration of 4-phenyl butyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone of protein folding and UPR activator, in the offspring from postnatal day 4 significantly reduced their body weight, fat deposition, which were in association with increased activating transcription factor (ATF)4, immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) and Erdj4 mRNA as well as reduced Parkin, PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK)1 and dynamin-related protein (Drp)1 protein expression levels. These results suggest that hypothalamic ER stress and mitophagy are among the regulatory factors of offspring metabolic changes due to maternal obesity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Quality and safety of herbal medical products: regulation and the need for quality assurance along the value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Herbal medicines and products derived from them are a diverse group of products for which different (and often limited) levels of evidence are available. As importantly, such products generally vary in their composition and are at the end of an often poorly understood value chain, which often links producers in biodiversity rich countries with the large markets in the North. This paper discusses the current regulatory framework of such herbal medical products (with a focus on the UK) and using examples from our own metabolomic research on Curcumal longa L. (turmeric, Zingiberaceae) how value chains impact on the composition and quality (and thus the safety) of such products. Overall, our recent research demonstrates the need for studying the links between producers and consumers of commodities produced in provider countries and that plant metabolomics offer a novel way of assessing the chemical variability along a value chain. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Gestational protein restriction in mice has pronounced effects on gene expression in newborn offspring's liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of newborn mice subjected to a maternal low protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet during pregnancy, with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birthweight than NP offspring, whereas...... it was reduced by only 20% with taurine supplementation. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. By unknown mechanisms, taurine partially or fully prevented 30 and 46% of these expression changes, respectively....... Mitochondrial genes, in particular genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed in LP offspring, with primarily up-regulation in liver but down-regulation in skeletal muscle. In both tissues, citrate synthase activity remained unchanged. Taurine preferentially rescued changes...

  18. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  19. Intrauterine programming mechanism for hypercholesterolemia in prenatal caffeine-exposed female adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Luo, Hanwen W; Hu, Wen; Hu, Shuwei W; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Guihua H; Zhang, Li; Yu, Hong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin B; Wang, Hui

    2018-05-02

    Clinical and animal studies have indicated that hypercholesterolemia and its associated diseases have intrauterine developmental origins. Our previous studies showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) led to fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoids (GCs) and increased serum total cholesterol levels in adult rat offspring. This study further confirms the intrauterine programming of PCE-induced hypercholesterolemia in female adult rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD)9 to 20. Female rat offspring were euthanized at GD20 and postnatal wk 12; several adult rat offspring were additionally subjected to ice-water swimming stimulation to induce chronic stress prior to death. The effects of GCs on cholesterol metabolism and epigenetic regulation were verified using the L02 cell line. The results showed that PCE induced hypercholesterolemia in adult offspring, which manifested as significantly higher levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as higher ratios of LDL-C/HDL cholesterol. We further found that the cholesterol levels were increased in fetal livers but were decreased in fetal blood, accompanied by increased maternal blood cholesterol levels and reduced placental cholesterol transport. Furthermore, analysis of PCE offspring in the uterus and in a postnatal basal/chronic stress state and the results of in vitro experiments showed that hepatic cholesterol metabolism underwent GC-dependent changes and was associated with cholesterol synthase via abnormalities in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) histone acetylation. We concluded that, to compensate for intrauterine placentally derived decreases in fetal blood cholesterol levels, high intrauterine GC levels activated fetal hepatic CCAAT enhancer binding protein α signaling and down-regulated Sirtuin1 expression, which mediated the high levels of histone acetylation ( via H3K9

  20. High fructose consumption in pregnancy alters the perinatal environment without increasing metabolic disease in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineker, Christopher; Kerr, Paul M; Nguyen, Patricia; Bloor, Ian; Astbury, Stuart; Patel, Nikhil; Budge, Helen; Hemmings, Denise G; Plane, Frances; Symonds, Michael E; Bell, Rhonda C

    2016-10-01

    Maternal carbohydrate intake is one important determinant of fetal body composition, but whether increased exposure to individual sugars has long-term adverse effects on the offspring is not well established. Therefore, we examined the effect of fructose feeding on the mother, placenta, fetus and her offspring up to 6 months of life when they had been weaned onto a standard rodent diet and not exposed to additional fructose. Dams fed fructose were fatter, had raised plasma insulin and triglycerides from mid-gestation and higher glucose near term. Maternal resistance arteries showed changes in function that could negatively affect regulation of blood pressure and tissue perfusion in the mother and development of the fetus. Fructose feeding had no effect on placental weight or fetal metabolic profiles, but placental gene expression for the glucose transporter GLUT1 was reduced, whereas the abundance of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 was raised. Offspring born to fructose-fed and control dams were similar at birth and had similar post-weaning growth rates, and neither fat mass nor metabolic profiles were affected. In conclusion, raised fructose consumption during reproduction results in pronounced maternal metabolic and vascular effects, but no major detrimental metabolic effects were observed in offspring up to 6 months of age.

  1. Perinatal maternal stress and serotonin signaling: effects on pain sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Liesbeth; Pawluski, Jodi L; Patijn, Jacob; van Kleef, Maarten; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A

    2014-07-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women are facing perinatal stress and depression. Perinatal maternal stress has been shown to increase pain sensitivity in offspring. For the treatment of their depressive symptoms, pregnant women are frequently prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Since the descending pain inhibitory circuit matures perinatally, perinatal SSRI exposure has been shown to affect pain sensitivity in offspring. In the present review, we summarize experimental and clinical evidence for the effect of perinatal maternal stress and SSRI exposure on pain sensitivity in offspring. Both experimental and clinical studies show the effect of perinatal maternal stress on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and the serotonin pain inhibitory system. Alterations in these two systems likely underlie long-term alterations in the development of pain sensitivity. This review sheds light on the effect of perinatal maternal stress and treatment with SSRIs on offspring pain sensitivity, in relation to the developing HPA system and 5-HT signaling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Breeder nutrition and offspring performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Calini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical integration in poultry industry strongly emphasizes the importance of cost control at all levels. In the usual broiler production operations, the costs involved with the production of the hatching egg or the day old chick are negligible if seen in the perspective of the cost per kg of live bird. From a research point of view, anyway, the greatest attention is usually given to the performance of broiler breeders, and most of the research in the field is focused on the improvement of their relative performance, mainly in terms of saleable chicks produced per hen, while less attention has been given to the quality of the chick and to the improvement of its growth performances, even if these last parameters have an effective impact on the overall economics of the poultry growing business. Most of the data available is quite dated, as can be seen from some recent reviews, and in general little attention is given to the impact of parental nutrition on the subsequent broiler performance. It is in fact more usual to find data about dam nutrition influence on egg fertility and hatchability than on subsequent progeny performance. The objectives of this review were to assess, on the basis of published reports, the effects of selected nutrients and anti-nutrients normally prevailing in commercial broiler breeder feeds - vitamins, micro-minerals, mycotoxins, - trying to pinpoint which could be the positive and the negative effects of both on the subsequent broiler performance, with a particular attention to the impact on immune function and carcass yield.

  3. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  4. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  5. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  6. An Exercise‐Only Intervention in Obese Fathers  Restores Glucose and Insulin Regulation in  Conjunction with the Rescue of Pancreatic Islet Cell  Morphology and MicroRNA Expression in Male  Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole O. McPherson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paternal obesity programs metabolic syndrome in offspring. Low‐impact exercise in obese  males improves the metabolic health of female offspring, however whether this occurred in male  offspring remained unknown. C57BL/6NHsd (Harlan mice were fed a control diet (CD; 6% fat, n =  7 or a high‐fat diet (HFD; 21% fat, n = 16 for 18 weeks. After 9 weeks, HFD‐fed mice either remained  sedentary (HH, n = 8 or undertook low–moderate exercise (HE, n = 8 for another 9 weeks. Male  offspring were assessed for glucose/insulin tolerance, body composition, plasma lipids, pancreatic  islet cell morphology and microRNA expression. Founder HH induced glucose intolerance, insulin  insensitivity, and hyperlipidaemia in male offspring (p < 0.05. Metabolic health was fully restored  in male offspring by founder exercise to control levels. Founder HH reduced pancreatic β‐cell area  and islet cell size in male offspring, and altered the expression of 13 pancreatic microRNAs (p <  0.05. Founder HE led to partial restoration of pancreatic islet cell morphology and the expression  of two pancreatic microRNAs (let7d‐5p, 194‐5p in male offspring. Founder HE reduced male  offspring adiposity, increased muscle mass, reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFAs, and further  altered pancreatic microRNAs (35 vs. HH; 32 vs. CD (p < 0.05. Low‐impact exercise in obese fathers  prior to conception, without dietary change, may be a viable intervention strategy to reduce the illeffects of obesity‐induced paternal programming in male offspring.

  7. Health status and productive performance of somatic cell cloned cattle and their offspring produced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Since the first somatic cell cloned calves were born in Japan in 1998, more than 500 cloned cattle have been produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and many studies concerning cloned cattle and their offspring have been conducted in this country. However, most of the results have been published in Japanese; thus, the data produced in this country is not well utilized by researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the 65 reports produced by Japanese researchers (62 written in Japanese and 3 written in English), which employed 171 clones and 32 offspring, and categorizes them according to the following 7 categories: (1) genetic similarities and muzzle prints, (2) hematology and clinical chemistry findings, (3) pathology, (4) growth performance, (5) reproductive performance, (6) meat production performance and (7) milk production performance. No remarkable differences in health status or reproductive performance were found among conventionally bred cattle, somatic cell cloned cattle surviving to adulthood and offspring of somatic cell cloned cattle. Similarities in growth performance and meat quality were observed between nuclear donor cattle and their clones. The growth curves of the offspring resembled those of their full siblings.

  8. Individual Style of Self-Regulation of the Top Quality Sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Potapov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with identifying the individual specifics of self- regulation style development by the top qualification biathletes – the members of the Russian Federation team. The research combines the theoretical analysis methods, idealization and modeling techniques, psychological diagnostics, medical and pedagogical testing, and pedagogic experiment. The methodology basis includes the ideas of self-regulation developed by O. A. Konopkin and V. I. Morosanova. The author has devised and substantiated the method of developing the individual style of self-regulation by the top category biathletes. It has been proved that the above style can be achieved by sportsmen in the process of developing socially adequate motivation and socially valued personality traits by using verbal auto-training methods. It is indicated that there is no fixed correlation between a success in sport training and personality type. However, each type has its inherent steady characteristic complex of self-regulation. The research findings can be implemented both in training the top achievement sportsmen and sport reserves. 

  9. Integrated research - water quality, sociological, economic, and modeling - in a regulated watershed: Jordan Lake, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna Osmond; Mazdak Arabi; Caela O' Connell; Dana Hoag; Dan Line; Marzieh Motallebi; Ali Tasdighi

    2016-01-01

    Jordan Lake watershed is regulated by state rules in order to reduce nutrient loading from point and both agricultural and urban nonpoint sources. The agricultural community is expected to reduce nutrient loading by specific amounts that range from 35 - 0 percent nitrogen, and 5 - 0 percent phosphorus.

  10. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. ER-E2 regulation. Implementation of the national protocol for quality control of instrumentation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is the adoption and enforcement of the 'Protocol National Quality Control Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine'; as well as the establishment of an annual program of external audits, which take place on CCEEM, in order to verify compliance with the established considerations into protocols. It is applicable to all entities within the NHS who perform the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba, both for use 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

  12. Resolution 49/013. Is adequate the quality control of liquid fuels Regulation, approved by Resolution of the URSEA 150/2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Resolution is about the need to adapt the quality control regulation of liquid carburant approved by Resolution of the URSEA N. 150/2008. ANCAP has informed to URSEA the incorporation and reformularization of alcohol carburant in the gasoline

  13. Regulation No. 56/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic dated as of January 12, 2006 on details concerning requirements for quality system documentation of authorisation holder, as well as details concerning quality requirements for nuclear installations, details concerning quality requirements for classified equipment and details concerning the scope of their approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Regulation provides details of the requirements for quality system documentation holder, details of the quality requirements for nuclear installations, details concerning quality requirements for classified equipment and details of the scope of their approval. This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

  14. 78 FR 25445 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Quality Assurance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ..., Sr., Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Division, GSA (202) 501-1448 or email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Supplies and services acquired under Government contracts must conform to..., warranty, and other measures associated with quality requirements. Standard clauses related to inspection...

  15. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Quality Assurance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    .... Glover, Sr., Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Division, GSA (202) 501-1448 or email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Supplies and services acquired under Government contracts..., acceptance, warranty, and other measures associated with quality requirements. Standard clauses related to...

  16. 75 FR 51926 - Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... this could adversely impact marketing efforts. As a result, lab testing of meal was not considered a... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0036... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the quality...

  17. Cognitive and behavioural dispositions in offspring at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Keshav Janakiprasad; Benegal, Vivek

    2018-05-15

    Offspring with family history of alcoholism are considered to be at high risk for alcoholism. The present study sought to expand our understanding of cognitive and behavioural dispositions associated with executive control and self-regulation in alcohol naïve offspring with and without family history of alcoholism. Sample comprised of alcohol naive offspring in two groups: (i) at high risk (n = 34) and (ii) at low risk for alcoholism (n = 34). Both groups were matched on age (+/-1 year), education (+/-1 year) and gender. Measures used were: Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Family Interview for Genetic Studies, Socio-demographic Data Sheet, Annett's Handedness Questionnaire, Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale-version 11, Digit Span Test, Spatial Span Test, Tower of London, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Game of Dice Task (GDT). Results showed that alcohol naive offspring at high risk for alcoholism reported significantly high impulsivity and demonstrated significant differences on executive functions and decision making tasks. Correlation analysis revealed that high impulsivity was significantly associated with poor performance on explicit decision making task (GDT) and executive function task (WCST). There was no significant correlation between two decision making tasks (IGT and GDT) in both groups and performance on IGT was not significantly associated with impulsivity and executive functions. The present study indicates cognitive and behavioural dispositions in alcohol naive offspring at high risk for alcoholism and support the sub-optimal balance between reflective and impulsive system responsible for addiction. Furthermore, present study supports separability between two different types of decision making tasks. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Maternal stress induces epigenetic signatures of psychiatric and neurological diseases in the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola C R Zucchi

    Full Text Available The gestational state is a period of particular vulnerability to diseases that affect maternal and fetal health. Stress during gestation may represent a powerful influence on maternal mental health and offspring brain plasticity and development. Here we show that the fetal transcriptome, through microRNA (miRNA regulation, responds to prenatal stress in association with epigenetic signatures of psychiatric and neurological diseases. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to stress from gestational days 12 to 18 while others served as handled controls. Gestational stress in the dam disrupted parturient maternal behaviour and was accompanied by characteristic brain miRNA profiles in the mother and her offspring, and altered transcriptomic brain profiles in the offspring. In the offspring brains, prenatal stress upregulated miR-103, which is involved in brain pathologies, and downregulated its potential gene target Ptplb. Prenatal stress downregulated miR-145, a marker of multiple sclerosis in humans. Prenatal stress also upregulated miR-323 and miR-98, which may alter inflammatory responses in the brain. Furthermore, prenatal stress upregulated miR-219, which targets the gene Dazap1. Both miR-219 and Dazap1 are putative markers of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in humans. Offspring transcriptomic changes included genes related to development, axonal guidance and neuropathology. These findings indicate that prenatal stress modifies epigenetic signatures linked to disease during critical periods of fetal brain development. These observations provide a new mechanistic association between environmental and genetic risk factors in psychiatric and neurological disease.

  19. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  20. Effects of Paternal Predation Risk and Rearing Environment on Maternal Investment and Development of Defensive Responses in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detecting past experiences with predators of a potential mate informs a female about prevailing ecological threats, in addition to stress-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to offspring. We examined whether prior exposure of a male rat to a predator (cat) odor influences the attraction of a female toward a male, subsequent mother–infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring. Females displayed less interest in males that had experienced predator odor. Mothers that reared young in larger, seminaturalistic housing provided more licking and grooming and active arched back-nursing behavior toward their offspring compared with dams housed in standard housing, although some effects interacted with paternal experience. Paternal predation risk and maternal rearing environment revealed sex-dependent differences in offspring wean weight, juvenile social interactions, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescence. Additionally, paternal predator experience and maternal housing independently affected variations in crf gene promoter acetylation and crf gene expression in response to an acute stressor in offspring. Our results show for the first time in mammals that variation among males in their predator encounters may contribute to stable behavioral variation among females in preference for mates and maternal care, even when the females are not directly exposed to predator threat. Furthermore, when offspring were exposed to the same threat experienced by the father, hypothalamic crf gene regulation was influenced by paternal olfactory experience and early housing. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that paternal stress exposure and maternal rearing conditions can influence maternal behavior and the development of defensive responses in offspring. PMID:27896313

  1. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  3. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  4. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine: isolated and combined with other growth regulators on quality of ‘Brookfield’ apples after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth regulators are used in the production of apples worldwide, especially to extend the harvest period and maintain postharvest quality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in isolation as well as in combination with other growth regulators and postharvest techniques on the harvest quality and storage potential of ‘Brookfield’ apples (Malus domestica, a ‘Gala’ strain. Fruit receiving AVG only had the highest starch content and the highest titratable acidity at harvest. After 8 months of storage, the AVG + 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene and AVG + ABS (ethylene absorption conserved higher flesh firmness than to all the other treatments. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA application induced ACC oxidase enzyme activity at harvest, but not after storage. AVG application, with or without the aid of another technique, did not decrease the red skin color of ‘Brookfield’ apples. Low mealiness and a high healthy fruit percentage was obtained when the fruits were submitted to pre-harvest AVG application combined with NAA, 1-MCP and ABS. Internal carbon dioxide had an inverse correlation with the quantity of healthy fruit and was directly correlated with mealiness.

  5. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplas...

  6. Impact of maternal melatonin suppression on forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, S E; Rosca, A E; Zeca, V; Zagrean, L; Zagrean, A M

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is an essential hormone, which regulates circadian rhythms and has antioxidative and anticarcinogenic effects. As melatonin secretion is suppressed by light, this effect was examined on the offspring of the Wistar rat females exposed to continuous light (500 lux) during the second half of the pregnancy (day 12 to 21). Control rats were kept under a 12:12 light-dark cycle. The resulted male offspring have been behaviorally assessed for depression after postnatal day 60 by using Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST). Animals resulted from the melatonin deprived pregnancies have developed an abnormal response in the TST, but a normal FST behavior. Also, TST active movement was different in the melatonin suppression group compared to the control group. These findings suggest that intrauterine melatonin deprivation might be linked to the depressive like behavior in adult male offspring.

  7. Report on the incentive regulation regarding the service quality of natural gas network operators and ERDF. Summary report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011. They were used to inform the work conducted to develop the incentive regulation mechanism for service quality in GrDF's ATRD4 tariff (A Third-party access to natural gas distribution networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 July 2012). The conclusions of the report will also be used by the CRE for ERDF as part of the work on TURPE 4 tariff (Tariff for the use of public electricity grids, scheduled to enter into effect during the third quarter of 2013), for natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs) to prepare their ATRD4 tariff (Entry into effect scheduled for 1 July 2013), as well as for GRTgaz and TIGF to define the future ATRT5 tariff (Third-party access to natural gas transmission networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 April 2013). Implemented in 2009 with an initial annual follow- up report on gas network operators Gr

  8. Medicare and Medicaid programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; electronic reporting pilot; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Quality Reporting Program; revision to Quality Improvement Organization regulations. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2013 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program. We are continuing the electronic reporting pilot for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, and revising the various regulations governing Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs), including the secure transmittal of electronic medical information, beneficiary complaint resolution and notification processes, and technical changes. The technical changes to the QIO regulations reflect CMS' commitment to the general principles of the President's Executive Order on Regulatory Reform, Executive Order 13563 (January 18, 2011).

  9. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  10. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation Decreases HOMA-β% in 3 Generations of Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Tanabe, Yuko; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by altering epigenetic regulation. Calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that a Ca-deficient diet during pregnancy would alter insulin resistance and secretion in more than 1 generation of offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient or a control diet ad libitum from 3 weeks before conception to 21 days after parturition and were mated with control males. Randomly selected F1 and F2 females were mated with males of each generation on postnatal day 70. The F1 and F2 dams were fed a control diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation. All offspring were fed a control diet starting at the time of weaning and were sacrificed on day 180. HOMA-β% decreased in F1 through F3, and levels in F2 and F3 males and females were significantly lower than in controls. The mean levels of insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in F1 males but lower in F3 males than in control males. The HOMA-IR did not differ between any of the female offspring and controls. Maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation influences insulin secretion in 3 generations of offspring. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A practical proposal for the regulation of service quality in distribution system; Uma proposta pratica de regulamentacao da qualidade de servico em sistemas de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge; Olguin P, Gabriel M.; Knolseisen, Ana Barbara [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Planejamento de Sistemas de Energia Eletrica

    2002-07-01

    This paper approaches the problem of the service quality involving the electric distribution systems, under the new regulatory context of the sector, analysing the various factors affecting the service quality and the distributed product, and the present quality standards and recommendations. The paper highlights the regulation aspects, introducing the new mechanism of the industry reward based on the price/income limitation which generates an uncertainty in the investment reward for the industry. This fact represents a factor seriously affecting the electric service quality. A proposal is presented for the service quality regulation suitable to the changes in the Brazilian electric sector, aiming the minimization of the social cost composed by the summation of the distribution company investment cost and the cost of quality lacking supported by the consumers.

  12. Offspring from mothers fed a ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, S A; Simbi, B H; Bertrand, J A; Stickland, N C

    2008-01-01

    We have shown previously that a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation plays a role in predisposing offspring to obesity. Here we show that rat offspring born to mothers fed the same junk food diet rich in fat, sugar and salt develop exacerbated adiposity accompanied by raised circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride and/or cholesterol by the end of adolescence (10 weeks postpartum) compared with offspring also given free access to junk food from weaning but whose mothers were exclusively fed a balanced chow diet in pregnancy and lactation. Results also showed that offspring from mothers fed the junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation, and which were then switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, exhibited increased perirenal fat pad mass relative to body weight and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with offspring which were never exposed to the junk food diet. This study shows that the increased adiposity was more enhanced in female than male offspring and gene expression analyses showed raised insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), Glut 1, Glut 3, but not Glut 4 mRNA expression in females fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with females never given access to junk food. Changes in gene expression were not as marked in male offspring with only IRS-1, VEGF-A, Glut 4 and LPL being up-regulated in those fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with males never given access to junk food. This study therefore shows that a maternal junk food diet promotes adiposity in offspring and the earlier onset of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperlipidemia. Male and female offspring also display a different metabolic, cellular and molecular response to junk-food-diet-induced adiposity. PMID:18467362

  13. Offspring from mothers fed a 'junk food' diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, S A; Simbi, B H; Bertrand, J A; Stickland, N C

    2008-07-01

    We have shown previously that a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation plays a role in predisposing offspring to obesity. Here we show that rat offspring born to mothers fed the same junk food diet rich in fat, sugar and salt develop exacerbated adiposity accompanied by raised circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride and/or cholesterol by the end of adolescence (10 weeks postpartum) compared with offspring also given free access to junk food from weaning but whose mothers were exclusively fed a balanced chow diet in pregnancy and lactation. Results also showed that offspring from mothers fed the junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation, and which were then switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, exhibited increased perirenal fat pad mass relative to body weight and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with offspring which were never exposed to the junk food diet. This study shows that the increased adiposity was more enhanced in female than male offspring and gene expression analyses showed raised insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), Glut 1, Glut 3, but not Glut 4 mRNA expression in females fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with females never given access to junk food. Changes in gene expression were not as marked in male offspring with only IRS-1, VEGF-A, Glut 4 and LPL being up-regulated in those fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with males never given access to junk food. This study therefore shows that a maternal junk food diet promotes adiposity in offspring and the earlier onset of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperlipidemia. Male and female offspring also display a different metabolic, cellular and molecular response to junk-food-diet-induced adiposity.

  14. In Utero Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension Due to Impaired Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmeng Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adverse environment in utero can modulate adult phenotypes including blood pressure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 exposure in utero causes hypertension in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R, regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4, plays an important role in the regulation of renal sodium transport and blood pressure. In this present study, we determined if renal D1R dysfunction is involved in PM2.5–induced hypertension in the offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were given an oropharyngeal drip of PM2.5 (1.0 mg/kg at gestation day 8, 10, and 12. The blood pressure, 24-hour sodium excretion, and urine volume were measured in the offspring. The expression levels of GRK4 and D1R were determined by immunoblotting. The phosphorylation of D1R was investigated using immunoprecipitation. Plasma malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were also measured in the offspring. Results: As compared with saline-treated dams, offspring of PM2.5-treated dams had increased blood pressure, impaired sodium excretion, and reduced D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis, accompanied by decreased renal D1R expression and GRK4 expression. The impaired renal D1R function and increased GRK4 expression could be caused by increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS induced by PM2.5 exposure. Administration of tempol, a redox-cycling nitroxide, for 4 weeks in the offspring of PM2.5-treated dam normalized the decreased renal D1R expression and increased renal D1R phosphorylation and GRK4 expression. Furthermore, tempol normalized the increased renal expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates GRK4 expression. Conclusions: In utero exposure to PM2.5 increases ROS and GRK4 expression, impairs D1R-mediated sodium excretion, and increases blood pressure in the offspring. These studies suggest that normalization of D1R function may be a target for the

  15. Developmental and hormonal regulation of fiber quality in two natural-colored cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; HU Da-peng; LI Yuan; CHEN Yuan; Eltayib H.M.A.Abidallha; DONG Zhao-di; CHEN De-hua; ZHANG Lei

    2017-01-01

    Cotton cultivars with brown (Xiangcaimian 2),green (Wanmian 39) and white (Sumian 9) fiber were investigated to study fiber developmental characteristics of natural-colored cotton and the effect of hormones on fiber quality at different stages after anthesis.Fiber lengths of both natural-colored cottons were lower than the white-fibered control,with brown-flbered cotton longer than green.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natural-colored cotton were also lower than the control.The shorter fiber of the green cultivar was due to slower growth during 10 to 30 days post-anthesis (DPA).Likewise,the lower fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natured-colored cotton were also due to slower growth during this pivotal stage.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at 10 DPA,and abscisic acid (ABA) content at 30 to 40 DPA were lower in the fibers of the natural-colored than that of the white-flbered cotton.After applying 20 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3),the IAA content at 20 DPA in the brown and green-fibered cottons increased by 51.07 and 64.33%,fiber ABA content increased by 38.96 and 24.40%,and fiber length increased by 8.13 and 13.96%,respectively.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation were also enhanced at boll opening stage.Those results suggest that the level of endogenous hormones affect fiber quality.Application of external hormones can increase hormone content in natural-colored cotton fiber,improving its quality.

  16. Regulation EM-GT-7. Quality control of the radiography equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide practical guidance of technical procedures for carrying out quality control in X-ray equipment. This guide is applicable to general purpose radiography equipment, although some of the procedures may be applied to other types of diagnostic imaging equipment. The tests described require the appointed instrumentation and some of these can be implemented in the radiodiagnostic given the simplicity of them and others require special equipment and can be performed by external specialized groups to these units.

  17. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preeclampsia and risk for epilepsy in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia has been found to be a strong risk factor for epilepsy in the offspring, but it is unclear whether the risk also applies to the preceding condition, preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1537860 singletons born in Denmark (1978-2004). Informat......OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia has been found to be a strong risk factor for epilepsy in the offspring, but it is unclear whether the risk also applies to the preceding condition, preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1537860 singletons born in Denmark (1978......-2004). Information on preeclampsia (mild, severe, and unspecified), eclampsia, and epilepsy was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register. Information on gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score was obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate...... the incidence rate ratio of epilepsy for children who were exposed to preeclampsia or eclampsia in prenatal life. RESULTS: We identified 45288 (2.9%) children who were exposed to preeclampsia (34823 to mild, 7043 to severe, and 3422 to unspecified preeclampsia) and 654 (0.04%) to eclampsia during their prenatal...

  19. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II: Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P.; Mindykowski, J.; Tarasiuk, T. [Gdynia Maritime Univ., Dept. of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Str. 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    This paper deals with the effect of lowered voltage quality in ship power systems on windings temperature of low-power induction cage machines. The results of investigations carried out with experimental and analytical methods are presented. The thermal impact of power quality disturbances permitted by ship classification societies is discussed. A proposal of new power quality regulations for ship classification societies is made. (author)

  20. [Impact of Emotion Regulation and Emotional Arousal on Quality of Life and Adherence of Couples after Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Luisa; Franke, Laura; Tkachenko, Daria; Schiffer, Mario; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2018-05-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication increases the risk of graft failure. Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (ERS) seem to be a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas for patients in relationships spousal support appears as a protective resource. Emotional arousal, objectively measured by the fundamental frequency (f 0 ) during spousal supportive communication is associated with supportive behavior. This study examined the relationship between beliefs about immunosuppressive medication, quality of life, ERS, emotions and emotional arousal, assessed during social support interactions of both spouses of N=50 couples after kidney transplantation. Maladaptive ERS of the transplant recipient were associated with lower mental quality of life of the partner, marginally higher own negative affect and lower beliefs about medication. Maladaptive ERS of the partner showed negative correlations with own mental quality of life. Regarding f 0 , gender differences were found. Higher f 0 of the male transplant recipient were associated with more maladaptive ERS of the female partner. Marginally significate correlations were found with lower own beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of the wife of the male transplant recipient showed correlations with lower own positive affect, more negative affect of the male patient and lower beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of female transplant recipients were associated with lower own maladaptive ERS and lower maladaptive ERS of the husband. The findings support the relevance of early interventions focusing on identifying and modifying maladaptive ERS for both the patient and partner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Are There Places for Negotiation in Politics Regulation of Public School Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Lemes de Sordi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Describe the project of institutional Evaluation developed in municipal district educationemphasizing the guiding principles of the propose that values the local school actorsstrengthening for participate in the negotiation for a public school whose conception ofq u a l i t y i s s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t . B y t h e a c t o r s v o i c e s e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o fimplementation, the challenges, the capabilities and the vulnerabilities of the proposeare emphasized. Can be conclude that the institutional evaluation in elementary schoolsis an area under construction and needs a politic provision to try alternative modelswhere the regulation can occurs in a negotiated and participatory way.

  2. How does parental personality influence offspring quality in animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour ecology has become a popular research area, and its importance in understanding the evolution, ecology and diversity of life on Earth is now fully recognised. More recently, consistent differences between individuals (including personality traits have become the target of animal studies, and such differences have been reported in a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate taxa. The study of animal personality has expanded in the last decade, and it now benefits from a clear theoretical framework, supported by empirical evidence. Many studies report that personality traits influence individual fitness, but it is not clear how and why this happens. The present review explores this gap in the current knowledge and provides a comprehensive perspective of the main arguments put forward to explain why individuals’ personality traits influence their fitness. Specifically, I investigate (a how is personality associated with life-history and reproductive investment, (b how personality traits can represent the basis of mate choice, and what are the implications of assortative mating based on personality, and (c how personality can impact the amplitude and outcomes of intra-familial conflicts. Additionally, I aim to identify the main knowledge gaps on the subject and provide some general guidelines for future theoretical and empirical work, and also briefly highlight the broad impacts that personality research has for evolutionary biology and ecology, as well as for applied conservation. 

  3. Development of Thresholds and Exceedance Probabilities for Influent Water Quality to Meet Drinking Water Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. L.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.; Balaji, R.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water treatment utilities (DWTU) are tasked with the challenge of meeting disinfection and disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations to provide safe, reliable drinking water under changing climate and land surface characteristics. DBPs form in drinking water when disinfectants, commonly chlorine, react with organic matter as measured by total organic carbon (TOC), and physical removal of pathogen microorganisms are achieved by filtration and monitored by turbidity removal. Turbidity and TOC in influent waters to DWTUs are expected to increase due to variable climate and more frequent fires and droughts. Traditional methods for forecasting turbidity and TOC require catchment specific data (i.e. streamflow) and have difficulties predicting them under non-stationary climate. A modelling framework was developed to assist DWTUs with assessing their risk for future compliance with disinfection and DBP regulations under changing climate. A local polynomial method was developed to predict surface water TOC using climate data collected from NOAA, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the IRI Data Library, and historical TOC data from three DWTUs in diverse geographic locations. Characteristics from the DWTUs were used in the EPA Water Treatment Plant model to determine thresholds for influent TOC that resulted in DBP concentrations within compliance. Lastly, extreme value theory was used to predict probabilities of threshold exceedances under the current climate. Results from the utilities were used to produce a generalized TOC threshold approach that only requires water temperature and bromide concentration. The threshold exceedance model will be used to estimate probabilities of exceedances under projected climate scenarios. Initial results show that TOC can be forecasted using widely available data via statistical methods, where temperature, precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and NDVI with various lags were shown to be important

  4. Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2014-11-29

    The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively

  5. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  6. Environment of oocyte and embryo determines heath of IVP offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Bevers, M.M.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) enhances the number of offspring from a single female and offers the possibility of accelerated genetic progress in animal husbandry. However, it also leads to a low but unacceptable percentage of anomalies in the offspring. The aim of this paper is to introduce the

  7. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  8. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  9. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane Lilleøre; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    Objective Maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. We assessed the potential influence of both maternal and paternal RA on the risk of ASD in offspring to disentangle the influence of genetic inheritance from...

  10. Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Monica

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational attainments of adult offspring of immigrants age 20-64 years, analyzing data from Canada's 1996 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Contrary to second generation decline and segmented underclass assimilation found in the United States, Canadian adult visible-minority immigrant offspring did not have lower educational…

  11. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles.

  12. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  13. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  14. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1975-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  15. Air quality regulation: State implementation of the NAAQS and the nonattainment program of the 1990 Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The 1970 Amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to establish 'national ambient air quality standards' (NAAQS) for substances that contribute to widespread and pervasive air pollution. Since many areas of the country had not met NAAQS by 1987 and since there was controversy over the EPA's authority to address these nonattainment problems administratively, the 1990 Amendments to the Act were a legal necessity. The new nonattainment requirements are extensive and complex, and will affect industry in a variety of ways. Existing sources could be required to reduce PM-10 precursors (e.g., SO 2 and NO x ), CO, and VOCs in nonattainment areas for those pollutants. The procedures that the EPA adopts to make decisions on nonattainment classifications and state plan revisions could affect control requirements. New and modified sources being permitted in nonattainment areas may face offset and stringent control requirements. These and other provisions of the nonattainment requirements of the Clean Air Act and the 1990 Amendments are discussed in this chapter

  16. REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND DIFFERENT MULCH TYPES ON FRUIT QUALITY AND YIELD OF WATERMELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEITON ROCHA SARAIVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the pulp resistance, soluble solids and yield of watermelon fruits grown under different irrigation managements (determined by the ISAREG model and mulches, and their interactions. After a survey carried out on local producers, two experiments were conducted, using a completely randomized block design in split - plot arrangement with four replications, in the Teaching, Research and Extension Unit (UEPE of the Federal Institute of Ceara (IFCE, Jaguaribe - Apodi Irrigation District (DIJA, State of Ceara, Brazil. The treatments consisted of four irrigation managements in the plots, M1 (100% of the available - water capacity (AWC of the soil, M2 (80%, M3 (60% and M4 (average water depth used by local producers and four mulch types in the sub - plots, without mulching (C0 with rice husk (C1, white plastic (C2 and black plastic (C3 as mulches. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and significant results were subjected to regression (irrigation managements, average test (mulches and trend graphs (interaction between the factors. The irrigation management practiced during the watermelon crop cycle by the local producers of the Irrigation District of Jaguaribe - Apodi (DIJA in the State of Ceara, Brazil, is not appropriated, since they usually apply more water than the highest water depth determined by the ISAREG model (100% of the AWC. The plants grown under irrigation water depth of 365.20 mm (M1 and soils with mulches of rice husk or white plastic had the highest yields and fruits with better quality of soluble solids and pulp resistance.

  17. PATERNAL GENOTYPE INFLUENCES INCUBATION PERIOD, OFFSPRING SIZE, AND OFFSPRING SHAPE IN AN OVIPAROUS REPTILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Gullberg, Annica; Shine, Richard; Madsen, Thomas; Tegelström, Håkan

    1996-06-01

    Theoretical models for the evolution of life-history traits assume a genetic basis for a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance observed in characteristics such as hatching date and offspring size. However, recent experimental work has shown that much of the phenotypic variance in hatchling reptiles is induced by nongenetic factors, such as maternal nutrition and thermoregulation, and the physical conditions experienced during embryogenesis. Thus, there is no unambiguous evidence for strictly genetic (intraspecific) influences on the phenotypes of hatchling reptiles. We report results from a technique that uses a genetic marker trait and DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity of offspring from multiply sired clutches of European sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. By focusing on paternal rather than maternal effects, we show that hatchling genotypes exert a direct influence on the duration of incubation, the size (mass, snout-vent length) and shape (relative tail length) of the hatchling, and subsequent growth rates of the lizard during the first 3 mo of life. Embryos with genes that code for a few days' delay in hatching are thereby larger when they hatch, having undergone further differentiation (and hence, have changed in bodily proportions), and are able to grow faster after hatching. Our data thus provide empirical support for a crucial but rarely tested assumption of life-history theory, and illuminate some of the proximate mechanisms that produce intraspecific variation in offspring phenotypes. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Plant growth regulators and ascorbic acid effects on physiological quality of wheat seedlings obtained from deteriorated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moori, S.; Eisv, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the effect of seed priming using plant growth regulators and vitamin C on the physiological traits of non-aged and aged seeds of wheat and their obtained seedlings. Accelerated aging (AA) method (40 degree C, RH=100% for 72h) was used for aging seeds. The seeds were pre-treated by gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), brassinosteroid (BR), and ascorbic acid (AS). Some seed traits such as germination and electric conductivity (EC) and seedling traits such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein content (SP), soluble sugar (SS), and proline were measured seven days after germination. The results showed that accelerated aging of seeds reduces the germination percentage and speed, increases soluble sugar, and reduces soluble protein, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedling. Pre-treatment of the aged seed by GA had the maximum positive impact on seed germination and seedling growth. Priming improved germination indices, quality of seedling, and seedling resistance against the oxidative stress caused by AA. It also improved cell membrane integrity and thus reduced seeds’ EC. Priming increased the activity of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes in both aged and non-aged seeds. When the deteriorated seeds were primed, proline and SS contents of the seedling increased significantly, but SP and MDA decreased. In general, pre-treatment of the non-aged and aged seeds by gibberellin improved the physiological quality of the seed and seedling. (author)

  20. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez-Sarmiento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida” were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain, during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010. The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc and ii RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest. Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years, whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  1. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  2. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-07-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  3. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Taurine and β-alanine intraperitoneal injection in lactating mice modifies the growth and behavior of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-01-08

    Taurine, one of the sulfur-containing amino acids, has several functions in vivo. It has been reported that taurine acts on γ-aminobutyric acid receptors as an agonist and to promote inhibitory neurotransmission. Milk, especially colostrum, contains taurine and it is known that milk taurine is essential for the normal development of offspring. β-Alanine is transported via a taurine transporter and a protein-assisted amino acid transporter, the same ones that transport taurine. The present study aimed to investigate whether the growth and behavior of offspring could be altered by modification of the taurine concentration in milk. Pregnant ICR mice were separated into 3 groups: 1) a control group, 2) a taurine group, and 3) a β-alanine group. During the lactation periods, dams were administered, respectively, with 0.9% saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.), taurine dissolved in 0.9% saline (43 mg/10 ml/kg, i.p.), or β-alanine dissolved in 0.9% saline (31 mg/10 ml/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, the taurine concentration in milk was significantly decreased by the administration of β-alanine, but not altered by the taurine treatment. The body weight of offspring was significantly lower in the β-alanine group. β-Alanine treatment caused a significant decline in taurine concentration in the brains of offspring, and it was negatively correlated with total distance traveled in the open field test at postnatal day 15. Thus, decreased taurine concentration in the brain induced hyperactivity in offspring. These results suggested that milk taurine may have important role of regulating the growth and behavior of offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  7. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  8. Programming of maternal and offspring disease: impact of growth restriction, fetal sex and transmission across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jean N; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M; Cuffe, James S M

    2016-09-01

    Babies born small are at an increased risk of developing myriad adult diseases. While growth restriction increases disease risk in all individuals, often a second hit is required to unmask 'programmed' impairments in physiology. Programmed disease outcomes are demonstrated more commonly in male offspring compared with females, with these sex-specific outcomes partly attributed to different placenta-regulated growth strategies of the male and female fetus. Pregnancy is known to be a major risk factor for unmasking a number of conditions and can be considered a 'second hit' for women who were born small. As such, female offspring often develop impairments of physiology for the first time during pregnancy that present as pregnancy complications. Numerous maternal stressors can further increase the risk of developing a maternal complication during pregnancy. Importantly, these maternal complications can have long-term consequences for both the mother after pregnancy and the developing fetus. Conditions such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and hypertension as well as thyroid, liver and kidney diseases are all conditions that can complicate pregnancy and have long-term consequences for maternal and offspring health. Babies born to mothers who develop these conditions are often at a greater risk of developing disease in adulthood. This has implications as a mechanism for transmission of disease across generations. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding long-term intergenerational implications of being born small and/or experiencing stress during pregnancy on programming outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  9. A systematic review of the parenting and outcomes experienced by offspring of mothers with borderline personality pathology: Potential mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyden, Julie; Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Broome, Matthew R; MacCallum, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in whether the parenting strategies and offspring outcomes of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) differ from those of mothers without BPD. We searched PsychINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus and ASSIA databases for studies examining parenting skills and attitudes among mothers with BPD/BPD symptoms and/or offspring outcomes. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Of 10,067 abstracts screened, 101 full-text articles were retrieved and 33 met pre-determined criteria for qualitative synthesis. Overall, studies suggest that mothers with BPD/BPD symptoms are more likely to engage in maladaptive interactions with their offspring characterised by insensitive, overprotective, and hostile parenting compared to mothers without BPD/BPD symptoms. Adverse offspring outcomes include BPD symptoms, internalising (including depression) and externalising problems, insecure attachment patterns, and emotional dysregulation. Findings suggest that vulnerability from mother to offspring may be partly transmitted via maladaptive parenting and maternal emotional dysfunction. Conclusions were limited by study heterogeneity in methodology and construct definitions, as well as a paucity of clinical comparison groups. Prospective studies of mothers with BPD and their offspring from pregnancy onwards may further elucidate mechanisms of transmission and identify resilience factors across development. Parenting behaviour awareness, improving attachment behaviours and emotional regulation strategies may be important intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental stimulation rescues maternal high fructose intake-impaired learning and memory in female offspring: Its correlation with redistribution of histone deacetylase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kay L H; Wu, Chih-Wei; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Chao, Yung-Mei; Hung, Chun-Ying; Wu, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Siang-Ru; Tsai, Pei-Chia; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-04-01

    Impairment of learning and memory has been documented in the later life of offspring to maternal consumption with high energy diet. Environmental stimulation enhances the ability of learning and memory. However, potential effects of environmental stimulation on the programming-associated deficit of learning and memory have not been addressed. Here, we examined the effects of enriched-housing on hippocampal learning and memory in adult female offspring rats from mother fed with 60% high fructose diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation. Impairment of spatial learning and memory performance in HFD group was observed in offspring at 3-month-old. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was decreased in the offspring. Moreover, the HFD group showed an up-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in the nuclear fractions of hippocampal neurons. Stimulation to the offspring for 4weeks after winning with an enriched-housing environment effectively rescued the decrease in cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF level; alongside a reversal of the increased distribution of nuclear HDAC4. Together these results suggest that later life environmental stimulation effectively rescues the impairment of hippocampal learning and memory in female offspring to maternal HFD intake through redistributing nuclear HDAC4 to increase BDNF expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy, but not during suckling, induced altered expression of an increasing number of hepatic genes in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-04-01

    Indirect effects of a high-protein maternal diet are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed short-term and sustainable effects of a prenatal versus early postnatal maternal high-protein diet on growth and hepatic gene expression in mouse offspring. Dams were exposed to an isoenergetic high-protein (HP, 40 % w/w) diet during pregnancy or lactation. Growth and hepatic expression profiles of male offspring were evaluated directly after weaning and 150 days after birth. Offspring from two dietary groups, high-protein diet during pregnancy and control diet during lactation (HPC), and control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation (CHP), were compared with offspring (CC) from control-fed dams. Maternal CHP treatment was associated with sustained offspring growth retardation, but decreased numbers of affected hepatic genes in adults compared to weanlings. In contrast, offspring of the HPC group did not show persistent effects on growth parameters, but the number of affected hepatic genes was even increased at adult age. In both dietary groups, however, only a small subset of genes was affected in weanlings as well as in adults. We conclude that (1) prenatal and early postnatal maternal HP diet caused persistent, but (2) different effects and partially complementary trends on growth characteristics and on the hepatic transcriptome and associated pathways and that (3) only a small number of genes and associated upstream regulators might be involved in passing early diet-induced imprints to adulthood.

  12. Young parents produce offspring with short telomeres: A study in a long-lived bird, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbraud, Christophe; Chastel, Olivier; Delord, Karine; Ruault, Stéphanie; Weimerskirch, Henri; Angelier, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    In wild vertebrates, young parents are less likely to successfully rear offspring relative to older ones because of lower parental skills (‘the constraint hypothesis’), lower parental investment (‘the restraint hypothesis’) or because of a progressive disappearance of lower-quality individuals at young ages (‘the selection hypothesis’). Because it is practically difficult to follow an offspring during its entire life, most studies have only focused on the ability of individuals to breed or produce young, while neglecting the ability of such young to subsequently survive and reproduce. Several proxies of individual quality can be useful to assess the ability of young to survive and recruit into the population. Among them, telomere length measurement appears especially promising because telomere length has been linked to longevity and fitness in captive and wild animals. By sampling 51 chicks reared by known-aged parents, we specifically tested whether parental age was correlated to offspring telomere length and body condition in a long-lived bird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys). Young Black-browed albatrosses produced chicks with shorter telomere relative to those raised by older ones. Short offspring telomeres could result from poor developmental conditions or heritability of telomere length. Moreover, young parents also had chicks of lower body condition when compared with older parents, although this effect was significant in female offspring only. Overall, our study demonstrates that parental age is correlated to two proxies of offspring fitness (body condition and telomere length), suggesting therefore that older individuals provide better parental cares to their offspring because of increased parental investment (restraint hypothesis), better foraging/parental skills (constraint hypothesis) or because only high-quality individuals reach older ages (selection hypothesis). PMID:29561856

  13. Our Children: Parental Decisions - How Much to Invest in Your Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K.

    Reproduction is the most fundamental of evolutionary behaviors, yet human parents face especially complex tradeoffs when deciding how many children to have and how much to invest in each of them. This chapter reviews parental investment theory, including both the key concepts and some important questions to which they have been applied in humans. Written primarily from the perspective of human behavioral ecology, this chapter also discusses how evolutionary social scientists have approached cross-cultural variation in parenting behavior. The chapter begins with an overview of life history theory and the concept of reproductive tradeoffs, focusing especially on the tradeoffs between current vs. future reproduction and quantity vs. quality of offspring. Discussing the critical question of who invests in offspring, I next compare motivations for investment between mothers and fathers, and explore the roles of many types of kin in investment, while considering whether humans can be viewed as cooperative breeders. I then explore the role of parent-offspring conflict and sibling conflict in parental investment and inheritance systems, followed by an exploration of sex biases in investment, including the Trivers-Willard effect local resource competition, and local resource enhancement. In conclusion, I argue that parental investment has been one of the most active areas of enquiry among evolutionary researchers over the last twenty years, and is likely to remain one of the mainstays of the field during the coming decades.

  14. Parental social networks during childhood and offspring depression in early adulthood: a lifecourse approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allchin, Adelyn; Melchior, Maria; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-07-04

    Little is known on how parental social relationships may affect their children's mental health. We sought to examine the relation between parental social relationship characteristics and subsequent offspring depression in young adulthood. We used 2009 Trajectoires Épidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study data from 1087 French young adults ages 22 to 35 and parental data from the corresponding Gaz et Eléctricité (GAZEL) study in 1991. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine parental social networks, quality of parental relationships, and reciprocity of parental social support measured in 1991 in relation to offspring depression in young adulthood measured using the Adult Self Report in 2009. Analyses were stratified by participant sex. In adjusted models, daughters of parents who reported giving more support to others than they received had 1.72 higher odds (95% CI, 1.09-2.70) of depression in young adulthood. Daughters of parents who were unsatisfied with their social relationships had 2.14 (95% CI, 1.22-3.76) higher odds of depression. Among male participants, there was no statistically significant association between parental relationship satisfaction, reciprocity of parental exchanges, and depression. Parental relationships during mid-childhood have long-term associations with offspring depression. Results suggest that enhancing social support for parents may have positive implications for their children's mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Y. Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG and offspring’s body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n=23 were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child’s lifestyle factors.

  16. Female bluethroats enhance offspring immunocompetence through extra-pair copulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, A; Andersen, V; Sunding, C; Lifjeld, J T

    2000-07-20

    Female birds frequently copulate with extra-pair males, but the adaptive value of this behaviour is poorly understood. Some studies have suggested that 'good genes' may be involved, where females seek to have their eggs fertilized by high-quality males without receiving any material benefits from them. Nevertheless, it remains to be shown that a genetic benefit is passed on to offspring. Here we report that nestling bluethroats, Luscinia svecica, sired by extra-pair males had a higher T-cell-mediated immune response than their maternal half-siblings raised in the same nest. The difference could not be attributed to nestling body mass, sex or hatching order, but may be an effect of paternal genotype. Extra-pair young were also more immunocompetent than their paternal half-sibs raised in the genetic father's own nest, which indicates an additional effect of maternal genotype. Our results are consistent with the idea that females engage in extra-pair copulations to obtain compatible viability genes, rather than 'good genes' per se.

  17. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  18. Young adult's attachment style as a partial mediator between maternal functioning and young adult offsprings' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  20. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  1. Aminoacyl-tRNA quality control is required for efficient activation of the TOR pathway regulator Gln3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kyle; Mann, Rebecca; Kyle, Amanda; Reynolds, Noah; Ibba, Michael

    2017-09-14

    The aminoacylation status of the cellular tRNA pool regulates both general amino acid control (GAAC) and target of rapamycin (TOR) stress response pathways in yeast. Consequently, fidelity of translation at the level of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis plays a central role in determining accuracy and sensitivity of stress responses. To investigate effects of translational quality control (QC) on cell physiology under stress conditions, phenotypic microarray analyses were used to identify changes in QC deficient cells. Nitrogen source growth assays showed QC deficient yeast grew differently compared to WT. The QC deficient strain was more tolerant to caffeine treatment than wild type through altered interactions with the TOR and GAAC pathways. Increased caffeine tolerance of the QC deficient strain was consistent with the observation that the activity of Gln3p, a transcription factor controlled by the TOR pathway, is decreased in the QC deficient strain compared to WT. GCN4 translation, which is typically repressed in the absence of nutritional stress, was enhanced in the QC deficient strain through TOR inhibition. QC did not impact cell cycle regulation; however, the chronological lifespan of QC deficient yeast strains decreased compared to wild type, likely due to translational errors and alteration of the TOR-associated regulon. These findings support the idea that changes in translational fidelity provide a mechanism of cellular adaptation by modulating TOR activity. This, in turn, supports a central role for aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis QC in the integrated stress response by maintaining the proper aa-tRNA pools necessary to coordinate the GAAC and TOR.

  2. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Christiansen, Sofie; Laier, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . Behavioral studies showed that the activity level and sweet preference of adult males were significantly increased. Overall these results strongly indicate that prochloraz feminizes the male offspring after perinatal exposure, and that these effects are due, at least in part, to diminished fetal...... of reproductive organs, affecting androgen-regulated gene expressions, and increasing luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate reproductive toxic effects after exposure during gestation and lactation to prochloraz alone and a mixture of five pesticides (deltamethrin...

  4. Maternal corticosterone exposure in the mouse programs sex-specific renal adaptations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 6-month offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, James S M; Burgess, Danielle J; O'Sullivan, Lee; Singh, Reetu R; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-04-01

    Short-term maternal corticosterone (Cort) administration at mid-gestation in the mouse reduces nephron number in both sexes while programming renal and cardiovascular dysfunction in 12-month male but not female offspring. The renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), functions in a sexually dimorphic manner to regulate both renal and cardiovascular physiology. This study aimed to identify if there are sex-specific differences in basal levels of the intrarenal RAAS and to determine the impact of maternal Cort exposure on the RAAS in male and female offspring at 6 months of age. While intrarenal renin concentrations were higher in untreated females compared to untreated males, renal angiotensin II concentrations were higher in males than females. Furthermore, basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were greater in females than males. Cort exposed male but not female offspring had reduced water intake and urine excretion. Cort exposure increased renal renin concentrations and elevated mRNA expression of Ren1, Ace2, and Mas1 in male but not female offspring. In addition, male Cort exposed offspring had increased expression of the aldosterone receptor, Nr3c2 and renal sodium transporters. In contrast, Cort exposure increased Agtr1a mRNA levels in female offspring only. This study demonstrates that maternal Cort exposure alters key regulators of renal function in a sex-specific manner at 6 months of life. These finding likely contribute to the disease outcomes in male but not female offspring in later life and highlights the importance of renal factors other than nephron number in the programming of renal and cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Adolescent binge-pattern alcohol exposure alters genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Torcaso, Audrey; Pinceti, Elena; Kim, Chun K; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Pak, Toni R

    2017-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the previous 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring. Wistar rats were administered a repeated binge-ethanol exposure paradigm during early (postnatal day (PND) 37-44) and late (PND 67-74) adolescent development. Animals were mated 24 h after the last ethanol dose and subsequent offspring were produced. Analysis of male PND7 offspring revealed that offspring of alcohol-exposed parents exhibited differential DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus. The differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were distinct between offspring depending on which parent was exposed to ethanol. Moreover, novel DMCs were observed when both parents were exposed to ethanol and many DMCs from single parent ethanol exposure were not recapitulated with dual parent exposure. We also measured mRNA expression of several differentially methylated genes and some, but not all, showed correlative changes in expression. Importantly, methylation was not a direct predictor of expression levels, underscoring the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that adolescent binge ethanol exposure causes altered genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. PMID:27684946

  7. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  8. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  9. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...

  10. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...

  11. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  12. Anticipatory parental care: acquiring resources for offspring prior to conception.

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, S; Larsen, K W; Berteaux, D

    2000-01-01

    Many organisms acquire and defend resources outside the breeding season and this is thought to be for immediate survival and reproductive benefits. Female red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) acquire traditional food cache sites up to four months prior to the presence of any physiological or behavioural cues associated with mating or offspring dependency. They subsequently relinquish these resources to one of their offspring at independence (ten months later). We experimentally show that a...

  13. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  15. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  16. Mother-offspring associations in northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Karynna; Roper, James J; Passos, Fernando C; Strier, Karen B

    2008-03-01

    Maternal care of offspring is ubiquitous among primates, but its duration varies across species due to factors such as dispersal patterns and social dynamics, which influence opportunities for and potential benefits of maternal investment in older offspring, respectively. We examined mother-offspring associations in wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), in which males are philopatric, females typically disperse before puberty, and social relationships among and between males and females are egalitarian. Associations were systematically recorded between ten mothers, each with two-six offspring in the study group, and all group members from August 2003-May 2004 at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Infants of both sexes received similarly high percentages of their mothers' association time. Mothers without infants also maintained strong associations with their youngest juvenile sons. Mothers did not spend consistently more time associating with either juvenile or adult sons than daughters. Our finding of non-preferential associations between muriqui mothers and their older male offspring suggests that extended maternal investment in offspring may be of minimal value in their egalitarian society compared with its value for species living in hierarchical societies.

  17. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. The schooling of offspring and the survival of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Esther M; Mare, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary stratification research on developed societies usually views the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage as a one-way effect from parent to child. However, parents' investment in their offspring's schooling may yield significant returns for parents themselves in later life. For instance, well-educated offspring have greater knowledge of health and technology to share with their parents and more financial means to provide for them than do their less-educated counterparts. We use data from the 1992-2006 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine whether adult offspring's educational attainments are associated with parents' survival in the United States. We show that adult offspring's educational attainments have independent effects on their parents' mortality, even after controlling for parents' own socioeconomic resources. This relationship is more pronounced for deaths that are linked to behavioral factors: most notably, chronic lower respiratory disease and lung cancer. Furthermore, at least part of the association between offspring's schooling and parents' survival may be explained by parents' health behaviors, including smoking and physical activity. These findings suggest that one way to influence the health of the elderly is through their offspring. To harness the full value of schooling for health, then, a family and multigenerational perspective is needed.

  19. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A.F; Young, A.J; Spong, G; Jordan, N.R; Clutton-Brock, T.H

    2006-01-01

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper ‘fitness’ from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term. PMID:17476771

  1. Effects of Maternal Parenting and Mother-Child Relationship Quality on Short-Term Longitudinal Change in Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the degree to which short-term longitudinal change in adolescent self-regulation was attributable to maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality. A total of 821 mother-adolescent dyads provided data in the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  2. The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yoseph Dehghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to study the The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers. Materials and Methods: In this study which was a quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with control group, the sample group was selected by clustering sampling method from the men who referred to Bushehr addiction treatment clinics that among them a total of 30 patients randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 15 individuals. The instrument included short version of the Marital Adjustment Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and Garnefski Emotional Regulation Scale that was completed by the participants in the pre-test and post-test stages.The experimental group was treated based on group life quality in eight sessions but the control group did not receive any treatment. Multi-variate covariance analysis is used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results revealed that after intervention there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation variables (P<0/001.The rate of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation in experimental group compare with control group and it was significantly higher in post-test.  Conclusion: treatment based on quality of life which have formed from combination of positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach can increase marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of abusers.

  3. Parental exposure to heavy fuel oil induces developmental toxicity in offspring of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Meina; Xiong, Deqi; Yang, Mengye; Xiong, Yijun; Ding, Guanghui

    2018-05-03

    The present study investigated the toxic effects of parental (maternal/paternal) exposure to heavy fuel oil (HFO) on the adult reproductive state, gamete quality and development of the offspring of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Adult sea urchins were exposed to effluents from HFO-oiled gravel columns for 7 days to simulate an oil-contaminated gravel shore, and then gametes of adult sea urchins were used to produce embryos to determine developmental toxicity. For adult sea urchins, no significant difference in the somatic size and weight was found between the various oil loadings tested, while the gonad weight and gonad index were significantly decreased at higher oil loadings. The spawning ability of adults and fecundity of females significantly decreased. For gametes, no effect was observed on the egg size and fertilization success in any of the groups. However, a significant increase in the percentage of anomalies in the offspring was observed and then quantified by an integrative toxicity index (ITI) at 24 and 48 h post fertilization. The offspring from exposed parents showed higher ITI values with more malformed embryos. The results confirmed that parental exposure to HFO can cause adverse effects on the offspring and consequently affect the recruitment and population maintenance of sea urchins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qi Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3, folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2, iron (n = 1, vitamin D (n = 1, total energy (n = 2 and protein (n = 1. Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater.

  5. The effect of universal maternal antenatal iron supplementation on neurodevelopment in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, C; Polson, R; van Woerden, H C; Wilson, P

    2018-05-04

    Although antenatal iron supplementation is beneficial to mothers, its impact on the neurodevelopment of offspring is controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess whether routine maternal antenatal iron supplementation confers later neurodevelopmental benefit to offspring. Electronic databases were searched using MESH terms or key words and identified papers were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The review was registered in the PROSPERO CRD data base. Seven publications were identified, based on four randomised trials published between 2006 and 2016. Three of the trials were in the Asian sub-continent. A range of tools were used to evaluate neurodevelopment. Meta-analysis of outcomes from the three RCTs meeting our inclusion criteria showed minimal effect of antenatal iron supplementation on the neurodevelopment of offspring, which was not statistically significant: weighted mean difference of 0.54 (95% CI: -0.67 to 1.75); test for overall effect Z = 0.87; p = 0.38; and heterogeneity 48%. Meta-analysis of outcomes of these RCTs at later stages of development produced similar results. The benefit of routine antenatal iron supplementation on neurodevelopment in offspring was not statistically significant in this relatively limited set of trials, and some benefit cannot be excluded in areas with a high prevalence of maternal anaemia. A large randomized controlled trial showing significant benefit would be required to modify our conclusions.

  6. Sex-biased terminal investment in offspring induced by maternal immune challenge in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Smith, Rebecca A; Hodges, Christine J; Zimmerman, Laura M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2012-07-22

    The reproductive costs associated with the upregulation of immunity have been well-documented and constitute a fundamental trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance. However, recent experimental work suggests that parents may increase their reproductive effort following immunostimulation as a form of terminal parental investment as prospects for future reproduction decline. We tested the trade-off and terminal investment hypotheses in a wild population of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) by challenging the immune system of breeding females with lipopolysaccharide, a potent but non-lethal antigen. Immunized females showed no evidence of reproductive costs; instead, they produced offspring of higher phenotypic quality, but in a sex-specific manner. Relative to control offspring, sons of immunized females had increased body mass and their sisters exhibited higher cutaneous immune responsiveness to phytohaemagglutinin injection, constituting an adaptive strategy of sex-biased allocation by immune-challenged females to enhance the reproductive value of their offspring. Thus, our results are consistent with the terminal investment hypothesis, and suggest that maternal immunization can induce pronounced transgenerational effects on offspring phenotypes.

  7. When to care for, abandon, or eat your offspring: the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2007-12-01

    Parental care and filial cannibalism (the consumption of one's own offspring) co-occur in many animals. While parental care typically increases offspring survival, filial cannibalism involves the killing of one's young. Using an evolutionary ecology approach, we evaluate the importance of a range of factors on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Parental care, no care/total abandonment, and filial cannibalism evolved and often coexisted over a range of parameter space. While no single benefit was essential for the evolution of filial cannibalism, benefits associated with adult or offspring survival and/or reproduction facilitated the evolution of cannibalism. Our model highlights the plausibility of a range of alternative hypotheses. Specifically, the evolution of filial cannibalism was enhanced if (1) parents could selectively cannibalize lower-quality offspring, (2) filial cannibalism increased egg maturation rate, (3) energetic benefits of eggs existed, or (4) cannibalism increased a parent's reproductive rate (e.g., through mate attractiveness). Density-dependent egg survivorship alone did not favor the evolution of cannibalism. However, when egg survival was density dependent, filial cannibalism invaded more often when the density dependence was relatively more intense. Our results suggest that population-level resource competition potentially plays an important role in the evolution of both parental care and filial cannibalism.

  8. The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Qi; Collins, Clare E.; Gordon, Adrienne; Rae, Kym M.; Pringle, Kirsty G.

    2018-01-01

    The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3), folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2), iron (n = 1), vitamin D (n = 1), total energy (n = 2) and protein (n = 1). Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater. PMID:29466283

  9. Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Anne A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Senior, Alistair M; Hector, Katie L; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected.Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue.Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice.Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  11. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators in 2015. Follow-up Report, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator (Enedis, former ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and Enedis is made according to these indicators. An annex contains all individual quality reports of Enedis, DSOs and TSOs

  12. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    involve variation in lipid content, and therefore in egg 'quality.' The adaptive significance of variation in egg composition is considered; females may adjust egg composition facultatively to maximise the benefits to their offspring of increased reproductive investment. 5. Considerations for future research are discussed with particular emphasis on experimental studies and the application of new techniques.

  13. MECHANISM AND REGULATION OF NONSENSE-MEDIATED MRNA DECAY (NMD, AN ESSENTIAL QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM OF PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Silhavy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cell, various quality control mechanisms have evolved to ensure that only perfect mRNAs could be translated. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a quality control system that identifies and eliminates mRNAs containing premature termination codons, thereby preventing the accumulation of potentially harmful truncated proteins. While NMD is well-characterized in yeast, in invertebrates and in mammals, plant NMD is poorly understood. In yeast and in invertebrates unusually long 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs render an mRNA subject to NMD, while in mammals' 3'UTR located introns trigger NMD. UPF1, 2 and 3 are the key trans-acting NMD factors in yeast as well as in animals. However, in mammals, the core components of the Exon Junction Complex (Mago, Y14, eIF4A3 and MLN51 are also required for NMD. It was proposed that long 3’UTR-induced NMD is the ancient type and that it was changed to a more complex intron-based NMD in mammals. To better understand the evolution of eukaryotic NMD systems, we have studied the NMD machinery of plants, as plants are outgroup relative to fungi and animals. We have elaborated various transient assays to analyze plant NMD. Using these assays we defined the cis elements of plant NMD and characterized several trans-acting plant NMD factors. We demonstrated that two plant NMD pathways co-exist, one pathway, as yeast or invertebrate NMD systems, eliminates mRNAs with long 3'UTRs, while a distinct pathway, like mammalian NMD, degrades mRNAs harbouring 3'UTR-located introns. We showed that UPF1, UPF2, and SMG-7 are involved in both plant NMD pathways, whereas Mago and Y14 are required only for intron-based NMD. We also provide evidence that the molecular mechanism of long 3'UTR-based plant NMD resembles yeast NMD, while the intron-based NMD is similar to mammalian NMD. Moreover we have found that the SMG-7 component of plant NMD is targeted by NMD suggesting that plant NMD is autoregulated. We propose that in

  14. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  15. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Offspring of Hypertensive Parents During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo Barbosa de; Peçanha, Tiago; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; da Silva, Lílian Pinto; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães Guedes; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of hypertensive parents present autonomic dysfunction at rest and during physiological maneuvers. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise remains unknown. This study tested whether the cardiac autonomic modulation would be reduced in offspring of hypertensive parents during exercise. Fourteen offspring of hypertensive and 14 offspring of normotensive individuals were evaluated. The groups were matched by age (24.5±1.0 vs. 26.6±1.5 years; p=0.25) and BMI (22.8±0.6 vs. 24.2±1.0 kg/m 2 ; p=0.30). Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed simultaneously during 3 min at baseline followed by 3-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated using heart rate variability. Primary variables were subjected to two-way ANOVA (group vs. time). P valueexercise protocol. In contrast, offspring of hypertensive subjects showed a reduction of SDNN (Basal=34.8±3.5 vs. 45.2±3.7 ms; Exercise=30.8±3.3 vs. 41.5±3.9 ms; p group=0.01), RMSSD (Basal=37.1±3.7 vs. 52.0±6.0 ms; Exercise=28.6±3.4 vs. 41.9±5.3 ms; p group=0.02) and pNN50 (Basal=15.7±4.0 vs. 29.5±5.5%; Exercise=7.7±2.4 vs. 18.0±4.3%; p group=0.03) during the exercise protocol in comparison with offspring of normotensive parents. We concluded that normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents exhibit impaired cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Linking fish tolerance to water quality criteria for the assessment of environmental flows: A practical method for streamflow regulation and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Changming; Hao, Fanghua; Wang, Zhonggen; Zhang, Huitong; Song, Jinxi; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P

    2018-05-15

    The survival of aquatic biota in stream ecosystems depends on both water quantity and quality, and is particularly susceptible to degraded water quality in regulated rivers. Maintenance of environmental flows (e-flows) for aquatic biota with optimum water quantity and quality is essential for sustainable ecosystem services, especially in developing regions with insufficient stream monitoring of hydrology, water quality and aquatic biota. Few e-flow methods are available that closely link aquatic biota tolerances to pollutant concentrations in a simple and practical manner. In this paper a new method was proposed to assess e-flows that aimed to satisfy the requirements of aquatic biota for both the quantity and quality of the streamflow by linking fish tolerances to water quality criteria, or the allowable concentration of pollutants. For better operation of water projects and control of pollutants discharged into streams, this paper presented two coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control. Assessment of e-flows in the Wei River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River, shows that streamflow in dry seasons failed to meet e-flow requirements. Pollutant influx exerted a large pressure on the aquatic ecosystem, with pollutant concentrations much higher than that of the fish tolerance thresholds. We found that both flow velocity and water temperature exerted great influences on the pollutant degradation rate. Flow velocity had a much greater influence on pollutant degradation than did the standard deviation of flow velocity. This study provides new methods to closely link the tolerance of aquatic biota to water quality criteria for e-flow assessment. The recommended coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control, to dynamically regulate streamflow and control pollutant discharge, are helpful for river management and ecosystems rehabilitation. The relatively low data requirement also makes the method easy to use efficiently in developing

  17. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of c...

  18. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  19. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27% or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%. Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55 and Day 90 of gestation (g90 and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160 and age at puberty period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC, cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2 mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  20. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  1. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut-brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  2. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut–brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  3. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  4. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students' course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale "quality of teaching" directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students' peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students' examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools.

  5. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  6. Offspring Size and Reproductive Allocation in Harvester Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Cole, Blaine J

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental decision that an organism must make is how to allocate resources to offspring, with respect to both size and number. The two major theoretical approaches to this problem, optimal offspring size and optimistic brood size models, make different predictions that may be reconciled by including how offspring fitness is related to size. We extended the reasoning of Trivers and Willard (1973) to derive a general model of how parents should allocate additional resources with respect to the number of males and females produced, and among individuals of each sex, based on the fitness payoffs of each. We then predicted how harvester ant colonies should invest additional resources and tested three hypotheses derived from our model, using data from 3 years of food supplementation bracketed by 6 years without food addition. All major results were predicted by our model: food supplementation increased the number of reproductives produced. Male, but not female, size increased with food addition; the greatest increases in male size occurred in colonies that made small females. We discuss how use of a fitness landscape improves quantitative predictions about allocation decisions. When parents can invest differentially in offspring of different types, the best strategy will depend on parental state as well as the effect of investment on offspring fitness.

  7. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  9. Maternal corticosterone exposure has transgenerational effects on grand-offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicola; Peters, Richard A; Richardson, Emily; Robert, Kylie A

    2016-11-01

    The hormone fluctuations that an animal experiences during ovulation can have lifelong effects on developing offspring. These hormones may act as an adaptive mechanism, allowing offspring to be 'pre-programmed' to survive in an unstable environment. Here, we used a transgenerational approach to examine the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) on the future reproductive success of female offspring. We show that female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) exposed to embryonic CORT produce daughters that have equal reproductive success (clutch sizes, fertility, hatching success) compared with the daughters produced from untreated mothers, but their offspring had accelerated post-hatching growth rates and were significantly heavier by nutritional independence. Although there was no significant effect on primary offspring sex ratio, females from CORT-treated mothers produced significantly female-biased clutches by nutritional independence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of a transgenerational sex ratio bias in response to elevated maternal CORT in any avian species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. The Influence of Parental and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge of the influence of parental and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the quality of family climate. The number of affected children may play an important moderating role. 103 Families were recruited

  11. The Influence of Parental and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    There is a lack of knowledge of the influence of parental and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the quality of family climate. The number of affected children may play an important moderating role. 103 Families were recruited

  12. Maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William; Russell, Ginny; Baragwanath, Genevieve; Matthews, Justin; Vaidya, Bijay; Thompson-Coon, Jo

    2018-04-01

    In the last 2 decades, several studies have examined the association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and shown conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for an association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. We also sought to assess whether levothyroxine treatment for maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency improves child neurodevelopment outcomes. We performed systematic literature searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCinfo, CINAHL, AMED, BNI, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, GreyLit, Grey Source and Open Grey (latest search: March 2017). We also conducted targeted web searching and performed forwards and backwards citation chasing. Meta-analyses of eligible studies were carried out using the random-effects model. We identified 39 eligible articles (37 observational studies and 2 randomized controlled trials [RCT]). Meta-analysis showed that maternal subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinaemia are associated with indicators of intellectual disability in offspring (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 3.83, P = .01, and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.56, P = .04, respectively). Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinaemia were not associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and their effect on the risk of autism in offspring was unclear. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed no evidence that levothyroxine treatment for maternal hypothyroxinaemia or subclinical hypothyroidism reduces the incidence of low intelligence quotient in offspring. Although studies were generally of good quality, there was evidence of heterogeneity between the included observational studies (I 2 72%-79%). Maternal hypothyroxinaemia and subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with intellectual disability in offspring. Currently, there is no evidence that levothyroxine

  13. Association analysis of three diverse rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm collections for loci regulating grain quality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), end-use/cooking quality is vital for producers and millions of consumers worldwide. Grain quality is a complex trait with interacting genetic and environmental factors. Deciphering the complex genetic architecture associated with grain quality, will provide vital informati...

  14. 78 FR 58985 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to update stream quality objectives (also called ``water quality..., to Commission Secretary at 609-883-9522; if by U.S. Mail, to Commission Secretary, DRBC, P.O. Box...-7203. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background. The Commission in 1967 assigned stream quality objectives...

  15. Maternal sodium butyrate supplement elevates the lipolysis in adipose tissue and leads to lipid accumulation in offspring liver of weaning-age rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-07-22

    Sodium butyrate (SB) is reported to regulate lipid metabolism in mammals, and the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring growth has drawn much attention in the last several years. To elucidate the effects of maternal dietary SB supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in weaning rats, we fed 16 primiparous purebred female SD rats either a chow-diet or a 1 % sodium butyrate diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning age, samples of the maternal subcutaneous adipose tissue and offspring liver were taken. The serum indexes and expressions of proteins related to lipid metabolism were detected in the mother and offspring, respectively. The results showed that the maternal SB supplement increased the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the maternal and offspring serum (P pregnancy and lactation increased the hepatic total cholesterol (Tch) content (P pregnancy and the lactation period promotes maternal fat mobilization, which may result in fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation in the liver of the offspring.

  16. Does stronger pollen competition improve offspring fitness when pollen load does not vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Hennet, Lauriane; Bolstad, Geir H; Albertsen, Elena; Opedal, Øystein H; Ekrem, Runa K; Armbruster, W Scott

    2016-03-01

    Competition among pollen grains from a single donor is expected to increase the quality of the offspring produced because of the recessive deleterious alleles expressed during pollen-tube growth. However, evidence for such an effect is inconclusive; a large number of studies suffer from confounding variation in pollen competition with variation in pollen load. In this study, we tested the effect of pollen competition on offspring performance independently of pollen-load variation. We compared seed mass and early seedling performance in Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) between crosses in which variation in pollen competition was achieved, without variation in pollen load, by manipulating the dispersion of pollen grains on the stigmas. Despite a large sample size (211 crosses on 20 maternal plants), we failed to find an effect of pollen competition on seed characteristics or early seedling performance. Paternal effects were always limited, and pollen competition never reduced the within-father (residual) variance. These results suggest that limited within-donor variation in genetic quality of pollen grains reduces the potential benefits of pollen competition in the study population. The lack of paternal effects on early sporophyte performance further suggests that benefits of pollen competition among pollen from multiple donors should be limited as well, and it raises questions about the significance of pollen competition as a mechanism of sexual selection. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Watching sexy displays improves hatching success and offspring growth through maternal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-11-22

    Male attractiveness can have tremendous effects on the fitness of his offspring via good genes, but also via enhanced maternal allocation of resources. Yet the proximate mechanisms influencing differential maternal allocation in relation to male sexiness are poorly known. Here, we studied the importance of visual stimulation for maternal allocation in the Houbara bustard, a vulnerable bird species bred in captivity to support wild populations. Artificial insemination allowed controlling for potential confounding factors, such as a male's territory quality, social interactions or sperm quality/quantity, probably linked to mate attractiveness. We show that artificially inseminated females stimulated by highly displaying males increased their hatching success, owing to increased fertilization success. The females also increased the allocation of maternal androgens in their eggs, leading to an increase of circulating testosterone and growth rate in chicks. Hence, visual stimulation of the females can promote differential maternal allocation and favour offspring fitness. Our results further suggest that using artificial insemination for species conservation without appropriate stimulation of the breeding females probably has negative impacts on their breeding performance and therefore on population viability.

  18. Epigenomic profiling in visceral white adipose tissue of offspring of mice exposed to late gestational sleep fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, R; Khalyfa, A; Bao, R; Andrade, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep fragmentation during late gestation (LG-SF) is one of the major perturbations associated with sleep apnea and other sleep disorders during pregnancy. We have previously shown that LG-SF induces metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice during adulthood. To investigate the effects of late LG-SF on metabolic homeostasis in offspring and to determine the effects of LG-SF on the epigenome of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) in the offspring. Time-pregnant mice were exposed to LG-SF or sleep control during LG (LG-SC) conditions during the last 6 days of gestation. At 24 weeks of age, lipid profiles and metabolic parameters were assessed in the offspring. We performed large-scale DNA methylation analyses using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with microarrays (MeDIP-chip) in VWAT of 24-week-old LG-SF and LG-SC offspring (n=8 mice per group). Univariate multiple-testing adjusted statistical analyses were applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the groups. DMRs were mapped to their corresponding genes, and tested for potential overlaps with biological pathways and gene networks. We detected significant increases in body weight (31.7 vs 28.8 g; P=0.001), visceral (642.1 vs 497.0 mg; P=0.002) and subcutaneous (293.1 vs 250.1 mg; P=0.001) fat mass, plasma cholesterol (110.6 vs 87.6 mg dl(-1); P=0.001), triglycerides (87.3 vs 84.1 mg dl(-1); P=0.003) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values (8.1 vs 6.1; P=0.007) in the LG-SF group. MeDIP analyses revealed that 2148 DMRs (LG-SF vs LG-SC; Pgenes have reported functions that are altered in obesity and metabolic syndrome, such as Cartpt, Akt2, Apoe, Insr1 and so on. Overrepresented pathways and gene networks were related to metabolic regulation and inflammatory response. Our findings show a major role for epigenomic regulation of pathways associated with the metabolic processes and inflammatory responses in VWAT. LG-SF-induced epigenetic

  19. Prenatal Metformin Exposure in Mice Programs the Metabolic Phenotype of the Offspring during a High Fat Diet at Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomäki, Henriikka; Vähätalo, Laura H.; Laurila, Kirsti; Jäppinen, Norma T.; Penttinen, Anna-Maija; Ailanen, Liisa; Ilyasizadeh, Juan; Pesonen, Ullamari; Koulu, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Aims The antidiabetic drug metformin is currently used prior and during pregnancy for polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as during gestational diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during adulthood in mice. Methods Metformin (300 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally to dams on regular diet from the embryonic day E0.5 to E17.5. Gene expression profiles in liver and brain were analysed from 4-day old offspring by microarray. Body weight development and several metabolic parameters of offspring were monitored both during regular diet (RD-phase) and high fat diet (HFD-phase). At the end of the study, two doses of metformin or vehicle were given acutely to mice at the age of 20 weeks, and Insig-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in liver and fat tissue were analysed using qRT-PCR. Results Metformin exposed fetuses were lighter at E18.5. There was no effect of metformin on the maternal body weight development or food intake. Metformin exposed offspring gained more body weight and mesenteric fat during the HFD-phase. The male offspring also had impaired glucose tolerance and elevated fasting glucose during the HFD-phase. Moreover, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was down-regulated in epididymal fat in male offspring prenatally exposed to metformin. Based on the microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR analyses, the expression of Insig-1 was changed in the liver of neonatal mice exposed to metformin prenatally. Furthermore, metformin up-regulated the expression of Insig-1 later in development. Gene set enrichment analysis based on preliminary microarray data identified several differentially enriched pathways both in control and metformin exposed mice. Conclusions The present study shows that prenatal metformin exposure causes long-term programming effects on the metabolic phenotype during high fat diet in mice. This should be taken into consideration when using metformin as a therapeutic agent during

  20. Prenatal metformin exposure in mice programs the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during a high fat diet at adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriikka Salomäki

    Full Text Available AIMS: The antidiabetic drug metformin is currently used prior and during pregnancy for polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as during gestational diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during adulthood in mice. METHODS: Metformin (300 mg/kg or vehicle was administered orally to dams on regular diet from the embryonic day E0.5 to E17.5. Gene expression profiles in liver and brain were analysed from 4-day old offspring by microarray. Body weight development and several metabolic parameters of offspring were monitored both during regular diet (RD-phase and high fat diet (HFD-phase. At the end of the study, two doses of metformin or vehicle were given acutely to mice at the age of 20 weeks, and Insig-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in liver and fat tissue were analysed using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Metformin exposed fetuses were lighter at E18.5. There was no effect of metformin on the maternal body weight development or food intake. Metformin exposed offspring gained more body weight and mesenteric fat during the HFD-phase. The male offspring also had impaired glucose tolerance and elevated fasting glucose during the HFD-phase. Moreover, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was down-regulated in epididymal fat in male offspring prenatally exposed to metformin. Based on the microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR analyses, the expression of Insig-1 was changed in the liver of neonatal mice exposed to metformin prenatally. Furthermore, metformin up-regulated the expression of Insig-1 later in development. Gene set enrichment analysis based on preliminary microarray data identified several differentially enriched pathways both in control and metformin exposed mice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that prenatal metformin exposure causes long-term programming effects on the metabolic phenotype during high fat diet in mice. This should be taken into consideration when using metformin as a

  1. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  2. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  3. Offspring fitness and individual optimization of clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, C.; Tinbergen, J. M.; Noordwijk, A. J. van

    1998-01-01

    Within-year variation in clutch size has been claimed to be an adaptation to variation in the individual capacity to raise offspring. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating brood size to one common size, and predicted that if clutch size is individually optimized, then birds with originally large clutches have a higher fitness than birds with originally small clutches. No evidence was found that fitness was related to the original clutch size, and in this population clutch size is thus not related to the parental capacity to raise offspring. However, offspring from larger original clutches recruited better than their nest mates that came from smaller original clutches. This suggests that early maternal or genetic variation in viability is related to clutch size.

  4. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  5. An empirical study on the influence of IFRS and regulations on the quality of financial reporting of isted companies in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadesango, N.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to establish if International Accounting Standards (IAS, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and regulations in Zimbabwe have been associated with increased financial reporting quality for listed companies. The study adopted mixed research approach. Questionnaires and unstructured interviews were used as research instruments to collect primary data. Content analysis was also adopted to triangulate the results. Target population was the listed companies in Zimbabwe. The study found a significant negative relationship between voluntary adoption of IFRS and earnings management of listed companies in Zimbabwe. The negative relationship may indicate that IFRS does not promote earnings management for voluntary adopters, thereby implying an increased financial reporting quality. It is recommended that top management, external auditors and regulators being the key players in standards, should work together and tighten compliance so that impact of IFRS could be felt more

  6. NMDA receptor activation upstream of methyl farnesoate signaling for short day-induced male offspring production in the water flea, Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogino, Yukiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-03-14

    The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex produces female offspring by parthenogenesis under favorable conditions, but in response to various unfavorable external stimuli, it produces male offspring (environmental sex determination: ESD). We recently established an innovative system for ESD studies using D. pulex WTN6 strain, in which the sex of the offspring can be controlled simply by changes in the photoperiod: the long-day and short-day conditions can induce female and male offspring, respectively. Taking advantage of this system, we demonstrated that de novo methyl farnesoate (MF) synthesis is necessary for male offspring production. These results indicate the key role of innate MF signaling as a conductor between external environmental stimuli and the endogenous male developmental pathway. Despite these findings, the molecular mechanisms underlying up- and downstream signaling of MF have not yet been well elucidated in D. pulex. To elucidate up- and downstream events of MF signaling during sex determination processes, we compared the transcriptomes of daphnids reared under the long-day (female) condition with short-day (male) and MF-treated (male) conditions. We found that genes involved in ionotropic glutamate receptors, known to mediate the vast majority of excitatory neurotransmitting processes in various organisms, were significantly activated in daphnids by the short-day condition but not by MF treatment. Administration of specific agonists and antagonists, especially for the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, strongly increased or decreased, respectively, the proportion of male-producing mothers. Moreover, we also identified genes responsible for male production (e.g., protein kinase C pathway-related genes). Such genes were generally shared between the short-day reared and MF-treated daphnids. We identified several candidate genes regulating ESD which strongly suggests that these genes may be essential factors for male offspring production as an

  7. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Noelle; Nicholson, Catherine J.; Wong, Michael; Holloway, Alison C.; Hardy, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  8. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  9. Handbook of quality management according to the regulation DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 for the national EU reference laboratory or air quality at the Federal Office for Environmental Protection. State of the art: September 2009; Qualitaetsmanagement-Handbuch nach DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 fuer das Nationale EU-Referenzlabor fuer Luftqualitaet im Umweltbundesamt. Stand September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medem, Anneliese (comp.)

    2010-01-15

    The past quality management manual of the national EU reference laboratory for air quality completely was revised. The new quality management manual under consideration contains a determination of the following aspects: Organisation of construction processing, fundamental regulations of the management system concerning to quality, statements to the quality politics, paramount goals. The presented quality management system is regarded to all elements of the regulation DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 with consideration of the special requirements of the national European Union reference laboratory for air quality in the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany).

  10. Resource distributions among habitats determine solitary bee offspring production in a mosaic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2007-04-01

    Within mosaic landscapes, many organisms depend on attributes of the environment that operate over scales ranging from a single habitat patch to the entire landscape. One such attribute is resource distribution. Organisms' reliance on resources from within a local patch vs. those found among habitats throughout the landscape will depend on local habitat quality, patch quality, and landscape composition. The ability of individuals to move among complementary habitat types to obtain various resources may be a critical mechanism underlying the dynamics of animal populations and ultimately the level of biodiversity at different spatial scales. We examined the effects that local habitat type and landscape composition had on offspring production and survival of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria in an agri-natural landscape in California (U.S.A.). Female bees were placed on farms that did not use pesticides (organic farms), on farms that did use pesticides (conventional farms), or in seminatural riparian habitats. We identified pollens collected by bees nesting in different habitat types and matched these to pollens of flowering plants from throughout the landscape. These data enabled us to determine the importance of different plant species and habitat types in providing food for offspring, and how this importance changed with landscape and local nesting-site characteristics. We found that increasing isolation from natural habitat significantly decreased offspring production and survival for bees nesting at conventional farms, had weaker effects on bees in patches of seminatural habitat, and had little impact on those at organic farm sites. Pollen sampled from nests showed that females nesting in both farm and seminatural habitats relied on pollen from principally native plant species growing in seminatural habitat. Thus connectivity among habitats was critical for offspring production. Females nesting on organic farms were buffered to isolation effects by switching to

  11. A model for optimal offspring size in fish, including live-bearing and parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Auer, Sonya K; Reznick, David N

    2011-05-01

    Since Smith and Fretwell's seminal article in 1974 on the optimal offspring size, most theory has assumed a trade-off between offspring number and offspring fitness, where larger offspring have better survival or fitness, but with diminishing returns. In this article, we use two ubiquitous biological mechanisms to derive the shape of this trade-off: the offspring's growth rate combined with its size-dependent mortality (predation). For a large parameter region, we obtain the same sigmoid relationship between offspring size and offspring survival as Smith and Fretwell, but we also identify parameter regions where the optimal offspring size is as small or as large as possible. With increasing growth rate, the optimal offspring size is smaller. We then integrate our model with strategies of parental care. Egg guarding that reduces egg mortality favors smaller or larger offspring, depending on how mortality scales with size. For live-bearers, the survival of offspring to birth is a function of maternal survival; if the mother's survival increases with her size, then the model predicts that larger mothers should produce larger offspring. When using parameters for Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, differences in both growth and size-dependent predation are required to predict observed differences in offspring size between wild populations from high- and low-predation environments.

  12. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Examining the Predictive Role of Emotional Self-Regulation in Quality of Life and Perception of Suffering among Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and second leading cause of death in women after lung cancer. The World Health Organization has reported that breast cancer, with 502,000 deaths in 2005, surpassed lung, stomach, colorectal, and cervical cancers as the leading cause of death in women. The main objective of the current study was to examine the predictive role of emotional selfregulation in quality of life and perception of suffering among patients with breast cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study followed by a correlational design. The sample population consisted of 42 patients with breast cancer selected by the census method. Participants completed questionnaires on emotional self-regulation, quality of life (Aaronson et al., 1987, and perception of suffering. The obtained data was statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis via SPSS 22. Results: There was a significant, positive association between emotional selfregulation and the functional and general dimensions of quality of life. A significant, inverse correlation existed between emotional self-regulation and the symptoms dimension of quality of life. The results of the enter regression analysis showed that selfregulation respectively predicted 0.18 of variance in the functional, 0.26 in symptoms, and 0.37 of the variance in the general health dimensions of the quality of life. Emotional self-regulation had a significant, diverse relationship to the physical, psychological, and existential dimensions of perception of suffering. The results of the regression analysis carried out to predict perception of suffering indicated that emotional self-regulation respectively predicted 0.33 of variance in the physical, 0.19 in psychological, and 0.06 of the variance in the existential dimensions of perception of suffering. Conclusion: A major step forward can be taken towards improving the level of quality of

  14. Preschoolers' Cognitive and Emotional Self-Regulation in Pretend Play: Relations with Executive Functions and Quality of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2017-01-01

    The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social--emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood curriculum, is hypothesized to support…

  15. Preschoolers' cognitive and emotional self-regulation in pretend play : Relations with executive functions and quality of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social–emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood

  16. Supply reliability in context to quality regulation. Forecast model for the supply reliability; Versorgungszuverlaessigkeit im Kontext der Qualitaetsregulierung. Prognosemodell fuer die Versorgungszuverlaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadflieg, Dieter [VDE, Berlin (Germany). FNN-Projektgruppe ' ' Einflussgroessen auf die Versorgungszuverlaessigkeit' '

    2011-11-14

    The forum network technology / network operations in VDE (FNN) has published a technical note on supply reliability in the context of quality regulation. In the underlying investigations, on the one hand the influencing variables on the supply reliability are analyzed on the basis of FNN fault and availability statistics. On the other stochastic methods are developed that allow a prediction of the stochastic reliability characteristics of each network operator.

  17. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  18. Affinity to host population stimulates physical growth in adult offspring of Turkish migrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Aydan; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-01-18

    Because of political conflicts and climate change, migration will be increased worldwide and integration in host societies is a challenge also for migrants. We hypothesize that migrants, who take up the challenge in a new social environment are taller than migrants who do not pose this challenge. We analyze by a questionnaire possible social, nutritional and ethnic influencing factors to body height (BH) of adult offspring of Turkish migrants (n = 82, 39 males) aged from 18 to 34 years (mean age 24.6 years). The results of multiple regression (downward selection) show that the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the Turkish culture, the smaller he is (95% CI, -3.79, -0.323). Further, the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the German culture, the taller he is (95% CI, -0.152, 1.738). We discussed it comparable to primates taking up their challenge in dominance, where as a result their body size increase is associated with higher IGF-1 level. IGF-1 is associated with emotional belonging and has a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism and growth of the human body. With all pilot characteristics of our study results show that the successful challenge of integration in a new society is strongly associated with the emotional integration and identification in the sense of a personal sense of belonging to society. We discuss taller BH as a signal of social growth adjustment. In this sense, a secular trend of BH adaptation of migrants to hosts is a sign of integration.

  19. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifes......Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size...

  20. Maternal Body Mass Index during Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy Y; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Haddow, James E

    2013-03-01

    This hypothesis generating study explores second trimester maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development. Mothers and offspring served as controls in two earlier studies: 101 children at age two years and 118 children at age eight years. Frequency of maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 increased from 10% in 1987-1990 to 30% in 2004-2006 ( P language scores and BMI ( P = 0.054). Among eight-year-olds, one or more WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition) scores children's neurocognitive development. Further study is indicated.

  1. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  2. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-03-22

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype-phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour.

  3. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Van Gurp, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  4. Transgenerational Effects of Stress Exposure on Offspring Phenotypes in Apomictic Dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Gurp, van T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  5. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Fay, Annette; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Khush, Ranjiv

    2015-09-02

    Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l'Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  6. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kumpel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l’Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  7. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  8. Associations between state regulations, training length, perceived quality and job satisfaction among certified nursing assistants: cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy; Johantgen, Meg; Gartrell, Kyungsook

    2014-08-01

    In the U.S., there are federal requirements on how much training and annual continuing education a certified nursing assistant must complete in order to be certified. The requirements are designed to enable them to provide competent and quality care to nursing home residents. Many states also require additional training and continuing education hours as improved nursing home quality indicators have been found to be related to increased training. This study investigated the associations among state level regulations, initial training quality and focus, and job satisfaction in certified nursing assistants. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. This study used the National Nursing Home Survey and National Nursing Assistant Survey as well as data on state regulations of certified nursing assistant training. 2897 certified nursing assistants in 580 nursing homes who were currently working at a nursing home facility, who represented 680,846 certified nursing assistants in US. State regulations were related to initial training and job satisfaction among certified nursing assistants using chi square tests and binomial logistic regression models. Analyses were conducted using SAS-callable SUDAAN to correct for complex sampling design effects in the National Nursing Home Survey and National Nursing Assistant Survey. Models were adjusted for personal and facility characteristics. Certified nursing assistants reporting high quality training were more likely to work in states requiring additional initial training hours (p=0.02) and were more satisfied with their jobs (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.09-2.09) than those with low quality training. In addition, those with more training focused on work life skills were 91% more satisfied (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.41-2.58) whereas no relationship was found between training focused on basic care skills and job satisfaction (OR=1.36, 95% CI=0.99-1.84). Certified nursing assistants with additional initial training were more likely to report that their

  9. WTE (Waste-to-Energy) air quality and ash regulation: What's ahead in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.

    1989-02-01

    New regulations affecting waste-to-energy plants are in the works. Actions by Congress, the EPA, and possibly the courts will introduce changes with industry-wide consequences. Planners of waste-to-energy plants need to pay special attention to the potential ramifications. The paper reviews potential changes in pollution regulations. It is recommended that anyone involved in the planning or operation of a resource recovery facility needs to keep informed.

  10. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  11. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  12. Association between Parental and Offspring's Alcohol Use--Population Data from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Authors investigated the association between alcohol use of parents and offspring in data derived from a district based household survey on drug abuse. Methods: Data on 4411 fathers paired with 6884 offspring were available. Alcohol use disorders were diagnosed based on DSM-III-R criteria. Analyses was conducted to contrast 1979 offspring of…

  13. Risk for asthma in offspring of asthmatic mothers versus fathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Robert H; Kobzik, Lester; Dahl, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect."...

  14. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  15. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compa......, in this community-based sample of young, nonhypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension.......High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We...... compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 nonhypertensive Framingham Heart Study third-generation cohort participants (mean age: 38 years; 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents...

  16. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    , this result demonstrates that failures associated with meiosis are a major cause of offspring inviability not only for meiotic parthenogenesis, but for sexual reproducers such as humans. Meiosis is necessary for genetic recombination in eukaryotes, but is vestigial, and costly, in parthenogens. The question...... range of organisms....

  17. Consequences on offspring of abnormal function in ageing gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, J J; Pérez-Albalá, S; Cano, A

    2000-01-01

    The present review aims to analyse (i) the molecular, biochemical and cellular changes that accompany oocyte and sperm ageing in any of the internal or external environments where they can reside, and (ii) the consequences of the abnormal function in ageing gametes on pre- and post-implantation development and later life of offspring. This review also aims to propose and discuss cellular/molecular mechanisms framed within the 'free radical theory of ageing'. It appears that the ageing of gametes prior to fertilization may affect many molecular, biochemical and cellular pathways that may jeopardize not only pre- and post-implantation embryo/fetal development but also later life of offspring. Consequences of gamete ageing range from decreased vigour (with the concomitant decrease in intelligence, reproductive fitness and longevity) of apparently normal-looking offspring to severe congenital, epigenetic and/or genetic anomalies. All these effects may be easily prevented by efficient diffusion of both the potential risks of gamete ageing and the steps that should be taken by couples wishing to achieve pregnancy to guarantee a correct maturational synchronization of gametes at fertilization. Although in-vitro antioxidant therapy appears to protect from or retard the ageing process of gametes, it may not assure the total absence of negative effects on the resulting offspring.

  18. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  19. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  20. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...

  1. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan Boye Vagn; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Bir...

  2. Neonatal neurological assessment of offspring in maternal phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisbren, SE; Chang, P; Levy, HL; Shifrin, H; Allred, E; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F; Hanley, W; Koch, R; Matalon, R; Rouse, B

    This study assesses the impact of prenatal and postnatal factors in maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The Dubowitz Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and Full-term Newborn Infant was administered within the first 8 days of life to 56 offspring of women with PKU and 45 controls. Follow-up testing

  3. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  4. Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognition by vocal characteristics between parents and their offspring is thought to be ubiquitous in colonially nesting avian species. The Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus nests in hollows in trees. However, when the chicks fledge they leave the nest and for the following three weeks spend their time in a ...

  5. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  6. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Fine, W.; Jaffe, N.; Holmes, G.E.; Holmes, F.F.

    1979-01-01

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments

  7. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  8. Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between consumption of charred meat, which is believed to be rich in nitrosamine by pregnant mothers and the adverse effects on the growth of their offsprings, alterations in morphology of tissues like liver and pancreas were studied. Meat was subjected to charcoal fire roasting without curing and was ...

  9. Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Leirgul, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a national cohort study, we...

  10. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    regulates the lipogenic pathway by activating genes involved in triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis. The present study showed significant downregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC levels in the CR group. These results indicated that maternal resveratrol intake during lactation suppressed SREBP-1c cleavage and nuclear translocation and repressed SREBP-1c target gene expression such as FAS and ACC in the livers of adult male offspring. These changes attenuate hepatic triacylglycerol and fatty acid synthesis in adult male offspring.

  11. Hybrid marriages and phenotypic heterosis in offspring: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Qiran; Chen, Qihui

    2018-02-19

    In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis). This study explores whether heterosis is a contributing factor to offspring's educational attainment in China by applying a high-dimensional fixed effects (HDFE) modelling framework to the unique 0.1% micro-sample of the 2000 Chinese Population Census data. Concerning potential endogeneity of hybrid marriages, we conduct a series of robustness checks. Reassuringly, the estimated heterosis effect remains significantly positive across various measurements, after controlling for parental educational attainments/height, environmental influences, and over a thousand region and region-by-year fixed effects. The effects in male and higher-educated offspring are found to be stronger. Results are replicated when analyzing body height using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Although endogeneity of "hybrid marriages" may not be completely ruled out, the current study sheds light on the potentially beneficial effects of interprovincial migration on population-level human capital accumulation, and we hope that this paper can intrigue future studies that further address endogeneity. The implied heterosis effect could, therefore, be profound for Homo sapiens as a species from an evolutionary point of view. An additional important implication is that the overall genetic influences of parents on offspring's performance may be further decomposed into a conventional heredity effect and a heterosis effect that has been

  12. Feasibility of peer assessment and clinical audit to self-regulate the quality of physiotherapy services: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.J.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Driehuis, F.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Wees, P.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of a quality improvement programme aimed to enhance the client-centeredness, effectiveness and transparency of physiotherapy services by addressing three feasibility domains: (1) acceptability of the programme design, (2) appropriateness of the implementation

  13. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  14. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  15. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON, while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA

  16. Maternal gestational cortisol and testosterone are associated with trade-offs in offspring sex and number in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calen P Ryan

    in the regulation of trade-offs in offspring sex and number.

  17. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring. Main methods: Female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 μg/g BW. After 5 days of LPS administration, female mice were mated with males, and experimental allergic rhinitis was induced in female offspring. Immunization and nasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA were performed at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Allergic rhinitis-like symptoms, OVA-specific IgE and adipokines in sera, body weight, fat pad weight, and cytokine production by splenocytes in these 9-week-old offspring. Key findings: Maternal LPS administration results in a significant increase in body weight, visceral fat accumulation, and serum leptin concentration, and the dominance of Th1 in Th balance. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in OVA-specific IgE titer and allergic-like symptoms between the groups. Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring. Keywords: Immunology, Metabolism, Nutrition, Health Sciences

  18. Roles of piRNAs in microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) induced reproductive toxicity in testis on male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huan; Benson, Mikael; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Dongmei

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects on the testis of the male offspring of MC-LR exposure during fetal and lactational periods. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: control group and MC-LR group which were exposed to 0 and 10 μg/L of MC-LR, respectively, through drinking water separately during fetal and lactational periods. At the age of 30 days after birth, the male offspring were euthanized. The body weight, testis index, and histomorphology change were observed and the global changes of piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression were evaluated. The results revealed that MC-LR was found in the testis of male offspring, body weight and testis index decreased significantly, and testicular tissue structure was damaged in the MC-LR group. In addition, the exposure to MC-LR resulted in an altered piRNA expression profile and an increase of the cell apoptosis and a decrease of the cell proliferation in the testis of the male offspring. It was reasonable to speculate that the toxic effects on reproductive system of the male offspring in MC-LR group might be mediated by piRNAs through the regulation of the target genes. As far as we are aware, this is the first report showing that MC-LR could play a role in disorder of proliferative and cell apoptosis in the testis of the male offspring by the maternal transmission effect of toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  20. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  1. From facultative to obligatory parental care: Interspecific variation in offspring dependency on post-hatching care in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodeanu-Nägler, Alexandra; Keppner, Eva M.; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the evolution of parental care have focused primarily on the costs and benefits of parental care and the life-history attributes that favour it. However, once care evolves, offspring in some taxa appear to become increasingly dependent on their parents. Although offspring dependency is a central theme in family life, the evolutionary dynamics leading to it are not fully understood. Beetles of the genus Nicrophorus are well known for their elaborate biparental care, including provisioning of their young. By manipulating the occurrence of pre- or post-hatching care, we show that the offspring of three burying beetle species, N. orbicollis, N. pustulatus, and N. vespilloides, show striking variation in their reliance on parental care. Our results demonstrate that this variation within one genus arises through a differential dependency of larvae on parental feeding, but not on pre-hatching care. In N. pustulatus, larvae appear to be nutritionally independent of their parents, but in N. orbicollis, larvae do not survive in the absence of parental feeding. We consider evolutionary scenarios by which nutritional dependency may have evolved, highlighting the role of brood size regulation via infanticide in this genus. PMID:27378180

  2. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezila M. Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.

  3. A model of BIS/BAS sensitivity, emotion regulation difficulties, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in relation to sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, Shaunt A; Pickett, Scott M; Deveson, Danielle F; Kanona, Brenda B

    2013-11-30

    Recent research has indicated that interactions between behavioral inhibition system (BIS)/behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties increases risk for psychopathology. Considering sleep quality (SQ) has been linked to emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) and psychopathology, further investigation of a possible mechanism is needed. The current study examined associations between BIS/BAS sensitivity, ERD, and SQ to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in an undergraduate sample (n=459). Positive relationships between BIS sensitivity and both ERD and stress symptoms, and negative relationships between BAS-reward sensitivity and both ERD and depression symptoms were observed. Furthermore, ERD were positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Succeeding analyses revealed differential relationships between ERD and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms among good quality and poor quality sleepers. The findings are discussed within the context of personality dimensions and self-regulatory mechanisms, along with implications for the treatment of depression, anxiety and sleep difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  5. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance

  6. Is "Better Regulation" Possible? Formal and Substantive Quality in the Impact Assessments in Education and Culture of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the initial results produced by the European Commission's "better regulation agenda", which aims to stimulate productivity and employment, on the use of evidence and its potential to enhance democratic governance. The article finds that implausible rational models of policy making dictate the ways in which the…

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced adrenal developmental abnormality of male offspring rats and its possible intrauterine programming mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hegui; He, Zheng; Zhu, Chunyan; Liu, Lian; Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disorder, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Fetal adrenal developmental status is the major determinant of fetal tissue maturation and offspring growth. We have previously proposed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) suppresses fetal adrenal corticosterone (CORT) synthesis. Here, we focused on PEE-induced adrenal developmental abnormalities of male offspring rats before and after birth, and aimed to explore its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE (4 g/kg·d). In PEE fetus, increased serum CORT concentration and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration, with lower bodyweight and structural abnormalities as well as a decreased Ki67 expression (proliferative marker), were observed in the male fetal adrenal cortex. Adrenal glucocorticoid (GC)-metabolic activation system was enhanced while gene expression of IGF1 signaling pathway with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was decreased. Furthermore, in the male adult offspring of PEE, serum CORT level was decreased but IGF1 was increased with partial catch-up growth, and Ki67 expression demonstrated no obvious change. Adrenal GC-metabolic activation system was inhibited, while IGF1 signaling pathway and 3β-HSD was enhanced with the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), and StAR was down-regulated in the adult adrenal. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” mechanism for PEE-induced adrenal developmental toxicity: “the first programming” is a lower functional programming of adrenal steroidogenesis, and “the second programming” is GC-metabolic activation system-related GC-IGF1 axis programming. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure induces adrenal developmental abnormality in offspring rats. • Prenatal ethanol exposure induces intrauterine programming of adrenal steroidogenesis. • Intrauterine GC-IGF1 axis programming might mediate adrenal developmental abnormality.

  8. Exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide during pregnancy and lactation induces neurobehavioral alterations in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Bartos, Mariana; Bras, Cristina; Gumilar, Fernanda; Antonelli, Marta C; Minetti, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    The impact of sub-lethal doses of herbicides on human health and the environment is a matter of controversy. Due to the fact that evidence particularly of the effects of glyphosate on the central nervous system of rat offspring by in utero exposure is scarce, the purpose of the present study was to assess the neurobehavioral effects of chronic exposure to a glyphosate-containing herbicide during pregnancy and lactation. To this end, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed through drinking water to 0.2% or 0.4% of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (corresponding to a concentration of 0.65 or 1.30g/L of glyphosate, respectively) during pregnancy and lactation and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring were analyzed. The postnatal day on which each pup acquired neonatal reflexes (righting, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis) and that on which eyes and auditory canals were fully opened were recorded for the assessment of sensorimotor development. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were monitored via open field test and plus maze test, respectively, in 45- and 90-day-old offspring. Pups exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide showed early onset of cliff aversion reflex and early auditory canal opening. A decrease in locomotor activity and in anxiety levels was also observed in the groups exposed to a glyphosate-containing herbicide. Findings from the present study reveal that early exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the central nervous system in rat offspring probably by altering mechanisms or neurotransmitter systems that regulate locomotor activity and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced adrenal developmental abnormality of male offspring rats and its possible intrauterine programming mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hegui; He, Zheng; Zhu, Chunyan; Liu, Lian; Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fetal adrenal developmental status is the major determinant of fetal tissue maturation and offspring growth. We have previously proposed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) suppresses fetal adrenal corticosterone (CORT) synthesis. Here, we focused on PEE-induced adrenal developmental abnormalities of male offspring rats before and after birth, and aimed to explore its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE (4 g/kg·d). In PEE fetus, increased serum CORT concentration and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration, with lower bodyweight and structural abnormalities as well as a decreased Ki67 expression (proliferative marker), were observed in the male fetal adrenal cortex. Adrenal glucocorticoid (GC)-metabolic activation system was enhanced while gene expression of IGF1 signaling pathway with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was decreased. Furthermore, in the male adult offspring of PEE, serum CORT level was decreased but IGF1 was increased with partial catch-up growth, and Ki67 expression demonstrated no obvious change. Adrenal GC-metabolic activation system was inhibited, while IGF1 signaling pathway and 3β-HSD was enhanced with the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), and StAR was down-regulated in the adult adrenal. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” mechanism for PEE-induced adrenal developmental toxicity: “the first programming” is a lower functional programming of adrenal steroidogenesis, and “the second programming” is GC-metabolic activation system-related GC-IGF1 axis programming. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure induces adrenal developmental abnormality in offspring rats. • Prenatal ethanol exposure induces intrauterine programming of adrenal steroidogenesis. • Intrauterine GC-IGF1 axis programming might mediate adrenal developmental abnormality.

  10. The trilogy nuclear technology-quality-reliability in nuclear energy: the interface technical regulation/industrial norm in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jose Ribeiro da

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, it is tried to find out a compatibility among Regulations (mandatory) documents governing Quality Assurance Requirements for the Nuclear Industry (like IAEA/50-C-QA, IAEA/50-SG-QA1, IAEA/50-SG-QA7, and others), with similar documents prescribing same requirements for COnventional Industry (like ISO/900 Series), using the technical support of the prescriptions contained in the IAEA/TR-328 documents. Harmonization and compatibility of these documents is a great deal for Industries engaged -directly or indirectly - in the Nuclear Technology, taking into account that such compatibility can avoid troubles for already ISO/9000 Series Certified Industries in the fulfillment of its contract requirements in the nuclear field. Its also represents in that field a symbiosis between Technical Regulations (mandatory) and Voluntary Standards (Industrial, Consensual Standards). (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  12. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  13. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    current analysis was limited to healthy controls. We also included existing LTL data from a small random sample of women participating in a cognitive sub-study. LTL was measured using the quantitative PCR-based method. Exposure and covariate information are extracted from biennial questionnaires completed by the participants. We found a strong association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)) that remained robust after controlling for indicators of early life SES. Maternal age at birth showed a weak inverse association with participant LTL after adjusting for age at blood collection and paternal age at birth (P = 0.01). We also noted a stronger association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.045). However, this observation may be due to chance as premenopausal women represented only 12.6% (N = 535) of the study population and LTL was not correlated with age at menopause, total or estrogen-only hormone therapy (HT) use suggesting that changes in in vivo estrogen exposure do not influence telomere length regulation. The women in our study are not representative of the general US female population, with an underrepresentation of non-white and low social class groups. Although the interaction was not significant, we noted that the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL appeared weaker among women whose parents did not own their home at the time of the participant's birth. As telomere dynamics may differ among individuals who are most socioeconomically deprived, SES indicators may have more of an influence on the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL in such populations. As of yet, our and prior studies have not identified childhood or adult characteristics that confound the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL, supporting the hypothesis that offspring may inherit the longer telomeres found in sperm of older

  14. Working memory and attention deficits in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia or bipolar patients: comparing vulnerability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Goradia, Dhruman; Hosanagar, Avinash; Mermon, Diana; Montrose, Debra M; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Rajarathinem, R; Haddad, Luay; Amirsadri, Ali; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline; Rajan, Usha; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2011-07-01

    Working memory deficits abound in schizophrenia and attention deficits have been documented in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Adolescent offspring of patients may inherit vulnerabilities in brain circuits that subserve these cognitive domains. Here we assess impairments in offspring of schizophrenia (SCZ-Offspring) or bipolar (BP-Offspring) patients compared to controls (HC) with no family history of mood or psychotic disorders to the second degree. Three groups (n=100 subjects; range: 10-20 yrs) of HC, SCZ-Offspring and BP-Offspring gave informed consent. Working memory was assessed using a delayed spatial memory paradigm with two levels of delay (2s & 12s); sustained attention processing was assessed using the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs version. SCZ-Offspring (but not BP-Offspring) showed impairments in working memory (relative to HC) at the longer memory delay indicating a unique deficit. Both groups showed reduced sensitivity during attention but only BP-Offspring significantly differed from controls. These results suggest unique (working memory/dorsal frontal cortex) and potentially overlapping (attention/fronto-striatal cortex) vulnerability pathways in adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Working memory and attention assessments in these offspring may assist in the clinical characterization of the adolescents vulnerable to SCZ or BP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Family functioning in the context of parental bipolar disorder: associations with offspring age, sex, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Wang, Christine H; Otto, Michael W; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that families with a parent who has bipolar disorder (BD) may experience family functioning difficulties. However, the association between family functioning and psychopathology among offspring of parents with BD, and offspring characteristics that may moderate this association, remains poorly understood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between family functioning (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict) and psychopathology in 117 offspring (ages 5-18) of 75 parents with BD. We also examined whether age and sex differences moderated these associations. We measured offspring psychopathology by examining current dimensional symptoms and DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders. Correlational analyses indicated that higher family conflict and lower cohesion were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms in offspring. Lower family cohesion was also associated with current offspring mood disorders. Moderation analyses indicated, first, that the link between lower family cohesion and internalizing symptoms was stronger for younger offspring compared to older offspring. Second, higher family conflict and current mood disorder were associated in younger males but not in older males or in females. Results remained the same after controlling for parental anxiety or substance use disorder comorbidity. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for family functioning when working with offspring at risk for BD, while also recognizing that the connections between family functioning and offspring outcomes are complex and differ based on offspring sex and developmental stage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Fear and overprotection in Australian residential aged-care facilities: The inadvertent impact of regulation on quality continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly; Dunning, Trisha

    2016-06-01

    Most residents in residential aged-care facilities are incontinent. This study explored how continence care was provided in residential aged-care facilities, and describes a subset of data about staffs' beliefs and experiences of the quality framework and the funding model on residents' continence care. Using grounded theory methodology, 18 residential aged-care staff members were interviewed and 88 hours of field observations conducted in two facilities. Data were analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive analytic procedures. Staffs' beliefs and experiences about the requirements of the quality framework and the funding model fostered a climate of fear and risk adversity that had multiple unintended effects on residents' continence care, incentivising dependence on continence management, and equating effective continence care with effective pad use. There is a need to rethink the quality of continence care and its measurement in Australian residential aged-care facilities. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  17. Effect of parental morphine addiction on extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in rat offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahele Assaee

    2004-01-01

    Findings: In male offsprings of sham control1, sham control2, test1 and test2 basal and electrical stimulated of extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus were: 0.67±0.04, 1.11±0.1, and in female offsprings were 0.47±0.06, 0.88±0.05 (n=5. The basal and stimulated extra cellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus was decreased in both test1 and test2 offsprings. It was less in test1 than test2 offsprings. The glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in female offsprings of test1 group was less than that of the male offsprings. conclusion: The results suggest that parental morphine addiction may cause learning deficiency through reduction of extracellular glutamate concentration in dentate gyrus so the side effects of parental morphine addiction in offsprings must be considered.

  18. Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobi

    Full Text Available Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends.The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27.Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained significant through the transition from

  19. Resolution 197/012. It replaces the wording of Annex III of the Regulation of Technical Specifications for Quality of Liquid Fuels, approved by Resolution of the URSEA 150/008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution is about modifications made in the regulation of technical specifications in the quality of liquid fuels, approved by Resolution of the URSEA 150/008. These modifications concern to the Especial Oil gas

  20. Genetic variation of transgenerational plasticity of offspring germination in response to salinity stress and the seed transcriptome of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Wendy T; Chang, Peter L; Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L

    2015-04-01

    Transgenerational plasticity provides phenotypic variation that contributes to adaptation. For plants, the timing of seed germination is critical for offspring survival in stressful environments, as germination timing can alter the environmental conditions a seedling experiences. Stored seed transcripts are important determinants of seed germination, but have not previously been linked with transgenerational plasticity of germination behavior. In this study we used RNAseq and growth chamber experiments of the model legume M. trucantula to test whether parental exposure to salinity stress influences the expression of stored seed transcripts and early offspring traits and test for genetic variation. We detected genotype-dependent parental environmental effects (transgenerational plasticity) on the expression levels of stored seed transcripts, seed size, and germination behavior of four M. truncatula genotypes. More than 50% of the transcripts detected in the mature, ungerminated seed transcriptome were annotated as regulating seed germination, some of which are involved in abiotic stress response and post-embryonic development. Some genotypes showed increased seed size in response to parental exposure to salinity stress, but no parental environmental influence on germination timing. In contrast, other genotypes showed no seed size differences across contrasting parental conditions but displayed transgenerational plasticity for germimation timing, with significantly delayed germination in saline conditions when parental plants were exposed to salinity. In genotypes that show significant transgenerational plastic germination response, we found significant coexpression networks derived from salt responsive transcripts involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the germination pathway. Consistent with the delayed germination response to saline conditions in these genotypes, we found genes associated with dormancy and up-regulation of abscisic acid (ABA). Our results

  1. When parents disclose BRCA1/2 test results: their communication and perceptions of offspring response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Egleston, Brian L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Daly, Mary B; Moore, Cynthia W; Sands, Colleen B; Schmidheiser, Helen; Kondamudi, Preethi K; Feigon, Maia; Ibe, Comfort N; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2012-07-01

    BRCA1/2 testing is not recommended for children, as risk reduction measures and screening are not generally recommended before 25 years old (YO). Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of parent communication to offspring and how offspring respond to this communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents who had BRCA1/2 testing and at least 1 child parents completed interviews (61% response rate), reporting on 505 offspring. Twenty-nine percent of parents were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Three hundred thirty-four (66%) offspring learned of their parent's test result. Older offspring age (P ≤ .01), offspring gender (female, P = .05), parents' negative test result (P = .03), and parents' education (high school only, P = .02) were associated with communication to offspring. The most frequently reported initial offspring responses were neutral (41%) or relief (28%). Thirteen percent of offspring were reported to experience concern or distress (11%) in response to parental communication of their test results. Distress was more frequently perceived among offspring learning of their parent's BRCA1/2 positive or variant of uncertain significance result. Many parents communicate their BRCA1/2 test results to young offspring. Parents' perceptions of offspring responses appear to vary by offspring age and parent test result. A better understanding of how young offspring respond to information about hereditary risk for adult cancer could provide opportunities to optimize adaptive psychosocial responses to risk information and performance of health behaviors, in adolescence and throughout an at-risk life span. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  2. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  3. Maternal or paternal suicide and offspring's psychiatric and suicide-attempt hospitalization risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Wilcox, Holly C

    2010-11-01

    We examined whether the risk for psychiatric morbidity requiring inpatient care was higher for offspring who experienced parental suicide, compared with offspring of fatal accident decedents, and whether the association varied according to the deceased parent's gender. Children and adolescents (0-17 years of age) who experienced maternal (N = 5600) or paternal (N = 17,847) suicide in 1973-2003 in Sweden were identified by using national, longitudinal, population-based registries. Cox regression modeling was used to compare psychiatric hospitalization risks among offspring of suicide decedents and propensity score-matched offspring of accident decedents. Offspring of maternal suicide decedents had increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, after controlling for psychiatric hospitalization for decedents and surviving parents, compared with offspring of maternal accidental decedents. Offspring of paternal suicide decedents had similar risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, compared with offspring of accident decedents, but had increased risk of hospitalization attributable to depressive and anxiety disorders. The magnitude of risks for offspring suicide-attempt hospitalization was greater for those who experienced maternal versus paternal suicide, compared with their respective control offspring (interaction P = .05; offspring of maternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.80 [95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.74]; offspring of paternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.35]). Maternal suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization for offspring, beyond the risk associated with maternal accidental death. However, paternal suicide is not associated with suicide-attempt hospitalization. Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants.

  4. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  5. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  6. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  7. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    Full Text Available High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT and high night temperatures (HNT under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT. Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  8. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  9. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  10. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  11. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  12. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  14. Polyandry promotes enhanced offspring survival in decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Tracie M; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Although female multiple mating is ubiquitous in insects, its adaptive significance remains poorly understood. Benefits to multiple mating can accrue via direct material benefits, indirect genetic benefits, or both. We investigated the effects of multiple mating in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, by simultaneously varying the number of times that females mated and the number of different males with which they mated, measuring aspects of female fecundity and elements of offspring performance and viability. Multiple matings resulted in enhanced female fitness relative to single matings when females mated with different partners, but not when females mated repeatedly with the same male. Specifically, polyandrous females produced significantly more offspring surviving to reproductive maturity than did monogamous females mating once or mating repeatedly with the same male. These results suggest that the benefit females gain from multiple mating is influenced primarily by genetic and not material benefits.

  15. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    in the offspring. METHODS: A cohort study was performed among all live singletons born in Denmark between 1996 and 2007. Mothers who had a diagnosis of depressive disorder and/or who used antidepressants 1 year before or during the index pregnancy were identified. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... or use of antidepressants 1 year before or during pregnancy). Prenatal maternal depression was associated with childhood asthma (HR: 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20–1.30]). Overall, 8895 children were exposed to antidepressants in utero. Compared with children born to mothers with prenatal......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that maternal depression during pregnancy is abstract associated with asthma in the offspring, but the role of medical treatment of depression is not known. Our goal was to examine whether prenatal antidepressant use increases the risk of asthma...

  16. Alterations in offspring behavior induced by chronic prenatal cocaine dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R F; Mattran, K M; Kurkjian, M F; Kurtz, S L

    1989-01-01

    Sperm-positive female Long-Evans hooded rats were dosed subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg/day cocaine or an equal volume of vehicle (0.9% sterile saline) from gestation day 4 (GD4) through GD18. Offspring were assessed for development of negative geotaxis, righting reflex, spontaneous alternation, and open field activity, and for adult behaviors including DRL-20 acquisition, water maze, visual discrimination, barbiturate sleep time, shuttlebox avoidance, footshock sensitivity, and tail flick latency. Cocaine dosing produced no significant effects on dam weight gain, any measure of litter size and weight, or early postnatal behavioral tests, but there were significant drug effects on development of spontaneous alternation, development of open field activity, DRL-20 acquisition, water maze performance, tail flick, and footshock sensitivity. These data suggest that chronic administration of a modest dose of cocaine during gestation in the rat alters a number of behaviors in the offspring.

  17. Feasibility of peer assessment and clinical audit to self-regulate the quality of physiotherapy services: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Marjo J M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Driehuis, Femke; Heerkens, Yvonne F; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; van der Wees, Philip J

    2017-02-10

    To evaluate the feasibility of a quality improvement programme aimed to enhance the client-centeredness, effectiveness and transparency of physiotherapy services by addressing three feasibility domains: (1) acceptability of the programme design, (2) appropriateness of the implementation strategy and (3) impact on quality improvement. Mixed methods study. 64 physiotherapists working in primary care, organised in a network of communities of practice in the Netherlands. The programme contained: (1) two cycles of online self-assessment and peer assessment (PA) of clinical performance using client records and video-recordings of client communication followed by face-to-face group discussions, and (2) clinical audit assessing organisational performance. Assessment was based on predefined performance indicators which could be scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Discussions addressed performance standards and scoring differences. All feasibility domains were evaluated qualitatively with two focus groups and 10 in-depth interviews. In addition, we evaluated the impact on quality improvement quantitatively by comparing self-assessment and PA scores in cycles 1 and 2. We identified critical success features relevant to programme development and implementation, such as clarifying expectations at baseline, training in PA skills, prolonged engagement with video-assessment and competent group coaches. Self-reported impact on quality improvement included awareness of clinical and organisational performance, improved evidence-based practice and client-centeredness and increased motivation to self-direct quality improvement. Differences between self-scores and peer scores on performance indicators were not significant. Between cycles 1 and 2, scores for record keeping showed significant improvement, however not for client communication. This study demonstrated that bottom-up initiatives to improve healthcare quality can be effective. The results justify ongoing evaluation to inform

  18. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via