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Sample records for regulates mitochondrial function

  1. Redox Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the regulation of cellular ROS, their modes of production and removal, and the redox-sensitive targets that are modified by their flux. In particular, we focus on the actions of redox-sensitive targets that alter mitochondrial function and the role of these redox modifications on metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and apoptotic pathways. We also consider the role of mitochondria in modulating these pathways, and discuss how redox-dependent events may contribute to pathobiology by altering mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1323–1367. PMID:22146081

  2. Cdkal1, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene, regulates mitochondrial function in adipose tissue

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    Colin J. Palmer

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Cdkal1 is necessary for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in adipose tissue. These results suggest that the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene CDKAL1 has novel functions in regulating mitochondrial activity.

  3. Mitochondrial function in engineered cardiac tissues is regulated by extracellular matrix elasticity and tissue alignment.

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    Lyra-Leite, Davi M; Andres, Allen M; Petersen, Andrew P; Ariyasinghe, Nethika R; Cho, Nathan; Lee, Jezell A; Gottlieb, Roberta A; McCain, Megan L

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that parameters associated with baseline metabolism are predominantly regulated by ECM elasticity, whereas the ability of tissues to adapt to metabolic stress is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Furthermore, bioenergetic health index, which reflects both the positive and negative aspects of oxygen consumption, was highest in aligned tissues on the most rigid substrate, suggesting that overall mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and myofibril architecture in cardiac myocytes. This provides novel insight into how extracellular cues impact mitochondrial function in the context of cardiac development and disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A new methodology has been developed to measure O 2 consumption rates in engineered cardiac tissues with independent control over tissue alignment and matrix elasticity. This led to the findings that matrix

  4. Redox regulation of mitochondrial function with emphasis on cysteine oxidation reactions.

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    Mailloux, Ryan J; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria have a myriad of essential functions including metabolism and apoptosis. These chief functions are reliant on electron transfer reactions and the production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production of ATP and ROS are intimately linked to the electron transport chain (ETC). Electrons from nutrients are passed through the ETC via a series of acceptor and donor molecules to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen (O2) which ultimately drives the synthesis of ATP. Electron transfer through the respiratory chain and nutrient oxidation also produces ROS. At high enough concentrations ROS can activate mitochondrial apoptotic machinery which ultimately leads to cell death. However, if maintained at low enough concentrations ROS can serve as important signaling molecules. Various regulatory mechanisms converge upon mitochondria to modulate ATP synthesis and ROS production. Given that mitochondrial function depends on redox reactions, it is important to consider how redox signals modulate mitochondrial processes. Here, we provide the first comprehensive review on how redox signals mediated through cysteine oxidation, namely S-oxidation (sulfenylation, sulfinylation), S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, regulate key mitochondrial functions including nutrient oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, ROS production, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), apoptosis, and mitochondrial fission and fusion. We also consider the chemistry behind these reactions and how they are modulated in mitochondria. In addition, we also discuss emerging knowledge on disorders and disease states that are associated with deregulated redox signaling in mitochondria and how mitochondria-targeted medicines can be utilized to restore mitochondrial redox signaling.

  5. Redox regulation of mitochondrial function with emphasis on cysteine oxidation reactions☆

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    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria have a myriad of essential functions including metabolism and apoptosis. These chief functions are reliant on electron transfer reactions and the production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production of ATP and ROS are intimately linked to the electron transport chain (ETC). Electrons from nutrients are passed through the ETC via a series of acceptor and donor molecules to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen (O2) which ultimately drives the synthesis of ATP. Electron transfer through the respiratory chain and nutrient oxidation also produces ROS. At high enough concentrations ROS can activate mitochondrial apoptotic machinery which ultimately leads to cell death. However, if maintained at low enough concentrations ROS can serve as important signaling molecules. Various regulatory mechanisms converge upon mitochondria to modulate ATP synthesis and ROS production. Given that mitochondrial function depends on redox reactions, it is important to consider how redox signals modulate mitochondrial processes. Here, we provide the first comprehensive review on how redox signals mediated through cysteine oxidation, namely S-oxidation (sulfenylation, sulfinylation), S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, regulate key mitochondrial functions including nutrient oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, ROS production, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), apoptosis, and mitochondrial fission and fusion. We also consider the chemistry behind these reactions and how they are modulated in mitochondria. In addition, we also discuss emerging knowledge on disorders and disease states that are associated with deregulated redox signaling in mitochondria and how mitochondria-targeted medicines can be utilized to restore mitochondrial redox signaling. PMID:24455476

  6. TAK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass and mitochondrial function

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    Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Bohnert, Kyle R.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Gallot, Yann S.; McMillan, Joseph D.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown. Here, we report that inducible inactivation of TAK1 causes severe muscle wasting, leading to kyphosis, in both young and adult mice.. Inactivation of TAK1 inhibits protein synthesis and induces proteolysis, potentially through upregulating the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of AMPK are increased, whereas levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p38 MAPK are diminished upon inducible inactivation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle. In addition, targeted inactivation of TAK1 leads to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of adult mice. Inhibition of TAK1 does not attenuate denervation-induced muscle wasting in adult mice. Finally, TAK1 activity is highly upregulated during overload-induced skeletal muscle growth, and inactivation of TAK1 prevents myofiber hypertrophy in response to functional overload. Overall, our study demonstrates that TAK1 is a key regulator of skeletal muscle mass and oxidative metabolism. PMID:29415881

  7. A p300 and SIRT1 Regulated Acetylation Switch of C/EBPα Controls Mitochondrial Function

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    Mohamad A. Zaini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cellular metabolism is a tightly controlled process in which the cell adapts fluxes through metabolic pathways in response to changes in nutrient supply. Among the transcription factors that regulate gene expression and thereby cause changes in cellular metabolism is the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα. Protein lysine acetylation is a key post-translational modification (PTM that integrates cellular metabolic cues with other physiological processes. Here, we show that C/EBPα is acetylated by the lysine acetyl transferase (KAT p300 and deacetylated by the lysine deacetylase (KDAC sirtuin1 (SIRT1. SIRT1 is activated in times of energy demand by high levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ and controls mitochondrial biogenesis and function. A hypoacetylated mutant of C/EBPα induces the transcription of mitochondrial genes and results in increased mitochondrial respiration. Our study identifies C/EBPα as a key mediator of SIRT1-controlled adaption of energy homeostasis to changes in nutrient supply. : Zaini et al. show that the transcription factor C/EBPα is acetylated by p300 and deacetylated by the lysine deacetylase SIRT1. Hypoacetylated C/EBPα induces the transcription of mitochondrial genes and results in increased mitochondrial respiration. C/EBPα is a key mediator of SIRT1-controlled adaption of energy homeostasis to changes in nutrient supply. Keywords: C/EBPα, SIRT1, p300, lysine acetylation, mitochondrial function, cellular metabolism, NAD+, gene regulation

  8. Hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial function in insulin resistant muscle cells: effect of catalase overexpression.

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    Barbosa, Marina R; Sampaio, Igor H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Sousa, Thais A; Zoppi, Claudio C; Queiroz, André L; Passos, Madla A; Alberici, Luciane C; Teixeira, Felipe R; Manfiolli, Adriana O; Batista, Thiago M; Cappelli, Ana Paula Gameiro; Reis, Rosana I; Frasson, Danúbia; Kettelhut, Isis C; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Carneiro, Everardo M; Curi, Rui; Silveira, Leonardo R

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial redox state plays a central role in the link between mitochondrial overloading and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism by which the ROS induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells is not completely understood. We examined the association between mitochondrial function and H2O2 production in insulin resistant cells. Our hypothesis is that the low mitochondrial oxygen consumption leads to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with reduced PGC1α transcription and low content of phosphorylated CREB. The cells were transfected with either the encoded sequence for catalase overexpression or the specific siRNA for catalase inhibition. After transfection, myotubes were incubated with palmitic acid (500μM) and the insulin response, as well as mitochondrial function and fatty acid metabolism, was determined. The low mitochondrial oxygen consumption led to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with β-oxidation of fatty acids. Rotenone was observed to reduce the ratio of ROS production. The elevated H2O2 production markedly decreased the PGC1α transcription, an effect that was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Akt and CREB. The catalase transfection prevented the reduction in the phosphorylated level of Akt and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated CREB. The mitochondrial function was elevated and H2O2 production reduced, thus increasing the insulin sensitivity. The catalase overexpression improved mitochondrial respiration protecting the cells from fatty acid-induced, insulin resistance. This effect indicates that control of hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial respiration preventing the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism associated with CREB phosphorylation and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coordinated Evolution of Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation for Mitochondrial Functions in Yeast Strains.

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    Xuepeng Sun

    Full Text Available Evolution of gene regulation has been proposed to play an important role in environmental adaptation. Exploring mechanisms underlying coordinated evolutionary changes at various levels of gene regulation could shed new light on how organism adapt in nature. In this study, we focused on regulatory differences between a laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4742 and a pathogenic S. cerevisiae strain, YJM789. The two strains diverge in many features, including growth rate, morphology, high temperature tolerance, and pathogenicity. Our RNA-Seq and ribosomal footprint profiling data showed that gene expression differences are pervasive, and genes functioning in mitochondria are mostly divergent between the two strains at both transcriptional and translational levels. Combining functional genomics data from other yeast strains, we further demonstrated that significant divergence of expression for genes functioning in the electron transport chain (ETC was likely caused by differential expression of a transcriptional factor, HAP4, and that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by an RNA-binding protein, PUF3, likely led to expression divergence for genes involved in mitochondrial translation. We also explored mito-nuclear interactions via mitochondrial DNA replacement between strains. Although the two mitochondrial genomes harbor substantial sequence divergence, neither growth nor gene expression were affected by mitochondrial DNA replacement in both fermentative and respiratory growth media, indicating compatible mitochondrial and nuclear genomes between these two strains in the tested conditions. Collectively, we used mitochondrial functions as an example to demonstrate for the first time that evolution at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels could lead to coordinated regulatory changes underlying strain specific functional variations.

  10. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1.

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    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (C c O), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 ( P <0.05). The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression.

  11. FAM49B, a novel regulator of mitochondrial function and integrity that suppresses tumor metastasis.

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    Chattaragada, M S; Riganti, C; Sassoe, M; Principe, M; Santamorena, M M; Roux, C; Curcio, C; Evangelista, A; Allavena, P; Salvia, R; Rusev, B; Scarpa, A; Cappello, P; Novelli, F

    2018-02-08

    Mitochondrial dysregulation plays a central role in cancers and drives reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent tumor progression. We investigated the pro-tumoral roles of mitochondrial dynamics and altered intracellular ROS levels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We identified 'family with sequence similarity 49 member B' (FAM49B) as a mitochondria-localized protein that regulates mitochondrial fission and cancer progression. Silencing FAM49B in PDAC cells resulted in increased fission and mitochondrial ROS generation, which enhanced PDAC cell proliferation and invasion. Notably, FAM49B expression levels in PDAC cells were downregulated by the tumor microenvironment. Overall, the results of this study show that FAM49B acts as a suppressor of cancer cell proliferation and invasion in PDAC by regulating tumor mitochondrial redox reactions and metabolism.

  12. Formation and Regulation of Mitochondrial Membranes

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    Laila Cigana Schenkel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial membrane phospholipids are essential for the mitochondrial architecture, the activity of respiratory proteins, and the transport of proteins into the mitochondria. The accumulation of phospholipids within mitochondria depends on a coordinate synthesis, degradation, and trafficking of phospholipids between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria as well as intramitochondrial lipid trafficking. Several studies highlight the contribution of dietary fatty acids to the remodeling of phospholipids and mitochondrial membrane homeostasis. Understanding the role of phospholipids in the mitochondrial membrane and their metabolism will shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the mitochondrial-related diseases.

  13. Inhibition of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex alters mitochondrial function and cellular calcium regulation.

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    Huang, Hsueh-Meei; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Gibson, Gary E

    2003-01-20

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) catalyzes a key and arguably rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). A reduction in the activity of the KGDHC occurs in brains and cells of patients with many of these disorders and may underlie the abnormal mitochondrial function. Abnormalities in calcium homeostasis also occur in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in cells bearing mutations that lead to AD. Thus, the present studies test whether the reduction of KGDHC activity can lead to the alterations in mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis. alpha-Keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (KMV) inhibits KGDHC activity in living N2a cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Surprisingly, concentration of KMV that inhibit in situ KGDHC by 80% does not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, similar concentrations of KMV induce the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, reduce basal [Ca(2+)](i) by 23% (Pcalcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by 46% (P<0.005). This result suggests that diminished KGDHC activities do not lead to the Ca(2+) abnormalities in fibroblasts from AD patients or cells bearing PS-1 mutations. The increased release of cytochrome c with diminished KGDHC activities will be expected to activate other pathways including cell death cascades. Reductions in this key mitochondrial enzyme will likely make the cells more vulnerable to metabolic insults that promote cell death.

  14. E3 Ligase Subunit Fbxo15 and PINK1 Kinase Regulate Cardiolipin Synthase 1 Stability and Mitochondrial Function in Pneumonia

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    Bill B. Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is linked to mitochondrial injury, resulting in impaired cellular oxygen utilization; however, it is unknown how these events are linked on the molecular level. Cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific lipid, is generated by cardiolipin synthase (CLS1. Here, we show that S. aureus activates a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo15, that is sufficient to mediate proteasomal degradation of CLS1 in epithelia, resulting in decreased cardiolipin availability and disrupted mitochondrial function. CLS1 is destabilized by the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, which binds CLS1 to phosphorylate and regulates CLS1 disposal. Like Fbxo15, PINK1 interacts with and regulates levels of CLS1 through a mechanism dependent upon Thr219. S. aureus infection upregulates this Fbxo15-PINK1 pathway to impair mitochondrial integrity, and Pink1 knockout mice are less prone to S. aureus-induced ALI. Thus, ALI-associated disruption of cellular bioenergetics involves bioeffectors that utilize a phosphodegron to elicit ubiquitin-mediated disposal of a key mitochondrial enzyme.

  15. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  16. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

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    Marcos R Chiaratti

    Full Text Available Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth.We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in mice at embryonic (E day 18 (E18. Females maintained on either low- (LPD or normal- (NPD protein diets were mated with NPD males.Fetal dry weight and placental efficiency (embryo/placental fresh weight were positively correlated (r = 0.53, P = 0.0001. Individual placental dry weight was reduced by LPD (P = 0.003, as was the expression of amino acid transporter Slc38a2 and of growth factor Igf2. Placental water content, which is regulated by active transport of solutes, was increased by LPD (P = 0.0001. However, placental ATP content was also increased (P = 0.03. To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos. High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta.These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post

  17. PTENα, a PTEN isoform translated through alternative initiation, regulates mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.

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    Liang, Hui; He, Shiming; Yang, Jingyi; Jia, Xinying; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhong; Zou, Xiajuan; McNutt, Michael A; Shen, Wen Hong; Yin, Yuxin

    2014-05-06

    PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. It is known that PTEN has a wide range of biological functions beyond tumor suppression. Here, we report that PTENα, an N-terminally extended form of PTEN, functions in mitochondrial metabolism. Translation of PTENα is initiated from a CUG codon upstream of and in-frame with the coding region of canonical PTEN. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (eIF2A) controls PTENα translation, which requires a CUG-centered palindromic motif. We show that PTENα induces cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP production in mitochondria. TALEN-mediated somatic deletion of PTENα impairs mitochondrial respiratory chain function. PTENα interacts with canonical PTEN to increase PINK1 protein levels and promote energy production. Our studies demonstrate the importance of eIF2A-mediated alternative translation for generation of protein diversity in eukaryotic systems and provide insights into the mechanism by which the PTEN family is involved in multiple cellular processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondrial function, ornamentation, and immunocompetence.

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    Koch, Rebecca E; Josefson, Chloe C; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that link ornamental displays and individual condition is key to understanding the evolution and function of ornaments. Immune function is an aspect of individual quality that is often associated with the expression of ornamentation, but a general explanation for why the expression of some ornaments seems to be consistently linked to immunocompetence remains elusive. We propose that condition-dependent ornaments may be linked to key aspects of immunocompetence through co-dependence on mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial involvement in immune function is rarely considered outside of the biomedical literature, but the role of mitochondria as the primary energy producers of the cell and the centres of biosynthesis, the oxidative stress response, and cellular signalling place them at the hub of a variety of immune pathways. A promising new mechanistic explanation for correlations between a wide range of ornamental traits and the properties of individual quality is that mitochondrial function may be the 'shared pathway' responsible for links between ornament production and individual condition. Herein, we first review the role of mitochondria as both signal transducers and metabolic regulators of immune function. We then describe connections between hormonal pathways and mitochondria, with implications for both immune function and the expression of ornamentation. Finally, we explore the possibility that ornament expression may link directly to mitochondrial function. Considering condition-dependent traits within the framework of mitochondrial function has the potential to unify central tenets within the study of sexual selection, eco-immunology, oxidative stress ecology, stress and reproductive hormone biology, and animal physiology. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Regulation of Mitochondrial Function and Cellular Energy Metabolism by Protein Kinase C-λ/ι: A Novel Mode of Balancing Pluripotency

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    Mahato, Biraj; Home, Pratik; Rajendran, Ganeshkumar; Paul, Arindam; Saha, Biswarup; Ganguly, Avishek; Ray, Soma; Roy, Nairita; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Paul, Soumen

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) contain functionally immature mitochondria and rely upon high rates of glycolysis for their energy requirements. Thus, altered mitochondrial function and promotion of aerobic glycolysis is key to maintain and induce pluripotency. However, signaling mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial function and reprogram metabolic preferences in self-renewing vs. differentiated PSC populations are poorly understood. Here, using murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model system, we demonstrate that atypical protein kinase C isoform, PKC lambda/iota (PKCλ/ι), is a key regulator of mitochondrial function in ESCs. Depletion of PKCλ/ι in ESCs maintains their pluripotent state as evident from germline offsprings. Interestingly, loss of PKCλ/ι in ESCs leads to impairment in mitochondrial maturation, organization and a metabolic shift toward glycolysis under differentiating condition. Our mechanistic analyses indicate that a PKCλ/ι-HIF1α-PGC1α axis regulates mitochondrial respiration and balances pluripotency in ESCs. We propose that PKCλ/ι could be a crucial regulator of mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in stem cells and other cellular contexts. PMID:25142417

  20. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

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    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Homeostasis as Regulators of Stem Cell Fate and Function.

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    Tan, Darren Q; Suda, Toshio

    2018-07-10

    The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remain of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation, all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent Advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments, particularly those of hematopoietic, neural, and muscle tissues. In recent years, the importance of proteostasis and mitochondria in relation to stem cell biology and redox homeostasis has garnered considerable interest. Here, we explore the reciprocal relationship between ROS and stem cells, with significant emphasis on mitochondria as a core component of redox homeostasis. We discuss how redox signaling, involving cell-fate determining protein kinases and transcription factors, can control stem cell function and fate. We also address the impact of oxidative stress on stem cells, especially oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. We further discuss ROS management in stem cells, and present recent evidence supporting the importance of mitochondrial activity and its modulation (via mitochondrial clearance, biogenesis, dynamics, and distribution [i.e., segregation and transfer]) in stem cell redox homeostasis. Therefore, elucidating the intricate links between mitochondria, cellular metabolism, and redox homeostasis is envisioned to be critical for our understanding of ROS in stem cell biology and its therapeutic relevance in regenerative medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  2. Aspects of thyroid hormone regulation of mitochondrial function in diabetes and diabetic complications

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    Anthonsen, Stine

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been related to lifestyle, obesity and age; however, T2DM has also been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria produce ATP and during this synthesis, reactive oxygen species are generated. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species are associated...... with development of diabetic complications. ATP-synthesis and ROS-generation are dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which indicate the activity of the mitochondria....

  3. XIAP impairs mitochondrial function during apoptosis by regulating the Bcl-2 family in renal cell carcinoma.

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    Chen, Chao; Liu, Tian Shu; Zhao, Si Cong; Yang, Wen Zheng; Chen, Zong Ping; Yan, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Efficient apoptosis requires Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which releases pro-apoptotic proteins to the cytosol, activating apoptosis and inhibiting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). XIAP is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family whose expression is elevated in many cancer types and participates in the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. To explore the association between XIAP and the Bcl-2 family, and the influence of XIAP on mitochondria, RNA interference of XIAP was performed in Caki-1 cells and the dynamic change in the levels of related proteins was compared with the original Caki-1 cells upon induction of apoptosis. Upon knockdown of XIAP, the release of cytochrome c (Cyt-c), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) from mitochondria proceeded normally, whereas in Caki-1 cells, the release of these pro-apoptotic proteins was significantly prolonged, and incomplete. Downregulation of XIAP through small interfering RNA resulted in an increase of apoptosis and a marked decrease in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl levels at 3 h. Additionally, the regulation of the level of XIAP protein affected the specific ratios of Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-xl/Bax, which play decisive roles in cell death. In the present study, it was revealed that XIAP can feed back to mitochondria, delaying Cyt-c and Apaf-1 release. Furthermore, XIAP can limit the release of its inhibitor Smac with the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  4. Fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction regulates mitochondrial-network structure and function

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    Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Wellman, Tyler J.; Martinez, Nuria; Allen, Philip G.; Frey, Urs; Suki, Béla

    2015-10-01

    Cells can be exposed to irregular mechanical fluctuations, such as those arising from changes in blood pressure. Here, we report that ATP production, assessed through changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, is downregulated in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture exposed to monotonous stretch cycles when compared with cells exposed to a variable cyclic stretch that incorporates physiological levels of cycle-by-cycle variability in stretch amplitude. Variable stretch enhances ATP production by increasing the expression of ATP synthase’s catalytic domain, cytochrome c oxidase and its tyrosine phosphorylation, mitofusins and PGC-1α. Such a fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction mechanism is mediated by motor proteins and by the enhancement of microtubule-, actin- and mitochondrial-network complexity. We also show that, in aorta rings isolated from rats, monotonous stretch downregulates--whereas variable stretch maintains--physiological vessel-wall contractility through mitochondrial ATP production. Our results have implications for ATP-dependent and mechanosensitive intracellular processes.

  5. Mitochondrial functionality in female reproduction

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    Łukasz Gąsior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo. The presence of normal number of functional mitochondria is also crucial for proper implantation and pregnancy maintaining. This article addresses issues of mitochondrial role and function in mammalian oocyte and presents new approaches in studies of mitochondrial function in female germ cells.

  6. Genome-wide and functional annotation of human E3 ubiquitin ligases identifies MULAN, a mitochondrial E3 that regulates the organelle's dynamics and signaling.

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    Wei Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity of protein ubiquitylation is conferred by E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligases. We have annotated approximately 617 putative E3s and substrate-recognition subunits of E3 complexes encoded in the human genome. The limited knowledge of the function of members of the large E3 superfamily prompted us to generate genome-wide E3 cDNA and RNAi expression libraries designed for functional screening. An imaging-based screen using these libraries to identify E3s that regulate mitochondrial dynamics uncovered MULAN/FLJ12875, a RING finger protein whose ectopic expression and knockdown both interfered with mitochondrial trafficking and morphology. We found that MULAN is a mitochondrial protein - two transmembrane domains mediate its localization to the organelle's outer membrane. MULAN is oriented such that its E3-active, C-terminal RING finger is exposed to the cytosol, where it has access to other components of the Ub system. Both an intact RING finger and the correct subcellular localization were required for regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting that MULAN's downstream effectors are proteins that are either integral to, or associated with, mitochondria and that become modified with Ub. Interestingly, MULAN had previously been identified as an activator of NF-kappaB, thus providing a link between mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling. These findings suggest the existence of a new, Ub-mediated mechanism responsible for integration of mitochondria into the cellular environment.

  7. Hyperglycemia decreases mitochondrial function: The regulatory role of mitochondrial biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeira, Carlos M.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Berthiaume, Jessica; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in 'glucose toxicity' in diabetes. However, little is known about the action of glucose on the expression of transcription factors in hepatocytes, especially those involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription. Since mitochondrial functional capacity is dynamically regulated, we hypothesized that stressful conditions of hyperglycemia induce adaptations in the transcriptional control of cellular energy metabolism, including inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Cell viability, mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and oxidized proteins were determined in HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of either 5.5 mM (control) or 30 mM glucose (high glucose) for 48 h, 96 h and 7 days. Additionally, mtDNA abundance, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcripts were evaluated by real time PCR. High glucose induced a progressive increase in ROS generation and accumulation of oxidized proteins, with no changes in cell viability. Increased expression of PAI-1 was observed as early as 96 h of exposure to high glucose. After 7 days in hyperglycemia, HepG2 cells exhibited inhibited uncoupled respiration and decreased MitoTracker Red fluorescence associated with a 25% decrease in mtDNA and 16% decrease in TFAM transcripts. These results indicate that glucose may regulate mtDNA copy number by modulating the transcriptional activity of TFAM in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS production. The decrease of mtDNA content and inhibition of mitochondrial function may be pathogenic hallmarks in the altered metabolic status associated with diabetes

  8. A p300 and SIRT1 Regulated Acetylation Switch of C/EBPα Controls Mitochondrial Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaini, Mohamad A; Müller, Christine; de Jong, Tristan V; Ackermann, Tobias; Hartleben, Götz; Kortman, Gertrud; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Krämer, Oliver H; Guryev, Victor; Calkhoven, Cornelis F

    2018-01-01

    Cellular metabolism is a tightly controlled process in which the cell adapts fluxes through metabolic pathways in response to changes in nutrient supply. Among the transcription factors that regulate gene expression and thereby cause changes in cellular metabolism is the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP)

  9. Alternative oxidase in the branched mitochondrial respiratory network: an overview on structure, function, regulation, and role

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    Sluse F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy conservation to be bypassed, leading to a decrease of the energy yield in the cells. It is a challenge to understand the regulation of the partitioning of electrons between the various energy-dissipating and -conserving pathways. This review is focused on the oxidase side of the respiratory chain that presents a cyanide-resistant energy-dissipating alternative oxidase (AOX besides the cytochrome pathway. The known structural properties of AOX are described including transmembrane topology, dimerization, and active sites. Regulation of the alternative oxidase activity is presented in detail because of its complexity. The alternative oxidase activity is dependent on substrate availability: total ubiquinone concentration and its redox state in the membrane and O2 concentration in the cell. The alternative oxidase activity can be long-term regulated (gene expression or short-term (post-translational modification, allosteric activation regulated. Electron distribution (partitioning between the alternative and cytochrome pathways during steady-state respiration is a crucial measurement to quantitatively analyze the effects of the various levels of regulation of the alternative oxidase. Three approaches are described with their specific domain of application and limitations: kinetic approach, oxygen isotope differential discrimination, and ADP/O method (thermokinetic approach. Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation.

  10. Mitochondrial respiration controls lysosomal function during inflammatory T cell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Dolores Ledesma, Maria; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4+ T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration-deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward pro-inflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD+ levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify novel strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:26299452

  11. The measurement of reversible redox dependent post-translational modifications and their regulation of mitochondrial and skeletal muscle function

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    Philip A Kramer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  12. The Measurement of Reversible Redox Dependent Post-translational Modifications and Their Regulation of Mitochondrial and Skeletal Muscle Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Philip A.; Duan, Jicheng; Qian, Wei-Jun; Marcinek, David J.

    2015-11-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  13. Vimar Is a Novel Regulator of Mitochondrial Fission through Miro.

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    Lianggong Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As fundamental processes in mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fusion, fission and transport are regulated by several core components, including Miro. As an atypical Rho-like small GTPase with high molecular mass, the exchange of GDP/GTP in Miro may require assistance from a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF. However, the GEF for Miro has not been identified. While studying mitochondrial morphology in Drosophila, we incidentally observed that the loss of vimar, a gene encoding an atypical GEF, enhanced mitochondrial fission under normal physiological conditions. Because Vimar could co-immunoprecipitate with Miro in vitro, we speculated that Vimar might be the GEF of Miro. In support of this hypothesis, a loss-of-function (LOF vimar mutant rescued mitochondrial enlargement induced by a gain-of-function (GOF Miro transgene; whereas a GOF vimar transgene enhanced Miro function. In addition, vimar lost its effect under the expression of a constitutively GTP-bound or GDP-bound Miro mutant background. These results indicate a genetic dependence of vimar on Miro. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial fission played a functional role in high-calcium induced necrosis, and a LOF vimar mutant rescued the mitochondrial fission defect and cell death. This result can also be explained by vimar's function through Miro, because Miro's effect on mitochondrial morphology is altered upon binding with calcium. In addition, a PINK1 mutant, which induced mitochondrial enlargement and had been considered as a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD, caused fly muscle defects, and the loss of vimar could rescue these defects. Furthermore, we found that the mammalian homolog of Vimar, RAP1GDS1, played a similar role in regulating mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a functional conservation of this GEF member. The Miro/Vimar complex may be a promising drug target for diseases in which mitochondrial fission and fusion are dysfunctional.

  14. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

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    Allen Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  15. Mitochondrial morphology transitions and functions: implications for retrograde signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; Shirihai, Orian S.; Gentil, Benoit J.

    2013-01-01

    In response to cellular and environmental stresses, mitochondria undergo morphology transitions regulated by dynamic processes of membrane fusion and fission. These events of mitochondrial dynamics are central regulators of cellular activity, but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial shape to cell function remain unclear. One possibility evaluated in this review is that mitochondrial morphological transitions (from elongated to fragmented, and vice-versa) directly modify canonical aspects of the organelle's function, including susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition, respiratory properties of the electron transport chain, and reactive oxygen species production. Because outputs derived from mitochondrial metabolism are linked to defined cellular signaling pathways, fusion/fission morphology transitions could regulate mitochondrial function and retrograde signaling. This is hypothesized to provide a dynamic interface between the cell, its genome, and the fluctuating metabolic environment. PMID:23364527

  16. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P 

  17. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P 

  18. PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking in dendrites of cortical neurons through mitochondrial PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Banerjee, Tania; Dagda, Raul Y; Dagda, Marisela; Chu, Charleen T; Rice, Monica; Vazquez-Mayorga, Emmanuel; Dagda, Ruben K

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondrial Protein Kinase A (PKA) and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to Parkinson's disease, are two neuroprotective serine/threonine kinases that regulate dendrite remodeling and mitochondrial function. We have previously shown that PINK1 regulates dendrite morphology by enhancing PKA activity. Here, we show the molecular mechanisms by which PINK1 and PKA in the mitochondrion interact to regulate dendrite remodeling, mitochondrial morphology, content, and trafficking in dendrites. PINK1-deficient cortical neurons exhibit impaired mitochondrial trafficking, reduced mitochondrial content, fragmented mitochondria, and a reduction in dendrite outgrowth compared to wild-type neurons. Transient expression of wild-type, but not a PKA-binding-deficient mutant of the PKA-mitochondrial scaffold dual-specificity A Kinase Anchoring Protein 1 (D-AKAP1), restores mitochondrial trafficking, morphology, and content in dendrites of PINK1-deficient cortical neurons suggesting that recruiting PKA to the mitochondrion reverses mitochondrial pathology in dendrites induced by loss of PINK1. Mechanistically, full-length and cleaved forms of PINK1 increase the binding of the regulatory subunit β of PKA (PKA/RIIβ) to D-AKAP1 to enhance the autocatalytic-mediated phosphorylation of PKA/RIIβ and PKA activity. D-AKAP1/PKA governs mitochondrial trafficking in dendrites via the Miro-2/TRAK2 complex and by increasing the phosphorylation of Miro-2. Our study identifies a new role of D-AKAP1 in regulating mitochondrial trafficking through Miro-2, and supports a model in which PINK1 and mitochondrial PKA participate in a similar neuroprotective signaling pathway to maintain dendrite connectivity. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Minnelide/Triptolide Impairs Mitochondrial Function by Regulating SIRT3 in P53-Dependent Manner in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

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    Ajay Kumar

    Full Text Available Minnelide/Triptolide (TL has recently emerged as a potent anticancer drug in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the precise mechanism of its action remains ambiguous. In this study, we elucidated the molecular basis for TL-induced cell death in context to p53 status. Cell death was attributed to dysfunction of mitochondrial bioenergetics in p53-deficient cells, which was characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration, steady-state ATP level and membrane potential, but augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS. Increased ROS production resulted in oxidative stress in TL-treated cells. This was exhibited by elevated nuclear levels of a redox-sensitive transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2, along with diminished cellular glutathione (GSH content. We further demonstrated that in the absence of p53, TL blunted the expression of mitochondrial SIRT3 triggering increased acetylation of NDUAF9 and succinate dehydrogenase, components of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC. TL-mediated hyperacetylation of complexes I and II proteins and these complexes displayed decreased enzymatic activities. We also provide the evidence that P53 regulate steady-state level of SIRT3 through Proteasome-Pathway. Finally, forced overexpression of Sirt3, but not deacetylase-deficient mutant of Sirt3 (H243Y, restored the deleterious effect of TL on p53-deficient cells by rescuing mitochondrial bioenergetics. On contrary, Sirt3 deficiency in the background of wild-type p53 triggered TL-induced mitochondrial impairment that echoed TL effect in p53-deficeint cells. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which TL exerts its potent effects on mitochondrial function and ultimately the viability of NSCLC tumor.

  20. Mitochondrial epigenetics : an overlooked layer of regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Monique G. P.; Rots, Marianne G.

    Despite decades of research, mitochondrial epigenetics remains a controversial notion. Recent findings, however, indicate that dysfunctional mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation could underlie aging and disease. Unraveling such a level of regulation will be essential in the understanding of and in

  1. Towards a functional definition of the mitochondrial human proteome

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    Mauro Fasano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial human proteome project (mt-HPP was initiated by the Italian HPP group as a part of both the chromosome-centric initiative (C-HPP and the “biology and disease driven” initiative (B/D-HPP. In recent years several reports highlighted how mitochondrial biology and disease are regulated by specific interactions with non-mitochondrial proteins. Thus, it is of great relevance to extend our present view of the mitochondrial proteome not only to those proteins that are encoded by or transported to mitochondria, but also to their interactors that take part in mitochondria functionality. Here, we propose a graphical representation of the functional mitochondrial proteome by retrieving mitochondrial proteins from the NeXtProt database and adding to the network their interactors as annotated in the IntAct database. Notably, the network may represent a reference to map all the proteins that are currently being identified in mitochondrial proteomics studies.

  2. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J Michael; Hill, R Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J Marie

    2004-11-15

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human Drp1, Dnm1, promotes mitochondrial fragmentation/degradation and cell death following treatment with several death stimuli. Two Dnm1-interacting factors also regulate yeast cell death. The WD40 repeat protein Mdv1/Net2 promotes cell death, consistent with its role in mitochondrial fission. In contrast to its fission function in healthy cells, Fis1 unexpectedly inhibits Dnm1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cysteine protease-dependent cell death in yeast. Furthermore, the ability of yeast Fis1 to inhibit mitochondrial fission and cell death can be functionally replaced by human Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Together, these findings indicate that yeast and mammalian cells have a conserved programmed death pathway regulated by a common molecular component, Drp1/Dnm1, that is inhibited by a Bcl-2-like function.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of a Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor FG-4592 for Parkinson’s Diseases in Vitro and in Vivo: Regulation of Redox Biology and Mitochondrial Function

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    Xuan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular responses to hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. HIF-1α is normally degraded through ubiquitination after hydroxylation by prolyl hydroxylases (PHD. Emerging evidence has suggested that HIF PHD inhibitors (HIF-PHI may have neuroprotective effects on PD through increasing HIF-1α levels. However, the therapeutic benefit of HIF-PHI for PD remains poorly explored due to the lack of proper clinical compounds and understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we examined the therapeutic benefit of a new HIF-PHI, FG-4592, which is currently in phase 3 clinical trials to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD in PD models. FG-4592 attenuates MPP+ -induced apoptosis and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with FG-4592 mitigates MPP+-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ATP. Furthermore, FG-4592 counterbalances the oxidative stress through up-regulating nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2. FG-4592 treatment also induces the expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α through increasing the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. In MPTP-treated mice, FG-4592 protects against MPTP-induced loss of TH-positive neurons of substantia nigra and attenuates behavioral impairments. Collectively, our study demonstrates that FG-4592 is a promising therapeutic strategy for PD through improving the mitochondrial function under oxidative stress.

  4. Limonene protects osteoblasts against methylglyoxal-derived adduct formation by regulating glyoxalase, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Chon, Suk; Choi, Eun Mi

    2017-12-25

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a potent protein glycating agent and an important precursor of advanced glycation end products, which are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic osteopathy. In this study, we investigated the effects of limonene on MG-induced damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreating cells with limonene prevented MG-induced protein adduct formation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 release, mitochondrial superoxide production, and cardiolipin peroxidation. In addition, limonene increased glyoxalase I activity, and glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 levels in the presence of MG. Pretreatment with limonene prior to MG exposure reduced MG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and adenosine triphosphate loss, and reduced the levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, and nitric oxide. These results demonstrate that limonene may prevent the development of diabetic osteopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Defect in mitochondrial functions in damaged human mitral valve

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Santosh; Kumar, Pawan; Mishra, Kaushala; Patil, Neela

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which a primary mitochondrial dysfunction is proven by morphological, biochemical, and genetic examinations. The mitral valve has important function in the regulation of blood flow from one chamber to another. Often, the mitral valve becomes abnormal with age, in Rheumatic fever or it is abnormal from birth (Congenital) or it can be destroyed by infection i.e. bacterial endocarditis and needs replacement. Myocardial function dep...

  6. 17β-Estradiol Protects Mitochondrial Functions through Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase in C2C12 Muscle Cells

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    Ana C. Ronda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We have previously shown that exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2 prior to induction of apoptosis with H2O2 protects skeletal muscle cells against oxidative damage. However, the mechanism involved in the protective action of the hormone is poorly understood. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism by which ERK mediates this survival effect in connection with COXIV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Methods: Immunocytochemistry, Western blot, cytochrome c oxidase complex IV (COXIV activity, coimmunoprecipitation and JC-1 dye by flow cytometry were carried out using C2C12 myoblasts as experimental model. Results: E2 is able to activate ERK and then induces its translocation to mitochondria. Using the pharmacological inhibitor of ERK activation U0126 we show that E2, through ERK activation, is able to enhance COXIV activity. Moreover, the hormone increases the interaction between COXIV and ERK. Also, we found that hydrogen peroxide decreases COXIV activity and that preincubation of the cells with E2 prior to induction of apoptosis prevents this effect. In addition, we observe that the estrogen inhibits the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2, involving ERK and COXIV. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that E2 promotes ERK activation and translocation to mitochondria preventing the decline in COXIV activity and in turn, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by oxidative stress, in C2C12 myoblasts.

  7. Loss of Mitochondrial Function Impairs Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers-Lamarche, Julie; Guillebaud, Gérald; Tlili, Mouna; Todkar, Kiran; Bélanger, Noémie; Grondin, Martine; Nguyen, Angela P; Michel, Jennifer; Germain, Marc

    2016-05-06

    Alterations in mitochondrial function, as observed in neurodegenerative diseases, lead to disrupted energy metabolism and production of damaging reactive oxygen species. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction also disrupts the structure and function of lysosomes, the main degradation and recycling organelle. Specifically, inhibition of mitochondrial function, following deletion of the mitochondrial protein AIF, OPA1, or PINK1, as well as chemical inhibition of the electron transport chain, impaired lysosomal activity and caused the appearance of large lysosomal vacuoles. Importantly, our results show that lysosomal impairment is dependent on reactive oxygen species. Given that alterations in both mitochondrial function and lysosomal activity are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, this work provides important insights into the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. miR-27 regulates mitochondrial networks by directly targeting the mitochondrial fission factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyosun; Kim, Jihye; Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Lee, Heejin; Kang, Hoin; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Ohn, Takbum; Nam, Suk Woo; Kim, Wook; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2014-11-28

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically regulated by forming small, fragmented units or interconnected networks, and this is a pivotal process that is used to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics is related to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, its molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate the potential role of miR-27 in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) mRNA is a direct target of miR-27, whose ectopic expression decreases MFF expression through binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Expression of miR-27 results in the elongation of mitochondria as well as an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP level. Our results suggest that miR-27 is a novel regulator affecting morphological mitochondrial changes by targeting MFF.

  9. An Unusual Prohibitin Regulates Malaria Parasite Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

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    Joachim Michael Matz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Proteins of the stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HfIK/C (SPFH family are membrane-anchored and perform diverse cellular functions in different organelles. Here, we investigate the SPFH proteins of the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei, the conserved prohibitin 1, prohibitin 2, and stomatin-like protein and an unusual prohibitin-like protein (PHBL. The SPFH proteins localize to the parasite mitochondrion. While the conserved family members could not be deleted from the Plasmodium genome, PHBL was successfully ablated, resulting in impaired parasite fitness and attenuated virulence in the mammalian host. Strikingly, PHBL-deficient parasites fail to colonize the Anopheles vector because of complete arrest during ookinete development in vivo. We show that this arrest correlates with depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨmt. Our results underline the importance of SPFH proteins in the regulation of core mitochondrial functions and suggest that fine-tuning of ΔΨmt in malarial parasites is critical for colonization of the definitive host. : Matz et al. present an experimental genetics study of an unusual prohibitin-like protein in the malaria parasite and find that it regulates mitochondrial membrane polarity. Ablation of this protein causes almost complete mitochondrial depolarization in the mosquito vector, which, in turn, leads to a block in malaria parasite transmission. Keywords: Plasmodium berghei, malaria, SPFH, prohibitin, stomatin-like protein, mitochondrion, membrane potential, ookinete, transmission

  10. Direct Regulation of Mitochondrial RNA Synthesis by Thyroid Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, José A.; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Garrido-Pérez, Nuria; López-Pérez, Manuel J.; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Montoya, Julio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the influence of in vivo treatment and in vitro addition of thyroid hormone on in organello mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and, in parallel, on the in organello footprinting patterns at the mtDNA regions involved in the regulation of transcription. We found that thyroid hormone modulates mitochondrial RNA levels and the mRNA/rRNA ratio by influencing the transcriptional rate. In addition, we found conspicuous differences between the mtDNA dimethyl sulfate footprinting patterns of mitochondria derived from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats at the transcription initiation sites but not at the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) binding region. Furthermore, direct addition of thyroid hormone to the incubation medium of mitochondria isolated from hypothyroid rats restored the mRNA/rRNA ratio found in euthyroid rats as well as the mtDNA footprinting patterns at the transcription initiation area. Therefore, we conclude that the regulatory effect of thyroid hormone on mitochondrial transcription is partially exerted by a direct influence of the hormone on the mitochondrial transcription machinery. Particularly, the influence on the mRNA/rRNA ratio is achieved by selective modulation of the alternative H-strand transcription initiation sites and does not require the previous activation of nuclear genes. These results provide the first functional demonstration that regulatory signals, such as thyroid hormone, that modify the expression of nuclear genes can also act as primary signals for the transcriptional apparatus of mitochondria. PMID:9858589

  11. Adhesion Regulating Molecule 1 Mediates HAP40 Overexpression-Induced Mitochondrial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zih-Ning; Chung, Her Min; Fang, Su-Chiung; Her, Lu-Shiun

    2017-01-01

    Striatal neuron death in Huntington's disease is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and functions. However, the mechanisms for this mitochondrial dysregulation remain elusive. Increased accumulation of Huntingtin-associated protein 40 (HAP40) has been shown to be associated with Huntington's disease. However, the link between increased HAP40 and Huntington's disease remains largely unknown. Here we show that HAP40 overexpression causes mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces cell viability in the immortalized mouse striatal neurons. HAP40-associated mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with reduction of adhesion regulating molecule 1 (ADRM1) protein. Consistently, depletion of ADRM1 by shRNAs impaired mitochondrial functions and increased mitochondrial fragmentation in mouse striatal cells. Moreover, reducing ADRM1 levels enhanced activity of fission factor dynamin-related GTPase protein 1 (Drp1) via increased phosphorylation at serine 616 of Drp1 (Drp1Ser616). Restoring ADRM1 protein levels was able to reduce HAP40-induced ROS levels and mitochondrial fragmentation and improved mitochondrial functions and cell viability. Moreover, reducing Drp1 activity by Drp1 inhibitor, Mdivi-1, ameliorates both HAP40 overexpression- and ADRM1 depletion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, our studies suggest that HAP40-mediated reduction of ADRM1 alters the mitochondrial fission activity and results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:29209146

  12. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Jin, Shao-Bo [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Han, Liwei [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Lendahl, Urban [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhao, Jian, E-mail: Jian.Zhao@ki.se [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Nistér, Monica [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  13. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong; Jin, Shao-Bo; Han, Liwei; Lendahl, Urban; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  15. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Yu

    Full Text Available A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1 is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The mitochondrial function of AKIP1 is, however, still elusive. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial function of AKIP1 in a neonatal cardiomyocyte model of phenylephrine (PE-induced hypertrophy. Using a seahorse flux analyzer we show that PE stimulated the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR in cardiomyocytes. This was partially dependent on PE mediated AKIP1 induction, since silencing of AKIP1 attenuated the increase in OCR. Interestingly, AKIP1 overexpression alone was sufficient to stimulate mitochondrial OCR and in particular ATP-linked OCR. This was also true when pyruvate was used as a substrate, indicating that it was independent of glycolytic flux. The increase in OCR was independent of mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in ETC density or altered mitochondrial membrane potential. In fact, the respiratory flux was elevated per amount of ETC, possibly through enhanced ETC coupling. Furthermore, overexpression of AKIP1 reduced and silencing of AKIP1 increased mitochondrial superoxide production, suggesting that AKIP1 modulates the efficiency of electron flux through the ETC. Together, this suggests that AKIP1 overexpression improves mitochondrial function to enhance respiration without excess superoxide generation, thereby implicating a role for AKIP1 in mitochondrial stress adaptation. Upregulation of AKIP1 during different forms of cardiac stress may therefore be an adaptive mechanism to protect the heart.

  16. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Rosilla F.; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially media...

  17. Loss of the SIN3 transcriptional corepressor results in aberrant mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüttemann Maik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SIN3 is a transcriptional repressor protein known to regulate many genes, including a number of those that encode mitochondrial components. Results By monitoring RNA levels, we find that loss of SIN3 in Drosophila cultured cells results in up-regulation of not only nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, but also those encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The up-regulation of gene expression is accompanied by a perturbation in ATP levels in SIN3-deficient cells, suggesting that the changes in mitochondrial gene expression result in altered mitochondrial activity. In support of the hypothesis that SIN3 is necessary for normal mitochondrial function, yeast sin3 null mutants exhibit very poor growth on non-fermentable carbon sources and show lower levels of ATP and reduced respiration rates. Conclusions The findings that both yeast and Drosophila SIN3 affect mitochondrial activity suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for SIN3 in the control of cellular energy production.

  18. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  19. The cyclophilin D/Drp1 axis regulates mitochondrial fission contributing to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Anqi; Gan, Xueqi; Chen, Ruiqi; Ren, Yanming; Yu, Haiyang; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidences have demonstrated that structural abnormalities in mitochondria are involved in oxidative stress related nerve cell damage. And Drp1 plays a critical role in mitochondrial dynamic imbalance insulted by oxidative stress-derived mitochondria. However, the status of mitochondrial fusion and fission pathway and its relationship with mitochondrial properties such as mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the role of Cyclophilin D (CypD), a crucial component for mPTP formation, in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in oxidative stress treated nerve cell. We observed that CypD-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 and subsequently augmented Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria and shifts mitochondrial dynamics toward excessive fission, which contributes to the mitochondrial structural and functional dysfunctions in oxidative stress-treated nerve cells. CypD depletion or over expression accompanies mitochondrial dynamics/functions recovery or aggravation separately. We also demonstrated first time the link between the CypD to mitochondrial dynamics. Our data offer new insights into the mechanism of mitochondrial dynamics which contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunctions, specifically the role of CypD in Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. The protective effect of CsA, or other molecules affecting the function of CypD hold promise as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for governing oxidative stress pathology via mitochondrial pathways. - Highlights: • Demonstrated first time the link between the mPTP to mitochondrial dynamics. • The role of Cyclophilin D in the regulation of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. • CsA as a potential target for governing oxidative stress related neuropathology.

  20. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is unknown. The major part of insulin-mediated glucose disposal takes place in the skeletal muscle, and increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid has been associated with insulin resistance and linked to decreased activity of mitochondrial...... oxidative phosphorylation. This review will cover the present knowledge and literature on the topics of the activity of oxidative enzymes and the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Different methods of studying mitochondrial function are described, including...... biochemical measurements of oxidative enzyme and electron transport activity, isolation of mitochondria for measurements of respiration, and ATP production and indirect measurements of ATP production using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - spectroscopy. Biochemical markers of mitochondrial content are also...

  1. Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Li, San-Qiang; Qiao, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Xing, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Tao; Song, Hui; Gao, Zhong-Yang; Xing, Bing-Wen; He, Xi-Jing

    2018-05-04

    Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats. Meanwhile, we revealed that ebselen can increase glutathione (GSH) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities after SCI-this suggests ebselen has an antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the ATP content and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mitochondria were increased by ebselen after SCI, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was decreased by ebselen. The Cytochrome C and Smac release from mitochondria were reduced by ebselen after SCI, thus indicating improved membrane permeability by ebselen. Moreover, the alterations in caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as the proportion of cell apoptosis were improved by ebselen treatment, which together suggested that ebselen has an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial apotosis pathways after SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that ebselen can inhibit secondary damage caused by spinal cord injury. Indeed it plays a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury perhaps by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  3. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  4. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  5. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-01

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  6. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperglycemia resulting from uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely recognized as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications. Four major molecular mechanisms have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced tissue damage: activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms via de novo synthesis of the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), increased hexosamine pathway flux, increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, and increased polyol pathway flux. Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide is the causal link between high glucose and the pathways responsible for hyperglycemic damage. In fact, diabetes is typically accompanied by increased production of free radicals and/or impaired antioxidant defense capabilities, indicating a central contribution for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the onset, progression, and pathological consequences of diabetes. Besides oxidative stress, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between various disturbances in mitochondrial functioning and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and decreases in mtDNA copy number have been linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The study of the relationship of mtDNA to type 2 diabetes has revealed the influence of the mitochondria on nuclear-encoded glucose transporters, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and nuclear-encoded uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in β-cell glucose toxicity. This review focuses on a range of mitochondrial factors important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We review the published literature regarding the direct effects of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial function and suggest the possibility of regulation of mitochondrial function at a transcriptional level in response to hyperglycemia. The main goal of this review is to include a fresh consideration of pathways involved in hyperglycemia-induced diabetic complications

  7. Understanding D-Ribose and Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E. Mahoney

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are important organelles referred to as cellular powerhouses for their unique properties of cellular energy production.  With many pathologic conditions and aging, mitochondrial function declines, and there is a reduction in the production of adenosine triphosphate. The energy carrying molecule generated by cellular respiration and by pentose phosphate pathway, an alternative pathway of glucose metabolism. D-ribose is a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in the cells and particularly in the mitochondria is essential in energy production. Without sufficient energy, cells cannot maintain integrity and function. Supplemental D-ribose has been shown to improve cellular processes when there is mitochondrial dysfunction. When individuals take supplemental D-ribose, it can bypass part of the pentose pathway to produce D-ribose-5-phosphate for the production of energy. In this article, we review how energy is produced by cellular respiration, the pentose pathway, and the use of supplemental D-ribose.

  8. Characterization of Bombyx mori mitochondrial transcription factor A, a conserved regulator of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, Megumi; Kondo, Mari; Kasashima, Katsumi; Endo, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Misawa, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, we initially cloned and characterized a mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) homologue in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bombyx mori TFAM (BmTFAM) localized to mitochondria in cultured silkworm and human cells, and co-localized with mtDNA nucleoids in human HeLa cells. In an immunoprecipitation analysis, BmTFAM was found to associate with human mtDNA in mitochondria, indicating its feature as a non-specific DNA-binding protein. In spite of the low identity between BmTFAM and human TFAM (26.5%), the expression of BmTFAM rescued mtDNA copy number reductions and enlarged mtDNA nucleoids in HeLa cells, which were induced by human Tfam knockdown. Thus, BmTFAM compensates for the function of human TFAM in HeLa cells, demonstrating that the mitochondrial function of TFAM is highly conserved between silkworms and humans. BmTfam mRNA was strongly expressed in early embryos. Through double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-based RNA interference (RNAi) in silkworm embryos, we found that the knockdown of BmTFAM reduced the amount of mtDNA and induced growth retardation at the larval stage. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BmTFAM is a highly conserved mtDNA regulator and may be a good candidate for investigating and modulating mtDNA metabolism in this model organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. OXPHOS-Dependent Cells Identify Environmental Disruptors of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with numerous chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome. Environmental chemicals can impair mitochondrial function through numerous mechanisms such as membrane disruption, complex inhibition and electron transport chain uncoupling. Curr...

  10. Mitochondrial ceramide-rich macrodomains functionalize Bax upon irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmi Lee

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that Bax functions as a "lipidic" pore to regulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP, the apoptosis commitment step, through unknown membrane elements. Here we show mitochondrial ceramide elevation facilitates MOMP-mediated cytochrome c release in HeLa cells by generating a previously-unrecognized mitochondrial ceramide-rich macrodomain (MCRM, which we visualize and isolate, into which Bax integrates.MCRMs, virtually non-existent in resting cells, form upon irradiation coupled to ceramide synthase-mediated ceramide elevation, optimizing Bax insertion/oligomerization and MOMP. MCRMs are detected by confocal microscopy in intact HeLa cells and isolated biophysically as a light membrane fraction from HeLa cell lysates. Inhibiting ceramide generation using a well-defined natural ceramide synthase inhibitor, Fumonisin B1, prevented radiation-induced Bax insertion, oligomerization and MOMP. MCRM deconstruction using purified mouse hepatic mitochondria revealed ceramide alone is non-apoptogenic. Rather Bax integrates into MCRMs, oligomerizing therein, conferring 1-2 log enhanced cytochrome c release. Consistent with this mechanism, MCRM Bax isolates as high molecular weight "pore-forming" oligomers, while non-MCRM membrane contains exclusively MOMP-incompatible monomeric Bax.Our recent studies in the C. elegans germline indicate that mitochondrial ceramide generation is obligate for radiation-induced apoptosis, although a mechanism for ceramide action was not delineated. Here we demonstrate that ceramide, generated in the mitochondrial outer membrane of mammalian cells upon irradiation, forms a platform into which Bax inserts, oligomerizes and functionalizes as a pore. We posit conceptualization of ceramide as a membrane-based stress calibrator, driving membrane macrodomain organization, which in mitochondria regulates intensity of Bax-induced MOMP, and is pharmacologically tractable in vitro and in vivo.

  11. VALSARTAN REGULATES MYOCARDIAL AUTOPHAGY AND MITOCHONDRIAL TURNOVER IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Zi-Lun; Crane, John A.; Jordan, Kyra L.; Pawar, Aditya S.; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension alters cardiac structure and function. Autophagy is activated during left ventricular hypertrophy and linked to adverse cardiac function. The Angiotensin II receptor blocker Valsartan lowers blood pressure and is cardioprotective, but whether it modulates autophagy in the myocardium is unclear. We hypothesized that Valsartan would alleviate autophagy and improve left ventricular myocardial mitochondrial turnover in swine renovascular hypertension. Domestic pigs were randomized to control, unilateral renovascular hypertension, and renovascular hypertension treated with Valsartan (320 mg/day) or conventional triple therapy (Reserpine+hydralazine+hydrochlorothiazide) for 4 weeks post 6-weeks of renovascular hypertension (n=7 each group). Left ventricular remodeling, function and myocardial oxygenation and microcirculation were assessed by multi-detector computer tomography, blood-oxygen-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputer tomography. Myocardial autophagy, markers for mitochondrial degradation and biogenesis, and mitochondrial respiratory-chain proteins were examined ex vivo. Renovascular hypertension induced left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial hypoxia, enhanced cellular autophagy and mitochondrial degradation, and suppressed mitochondrial biogenesis. Valsartan and triple therapy similarly decreased blood pressure, but Valsartan solely alleviated left ventricular hypertrophy, ameliorated myocardial autophagy and mitophagy, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, triple therapy only slightly attenuated autophagy and preserved mitochondrial proteins, but elicited no improvement in mitophagy. These data suggest a novel potential role of Valsartan in modulating myocardial autophagy and mitochondrial turnover in renovascular hypertension-induced hypertensive heart disease, which may possibly bolster cardiac repair via a blood pressure-independent manner. PMID:24752430

  12. Dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins as gene expression regulators in plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eGiegé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria heavily depend on the coordinated expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes because some of their most significant activities are held by multi-subunit complexes composed of both mitochondrial and nuclear encoded proteins. Thus, precise communication and signaling pathways are believed to exist between the two compartments. Proteins dual localized to both mitochondria and the nucleus make excellent candidates for a potential involvement in the envisaged communication. Here, we review the identified instances of dual localized nucleo-mitochondrial proteins with an emphasis on plant proteins and discuss their functions, which are seemingly mostly related to gene expression regulation. We discuss whether dual localization could be achieved by dual targeting and / or by re-localization and try to apprehend the signals required for the respective processes. Finally, we propose that in some instances, dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins might act as retrograde signaling molecules for mitochondrial biogenesis.

  13. Endogenous ovarian hormones affect mitochondrial efficiency in cerebral endothelium via distinct regulation of PGC-1 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Martin F; Zhao, Yuanzi; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria support the energy-intensive functions of brain endothelium but also produce damaging-free radicals that lead to disease. Previously, we found that estrogen treatment protects cerebrovascular mitochondria, increasing capacity for ATP production while decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether these effects occur specifically in endothelium in vivo and also explore underlying transcriptional mechanisms, we studied freshly isolated brain endothelial preparations from intact and ovariectomized female mice. This preparation reflects physiologic influences of circulating hormones, hemodynamic forces, and cell-cell interactions of the neurovascular unit. Loss of ovarian hormones affected endothelial expression of the key mitochondrial regulator family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1), but in a unique way. Ovariectomy increased endothelial PGC-1α mRNA but decreased PGC-1β mRNA. The change in PGC-1β correlated with decreased mRNA for crucial downstream mitochondrial regulators, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, as well as for ATP synthase and ROS protection enzymes, glutamate-cysteine ligase and manganese superoxide dismutase. Ovariectomy also decreased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitochondrial/nuclear DNA ratio). These results indicate ovarian hormones normally act through a distinctive regulatory pathway involving PGC-1β to support cerebral endothelial mitochondrial content and guide mitochondrial function to favor ATP coupling and ROS protection.

  14. FRIENDLY regulates mitochondrial distribution, fusion, and quality control in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawily, Amr M; Schwarzländer, Markus; Finkemeier, Iris; Johnston, Iain G; Benamar, Abdelilah; Cao, Yongguo; Gissot, Clémence; Meyer, Andreas J; Wilson, Ken; Datla, Raju; Macherel, David; Jones, Nick S; Logan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are defining components of most eukaryotes. However, higher plant mitochondria differ biochemically, morphologically, and dynamically from those in other eukaryotes. FRIENDLY, a member of the CLUSTERED MITOCHONDRIA superfamily, is conserved among eukaryotes and is required for correct distribution of mitochondria within the cell. We sought to understand how disruption of FRIENDLY function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to mitochondrial clustering and the effects of this aberrant chondriome on cell and whole-plant physiology. We present evidence for a role of FRIENDLY in mediating intermitochondrial association, which is a necessary prelude to mitochondrial fusion. We demonstrate that disruption of mitochondrial association, motility, and chondriome structure in friendly affects mitochondrial quality control and leads to mitochondrial stress, cell death, and strong growth phenotypes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Betaine is a positive regulator of mitochondrial respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Icksoo, E-mail: icksoolee@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaine’s anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study we investigated whether betaine directly targets mitochondria. We show that betaine treatment leads to an upregulation of mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity in H2.35 cells, the proposed rate limiting enzyme of ETC in vivo. Following treatment, the mitochondrial membrane potential was increased and cellular energy levels were elevated. We propose that the anti-proliferative effects of betaine on cancer cells might be due to enhanced mitochondrial function contributing to a reversal of the Warburg effect.

  16. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhin, A G; Papadopoulos, V; Costa, E; Krueger, K E

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine bin...

  17. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3 H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  18. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  19. Overexpression of mitochondrial sirtuins alters glycolysis and mitochondrial function in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barbi de Moura

    Full Text Available SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial deacylases that impact multiple facets of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. SIRT3 activates several mitochondrial enzymes, SIRT4 represses its targets, and SIRT5 has been shown to both activate and repress mitochondrial enzymes. To gain insight into the relative effects of the mitochondrial sirtuins in governing mitochondrial energy metabolism, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 overexpressing HEK293 cells were directly compared. When grown under standard cell culture conditions (25 mM glucose all three sirtuins induced increases in mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and glucose oxidation, but with no change in growth rate or in steady-state ATP concentration. Increased proton leak, as evidenced by oxygen consumption in the presence of oligomycin, appeared to explain much of the increase in basal oxygen utilization. Growth in 5 mM glucose normalized the elevations in basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and glycolysis in all sirtuin over-expressing cells. While the above effects were common to all three mitochondrial sirtuins, some differences between the SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 expressing cells were noted. Only SIRT3 overexpression affected fatty acid metabolism, and only SIRT4 overexpression altered superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that all three mitochondrial sirtuins can promote increased mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 appear to respond to excess glucose by inducing a coordinated increase of glycolysis and respiration, with the excess energy dissipated via proton leak.

  20. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and Parkin (Park, either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu, a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control.

  1. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Petrovic, Natasa; Faghihi, Mohammad A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. ...

  2. Obesity-induced down-regulation of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) impairs placental steroid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance, Luciana; Haghiac, Maricela; Minium, Judi; Catalano, Patrick; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of estradiol and progesterone are hallmarks of adverse pregnancy outcomes as is maternal obesity. During pregnancy, placental cholesterol is the sole source of sex steroids. Cholesterol trafficking is the limiting step in sex steroid biosynthesis and is mainly mediated by the translocator protein (TSPO), present in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal obesity in placental sex steroid biosynthesis and TSPO regulation. One hundred forty-four obese (body mass index 30-35 kg/m(2)) and 90 lean (body mass index 19-25 kg/m(2)) pregnant women (OP and LP, respectively) recruited at scheduled term cesarean delivery. Placenta and maternal blood were collected. This study was conducted at MetroHealth Medical Center (Cleveland, Ohio). Maternal metabolic components (fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, estradiol, progesterone, and total cholesterol) and placental weight were measured. Placenta (mitochondria and membranes separated) and cord blood cholesterol values were verified. The expression and regulation of TSPO and mitochondrial function were analyzed. Plasma estradiol and progesterone concentrations were significantly lower (P < .04) in OP as compared with LP women. Maternal and cord plasma cholesterol were not different between groups. Placental citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA, markers of mitochondrial density, were unchanged, but the mitochondrial cholesterol concentrations were 40% lower in the placenta of OP. TSPO gene and protein expressions were decreased 2-fold in the placenta of OP. In vitro trophoblast activation of the innate immune pathways with lipopolysaccharide and long-chain saturated fatty acids reduced TSPO expression by 2- to 3-fold (P < .05). These data indicate that obesity in pregnancy impairs mitochondrial steroidogenic function through the negative regulation of mitochondrial TSPO.

  3. DMPD: Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18549796 Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Moore CB, Ting J...P. Immunity. 2008 Jun;28(6):735-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral ...signaling pathways. PubmedID 18549796 Title Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Author

  4. Exercise improves mitochondrial and redox-regulated stress responses in the elderly: better late than never!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, James N; Moult, Peter R; Burniston, Jatin G; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-04-01

    Ageing is associated with several physiological declines to both the cardiovascular (e.g. reduced aerobic capacity) and musculoskeletal system (muscle function and mass). Ageing may also impair the adaptive response of skeletal muscle mitochondria and redox-regulated stress responses to an acute exercise bout, at least in mice and rodents. This is a functionally important phenomenon, since (1) aberrant mitochondrial and redox homeostasis are implicated in the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal ageing and (2) the response to repeated exercise bouts promotes exercise adaptations and some of these adaptations (e.g. improved aerobic capacity and exercise-induced mitochondrial remodelling) offset age-related physiological decline. Exercise-induced mitochondrial remodelling is mediated by upstream signalling events that converge on downstream transcriptional co-factors and factors that orchestrate a co-ordinated nuclear and mitochondrial transcriptional response associated with mitochondrial remodelling. Recent translational human investigations have demonstrated similar exercise-induced mitochondrial signalling responses in older compared with younger skeletal muscle, regardless of training status. This is consistent with data indicating normative mitochondrial remodelling responses to long-term exercise training in the elderly. Thus, human ageing is not accompanied by diminished mitochondrial plasticity to acute and chronic exercise stimuli, at least for the signalling pathways measured to date. Exercise-induced increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species promote an acute redox-regulated stress response that manifests as increased heat shock protein and antioxidant enzyme content. In accordance with previous reports in rodents and mice, it appears that sedentary ageing is associated with a severely attenuated exercise-induced redox stress response that might be related to an absent redox signal. In this regard, regular exercise training affords some protection

  5. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh; Godbole, Madan M.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, NRF-1α and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  6. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Godbole, Madan M., E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  7. Impaired mitochondrial function in chronically ischemic human heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis Ottesen; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    , and finally to assess myocardial antioxidant levels. Mitochondrial respiration in biopsies from ischemic and nonischemic regions from the left ventricle of the same heart was compared in nine human subjects. Maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity in fresh muscle fibers was lower in ischemic compared.......05), and the levels of antioxidant protein expression was lower. Diminished mitochondrial respiration capacity and excessive ROS production demonstrate an impaired mitochondrial function in ischemic human heart muscle. No chronic ischemic preconditioning effect was found....

  8. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajin Liao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. DJ-1 KNOCK-DOWN IMPAIRS ASTROCYTE MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LARSEN, N. J.; AMBROSI, G.; MULLETT, S. J.; BERMAN, S. B.; HINKLE, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD brain tissues show evidence for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I deficiency. Pharmacological inhibitors of Complex I, such as rotenone, cause experimental parkinsonism. The cytoprotective protein DJ-1, whose deletion is sufficient to cause genetic PD, is also known to have mitochondria-stabilizing properties. We have previously shown that DJ-1 is over-expressed in PD astrocytes, and that DJ-1 deficiency impairs the capacity of astrocytes to protect co-cultured neurons against rotenone. Since DJ-1 modulated, astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection against rotenone may depend upon proper astrocytic mitochondrial functioning, we hypothesized that DJ-1 deficiency would impair astrocyte mitochondrial motility, fission/fusion dynamics, membrane potential maintenance, and respiration, both at baseline and as an enhancement of rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In astrocyte-enriched cultures, we observed that DJ-1 knock-down reduced mitochondrial motility primarily in the cellular processes of both untreated and rotenone treated cells. In these same cultures, DJ-1 knock-down did not appreciably affect mitochondrial fission, fusion, or respiration, but did enhance rotenone-induced reductions in the mitochondrial membrane potential. In neuron–astrocyte co-cultures, astrocytic DJ-1 knock-down reduced astrocyte process mitochondrial motility in untreated cells, but this effect was not maintained in the presence of rotenone. In the same co-cultures, astrocytic DJ-1 knock-down significantly reduced mitochondrial fusion in the astrocyte cell bodies, but not the processes, under the same conditions of rotenone treatment in which DJ-1 deficiency is known to impair astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection. Our studies therefore demonstrated the following new findings: (i) DJ-1 deficiency can impair astrocyte mitochondrial physiology at multiple levels, (ii) astrocyte

  10. Response of mitochondrial function to hypothyroidism in normal and regenerated rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, J; Ventura-Clapier, R; Serrurier, B; Bigard, A X

    2001-01-01

    Although thyroid hormones induce a well known decrease in muscle oxidative capacity, nothing is known concerning their effects on mitochondrial function and regulation in situ. Similarly, the influence of regeneration process is not completely understood. We investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on mitochondrial function in fast gastrocnemius (GS) and slow soleus (SOL) muscles either intact or having undergone a cycle of degeneration/regeneration (Rg SOL) following a local injection of myotoxin. Thyroid hormone deficiency was induced by thyroidectomy and propylthiouracyl via drinking water. Respiration was measured in muscle fibres permeabilised by saponin in order to assess the oxidative capacity of the muscles and the regulation of mitochondria in situ. Oxidative capacities were 8.9 in SOL, 8.5 in Rg SOL and 5.9 micromol O2/min/g dry weight in GS and decreased by 52, 42 and 39% respectively (P hypothyroid rats. Moreover, the Km of mitochondrial respiration for the phosphate acceptor ADP exhibited a two-fold decrease in Rg SOL and intact SOL by hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism markedly altered the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP but not to creatine in SOL muscles, suggesting that mitochondrial regulation could be partially controlled by thyroid hormones. On the other hand, mitochondrial function completely recovered following regeneration/degeneration, suggesting that thyroid hormones are not involved in the regeneration process per se.

  11. Drosophila pink1 is required for mitochondrial function and interacts genetically with parkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ira E; Dodson, Mark W; Jiang, Changan; Cao, Joseph H; Huh, Jun R; Seol, Jae Hong; Yoo, Soon Ji; Hay, Bruce A; Guo, Ming

    2006-06-29

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important trigger for Parkinson's disease-like pathogenesis because exposure to environmental mitochondrial toxins leads to Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Recently, multiple genes mediating familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been identified, including PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1; PARK6) and parkin (PARK2), which are also associated with sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 encodes a putative serine/threonine kinase with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. So far, no in vivo studies have been reported for pink1 in any model system. Here we show that removal of Drosophila PINK1 homologue (CG4523; hereafter called pink1) function results in male sterility, apoptotic muscle degeneration, defects in mitochondrial morphology and increased sensitivity to multiple stresses including oxidative stress. Pink1 localizes to mitochondria, and mitochondrial cristae are fragmented in pink1 mutants. Expression of human PINK1 in the Drosophila testes restores male fertility and normal mitochondrial morphology in a portion of pink1 mutants, demonstrating functional conservation between human and Drosophila Pink1. Loss of Drosophila parkin shows phenotypes similar to loss of pink1 function. Notably, overexpression of parkin rescues the male sterility and mitochondrial morphology defects of pink1 mutants, whereas double mutants removing both pink1 and parkin function show muscle phenotypes identical to those observed in either mutant alone. These observations suggest that pink1 and parkin function, at least in part, in the same pathway, with pink1 functioning upstream of parkin. The role of the pink1-parkin pathway in regulating mitochondrial function underscores the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction as a central mechanism of Parkinson's disease

  12. Neurodegenerative and Fatiguing Illnesses, Infections and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Use of Natural Supplements to Improve Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many chronic diseases and illnesses are associated with one or more chronic infections, dysfunction of mitochondria and reduced production of ATP. This results in fatigue and other symptoms that occur in most if not all chronic conditions and diseases. Methods: This is a review of the published literature on chronic infections in neurodegenerative diseases and fatiguing illnesses that are also typified by mitochondrial dysfunction. This contribution also reviews the use of natural supplements to enhance mitochondrial function and reduce the effects of chronic infections to improve overall function in various chronic illnesses. Results: Mitochondrial function can be enhanced by the use of various natural supplements, notably Lipid Replacement Therapy (LRT using glyerolphospholipids and other mitochondrial supplements. In various chronic illnesses that are characterized by the presence of chronic infections, such as intracellular bacteria (Mycoplasma, Borrelia, Chlamydia and other infections and viruses, LRT has proven useful in multiple clinical trials. For example, in clinical studies on chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome and other chronic fatiguing illnesses where a large majority of patients have chronic infections, LRT significantly reduced fatigue by 35-43% in different clinical trials and increased mitochondrial function. In clinical trials on patients with multiple intracellular bacterial infections and intractable fatigue LRT plus other mitochondrial supplements significantly decreased fatigue and improved mood and cognition. Conclusions: LRT formulations designed to improve mitochondrial function appear to be useful as non-toxic dietary supplements for reducing fatigue and restoring mitochondrial and other cellular membrane functions in patients with chronic illnesses and multiple chronic infections.

  13. Gene set of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial regulators is enriched for common inherited variation in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Knoll

    Full Text Available There are hints of an altered mitochondrial function in obesity. Nuclear-encoded genes are relevant for mitochondrial function (3 gene sets of known relevant pathways: (1 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes, (2 91 genes for oxidative phosphorylation and (3 966 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA showed no association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in these gene sets. Here we performed a GSEA for the same gene sets for obesity. Genome wide association study (GWAS data from a case-control approach on 453 extremely obese children and adolescents and 435 lean adult controls were used for GSEA. For independent confirmation, we analyzed 705 obesity GWAS trios (extremely obese child and both biological parents and a population-based GWAS sample (KORA F4, n = 1,743. A meta-analysis was performed on all three samples. In each sample, the distribution of significance levels between the respective gene set and those of all genes was compared using the leading-edge-fraction-comparison test (cut-offs between the 50(th and 95(th percentile of the set of all gene-wise corrected p-values as implemented in the MAGENTA software. In the case-control sample, significant enrichment of associations with obesity was observed above the 50(th percentile for the set of the 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes (p(GSEA,50 = 0.0103. This finding was not confirmed in the trios (p(GSEA,50 = 0.5991, but in KORA (p(GSEA,50 = 0.0398. The meta-analysis again indicated a trend for enrichment (p(MAGENTA,50 = 0.1052, p(MAGENTA,75 = 0.0251. The GSEA revealed that weak association signals for obesity might be enriched in the gene set of 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes.

  14. Cutaneous respirometry by dynamic measurement of mitochondrial oxygen tension for monitoring mitochondrial function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Floor A; Voorbeijtel, Wilhelmina J; Bodmer, Sander I A; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Mik, Egbert G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic and acute disease could greatly benefit from techniques for monitoring of mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo respirometry in skin. Mitochondrial oxygen measurements by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX are shown to provide a robust basis for measurement of local oxygen disappearance rate (ODR). The fundamental principles behind the technology are described, together with an analysis method for retrievel of respirometry data. The feasibility and reproducibility of this clinically useful approach are demonstrated in a series of rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Skovbro, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (40 mU/min/m2) and muscle biopsies were performed on 23 women with PCOS (9 lean (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2)) and 17 age- and weight-matched controls (6 lean and 11 obese). Western blotting and high-resolution respirometry was used to determine mitochondrial function. Results......Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods...... Insulin sensitivity decreased with PCOS and increasing body weight. Mitochondrial respiration with substrates for complex I and complex I+II were similar in all groups, and PCOS was not associated with a decrease in mitochondrial content as measured by mtDNA/genomicDNA. We found no correlation between...

  16. Protein Carbonylation and Adipocyte Mitochondrial Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jessica M.; Hahn, Wendy S.; Stone, Matthew D.; Inda, Jacob J.; Droullard, David J.; Kuzmicic, Jovan P.; Donoghue, Margaret A.; Long, Eric K.; Armien, Anibal G.; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar; Griffin, Timothy J.; Bernlohr, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonylation is the covalent, non-reversible modification of the side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues by lipid peroxidation end products such as 4-hydroxy- and 4-oxononenal. In adipose tissue the effects of such modifications are associated with increased oxidative stress and metabolic dysregulation centered on mitochondrial energy metabolism. To address the role of protein carbonylation in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction, quantitative proteomics was employed to identify specific targets of carbonylation in GSTA4-silenced or overexpressing 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GSTA4-silenced adipocytes displayed elevated carbonylation of several key mitochondrial proteins including the phosphate carrier protein, NADH dehydrogenase 1α subcomplexes 2 and 3, translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 50, and valyl-tRNA synthetase. Elevated protein carbonylation is accompanied by diminished complex I activity, impaired respiration, increased superoxide production, and a reduction in membrane potential without changes in mitochondrial number, area, or density. Silencing of the phosphate carrier or NADH dehydrogenase 1α subcomplexes 2 or 3 in 3T3-L1 cells results in decreased basal and maximal respiration. These results suggest that protein carbonylation plays a major instigating role in cytokine-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and may be linked to the development of insulin resistance in the adipocyte. PMID:22822087

  17. Protein carbonylation and adipocyte mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jessica M; Hahn, Wendy S; Stone, Matthew D; Inda, Jacob J; Droullard, David J; Kuzmicic, Jovan P; Donoghue, Margaret A; Long, Eric K; Armien, Anibal G; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar; Griffin, Timothy J; Bernlohr, David A

    2012-09-21

    Carbonylation is the covalent, non-reversible modification of the side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues by lipid peroxidation end products such as 4-hydroxy- and 4-oxononenal. In adipose tissue the effects of such modifications are associated with increased oxidative stress and metabolic dysregulation centered on mitochondrial energy metabolism. To address the role of protein carbonylation in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction, quantitative proteomics was employed to identify specific targets of carbonylation in GSTA4-silenced or overexpressing 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GSTA4-silenced adipocytes displayed elevated carbonylation of several key mitochondrial proteins including the phosphate carrier protein, NADH dehydrogenase 1α subcomplexes 2 and 3, translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 50, and valyl-tRNA synthetase. Elevated protein carbonylation is accompanied by diminished complex I activity, impaired respiration, increased superoxide production, and a reduction in membrane potential without changes in mitochondrial number, area, or density. Silencing of the phosphate carrier or NADH dehydrogenase 1α subcomplexes 2 or 3 in 3T3-L1 cells results in decreased basal and maximal respiration. These results suggest that protein carbonylation plays a major instigating role in cytokine-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and may be linked to the development of insulin resistance in the adipocyte.

  18. A Novel Non-Apoptotic Role of Procaspase-3 in the Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis Activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Soo; Ha, Ji-Young; Yang, Sol-Ji; Son, Jin H

    2018-01-01

    The executioner caspase-3 has been proposed as a pharmacological intervention target to preserve degenerating dopaminergic (DA) neurons because apoptotic mechanisms involving caspase-3 contribute, at least in part, to the loss of DA neurons in patients and experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we determined that genetic intervention of caspase-3 was sufficient to prevent cell death against oxidative stress (OS), accompanied by unexpected severe mitochondrial dysfunction. Specifically, as we expected, caspase-3-deficient DA neuronal cells were very significantly resistant to OS-induced cell death, while the activation of the initiator caspase-9 by OS was preserved. Moreover, detailed phenotypic characterization of caspase-3-deficient DA cells revealed severe mitochondrial dysfunction, including an accumulation of damaged mitochondria with a characteristic swollen structure and broken cristae, reduced membrane potential, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and deficits in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes. Of great interest, we found that mitochondrial biogenesis was dramatically decreased in caspase-3-deficient DA cells, whereas their capability of mitophagy was normal. In accordance with this observation, caspase-3 gene knock down (KD) resulted in dramatically decreased expression of the key transcriptional activators of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as Tfam and Nrf-1, implicating a non-apoptotic role of procaspase-3 in mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, a prolonged anti-apoptotic intervention targeting caspase-3 should be considered with caution due to the potential adverse effects in mitochondria dynamics resulting from a novel potential functional role of procaspase-3 in mitochondrial biogenesis via regulating the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis activators. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 347-357, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mitochondrial structure, function and dynamics are temporally controlled by c-Myc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Anthony Graves

    Full Text Available Although the c-Myc (Myc oncoprotein controls mitochondrial biogenesis and multiple enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, the coordination of these events and the mechanistic underpinnings of their regulation remain largely unexplored. We show here that re-expression of Myc in myc-/- fibroblasts is accompanied by a gradual accumulation of mitochondrial biomass and by increases in membrane polarization and mitochondrial fusion. A correction of OXPHOS deficiency is also seen, although structural abnormalities in electron transport chain complexes (ETC are not entirely normalized. Conversely, the down-regulation of Myc leads to a gradual decrease in mitochondrial mass and a more rapid loss of fusion and membrane potential. Increases in the levels of proteins specifically involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion support the idea that Myc affects mitochondrial mass by influencing both of these processes, albeit favoring the latter. The ETC defects that persist following Myc restoration may represent metabolic adaptations, as mitochondrial function is re-directed away from producing ATP to providing a source of metabolic precursors demanded by the transformed cell.

  20. Hepatocellular toxicity of benzbromarone: Effects on mitochondrial function and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felser, Andrea; Lindinger, Peter W.; Schnell, Dominik; Kratschmar, Denise V.; Odermatt, Alex; Mies, Suzette; Jenö, Paul; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Benzbromarone impairs the electron transport chain and uncouples mitochondria. • Benzbromarone impairs mitochondrial β-oxidation by inhibiting fatty acid activation. • Benzbromarone disrupts the mitochondrial network and induces apoptosis. - Abstract: Benzbromarone is an uricosuric structurally related to amiodarone and a known mitochondrial toxicant. The aim of the current study was to improve our understanding in the molecular mechanisms of benzbromarone-associated hepatic mitochondrial toxicity. In HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes, ATP levels started to decrease in the presence of 25–50 μM benzbromarone for 24–48 h, whereas cytotoxicity was observed only at 100 μM. In HepG2 cells, benzbromarone decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential starting at 50 μM following incubation for 24 h. Additionally, in HepG2 cells, 50 μM benzbromarone for 24 h induced mitochondrial uncoupling,and decreased mitochondrial ATP turnover and maximal respiration. This was accompanied by an increased lactate concentration in the cell culture supernatant, reflecting increased glycolysis as a compensatory mechanism to maintain cellular ATP. Investigation of the electron transport chain revealed a decreased activity of all relevant enzyme complexes. Furthermore, treatment with benzbromarone was associated with increased cellular ROS production, which could be located specifically to mitochondria. In HepG2 cells and in isolated mouse liver mitochondria, benzbromarone also reduced palmitic acid metabolism due to an inhibition of the long-chain acyl CoA synthetase. In HepG2 cells, benzbromarone disrupted the mitochondrial network, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and a decreased mitochondrial volume per cell. Cell death occurred by both apoptosis and necrosis. The study demonstrates that benzbromarone not only affects the function of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes, but is also associated with profound changes in mitochondrial

  1. Separation of the gluconeogenic and mitochondrial functions of pgc-1α through s6 kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lustig, Y.; Ruas, J.L.; Estall, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that powerfully regulates many pathways linked to energy homeostasis. Specifically, PGC-1α controls mitochondrial biogenesis in most tissues but also initiates important tissue-specific functions, including fiber type switching in skeletal muscle and glucon......PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that powerfully regulates many pathways linked to energy homeostasis. Specifically, PGC-1α controls mitochondrial biogenesis in most tissues but also initiates important tissue-specific functions, including fiber type switching in skeletal muscle...... of gluconeogenesis in cultured hepatocytes and in vivo, while leaving the functions of PGC-1α as an activator of mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation genes completely intact. These phosphorylations interfere with the ability of PGC-1α to bind to HNF4α, a transcription factor required for gluconeogenesis, while...

  2. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathways induced by Drosophila programmed cell death regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claveria, Cristina; Torres, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Multicellular organisms eliminate unwanted or damaged cells by cell death, a process essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Cell death is a tightly regulated event, whose alteration by excess or defect is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune syndromes, and neurodegenerative processes. Studies in model organisms, especially in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have been crucial in identifying the key molecules implicated in the regulation and execution of programmed cell death. In contrast, the study of cell death in Drosophila melanogaster, often an excellent model organism, has identified regulators and mechanisms not obviously conserved in other metazoans. Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway

  3. Crosstalk between mitochondrial stress signals regulates yeast chronological lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth A; Shadel, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exists in multiple copies per cell and is essential for oxidative phosphorylation. Depleted or mutated mtDNA promotes numerous human diseases and may contribute to aging. Reduced TORC1 signaling in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extends chronological lifespan (CLS) in part by generating a mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) signal that epigenetically alters nuclear gene expression. To address the potential requirement for mtDNA maintenance in this response, we analyzed strains lacking the mitochondrial base-excision repair enzyme Ntg1p. Extension of CLS by mtROS signaling and reduced TORC1 activity, but not caloric restriction, was abrogated in ntg1Δ strains that exhibited mtDNA depletion without defects in respiration. The DNA damage response (DDR) kinase Rad53p, which transduces pro-longevity mtROS signals, is also activated in ntg1Δ strains. Restoring mtDNA copy number alleviated Rad53p activation and re-established CLS extension following mtROS signaling, indicating that Rad53p senses mtDNA depletion directly. Finally, DDR kinases regulate nucleus-mitochondria localization dynamics of Ntg1p. From these results, we conclude that the DDR pathway senses and may regulate Ntg1p-dependent mtDNA stability. Furthermore, Rad53p senses multiple mitochondrial stresses in a hierarchical manner to elicit specific physiological outcomes, exemplified by mtDNA depletion overriding the ability of Rad53p to transduce an adaptive mtROS longevity signal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compartmentalized Regulation of Parkin-Mediated Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Drosophila Nervous System In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun; Tandarich, Lauren C.; Nguyen, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    In neurons, the normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are considered essential for maintaining the functions of the large asymmetric cell and its diverse compartments. Parkin, a E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson's disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal in cells including neurons. However, it is not clear how Parkin functions in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, or whether Parkin-dependent events of the mitochondrial life cycle occur in all neuronal compartments. Here, using the live Drosophila nervous system, we investigated the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics, distribution, morphology, and removal. Contrary to our expectations, we found that Parkin-deficient animals do not accumulate senescent mitochondria in their motor axons or neuromuscular junctions; instead, they contain far fewer axonal mitochondria, and these displayed normal motility behavior, morphology, and metabolic state. However, the loss of Parkin did produce abnormal tubular and reticular mitochondria restricted to the motor cell bodies. In addition, in contrast to drug-treated, immortalized cells in vitro, mature motor neurons rarely displayed Parkin-dependent mitophagy. These data indicate that the cell body is the focus of Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control in neurons, and argue that a selection process allows only healthy mitochondria to pass from cell bodies to axons, perhaps to limit the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkin has been proposed to police mitochondrial fidelity by binding to dysfunctional mitochondria via PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and targeting them for autophagic degradation. However, it is unknown whether and how the PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates the mitochondrial life cycle in neurons in vivo. Using Drosophila motor neurons, we show that parkin disruption generates an abnormal mitochondrial network in cell

  5. A role of taurine in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Andersen, Mogens Larsen; Cornett, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial pH gradient across the inner-membrane is stabilised by buffering of the matrix. A low-molecular mass buffer compound has to be localised in the matrix to maintain its alkaline pH value. Taurine is found ubiquitously in animal cells with concentrations in the millimolar range...... enzymes, which are pivotal for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, are demonstrated to have optimal activity in a taurine buffer. By application of the model presented, taurine depletion caused by hyperglycemia could provide a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes....

  6. p32, a novel binding partner of Mcl-1, positively regulates mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Kang [Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yinyin; Chang, Zhijie [School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Lao, Yuanzhi, E-mail: laurence_ylao@163.com [School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chang, Donald C., E-mail: bochang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • p32 binds to Mcl-1. • p32 affects apoptosis. • p32 and Mcl-1 regulate mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}. - Abstract: Mcl-1 is a major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. It is well known that Mcl-1 can interact with certain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in normal cells to neutralize their pro-apoptotic functions, thus prevent apoptosis. In addition, it was recently found that Mcl-1 can also inhibit mitochondrial calcium uptake. The detailed mechanism, however, is still not clear. Based on Yeast Two-Hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation, we identified a mitochondrial protein p32 (C1qbp) as a novel binding partner of Mcl-1. We found that p32 had a number of interesting properties: (1) p32 can positively regulate UV-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. (2) Over-expressing p32 could significantly promote mitochondrial calcium uptake, while silencing p32 by siRNA suppressed it. (3) In p32 knockdown cells, Ruthenium Red treatment (an inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uniporter) showed no further suppressive effect on mitochondrial calcium uptake. In addition, in Ruthenium Red treated cells, Mcl-1 also failed to suppress mitochondrial calcium uptake. Taken together, our findings suggest that p32 is part of the putative mitochondrial uniporter that facilitates mitochondrial calcium uptake. By binding to p32, Mcl-1 can interfere with the uniporter function, thus inhibit the mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uploading. This may provide a novel mechanism to explain the anti-apoptotic function of Mcl-1.

  7. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/- mice and wildtypes (WT. In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24% in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  8. Mitochondrial Function and Mitophagy in the Elderly: Effects of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo C. Moreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural, multifactorial and multiorganic phenomenon wherein there are gradual physiological and pathological changes over time. Aging has been associated with a decrease of autophagy capacity and mitochondrial functions, such as biogenesis, dynamics, and mitophagy. These processes are essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial structural integrity and, therefore, for cell life, since mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an impairment of energy metabolism and increased production of reactive oxygen species, which consequently trigger mechanisms of cellular senescence and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, reduced mitochondrial function can contribute to age-associated disease phenotypes in model organisms and humans. Literature data show beneficial effects of exercise on the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and on the decrease in the mitophagic capacity associated to aging. Thus, exercise could have effects on the major cell signaling pathways that are involved in the mitochondria quality and quantity control in the elderly. Although it is known that several exercise protocols are able to modify the activity and turnover of mitochondria, further studies are necessary in order to better identify the mechanisms of interaction between mitochondrial functions, aging, and physical activity, as well as to analyze possible factors influencing these processes.

  9. MacroH2A1.1 regulates mitochondrial respiration by limiting nuclear NAD+ consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec Marjanović, Melanija; Hurtado-Bagès, Sarah; Lassi, Maximilian; Valero, Vanesa; Malinverni, Roberto; Delage, Hélène; Navarro, Miriam; Corujo, David; Guberovic, Iva; Douet, Julien; Gama-Perez, Pau; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Ahel, Ivan; Ladurner, Andreas G; Yanes, Oscar; Bouvet, Philippe; Suelves, Mònica; Teperino, Raffaele; Pospisilik, J Andrew; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    Histone variants are structural components of eukaryotic chromatin that can replace replication-coupled histones in the nucleosome. The histone variant macroH2A1.1 contains a macrodomain capable of binding NAD + -derived metabolites. Here we report that macroH2A1.1 is rapidly induced during myogenic differentiation through a switch in alternative splicing, and that myotubes that lack macroH2A1.1 have a defect in mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We found that the metabolite-binding macrodomain was essential for sustained optimal mitochondrial function but dispensable for gene regulation. Through direct binding, macroH2A1.1 inhibits basal poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity and thus reduces nuclear NAD + consumption. The resultant accumulation of the NAD + precursor NMN allows for maintenance of mitochondrial NAD + pools that are critical for respiration. Our data indicate that macroH2A1.1-containing chromatin regulates mitochondrial respiration by limiting nuclear NAD + consumption and establishing a buffer of NAD + precursors in differentiated cells.

  10. Pre-ischemic mitochondrial substrate constraint by inhibition of malate-aspartate shuttle preserves mitochondrial function after ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Nichlas Riise; Yokota, Takashi; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxiacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. We examined whether transient inhibition of the MAS during ischaemia......, but not IPC, reduced the myocardial interstitial concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the onset of reperfusion. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that metabolic regulation by inhibition of the MAS at the onset of reperfusion may be beneficial for the preservation...... of mitochondrial function during late reperfusion in an IR-injured heart. ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxyacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against IR...

  11. Role of Sex Hormones on Brain Mitochondrial Function, with Special Reference to Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gaignard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria have a fundamental role in both cellular energy supply and oxidative stress regulation and are target of the effects of sex steroids, particularly the neuroprotective ones. Aging is associated with a decline in the levels of different steroid hormones, and this decrease may underline some neural dysfunctions. Besides, modifications in mitochondrial functions associated with aging processes are also well documented. In this review, we will discuss studies that describe the modifications of brain mitochondrial function and of steroid levels associated with physiological aging and with neurodegenerative diseases. A special emphasis will be placed on describing and discussing our recent findings concerning the concomitant study of mitochondrial function (oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and brain steroid levels in both young (3-month-old and aged (20-month-old male and female mice.

  12. Relations of mitochondrial genetic variants to measures of vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Liu, Chunyu; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vita, Joseph A; Hamburg, Naomi M; Levy, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Mitochondrial genetic variation with resultant alterations in oxidative phosphorylation may influence vascular function and contribute to cardiovascular disease susceptibility. We assessed relations of peptide-encoding variants in the mitochondrial genome with measures of vascular function in Framingham Heart Study participants. Of 258 variants assessed, 40 were predicted to have functional consequences by bioinformatics programs. A maternal pattern of heritability was estimated to contribute to the variability of aortic stiffness. A putative association with a microvascular function measure was identified that requires replication. The methods we have developed can be applied to assess the relations of mitochondrial genetic variation to other phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Advances in the quantification of mitochondrial function in primary human immune cells through extracellular flux analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequina Nicholas

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show that mitochondrial energy generation determines the effectiveness of immune responses. Furthermore, changes in mitochondrial function may regulate lymphocyte function in inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. Analysis of lymphocyte mitochondrial function has been facilitated by introduction of 96-well format extracellular flux (XF96 analyzers, but the technology remains imperfect for analysis of human lymphocytes. Limitations in XF technology include the lack of practical protocols for analysis of archived human cells, and inadequate data analysis tools that require manual quality checks. Current analysis tools for XF outcomes are also unable to automatically assess data quality and delete untenable data from the relatively high number of biological replicates needed to power complex human cell studies. The objectives of work presented herein are to test the impact of common cellular manipulations on XF outcomes, and to develop and validate a new automated tool that objectively analyzes a virtually unlimited number of samples to quantitate mitochondrial function in immune cells. We present significant improvements on previous XF analyses of primary human cells that will be absolutely essential to test the prediction that changes in immune cell mitochondrial function and fuel sources support immune dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes.

  14. Regulated functions and integrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gunčaga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of functions defined on a bounded closed interval, weaker than continuity, have been considered by many mathematicians. Functions having both sides limits at each point are called regulated and were considered by J. Dieudonné [2], D. Fraňková [3] and others (see for example S. Banach [1], S. Saks [8]. The main class of functions we deal with consists of piece-wise constant ones. These functions play a fundamental role in the integration theory which had been developed by Igor Kluvanek (see Š. Tkacik [9]. We present an outline of this theory.

  15. Human 2'-phosphodiesterase localizes to the mitochondrial matrix with a putative function in mitochondrial RNA turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Kjær, Karina Hansen

    2011-01-01

    . Interestingly, 2′-PDE shares both functionally and structurally characteristics with the CCR4-type exonuclease–endonuclease–phosphatase family of deadenylases. Here we show that 2′-PDE locates to the mitochondrial matrix of human cells, and comprise an active 3′–5′ exoribonuclease exhibiting a preference...

  16. MCUR1 Is a Scaffold Factor for the MCU Complex Function and Promotes Mitochondrial Bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanendra Tomar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is the primary mechanism for increasing matrix Ca2+ in most cell types. However, a limited understanding of the MCU complex assembly impedes the comprehension of the precise mechanisms underlying MCU activity. Here, we report that mouse cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells lacking MCU regulator 1 (MCUR1 have severely impaired [Ca2+]m uptake and IMCU current. MCUR1 binds to MCU and EMRE and function as a scaffold factor. Our protein binding analyses identified the minimal, highly conserved regions of coiled-coil domain of both MCU and MCUR1 that are necessary for heterooligomeric complex formation. Loss of MCUR1 perturbed MCU heterooligomeric complex and functions as a scaffold factor for the assembly of MCU complex. Vascular endothelial deletion of MCU and MCUR1 impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and migration but elicited autophagy. These studies establish the existence of a MCU complex that assembles at the mitochondrial integral membrane and regulates Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial metabolism.

  17. Long noncoding RNA Tug1 regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jianyin; Badal, Shawn S; Ye, Zengchun; Wang, Yin; Ayanga, Bernard A; Galvan, Daniel L; Green, Nathanael H; Chang, Benny H; Overbeek, Paul A; Danesh, Farhad R

    2016-11-01

    The regulatory roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in transcriptional coactivators are still largely unknown. Here, we have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a) is functionally regulated by the lncRNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (Tug1). Further, we have described a role for Tug1 in the regulation of mitochondrial function in podocytes. Using a murine model of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed an unbiased RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of kidney glomeruli and identified Tug1 as a differentially expressed lncRNA in the diabetic milieu. Podocyte-specific overexpression (OE) of Tug1 in diabetic mice improved the biochemical and histological features associated with DN. Unexpectedly, we found that Tug1 OE rescued the expression of PGC-1α and its transcriptional targets. Tug1 OE was also associated with improvements in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the podocytes of diabetic mice. Mechanistically, we found that the interaction between Tug1 and PGC-1α promotes the binding of PGC-1α to its own promoter. We identified a Tug1-binding element (TBE) upstream of the Ppargc1a gene and showed that Tug1 binds with the TBE to enhance Ppargc1a promoter activity. These findings indicate that a direct interaction between PGC-1α and Tug1 modulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in podocytes in the diabetic milieu.

  18. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seung Min, E-mail: smjeong@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Aging and Metabolic Diseases, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun [School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  19. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  20. Mitochondrial metabolism in hematopoietic stem cells requires functional FOXO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Liang, Raymond; Bigarella, Carolina L; Kocabas, Fatih; Xie, Jingjing; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Chipuk, Jerry; Sadek, Hesham; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are primarily dormant but have the potential to become highly active on demand to reconstitute blood. This requires a swift metabolic switch from glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Maintenance of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of mitochondrial metabolism, is also necessary for sustaining HSC dormancy. Little is known about mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism with hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis. Here, we identify the transcription factor FOXO3 as a new regulator of metabolic adaptation of HSC. ROS are elevated in Foxo3−/− HSC that are defective in their activity. We show that Foxo3−/− HSC are impaired in mitochondrial metabolism independent of ROS levels. These defects are associated with altered expression of mitochondrial/metabolic genes in Foxo3−/− hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). We further show that defects of Foxo3−/− HSC long-term repopulation activity are independent of ROS or mTOR signaling. Our results point to FOXO3 as a potential node that couples mitochondrial metabolism with HSC homeostasis. These findings have critical implications for mechanisms that promote malignant transformation and aging of blood stem and progenitor cells. PMID:26209246

  1. Thallium induces hydrogen peroxide generation by impairing mitochondrial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzel, Cecilia E.; Verstraeten, Sandra V.

    2006-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is highly toxic through yet poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we comparatively investigated the effects of thallic (Tl(III)) cations on mitochondrial functionality and oxidative stress promotion, and results were compared to those obtained for thallous (Tl(I)) cation. PC12 cells were incubated between 1 and 72 h in the presence of a single dose of Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10-250 μM). A metal concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed evaluated by both MTT reduction and calcein fluorescence. After 24 h in culture, Tl(I) and Tl(III) significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated as the incorporation of rhodamine 123. Along the incubation period assessed, both Tl(I) and Tl(III) (50 and 100 μM) significantly increased mitochondrial H 2 O 2 steady-state levels, being the magnitude of the effect: Tl(III) > Tl(I). Glutathione content, measured by reaction with monochlorobimane, was significantly reduced in Tl-treated cells. Finally, higher oxidant species content in cells cytoplasm was found, which positively correlated with mitochondrial H 2 O 2 content. Together, these results indicate that both ionic species of Tl enhance cells reactive oxygen species production, decreasing mitochondrial functionality. These effects could partially be responsible for the loss of cell viability, and account for the metabolic alterations found in Tl intoxication

  2. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) regulates skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling via altered mitochondrial oxidation and reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Enxuan; Emanuelli, Brice; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout...... mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species......, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle....

  3. Transcription profiling suggests that mitochondrial topoisomerase IB acts as a topological barrier and regulator of mitochondrial DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Zhang, Hongliang; Khiati, Salim; Wu, Xiaolin; Pommier, Yves

    2017-12-08

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for cell viability because it encodes subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. Mitochondrial topoisomerase IB (TOP1MT) facilitates mtDNA replication by removing DNA topological tensions produced during mtDNA transcription, but it appears to be dispensable. To test whether cells lacking TOP1MT have aberrant mtDNA transcription, we performed mitochondrial transcriptome profiling. To that end, we designed and implemented a customized tiling array, which enabled genome-wide, strand-specific, and simultaneous detection of all mitochondrial transcripts. Our technique revealed that Top1mt KO mouse cells process the mitochondrial transcripts normally but that protein-coding mitochondrial transcripts are elevated. Moreover, we found discrete long noncoding RNAs produced by H-strand transcription and encompassing the noncoding regulatory region of mtDNA in human and murine cells and tissues. Of note, these noncoding RNAs were strongly up-regulated in the absence of TOP1MT. In contrast, 7S DNA, produced by mtDNA replication, was reduced in the Top1mt KO cells. We propose that the long noncoding RNA species in the D-loop region are generated by the extension of H-strand transcripts beyond their canonical stop site and that TOP1MT acts as a topological barrier and regulator for mtDNA transcription and D-loop formation.

  4. Sirtuin signaling controls mitochondrial function in glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Ho; Kim, Goo-Young; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2018-05-08

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and a long-term complication of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in GSD-Ia but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to HCA/HCC development remain unclear. We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency leads to downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling that underlies defective hepatic autophagy in GSD-Ia. SIRT1 is a NAD + -dependent deacetylase that can deacetylate and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial integrity, biogenesis, and function. We hypothesized that downregulation of hepatic SIRT1 signaling in G6Pase-α-deficient livers impairs PGC-1α activity, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that the G6Pase-α-deficient livers display defective PGC-1α signaling, reduced numbers of functional mitochondria, and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Overexpression of hepatic SIRT1 restores PGC-1α activity, normalizes the expression of electron transport chain components, and increases mitochondrial complex IV activity. We have previously shown that restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α expression normalized SIRT1 signaling. We now show that restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α expression also restores PGC-1α activity and mitochondrial function. Finally, we show that HCA/HCC lesions found in G6Pase-α-deficient livers contain marked mitochondrial and oxidative DNA damage. Taken together, our study shows that downregulation of hepatic SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling underlies mitochondrial dysfunction and that oxidative DNA damage incurred by damaged mitochondria may contribute to HCA/HCC development in GSD-Ia.

  5. SK2 channels regulate mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honrath, Birgit; Matschke, Lina; Meyer, Tammo; Magerhans, Lena; Perocchi, Fabiana; Ganjam, Goutham K; Zischka, Hans; Krasel, Cornelius; Gerding, Albert; Bakker, Barbara M; Bünemann, Moritz; Strack, Stefan; Decher, Niels; Culmsee, Carsten; Dolga, Amalia M

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial calcium ([Ca 2+ ] m ) overload and changes in mitochondrial metabolism are key players in neuronal death. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels provide protection in different paradigms of neuronal cell death. Recently, SK channels were identified at the inner mitochondrial membrane, however, their particular role in the observed neuroprotection remains unclear. Here, we show a potential neuroprotective mechanism that involves attenuation of [Ca 2+ ] m uptake upon SK channel activation as detected by time lapse mitochondrial Ca 2+ measurements with the Ca 2+ -binding mitochondria-targeted aequorin and FRET-based [Ca 2+ ] m probes. High-resolution respirometry revealed a reduction in mitochondrial respiration and complex I activity upon pharmacological activation and overexpression of mitochondrial SK2 channels resulting in reduced mitochondrial ROS formation. Overexpression of mitochondria-targeted SK2 channels enhanced mitochondrial resilience against neuronal death, and this effect was inhibited by overexpression of a mitochondria-targeted dominant-negative SK2 channel. These findings suggest that SK channels provide neuroprotection by reducing [Ca 2+ ] m uptake and mitochondrial respiration in conditions, where sustained mitochondrial damage determines progressive neuronal death.

  6. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E

    2012-01-01

    functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...

  7. Laccase-13 Regulates Seed Setting Rate by Affecting Hydrogen Peroxide Dynamics and Mitochondrial Integrity in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed setting rate is one of the most important components of rice grain yield. To date, only several genes regulating setting rate have been identified in plant. In this study, we showed that laccase-13 (OsLAC13, a member of laccase family genes which are known for their roles in modulating phenylpropanoid pathway and secondary lignification in cell wall, exerts a regulatory function in rice seed setting rate. OsLAC13 expressed in anthers and promotes hydrogen peroxide production both in vitro and in the filaments and anther connectives. Knock-out of OsLAC13 showed significantly increased seed setting rate, while overexpression of this gene exhibited induced mitochondrial damage and suppressed sugar transportation in anthers, which in turn affected seed setting rate. OsLAC13 also induced H2O2 production and mitochondrial damage in the root tip cells which caused the lethal phenotype. We also showed that high abundant of OsmiR397, the suppressor of OsLAC13 mRNA, increased the seed setting rate of rice plants, and restrains H2O2 accumulation in roots during oxidative stress. Our results suggested a novel regulatory role of OsLAC13 gene in regulating seed setting rate by affecting H2O2 dynamics and mitochondrial integrity in rice.

  8. Ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function and mitochondrial content under control of the cell cycle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamazumi, Masayuki; Wada, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshinari; Nakamura, Hideo; Inanami, Osamu

    2012-07-15

    Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that

  9. Regulation by magnesium of potato tuber mitochondrial respiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquim A F; Madeira, Vítor M C; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2004-12-01

    Dehydrogenase activities of potato tuber mitochondria and corresponding phosphorylation rates were measured for the dependence on external and mitochondrial matrix Mg2+. Magnesium stimulated state 3 and state 4 respiration, with significantly different concentrations of matrix Mg2+ required for optimal activities of the several substrates. Maximal stimulation of respiration with all substrates was obtained at 2-mM external Mg2+. However, respiration of malate, citrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate requires at least 4-mM Mg2+ inside mitochondria for maximization of dehydrogenase activities. The phosphorylation system, requires a low level of internal Mg2+ (0.25 mM) to reach high activity, as judged by succinate-dependent respiration. However, mitochondria respiring on citrate or alpha-ketoglutarate only sustain high levels of phosphorylation with at least 4-mM matrix Mg2+. Respiration of succinate is active without external and matrix Mg2+, although stimulated by the cation. Respiration of alpha-ketoglutarate was strictly dependent on external Mg2+ required for substrate transport into mitochondria, and internal Mg2+ is required for dehydrogenase activity. Respiration of citrate and malate also depend on internal Mg2+ but, unlike alpha-ketoglutarate, some activity still remains without external Mg2+. All the substrates revealed insensitive to external and internal mitochondrial Ca2+, except the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase, which requires either external Ca2+ or Mg2+ for detectable activity. Calcium is more efficient than Mg2+, both having cumulative stimulation. Unlike Ca2+, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+, before and after addition of A23, showing its ability to regulate phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activities, with almost the same efficiency as Mg2+.

  10. Insulin Action in Brain Regulates Systemic Metabolism and Brain Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinridders, Andr?; Ferris, Heather A.; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in t...

  11. Differential regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier genes modulates respiratory capacity and stress tolerance in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Timón-Gómez

    Full Text Available Mpc proteins are highly conserved from yeast to humans and are necessary for the uptake of pyruvate at the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used for leucine and valine biosynthesis and as a fuel for respiration. Our analysis of the yeast MPC gene family suggests that amino acid biosynthesis, respiration rate and oxidative stress tolerance are regulated by changes in the Mpc protein composition of the mitochondria. Mpc2 and Mpc3 are highly similar but functionally different: Mpc2 is most abundant under fermentative non stress conditions and important for amino acid biosynthesis, while Mpc3 is the most abundant family member upon salt stress or when high respiration rates are required. Accordingly, expression of the MPC3 gene is highly activated upon NaCl stress or during the transition from fermentation to respiration, both types of regulation depend on the Hog1 MAP kinase. Overexpression experiments show that gain of Mpc2 function leads to a severe respiration defect and ROS accumulation, while Mpc3 stimulates respiration and enhances tolerance to oxidative stress. Our results identify the regulated mitochondrial pyruvate uptake as an important determinant of respiration rate and stress resistance.

  12. Differential regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier genes modulates respiratory capacity and stress tolerance in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timón-Gómez, Alba; Proft, Markus; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Mpc proteins are highly conserved from yeast to humans and are necessary for the uptake of pyruvate at the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used for leucine and valine biosynthesis and as a fuel for respiration. Our analysis of the yeast MPC gene family suggests that amino acid biosynthesis, respiration rate and oxidative stress tolerance are regulated by changes in the Mpc protein composition of the mitochondria. Mpc2 and Mpc3 are highly similar but functionally different: Mpc2 is most abundant under fermentative non stress conditions and important for amino acid biosynthesis, while Mpc3 is the most abundant family member upon salt stress or when high respiration rates are required. Accordingly, expression of the MPC3 gene is highly activated upon NaCl stress or during the transition from fermentation to respiration, both types of regulation depend on the Hog1 MAP kinase. Overexpression experiments show that gain of Mpc2 function leads to a severe respiration defect and ROS accumulation, while Mpc3 stimulates respiration and enhances tolerance to oxidative stress. Our results identify the regulated mitochondrial pyruvate uptake as an important determinant of respiration rate and stress resistance.

  13. SK2 channels regulate mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit; Matschke, Lina; Meyer, Tammo; Magerhans, Lena; Perocchi, Fabiana; Ganjam, Goutham K; Zischka, Hans; Krasel, Cornelius; Gerding, Albert; Bakker, Barbara M; Bünemann, Moritz; Strack, Stefan; Decher, Niels; Culmsee, Carsten; Dolga, Amalia M

    Mitochondrial calcium ([Ca(2+)]m) overload and changes in mitochondrial metabolism are key players in neuronal death. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels provide protection in different paradigms of neuronal cell death. Recently, SK channels were identified at the inner

  14. Repression of mitochondrial translation, respiration and a metabolic cycle-regulated gene, SLF1, by the yeast Pumilio-family protein Puf3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chatenay-Lapointe

    Full Text Available Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3'-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether, these results should facilitate future studies on which of the many functions of Puf3p is most relevant for regulating mitochondrial gene expression and the role of nuclear-mitochondrial communication in aging and longevity.

  15. Nuclear HMGA1 nonhistone chromatin proteins directly influence mitochondrial transcription, maintenance, and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dement, Gregory A.; Maloney, Scott C.; Reeves, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins translocate from the nucleus to mitochondria and bind to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at the D-loop control region [G.A. Dement, N.R. Treff, N.S. Magnuson, V. Franceschi, R. Reeves, Dynamic mitochondrial localization of nuclear transcription factor HMGA1, Exp. Cell Res. 307 (2005) 388-401.] [11]. To elucidate possible physiological roles for such binding, we employed methods to analyze mtDNA transcription, mitochondrial maintenance, and other organelle functions in transgenic human MCF-7 cells (HA7C) induced to over-express an HA-tagged HMGA1 protein and control (parental) MCF-7 cells. Quantitative real-time (RT) PCR analyses demonstrated that mtDNA levels were reduced approximately 2-fold in HMGA1 over-expressing HA7C cells and flow cytometric analyses further revealed that mitochondrial mass was significantly reduced in these cells. Cellular ATP levels were also reduced in HA7C cells and survival studies showed an increased sensitivity to killing by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, a glycolysis-specific inhibitor. Flow cytometric analyses revealed additional mitochondrial abnormalities in HA7C cells that are consistent with a cancerous phenotype: namely, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ). Additional RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that gene transcripts from both the heavy (ND2, COXI, ATP6) and light (ND6) strands of mtDNA were up-regulated approximately 3-fold in HA7C cells. Together, these mitochondrial changes are consistent with many previous reports and reveal several possible mechanisms by which HMGA1 over-expression, a common feature of naturally occurring cancers, may affect tumor progression

  16. Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Are Localized in Striated Muscle Mitochondria and Regulate Mitochondrial Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs where it regulates cellular functions and metabolism. In the brain, CB1 is mainly localized on presynaptic axon terminals but is also found on mitochondria (mtCB1, where it regulates cellular respiration and energy production. Likewise, CB1 is localized on muscle mitochondria, but very little is known about it. The aim of this study was to further investigate in detail the distribution and functional role of mtCB1 in three different striated muscles. Immunoelectron microscopy for CB1 was used in skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis and myocardium from wild-type and CB1-KO mice. Functional assessments were performed in mitochondria purified from the heart of the mice and the mitochondrial oxygen consumption upon application of different acute delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol (Δ9-THC concentrations (100 nM or 200 nM was monitored. About 26% of the mitochondrial profiles in gastrocnemius, 22% in the rectus abdominis and 17% in the myocardium expressed CB1. Furthermore, the proportion of mtCB1 versus total CB1 immunoparticles was about 60% in the gastrocnemius, 55% in the rectus abdominis and 78% in the myocardium. Importantly, the CB1 immunolabeling pattern disappeared in muscles of CB1-KO mice. Functionally, acute 100 nM or 200 nM THC treatment specifically decreased mitochondria coupled respiration between 12% and 15% in wild-type isolated mitochondria of myocardial muscles but no significant difference was noticed between THC treated and vehicle in mitochondria isolated from CB1-KO heart. Furthermore, gene expression of key enzymes involved in pyruvate synthesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated in the striated muscle of CB1-WT and CB1-KO. CB1-KO showed an increase in the gene expression of Eno3, Pkm2, and Pdha1, suggesting an increased production of pyruvate. In contrast, no significant

  17. Regulation of glycolytic oscillations by mitochondrial and plasma membrane H+-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Folke; Andersen, Ann Zahle; Lunding, Anita

    2009-01-01

    ,3'-diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide. The responses of glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations to a number of inhibitors of glycolysis, mitochondrial electron flow, and mitochondrial and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase were investigated. Furthermore, the glycolytic flux was determined as the rate of production of ethanol....../ATP antiporter and the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase. The results further suggest that ATP hydrolysis, through the action of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, are important in regulating these oscillations. We conclude that it is glycolysis that drives the oscillations...

  18. Modulation of mitochondrial function and morphology by interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with the mitochondrial fusion factor OPA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieper, Nicole; Holmstroem, Kira M.; Ciceri, Dalila; Fiesel, Fabienne C. [Center of Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wolburg, Hartwig [Institute of Pathology, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Ziviani, Elena; Whitworth, Alexander J. [Medical Research Council Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Martins, L. Miguel [Cell Death Regulation Laboratory, MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Kahle, Philipp J., E-mail: philipp.kahle@uni-tuebingen.de [Center of Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Krueger, Rejko, E-mail: rejko.krueger@uni-tuebingen.de [Center of Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved in protection against cellular stress, but the cytological and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Omi/HtrA2 deficiency caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In Omi/HtrA2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as well as in Omi/HtrA2 silenced human HeLa cells and Drosophila S2R+ cells, we found elongated mitochondria by live cell imaging. Electron microscopy confirmed the mitochondrial morphology alterations and showed abnormal cristae structure. Examining the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, we found a selective up-regulation of more soluble OPA1 protein. Complementation of knockout cells with wild-type Omi/HtrA2 but not with the protease mutant [S306A]Omi/HtrA2 reversed the mitochondrial elongation phenotype and OPA1 alterations. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with endogenous OPA1. Thus, we show for the first time a direct effect of loss of Omi/HtrA2 on mitochondrial morphology and demonstrate a novel role of this mitochondrial serine protease in the modulation of OPA1. Our results underscore a critical role of impaired mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Modulation of mitochondrial function and morphology by interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with the mitochondrial fusion factor OPA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieper, Nicole; Holmstroem, Kira M.; Ciceri, Dalila; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Wolburg, Hartwig; Ziviani, Elena; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Martins, L. Miguel; Kahle, Philipp J.; Krueger, Rejko

    2010-01-01

    Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved in protection against cellular stress, but the cytological and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Omi/HtrA2 deficiency caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In Omi/HtrA2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as well as in Omi/HtrA2 silenced human HeLa cells and Drosophila S2R+ cells, we found elongated mitochondria by live cell imaging. Electron microscopy confirmed the mitochondrial morphology alterations and showed abnormal cristae structure. Examining the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, we found a selective up-regulation of more soluble OPA1 protein. Complementation of knockout cells with wild-type Omi/HtrA2 but not with the protease mutant [S306A]Omi/HtrA2 reversed the mitochondrial elongation phenotype and OPA1 alterations. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with endogenous OPA1. Thus, we show for the first time a direct effect of loss of Omi/HtrA2 on mitochondrial morphology and demonstrate a novel role of this mitochondrial serine protease in the modulation of OPA1. Our results underscore a critical role of impaired mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eWalton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle’s oxidative balance. It has been previously demonstrated that, as cells age, catalase is increasingly absent from the peroxisome, and resides instead as an unimported tetrameric molecule in the cell cytosol; an alteration that is coincident with increased cellular hydrogen peroxide levels. As this process begins in middle-passage cells, we sought to determine whether peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide could contribute to the oxidative damage observed in mitochondria in late-passage cells. Early-passage human fibroblasts (Hs27 treated with aminotriazole (3-AT, an irreversible catalase inhibitor, demonstrated decreased catalase activity, increased levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyls, and peroxisomal numbers. This treatment increased mitochondrial ROS levels, and decreased the mitochondrial aconitase activity by approximately 85% within 24 hours. In addition, mitochondria from 3-AT treated cells show a decrease in inner membrane potential. These results demonstrate that peroxisome-derived oxidative imbalance may rapidly impair mitochondrial function, and considering that peroxisomal oxidative imbalance begins to occur in middle-passage cells, supports the hypothesis that peroxisomal oxidant release occurs upstream of, and contributes to, the mitochondrial damage observed in aging cells.

  1. Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Paul A; Pizzitelli, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle's oxidative balance. It has been previously demonstrated that, as cells age, catalase is increasingly absent from the peroxisome, and resides instead as an unimported tetrameric molecule in the cell cytosol; an alteration that is coincident with increased cellular hydrogen peroxide levels. As this process begins in middle-passage cells, we sought to determine whether peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide could contribute to the oxidative damage observed in mitochondria in late-passage cells. Early-passage human fibroblasts (Hs27) treated with aminotriazole (3-AT), an irreversible catalase inhibitor, demonstrated decreased catalase activity, increased levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyls, and peroxisomal numbers. This treatment increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased the mitochondrial aconitase activity by ∼85% within 24 h. In addition, mitochondria from 3-AT treated cells show a decrease in inner membrane potential. These results demonstrate that peroxisome-derived oxidative imbalance may rapidly impair mitochondrial function, and considering that peroxisomal oxidative imbalance begins to occur in middle-passage cells, supports the hypothesis that peroxisomal oxidant release occurs upstream of, and contributes to, the mitochondrial damage observed in aging cells.

  2. MicroRNA-761 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle in response to exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanli [Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Engineering University, Handan, 056002, Hebei (China); Zhao, Chaoxian; Sun, Xuewen [Medical College of Hebei Engineering University, Handan, 056002, Hebei (China); Liu, Zhijun, E-mail: liuzhij1207@163.com [Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Engineering University, Handan, 056002, Hebei (China); Zhang, Jianzhong, E-mail: zhangjianzhong@icdc.cn [National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention (ICDC), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing, 102206 (China)

    2015-11-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play critical roles in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Previous study has shown that miR-761 was involved in a novel model regulating the mitochondrial network. However, its role in mitochondrial biogenesis remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-761 on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that aberrantly expressed miR-761 is involved in exercise activity and miR-761 is decreased by exercise training compared with the sedentary control mice. miR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes by targeting the 3′-UTR of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1α). Overexpression of miR-761 was capable of inhibiting the protein expression levels of PGC-1α. Moreover, miR-761 overexpression suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P-MK2), a downstream kinase of p38 MAPK. The phosphorylation of activating transcription factors 2 (ATF2) that plays a functional role in linking the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway to enhanced transcription of the PGC-1α was also inhibited by the overexpression of miR-761. These findings revealed a novel regulation mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes, and contributed to a better understanding of the modulation of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. - Highlights: • Endurance exercise decreases miR-761 expression in skeletal muscle. • MiR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • MiR-761 directly targeted PGC-1α expression. • MiR-761 suppresses p38 MAPK signaling pathways in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • A novel mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes is demonstrated.

  3. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  4. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2016-07-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. © 2016 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  6. ABT737 enhances cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Zhongqi; Yu, Huimei; Cui, Ni; Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Chang, Yulei; Wu, Yao; Sun, Liankun; Wang, Guangyi

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma responses weakly to cisplatin. Mitochondrial dynamics participate in the response to various stresses, and mainly involve mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission. Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in orchestrating mitochondrial dynamics, and are involved in the resistance to cisplatin. Here we reported that ABT737, combined with cisplatin, can promote cholangiocarcinoma cells to undergo apoptosis. We found that the combined treatment decreased the Mcl-1 pro-survival form and increased Bak. Cells undergoing cisplatin treatment showed hyperfused mitochondria, whereas fragmentation was dominant in the mitochondria of cells exposed to the combined treatment, with higher Fis1 levels, decreased Mfn2 and OPA1 levels, increased ratio of Drp1 60 kD to 80 kD form, and more Drp1 located on mitochondria. More p62 aggregates were observed in cells with fragmented mitochondria, and they gradually translocated to mitochondria. Mitophagy was induced by the combined treatment. Knockdown p62 decreased the Drp1 ratio, increased Tom20, and increased cell viability. Our data indicated that mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in the response of cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin. ABT737 might enhance cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the balance within Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, p62 seems to be critical in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • Cholangiocarcinoma may adapt to cisplatin through mitochondrial fusion. • ABT737 sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin by promoting fission and mitophagy. • p62 might participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and mitophagy

  7. Improving Mitochondrial Function Protects Bumblebees from Neonicotinoid Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Powner

    Full Text Available Global pollination is threatened by declining insect pollinator populations that may be linked to neonicotinoid pesticide use. Neonicotinoids over stimulate neurons and depolarize their mitochondria, producing immobility and death. However, mitochondrial function can be improved by near infrared light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration. In flies, daily exposure to 670nm light throughout life increases average lifespan and aged mobility, and reduces systemic inflammation. Here we treat bumble bees with Imidacloprid a common neonicotinoid. This undermined ATP and rapidly induced immobility and reduced visual function and survival. Bees exposed to insecticide and daily to 670nm light showed corrected ATP levels and significantly improved mobility allowing them to feed. Physiological recordings from eyes revealed that light exposure corrected deficits induced by the pesticide. Overall, death rates in bees exposed to insecticide but also given 670nm light were indistinguishable from controls. When Imidacloprid and light exposure were withdrawn, survival was maintained. Bees and insects generally cannot see deep red light so it does not disturb their behaviour. Hence, we show that deep red light exposure that improves mitochondrial function, reverses the sensory and motor deficits induced by Imidacloprid. These results may have important implications as light delivery is economic and can be placed in hives/colonies.

  8. Reye's syndrome: salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Caplan, D.; Lolies, P.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that aspirin is somehow linked with the onset of Reye's syndrome (RS). A general feature of Reye's syndrome is severe impairment of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) function. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial MAO activity in three groups: group A (healthy children, n = 21) and group C (healthy adults, n = 10). Platelet MAO was measured by radio-enzymatic technique with 14 C-tyramine as a substrate. The results showed that salicyclate (10 mM) had a 20 to 60 percent inhibitory effect on platelet MAO function in only 1, 3 and 2 of the subjects in group A, B and C. Furthermore, there was an association between low enzyme activity and salicylate MAO inhibitory effect in these subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate may induce deterioration in mitochondrial function in susceptible individuals and that the assessment of salicylate MAO inhibitory effect may identify those who may be at risk to develop aspirin poisoning and Reye's syndrome

  9. Targeting mitochondrial function and proteostasis to mitigate dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Robert V; Hamilton, Karyn L; Miller, Benjamin F

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, interventions to treat skeletal muscle aging have largely targeted sarcopenia-the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. Dynapenia refers to the age-related loss in skeletal muscle function due to factors outside of muscle mass, which helps to inform treatment strategies for aging skeletal muscle. There is evidence that mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis and proteostasis, deteriorate with age. One key mechanism to maintain proteostasis is protein turnover, which is an energetically costly process. When there is a mismatch between cellular energy demands and energy provision, inelastic processes related to metabolism are maintained, but there is competition for the remaining energy between the elastic processes of somatic maintenance and growth. With aging, mitochondrial dysfunction reduces ATP generation capacity, constraining the instantaneous supply of energy, thus compromising growth and somatic maintenance processes. Further, with age the need for somatic maintenance increases because of the accumulation of protein damage. In this review, we highlight the significant role mitochondria have in maintaining skeletal muscle proteostasis through increased energy provision, protein turnover, and substrate flux. In addition, we provide evidence that improving mitochondrial function could promote a cellular environment that is conducive to somatic maintenance, and consequently for mitigating dynapenia. Finally, we highlight interventions, such as aerobic exercise, that could be used to improve mitochondrial function and improve outcomes related to dynapenia.

  10. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2∙- production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined.

  11. Platelet mitochondrial function and dysfunction: physiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.

  12. Platelet mitochondrial function and dysfunction: physiological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D.

    2015-07-01

    There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.

  13. Mitochondrial Function, Dynamics, and Permeability Transition: A Complex Love Triangle as A Possible Target for the Treatment of Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Carola; Eckert, Schamim; Eckert, Gunter P; Friedland-Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2018-02-28

    Because of the failure of all amyloid-β directed treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the concept of mitochondrial dysfunction as a major pathomechanism of the cognitive decline in aging and AD has received substantial support. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function as an alternative strategy for new drug development became of increasing interest and many different compounds have been identified which improve mitochondrial function in preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, very few if any have been investigated in clinical trials, representing a major drawback of the mitochondria directed drug development. To overcome these problems, we used a top-down approach by investigating several older antidementia drugs with clinical evidence of therapeutic efficacy. These include EGb761® (standardized ginkgo biloba extract), piracetam, and Dimebon. All improve experimentally many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial dynamics and also improve cognition and impaired neuronal plasticity, the functionally most relevant consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction. All partially inhibit opening events of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) which previously has mainly been discussed as a mechanism relevant for the induction of apoptosis. However, as more recent work suggests, the mPTP as a master regulator of many mitochondrial functions, our data suggest the mPTP as a possible relevant drug target within the love triangle between mPTP regulation, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial function including regulation of neuronal plasticity. Drugs interfering with mPTP function will improve not only mitochondrial impairment in aging and AD but also will have beneficial effects on impaired neuronal plasticity, the pathomechanism which correlates best with functional deficits (cognition, behavior) in aging and AD.

  14. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagland, Hanne R.; Nilsson, Linn I.H. [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Burri, Lena [Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Nikolaisen, Julie [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Berge, Rolf K. [Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Tronstad, Karl J., E-mail: karl.tronstad@biomed.uib.no [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in rat hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) was employed to activate mitochondrial oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was confirmed that PPAR target genes were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involved activation mTOR. -- Abstract: The hypolipidemic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators has been explained by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, as observed in livers of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). PPAR-activation does, however, not fully explain the metabolic adaptations observed in hepatocytes after treatment with TTA. We therefore characterized the mitochondrial effects, and linked this to signalling by the metabolic sensor, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In hepatocytes isolated from TTA-treated rats, the changes in cellular content and morphology were consistent with hypertrophy. This was associated with induction of multiple mitochondrial biomarkers, including mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase and mRNAs of mitochondrial proteins. Transcription analysis further confirmed activation of PPAR{alpha}-associated genes, in addition to genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Analysis of mitochondrial respiration revealed that the capacity of both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation were increased. These effects coincided with activation of the stress related factor, ERK1/2, and mTOR. The protein level and phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR actors eIF4G and 4E-BP1 were induced. In summary, TTA increases mitochondrial respiration by inducing hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat hepatocytes, via adaptive regulation of PPARs as well as mTOR.

  15. Dual functions of a small regulatory subunit in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Phillips, Charles B; Ranaghan, Matthew; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Wu, Yujiao; Willliams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2016-04-21

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, a process crucial for bioenergetics and Ca(2+) signaling, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca(2+)-activated Ca(2+) channel, with the Ca(2+) pore formed by the MCU protein and Ca(2+)-dependent activation mediated by MICU subunits. Recently, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein EMRE was identified as a uniporter subunit absolutely required for Ca(2+) permeation. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of EMRE remain largely unexplored. Here, we determine the transmembrane orientation of EMRE, and show that its known MCU-activating function is mediated by the interaction of transmembrane helices from both proteins. We also reveal a second function of EMRE: to maintain tight MICU regulation of the MCU pore, a role that requires EMRE to bind MICU1 using its conserved C-terminal polyaspartate tail. This dual functionality of EMRE ensures that all transport-competent uniporters are tightly regulated, responding appropriately to a dynamic intracellular Ca(2+) landscape.

  16. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J.; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J. Michael; Hill, R. Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2004-01-01

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we fo...

  17. Mitochondrial Sirt3 supports cell proliferation by regulating glutamine-dependent oxidation in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jieun; Koh, Eunjin; Lee, Yu Shin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hyeok Gu; Yoon, Young Eun; Han, Woong Kyu; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), the most common malignancy arising in the adult kidney, exhibits increased aerobic glycolysis and low mitochondrial respiration due to von Hippel-Lindau gene defects and constitutive hypoxia-inducible factor-α expression. Sirt3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase that mediates various types of energy metabolism. However, the role of Sirt3 as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in cancer depends on cell types. We show increased Sirt3 expression in the mitochondrial fraction of human RCC tissues. Sirt3 depletion by lentiviral short-hairpin RNA, as well as the stable expression of the inactive mutant of Sirt3, inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in xenograft nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, mitochondrial pyruvate, which was used for oxidation in RCC, might be derived from glutamine, but not from glucose and cytosolic pyruvate, due to depletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and the relatively high expression of malic enzyme 2. Depletion of Sirt3 suppressed glutamate dehydrogenase activity, leading to impaired mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Our findings suggest that Sirt3 plays a tumor-progressive role in human RCC by regulating glutamine-derived mitochondrial respiration, particularly in cells where mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised. -- Highlights: •Sirt3 is required for the maintenance of RCC cell proliferation. •Mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised in RCC. •Sirt3 supports glutamine-dependent oxidation in RCC.

  18. Mitochondrial Sirt3 supports cell proliferation by regulating glutamine-dependent oxidation in renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jieun; Koh, Eunjin; Lee, Yu Shin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hyeok Gu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Sciences, Institute of Genetic Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Eun; Han, Woong Kyu [Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hwa [Department of Urology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Sup, E-mail: KYUNGSUP59@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Sciences, Institute of Genetic Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), the most common malignancy arising in the adult kidney, exhibits increased aerobic glycolysis and low mitochondrial respiration due to von Hippel-Lindau gene defects and constitutive hypoxia-inducible factor-α expression. Sirt3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase that mediates various types of energy metabolism. However, the role of Sirt3 as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in cancer depends on cell types. We show increased Sirt3 expression in the mitochondrial fraction of human RCC tissues. Sirt3 depletion by lentiviral short-hairpin RNA, as well as the stable expression of the inactive mutant of Sirt3, inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in xenograft nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, mitochondrial pyruvate, which was used for oxidation in RCC, might be derived from glutamine, but not from glucose and cytosolic pyruvate, due to depletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and the relatively high expression of malic enzyme 2. Depletion of Sirt3 suppressed glutamate dehydrogenase activity, leading to impaired mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Our findings suggest that Sirt3 plays a tumor-progressive role in human RCC by regulating glutamine-derived mitochondrial respiration, particularly in cells where mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised. -- Highlights: •Sirt3 is required for the maintenance of RCC cell proliferation. •Mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised in RCC. •Sirt3 supports glutamine-dependent oxidation in RCC.

  19. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Goto, Renata N. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Neto, Marinaldo P.C. [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Lucas O. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Curti, Carlos [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leopoldino, Andréia M., E-mail: andreiaml@usp.br [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. - Highlights: • SET, UCPs and autophagy prevention are correlated. • SET action has mitochondrial involvement. • UCP2/3 may reduce ROS and prevent autophagy. • SET protects cell from ROS via UCP2/3.

  20. Mitochondrial activity in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacho, Mireille; Slack, Ruth S

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria are classically known as the essential energy producers in cells. As such, the activation of mitochondrial metabolism upon cellular differentiation was deemed a necessity to fuel the high metabolic needs of differentiated cells. However, recent studies have revealed a direct role for mitochondrial activity in the regulation of stem cell fate and differentiation. Several components of mitochondrial metabolism and respiration have now been shown to regulate different aspects of stem cell differentiation through signaling, transcriptional, proteomic and epigenetic modulations. In light of these findings mitochondrial metabolism is no longer considered a consequence of cellular differentiation, but rather a key regulatory mechanism of this process. This review will focus on recent progress that defines mitochondria as the epicenters for the regulation of stem cell fate decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The N-terminus of survivin is a mitochondrial-targeting sequence and Src regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajová, Lucia; Cash, Emily; Markus, Robert; Rochette, Sophie; Townley, Amelia R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Survivin (also known as BIRC5) is a cancer-associated protein that exists in several locations in the cell. Its cytoplasmic residence in interphase cells is governed by CRM1 (also known as XPO1)-mediated nuclear exportation, and its localisation during mitosis to the centromeres and midzone microtubules is that of a canonical chromosomal passenger protein. In addition to these well-established locations, survivin is also a mitochondrial protein, but how it gets there and its function therein is presently unclear. Here, we show that the first ten amino acids at the N-terminus of survivin are sufficient to target GFP to the mitochondria in vivo, and ectopic expression of this decapeptide decreases cell adhesion and accelerates proliferation. The data support a signalling mechanism in which this decapeptide regulates the tyrosine kinase Src, leading to reduced focal adhesion plaques and disruption of F-actin organisation. This strongly suggests that the N-terminus of survivin is a mitochondrial-targeting sequence that regulates Src, and that survivin acts in concert with Src to promote tumorigenesis. PMID:27246243

  2. The dual role of cyclin C connects stress regulated gene expression to mitochondrial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Strich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following exposure to cytotoxic agents, cellular damage is first recognized by a variety of sensor mechanisms. Thenceforth, the damage signal is transduced to the nucleus to install the correct gene expression program including the induction of genes whose products either detoxify destructive compounds or repair the damage they cause. Next, the stress signal is disseminated throughout the cell to effect the appropriate changes at organelles including the mitochondria. The mitochondria represent an important signaling platform for the stress response. An initial stress response of the mitochondria is extensive fragmentation. If the damage is prodigious, the mitochondria fragment (fission and lose their outer membrane integrity leading to the release of pro-apoptotic factors necessary for programmed cell death (PCD execution. As this complex biological process contains many moving parts, it must be exquisitely coordinated as the ultimate decision is life or death. The conserved C-type cyclin plays an important role in executing this molecular Rubicon by coupling changes in gene expression to mitochondrial fission and PCD. Cyclin C, along with its cyclin dependent kinase partner Cdk8, associates with the RNA polymerase holoenzyme to regulate transcription. In particular, cyclin C-Cdk8 repress many stress responsive genes. To relieve this repression, cyclin C is destroyed in cells exposed to pro-oxidants and other stressors. However, prior to its destruction, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is released from its nuclear anchor (Med13, translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it interacts with the fission machinery and is both necessary and sufficient to induce extensive mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, cytoplasmic cyclin C promotes PCD indicating that it mediates both mitochondrial fission and cell death pathways. This review will summarize the role cyclin C plays in regulating stress-responsive transcription. In addition, we will detail

  3. TCA Cycle and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Are Necessary for Diverse Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Diebold, Lauren P; Kong, Hyewon; Schieber, Michael; Huang, He; Hensley, Christopher T; Mehta, Manan M; Wang, Tianyuan; Santos, Janine H; Woychik, Richard; Dufour, Eric; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Weinberg, Samuel E; Zhao, Yingming; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2016-01-21

    Mitochondrial metabolism is necessary for the maintenance of oxidative TCA cycle function and mitochondrial membrane potential. Previous attempts to decipher whether mitochondria are necessary for biological outcomes have been hampered by genetic and pharmacologic methods that simultaneously disrupt multiple functions linked to mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we report that inducible depletion of mitochondrial DNA (ρ(ο) cells) diminished respiration, oxidative TCA cycle function, and the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in diminished cell proliferation, hypoxic activation of HIF-1, and specific histone acetylation marks. Genetic reconstitution only of the oxidative TCA cycle function specifically in these inducible ρ(ο) cells restored metabolites, resulting in re-establishment of histone acetylation. In contrast, genetic reconstitution of the mitochondrial membrane potential restored ROS, which were necessary for hypoxic activation of HIF-1 and cell proliferation. These results indicate that distinct mitochondrial functions associated with respiration are necessary for cell proliferation, epigenetics, and HIF-1 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mitochondrial nucleoids. TFAM plays an important role in mitochondrial transcription and replication. TFAM has been previously reported to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro but NER has not yet been detected i...

  5. Po2 cycling protects diaphragm function during reoxygenation via ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K; Re, Anthony T; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Po2 cycling, often referred to as intermittent hypoxia, involves exposing tissues to brief cycles of low oxygen environments immediately followed by hyperoxic conditions. After experiencing long-term hypoxia, muscle can be damaged during the subsequent reintroduction of oxygen, which leads to muscle dysfunction via reperfusion injury. The protective effect and mechanism behind Po2 cycling in skeletal muscle during reoxygenation have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that Po2 cycling effectively increases muscle fatigue resistance through reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and certain mitochondrial channels during reoxygenation. Using a dihydrofluorescein fluorescent probe, we detected the production of ROS in mouse diaphragmatic skeletal muscle in real time under confocal microscopy. Muscles treated with Po2 cycling displayed significantly attenuated ROS levels (n = 5; P ROS, Akt, ERK, as well as chemical stimulators to close mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) or open mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). All these blockers or stimulators abolished improved muscle function with Po2 cycling treatment. This current investigation has discovered a correlation between KATP and mPTP and the Po2 cycling pathway in diaphragmatic skeletal muscle. Thus we have identified a unique signaling pathway that may involve ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels responsible for Po2 cycling protection during reoxygenation conditions in the diaphragm. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs, as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.

  7. The Kunitz-protease inhibitor domain in amyloid precursor protein reduces cellular mitochondrial enzymes expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Li-Min; Lim, Mei-Li; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2013-08-09

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this can be contributed by aberrant metabolic enzyme function. But, the mechanism causing this enzymatic impairment is unclear. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to be alternatively spliced to produce three major isoforms in the brain (APP695, APP751, APP770). Both APP770 and APP751 contain the Kunitz Protease Inhibitory (KPI) domain, but the former also contain an extra OX-2 domain. APP695 on the other hand, lacks both domains. In AD, up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms has been reported. But the functional contribution of this elevation is unclear. In the present study, we have expressed and compared the effect of the non-KPI containing APP695 and the KPI-containing APP751 on mitochondrial function. We found that the KPI-containing APP751 significantly decreased the expression of three major mitochondrial metabolic enzymes; citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV). This reduction lowers the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, COX IV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Overall, this study demonstrated that up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms is likely to contribute to the impairment of metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial function in AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dystroglycan and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L34 regulate differentiation in the Drosophila eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougen Zhan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations that diminish the function of the extracellular matrix receptor Dystroglycan (DG result in muscular dystrophies, with associated neuronal migration defects in the brain and mental retardation e.g. Muscle Eye Brain Disease. To gain insight into the function of DG in the nervous system we initiated a study to examine its contribution to development of the eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Immuno-histochemistry showed that DG is concentrated on the apical surface of photoreceptors (R cells during specification of cell-fate in the third instar larva and is maintained at this location through early pupal stages. In point mutations that are null for DG we see abortive R cell elongation during differentiation that first appears in the pupa and results in stunted R cells in the adult. Overexpression of DG in R cells results in a small but significant increase in their size. R cell differentiation defects appear at the same stage in a deficiency line Df(2RDg(248 that affects Dg and the neighboring mitochondrial ribosomal gene, mRpL34. In the adult, these flies have severely disrupted R cells as well as defects in the lens and ommatidia. Expression of an mRpL34 transgene rescues much of this phenotype. We conclude that DG does not affect neuronal commitment but functions R cell autonomously to regulate neuronal elongation during differentiation in the pupa. We discuss these findings in view of recent work implicating DG as a regulator of cell metabolism and its genetic interaction with mRpL34, a member of a class of mitochondrial genes essential for normal metabolic function.

  9. Mitochondrial regulation of epigenetics and its role in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Tollefsbol, Trygve O; Singh, Keshav K

    2012-01-01

    as the sole pathogenic factor suggesting that additional mechanisms contribute to lack of genotype and clinical phenotype correlationship. An increasing number of studies have identified a possible effect on the epigenetic landscape of the nuclear genome as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction....... In particular, these studies demonstrate reversible or irreversible changes in genomic DNA methylation profiles of the nuclear genome. Here we review how mitochondria damage checkpoint (mitocheckpoint) induces epigenetic changes in the nucleus. Persistent pathogenic mutations in mtDNA may also lead...... to epigenetic changes causing genomic instability in the nuclear genome. We propose that "mitocheckpoint" mediated epigenetic and genetic changes may play key roles in phenotypic variation related to mitochondrial diseases or host of human diseases in which mitochondrial defect plays a primary role....

  10. Regulation of the Stress-Activated Degradation of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complexes in Yeast

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    Alba Timón-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair and removal of damaged mitochondria is a key process for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Here we investigate in the yeast model how different protein complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are subject to specific degradation upon high respiration load and organelle damage. We find that the turnover of subunits of the electron transport complex I equivalent and complex III is preferentially stimulated upon high respiration rates. Particular mitochondrial proteases, but not mitophagy, are involved in this activated degradation. Further mitochondrial damage by valinomycin treatment of yeast cells triggers the mitophagic removal of the same respiratory complexes. This selective protein degradation depends on the mitochondrial fusion and fission apparatus and the autophagy adaptor protein Atg11, but not on the mitochondrial mitophagy receptor Atg32. Loss of autophagosomal protein function leads to valinomycin sensitivity and an overproduction of reactive oxygen species upon mitochondrial damage. A specific event in this selective turnover of electron transport chain complexes seems to be the association of Atg11 with the mitochondrial network, which can be achieved by overexpression of the Atg11 protein even in the absence of Atg32. Furthermore, the interaction of various Atg11 molecules via the C-terminal coil domain is specifically and rapidly stimulated upon mitochondrial damage and could therefore be an early trigger of selective mitophagy in response to the organelles dysfunction. Our work indicates that autophagic quality control upon mitochondrial damage operates in a selective manner.

  11. Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats

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    Indira Pokkunuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP- mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month and aged (21-month Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls and with GP (1.5% in drinking water and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions.

  12. Altered mitochondrial regulation in quadriceps muscles of patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Bourbeau, Jean; Perrault, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Evidence exists for locomotor muscle impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including fiber type alterations and reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In this study high-resolution respirometry was used to quantify oxygen flux in permeabilized fibres from bi...

  13. SIRT3/SOD2 maintains osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by regulating mitochondrial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jing; Feng, Zhihui; Wang, Xueqiang; Zeng, Mengqi; Liu, Jing; Han, Shujun; Xu, Jie; Chen, Lei; Cao, Ke; Long, Jiangang; Li, Zongfang; Shen, Weili; Liu, Jiankang

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed robust metabolic changes during cell differentiation. Mitochondria, the organelles where many vital metabolic reactions occur, may play an important role. Here, we report the involvement of SIRT3-regulated mitochondrial stress in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In both the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and primary calvarial osteoblasts, robust mitochondrial biogenesis and supercomplex formation were observed during differentiation, accompanied by in...

  14. Insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Tamara M; Ponting, Chris P

    2016-10-15

    The regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the electron transport chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the electron transport chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional gene regulation of the electron transport chain and highlights how noncoding RNAs may contribute significantly both to complex electron transport chain regulatory networks and to mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. UCP2 Regulates Mitochondrial Fission and Ventromedial Nucleus Control of Glucose Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Chitoku; Kim, Jung Dae; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-02-25

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) plays a critical role in regulating systemic glucose homeostasis. How neurons in this brain area adapt to the changing metabolic environment to regulate circulating glucose levels is ill defined. Here, we show that glucose load results in mitochondrial fission and reduced reactive oxygen species in VMH neurons mediated by dynamin-related peptide 1 (DRP1) under the control of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Probed by genetic manipulations and chemical-genetic control of VMH neuronal circuitry, we unmasked that this mitochondrial adaptation determines the size of the pool of glucose-excited neurons in the VMH and that this process regulates systemic glucose homeostasis. Thus, our data unmasked a critical cellular biological process controlled by mitochondrial dynamics in VMH regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overexpression of mtDNA-associated AtWhy2 compromises mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Rached Charbel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background StWhy1, a member of the plant-specific Whirly single-stranded DNA-binding protein family, was first characterized as a transcription factor involved in the activation of the nuclear PR-10a gene following defense-related stress in potato. In Arabidopsis thaliana, Whirlies have recently been shown to be primarily localized in organelles. Two representatives of the family, AtWhy1 and AtWhy3 are imported into plastids while AtWhy2 localizes to mitochondria. Their function in organelles is currently unknown. Results To understand the role of mitochondrial Whirlies in higher plants, we produced A. thaliana lines with altered expression of the atwhy2 gene. Organellar DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AtWhy2 binds to mitochondrial DNA. Overexpression of atwhy2 in plants perturbs mitochondrial function by causing a diminution in transcript levels and mtDNA content which translates into a low activity level of respiratory chain complexes containing mtDNA-encoded subunits. This lowered activity of mitochondria yielded plants that were reduced in size and had distorted leaves that exhibited accelerated senescence. Overexpression of atwhy2 also led to early accumulation of senescence marker transcripts in mature leaves. Inactivation of the atwhy2 gene did not affect plant development and had no detectable effect on mitochondrial morphology, activity of respiratory chain complexes, transcription or the amount of mtDNA present. This lack of phenotype upon abrogation of atwhy2 expression suggests the presence of functional homologues of the Whirlies or the activation of compensating mechanisms in mitochondria. Conclusion AtWhy2 is associated with mtDNA and its overexpression results in the production of dysfunctional mitochondria. This report constitutes the first evidence of a function for the Whirlies in organelles. We propose that they could play a role in the regulation of the gene expression machinery of organelles.

  17. Mitochondrial function in Müller cells - Does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Skytt, Dorte Marie; Svare, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    in the most predominant glial cells of the retina, the Müller cells. Müller cells span the entire thickness of the neuroretina and are in close proximity to retinal cells including the retinal neurons that provides visual signaling to the brain. Among multiple functions, Müller cells are responsible...... for the removal of neurotransmitters, buffering potassium, and providing neurons with essential metabolites. Thus, Müller cells are responsible for a stable metabolic dialogue in the inner retina and their crucial role in supporting retinal neurons is indisputable. Müller cell functions require considerable......Growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction might play a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative inner retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Therefore, the present review provides a perspective on the impact of functional mitochondria...

  18. Non-bilayer structures in mitochondrial membranes regulate ATP synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, Sardar E; Kim, Aleksandr A; Yaguzhinsky, Lev S; Dagda, Ruben K

    2018-02-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid at the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) that facilitates the formation of transient non-bilayer (non-lamellar) structures to maintain mitochondrial integrity. CL modulates mitochondrial functions including ATP synthesis. However, the biophysical mechanisms by which CL generates non-lamellar structures and the extent to which these structures contribute to ATP synthesis remain unknown. We hypothesized that CL and ATP synthase facilitate the formation of non-bilayer structures at the IMM to stimulate ATP synthesis. By using 1 H NMR and 31 P NMR techniques, we observed that increasing the temperature (8°C to 37°C), lowering the pH (3.0), or incubating intact mitochondria with CTII - an IMM-targeted toxin that increases the formation of immobilized non-bilayer structures - elevated the formation of non-bilayer structures to stimulate ATP synthesis. The F 0 sector of the ATP synthase complex can facilitate the formation of non-bilayer structures as incubating model membranes enriched with IMM-specific phospholipids with exogenous DCCD-binding protein of the F 0 sector (DCCD-BPF) elevated the formation of immobilized non-bilayer structures to a similar manner as CTII. Native PAGE assays revealed that CL, but not other anionic phospholipids, specifically binds to DCCD-BPF to promote the formation of stable lipid-protein complexes. Mechanistically, molecular docking studies identified two lipid binding sites for CL in DCCD-BPF. We propose a new model of ATP synthase regulation in which CL mediates the formation of non-bilayer structures that serve to cluster protons and ATP synthase complexes as a mechanism to enhance proton translocation to the F 0 sector, and thereby increase ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of Small Mitochondrial DNA Replicative Advantage by Ribonucleotide Reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Elliot Bradshaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Small mitochondrial genomes can behave as selfish elements by displacing wild-type genomes regardless of their detriment to the host organism. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, small hypersuppressive mtDNA transiently coexist with wild-type in a state of heteroplasmy, wherein the replicative advantage of the small mtDNA outcompetes wild-type and produces offspring without respiratory capacity in >95% of colonies. The cytosolic enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and its inhibition has been correlated with increased petite colony formation, reflecting loss of respiratory function. Here, we used heteroplasmic diploids containing wild-type (rho+ and suppressive (rho− or hypersuppressive (HS rho− mitochondrial genomes to explore the effects of RNR activity on mtDNA heteroplasmy in offspring. We found that the proportion of rho+ offspring was significantly increased by RNR overexpression or deletion of its inhibitor, SML1, while reducing RNR activity via SML1 overexpression produced the opposite effects. In addition, using Ex Taq and KOD Dash polymerases, we observed a replicative advantage for small over large template DNA in vitro, but only at low dNTP concentrations. These results suggest that dNTP insufficiency contributes to the replicative advantage of small mtDNA over wild-type and cytosolic dNTP synthesis by RNR is an important regulator of heteroplasmy involving small mtDNA molecules in yeast.

  20. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 50%, whereas suppression of the parallel ATP-producing isoform (ΔSCS-ATP) increased GSIS by two-fold in INS-1 832/13 cells and cultured rat islets. Insulin secretion correlated with increases in cytosolic calcium but not with changes in NAD(P)H or the ATP/ADP ratio. These data suggest an important role for mtGTP in mediating GSIS in β-cells by modulation of mitochondrial metabolism possibly via influencing mitochondrial calcium. Furthermore, by virtue of its tight coupling to TCA oxidation rates, mtGTP production may serve as an important molecular signal of TCA cycle activity. PMID:17403370

  1. Novel roles of folic acid as redox regulator: Modulation of reactive oxygen species sinker protein expression and maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kun-Goung; Chen, Chi-Fen; Ho, Chun-Te; Liu, Jun-Jen; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chern, Chi-Liang

    2017-06-01

    We provide herein several lines of evidence to substantiate that folic acid (or folate) is a micronutrient capable of functioning as a novel redox regulator on hepatocellular carcinoma. First, we uncovered that folate deficiency could profoundly downregulate two prominent anti-apoptotic effectors including survivin and glucose-regulated protein-78. Silencing of either survivin or glucose-regulated protein-78 via small interfering RNA interfering technique established that both effectors could serve as reactive oxygen species sinker proteins. Second, folate deficiency-triggered oxidative-nitrosative stress could strongly induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that in turn could provoke cellular glutathione depletion through the modulation of the following two crucial events: (1) folate deficiency could strongly inhibit Bcl-2 expression leading to severe suppression of the mitochondrial glutathione pool and (2) folate deficiency could also profoundly inhibit two key enzymes that governing cellular glutathione redox regulation including γ-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase heavy chain, a catalytic enzyme for glutathione biosynthesis, and mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, an enzyme responsible for providing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate necessary for regenerating oxidized glutathione disulfide back to glutathione via mitochondrial glutathione reductase. Collectively, we add to the literature new data to strengthen the notion that folate is an essential micronutrient that confers a novel role to combat reactive oxygen species insults and thus serves as a redox regulator via upregulating reactive oxygen species sinker proteins and averting mitochondrial glutathione depletion through proper maintenance of redox homeostasis via positively regulating glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione transporting system, and mitochondrial glutathione recycling process.

  2. Inner-membrane proteins PMI/TMEM11 regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis independently of the DRP1/MFN fission/fusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Thomas; Macchi, Marc; Arnauné-Pelloquin, Laetitia; Poidevin, Mickael; Maillet, Frédéric; Richard, Fabrice; Fatmi, Ahmed; Belenguer, Pascale; Royet, Julien

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that can change in number and morphology during cell cycle, development or in response to extracellular stimuli. These morphological dynamics are controlled by a tight balance between two antagonistic pathways that promote fusion and fission. Genetic approaches have identified a cohort of conserved proteins that form the core of mitochondrial remodelling machineries. Mitofusins (MFNs) and OPA1 proteins are dynamin-related GTPases that are required for outer- and inner-mitochondrial membrane fusion respectively whereas dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is the master regulator of mitochondrial fission. We demonstrate here that the Drosophila PMI gene and its human orthologue TMEM11 encode mitochondrial inner-membrane proteins that regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis. PMI-mutant cells contain a highly condensed mitochondrial network, suggesting that PMI has either a pro-fission or an anti-fusion function. Surprisingly, however, epistatic experiments indicate that PMI shapes the mitochondria through a mechanism that is independent of drp1 and mfn. This shows that mitochondrial networks can be shaped in higher eukaryotes by at least two separate pathways: one PMI-dependent and one DRP1/MFN-dependent.

  3. Insight into mitochondrial structure and function from electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, T G; Renken, C W; Perkins, G A

    2002-09-10

    In recent years, electron tomography has provided detailed three-dimensional models of mitochondria that have redefined our concept of mitochondrial structure. The models reveal an inner membrane consisting of two components, the inner boundary membrane (IBM) closely apposed to the outer membrane and the cristae membrane that projects into the matrix compartment. These two components are connected by tubular structures of relatively uniform size called crista junctions. The distribution of crista junction sizes and shapes is predicted by a thermodynamic model based upon the energy of membrane bending, but proteins likely also play a role in determining the conformation of the inner membrane. Results of structural studies of mitochondria during apoptosis demonstrate that cytochrome c is released without detectable disruption of the outer membrane or extensive swelling of the mitochondrial matrix, suggesting the formation of an outer membrane pore large enough to allow passage of holo-cytochrome c. The possible compartmentation of inner membrane function between the IBM and the cristae membrane is also discussed.

  4. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Sophie Kang

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK. When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

  5. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  6. Quantifying small molecule phenotypic effects using mitochondrial morpho-functional fingerprinting and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Lionel; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E.; Vogels, Caroline; Pellegrini, Mina; Jonckheere, An I.; Rodenburg, Richard J. T.; Buydens, Lutgarde M. C.; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Koopman, Werner J. H.

    2015-01-01

    In primary fibroblasts from Leigh Syndrome (LS) patients, isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency is associated with increased reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial morpho-functional changes. Empirical evidence suggests these aberrations constitute linked therapeutic targets for small chemical molecules. However, the latter generally induce multiple subtle effects, meaning that in vitro potency analysis or single-parameter high-throughput cell screening are of limited use to identify these molecules. We combine automated image quantification and artificial intelligence to discriminate between primary fibroblasts of a healthy individual and a LS patient based upon their mitochondrial morpho-functional phenotype. We then evaluate the effects of newly developed Trolox variants in LS patient cells. This revealed that Trolox ornithylamide hydrochloride best counterbalanced mitochondrial morpho-functional aberrations, effectively scavenged ROS and increased the maximal activity of mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase. Our results suggest that Trolox-derived antioxidants are promising candidates in therapy development for human mitochondrial disorders.

  7. The Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Mitochondrial Function: Influence on Blood Pressure and Baroreflex in Transgenic Rat Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nautiyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and may be associated with an overactive renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Angiotensin (Ang II, a potent vasoconstrictor hormone of the RAS, also impairs baroreflex and mitochondrial function. Most deleterious cardiovascular actions of Ang II are thought to be mediated by NADPH-oxidase- (NOX- derived reactive oxygen species (ROS that may also stimulate mitochondrial oxidant release and alter redox-sensitive signaling pathways in the brain. Within the RAS, the actions of Ang II are counterbalanced by Ang-(1–7, a vasodilatory peptide known to mitigate against increased oxidant stress. A balance between Ang II and Ang-(1–7 within the brain dorsal medulla contributes to maintenance of normal blood pressure and proper functioning of the arterial baroreceptor reflex for control of heart rate. We propose that Ang-(1–7 may negatively regulate the redox signaling pathways activated by Ang II to maintain normal blood pressure, baroreflex, and mitochondrial function through attenuating ROS (NOX-generated and/or mitochondrial.

  8. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) catalyze substrate-level synthesis of mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP). While mtATP yield from glucose metabolism is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation and can vary, each molecule of glucose metabolized within pancreatic beta cells produces approximately one mtGTP, making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. In INS-1 832/13 cells and cultured rat islets, siRNA suppression...

  9. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ...

  10. Regulated production of free radicals by the mitochondrial electron transport chain: Cardiac ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Pamela A; Szweda, Luke I; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2009-11-30

    Excessive production of free radicals by mitochondria is associated with, and likely contributes to, the progression of numerous pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the production of free radicals by the mitochondria may have important biological functions under normal or stressed conditions by activating or modulating redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. This raises the intriguing possibility that regulated mitochondrial free radical production occurs via mechanisms that are distinct from pathologies associated with oxidative damage. Indeed, the capacity of mitochondria to produce free radicals in a limited manner may play a role in ischemic preconditioning, the phenomenon whereby short bouts of ischemia protect from subsequent prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning can thus serve as an important model system for defining regulatory mechanisms that allow for transient, signal-inducing, production of free radicals by mitochondria. Defining how these mechanism(s) occur will provide insight into therapeutic approaches that minimize oxidative damage without altering normal cellular redox biology. The aim of this review is to present and discuss evidence for the regulated production of superoxide by the electron transport chain within the ischemic preconditioning paradigm of redox regulation.

  11. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ≤ 3; p Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox21 chemical collection for mitochondrial function to identify compounds that acutely decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. Environ Health Perspect 123:49–56; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408642 PMID:25302578

  12. Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity by thyroid hormones: focus on "old" triiodothyronine and the "emerging" 3,5-diiodothyronine".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta eLombardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 plays a crucial role in regulating metabolic rate and fuel oxidation; however, the mechanisms by which it affects whole-body energy metabolism are still not completely understood. Skeletal muscle (SKM plays a relevant role in energy metabolism and responds to thyroid state by remodeling the metabolic characteristics and cytoarchitecture of myocytes. These processes are coordinated with changes in mitochondrial content, bioenergetics, substrate oxidation rate, and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. Recent data indicate that emerging iodothyronines have biological activity. Among these, 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2 affects energy metabolism, SKM substrate utilization, and mitochondrial functionality. The effects it exerts on SKM mitochondria involve more aspects of mitochondrial bioenergetics; among these, respiratory chain activity, mitochondrial thermogenesis, and lipid-handling are stimulated rapidly. This minireview focuses on signaling and biochemical pathways activated by T3 and T2 in SKM that influence the above processes. These novel aspects of thyroid physiology could reveal new perspectives for understanding the involvement of SKM mitochondria in hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

  13. Targeting Glial Mitochondrial Function for Protection from Cerebral Ischemia: Relevance, Mechanisms, and the Role of MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in the response to cerebral ischemia and are effective targets for stroke therapy in animal models. MicroRNAs (miRs are important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that function by inhibiting the translation of select target genes. In astrocytes, miR expression patterns regulate mitochondrial function in response to oxidative stress via targeting of Bcl2 and heat shock protein 70 family members. Mitochondria play an active role in microglial activation, and miRs regulate the microglial neuroinflammatory response. As endogenous miR expression patterns can be altered with exogenous mimics and inhibitors, miR-targeted therapies represent a viable intervention to optimize glial mitochondrial function and improve clinical outcome following cerebral ischemia. In the present article, we review the role that astrocytes and microglia play in neuronal function and fate following ischemic stress, discuss the relevance of mitochondria in the glial response to injury, and present current evidence implicating miRs as critical regulators in the glial mitochondrial response to cerebral ischemia.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling regulates working memory, mitochondrial metabolism, and amyloid-β uptake in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreemathi Logan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A decline in mitochondrial function and biogenesis as well as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS are important determinants of aging. With advancing age, there is a concomitant reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 that is closely associated with neuronal aging and neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the effect of the decline in IGF-1 signaling with age on astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism and astrocyte function and its association with learning and memory. Methods: Learning and memory was assessed using the radial arm water maze in young and old mice as well as tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IGFR (GFAP-CreTAM/igfrf/f. The impact of IGF-1 signaling on mitochondrial function was evaluated using primary astrocyte cultures from igfrf/f mice using AAV-Cre mediated knockdown using Oroboros respirometry and Seahorse assays. Results: Our results indicate that a reduction in IGF-1 receptor (IGFR expression with age is associated with decline in hippocampal-dependent learning and increased gliosis. Astrocyte-specific knockout of IGFR also induced impairments in working memory. Using primary astrocyte cultures, we show that reducing IGF-1 signaling via a 30–50% reduction IGFR expression, comparable to the physiological changes in IGF-1 that occur with age, significantly impaired ATP synthesis. IGFR deficient astrocytes also displayed altered mitochondrial structure and function and increased mitochondrial ROS production associated with the induction of an antioxidant response. However, IGFR deficient astrocytes were more sensitive to H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, IGFR deficient astrocytes also showed significantly impaired glucose and Aβ uptake, both critical functions of astrocytes in the brain. Conclusions: Regulation of astrocytic mitochondrial function and redox status by IGF-1 is essential to maintain astrocytic function and coordinate hippocampal

  15. Mitochondrial histone-like DNA-binding proteins are essential for normal cell growth and mitochondrial function in Crithidia fasciculata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avliyakulov, N. K.; Lukeš, Julius; Ray, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2004), s. 518-526 ISSN 1535-9778 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5022302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cell growth * mitochondrial function * Kinetoplastida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.954, year: 2004

  16. Synergistic interaction of fatty acids and oxysterols impairs mitochondrial function and limits liver adaptation during nafld progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellanti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The complete mechanism accounting for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated. Lipotoxicity refers to cellular injury caused by hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs and cholesterol accumulation. Excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols during oxidative stress conditions. We hypothesize that interaction of FAs and cholesterol derivatives may primarily impair mitochondrial function and affect biogenesis adaptation during NAFLD progression. We demonstrated that the accumulation of specific non-enzymatic oxysterols in the liver of animals fed high-fat+high-cholesterol diet induces mitochondrial damage and depletion of proteins of the respiratory chain complexes. When tested in vitro, 5α-cholestane-3β,5,6β-triol (triol combined to FFAs was able to reduce respiration in isolated liver mitochondria, induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes, and down-regulated transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, a lower protein content in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was observed in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, hepatic accumulation of FFAs and non-enzymatic oxysterols synergistically facilitates development and progression of NAFLD by impairing mitochondrial function, energy balance and biogenesis adaptation to chronic injury.

  17. Effect of regional muscle location but not adiposity on mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Ara, Ignacio; Larsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine if the expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins SIRT1, SIRT3 and PGC-1alpha in human skeletal muscle is influenced by adiposity. METHOD: Twenty-nine male subjects were recruited into three groups: control (n = 10), obese (n = 10...

  18. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  19. Altered mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in leukocytes of anorexia nervosa patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M Victor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. PATIENTS: Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (P<0.05, mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01 and GSH levels (P<0.05, and an increase in ROS production (P<0.05 with respect to control subjects. Furthermore, a reduction of mitochondrial mass was detected in leukocytes of the anorexic patients (P<0.05, while the activity of mitochondrial complex I (P<0.001, but not that of complex III, was found to be inhibited in the same population. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress is produced in the leukocytes of anorexic patients and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results lead us to propose that the oxidative stress that occurs in anorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia.

  20. Mitochondrial regulation of cell death: a phylogenetically conserved control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are fundamental for eukaryotic cells as they participate in critical catabolic and anabolic pathways. Moreover, mitochondria play a key role in the signal transduction cascades that precipitate many (but not all regulated variants of cellular demise. In this short review, we discuss the differential implication of mitochondria in the major forms of regulated cell death.

  1. GATOR1 regulates nitrogenic cataplerotic reactions of the mitochondrial TCA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Sutter, Benjamin M; Shi, Lei; Tu, Benjamin P

    2017-11-01

    The GATOR1 (SEACIT) complex consisting of Iml1-Npr2-Npr3 inhibits target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in response to amino acid insufficiency. In glucose medium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking the function of this complex grow poorly in the absence of amino acid supplementation, despite showing hallmarks of increased TORC1 signaling. Such mutants sense that they are amino acid replete and thus repress metabolic activities that are important for achieving this state. We found that npr2Δ mutants have defective mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle activity and retrograde response. Supplementation with glutamine, and especially aspartate, which are nitrogen-containing forms of TCA-cycle intermediates, rescues growth of npr2Δ mutants. These amino acids are then consumed in biosynthetic pathways that require nitrogen to support proliferative metabolism. Our findings revealed that negative regulators of TORC1, such as GATOR1 (SEACIT), regulate the cataplerotic synthesis of these amino acids from the TCA cycle, in tune with the amino acid and nitrogen status of cells.

  2. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  3. Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jessica N; Cousteils, Katelyn; Lou, Jennifer W; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Joseph, Jamie W

    2014-05-09

    It is well known that mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is critical for insulin secretion; however, we know little about how pyruvate is transported into mitochondria in β-cells. Part of the reason for this lack of knowledge is that the carrier gene was only discovered in 2012. In the current study, we assess the role of the recently identified carrier in the regulation of insulin secretion. Our studies show that β-cells express both mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (Mpc1 and Mpc2). Using both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knockdown of the MPCs we show that this carrier plays a key role in regulating insulin secretion in clonal 832/13 β-cells as well as rat and human islets. We also show that the MPC is an essential regulator of both the ATP-regulated potassium (KATP) channel-dependent and -independent pathways of insulin secretion. Inhibition of the MPC blocks the glucose-stimulated increase in two key signaling molecules involved in regulating insulin secretion, the ATP/ADP ratio and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. The MPC also plays a role in in vivo glucose homeostasis as inhibition of MPC by the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-β-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)-acrylate (UK5099) resulted in impaired glucose tolerance. These studies clearly show that the newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier sits at an important branching point in nutrient metabolism and that it is an essential regulator of insulin secretion.

  4. A Role for Mitochondrial Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Romana; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Zhao, Xiaojian; Feriod, Colleen; Dong, Jianying; Alves, Tiago C.; Ioja, Simona; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Roden, Michael; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Kibbey, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from oxaloacetate is an absolute requirement for gluconeogenesis from mitochondrial substrates. Generally, this reaction has solely been attributed to the cytosolic isoform of PEPCK (PEPCK-C), although loss of the mitochondrial isoform (PEPCK-M) has never been assessed. Despite catalyzing the same reaction, to date the only significant role reported in mammals for the mitochondrial isoform is as a glucose sensor necessary for insulin secretion. We hypothesized that this nutrient-sensing mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway contributes importantly to gluconeogenesis. PEPCK-M was acutely silenced in gluconeogenic tissues of rats using antisense oligonucleotides both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes. Silencing PEPCK-M lowers plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, reduces white adipose, and depletes hepatic glycogen, but raises lactate. There is a switch of gluconeogenic substrate preference to glycerol that quantitatively accounts for a third of glucose production. In contrast to the severe mitochondrial deficiency characteristic of PEPCK-C knock-out livers, hepatocytes from PEPCK-M-deficient livers maintained normal oxidative function. Consistent with its predicted role, gluconeogenesis rates from hepatocytes lacking PEPCK-M are severely reduced for lactate, alanine, and glutamine, but not for pyruvate and glycerol. Thus, PEPCK-M has a direct role in fasted and fed glucose homeostasis, and this mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway should be reconsidered for its involvement in both normal and diabetic metabolism. PMID:24497630

  5. A role for mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Romana; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Zhao, Xiaojian; Feriod, Colleen; Dong, Jianying; Alves, Tiago C; Ioja, Simona; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Bhanot, Sanjay; Roden, Michael; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Kibbey, Richard G

    2014-03-14

    Synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from oxaloacetate is an absolute requirement for gluconeogenesis from mitochondrial substrates. Generally, this reaction has solely been attributed to the cytosolic isoform of PEPCK (PEPCK-C), although loss of the mitochondrial isoform (PEPCK-M) has never been assessed. Despite catalyzing the same reaction, to date the only significant role reported in mammals for the mitochondrial isoform is as a glucose sensor necessary for insulin secretion. We hypothesized that this nutrient-sensing mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway contributes importantly to gluconeogenesis. PEPCK-M was acutely silenced in gluconeogenic tissues of rats using antisense oligonucleotides both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes. Silencing PEPCK-M lowers plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, reduces white adipose, and depletes hepatic glycogen, but raises lactate. There is a switch of gluconeogenic substrate preference to glycerol that quantitatively accounts for a third of glucose production. In contrast to the severe mitochondrial deficiency characteristic of PEPCK-C knock-out livers, hepatocytes from PEPCK-M-deficient livers maintained normal oxidative function. Consistent with its predicted role, gluconeogenesis rates from hepatocytes lacking PEPCK-M are severely reduced for lactate, alanine, and glutamine, but not for pyruvate and glycerol. Thus, PEPCK-M has a direct role in fasted and fed glucose homeostasis, and this mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway should be reconsidered for its involvement in both normal and diabetic metabolism.

  6. Modulation of liver mitochondrial NOS is implicated in thyroid-dependent regulation of O(2) uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, M C; Peralta, J G; Converso, D P; Finocchietto, P V; Rebagliati, I; Zaninovich, A A; Poderoso, J J

    2001-12-01

    Changes in O(2) uptake at different thyroid status have been explained on the basis of the modulation of mitochondrial enzymes and membrane biophysical properties. Regarding the nitric oxide (NO) effects, we tested whether liver mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) participates in the modulation of O(2) uptake in thyroid disorders. Wistar rats were inoculated with 400 microCi (131)I (hypothyroid group), 20 microg thyroxine (T(4))/100 g body wt administered daily for 2 wk (hyperthyroid group) or vehicle (control). Basal metabolic rate, mitochondrial function, and mtNOS activity were analyzed. Systemic and liver mitochondrial O(2) uptake and cytochrome oxidase activity were lower in hypothyroid rats with respect to controls; mitochondrial parameters were further decreased by L-arginine (-42 and -34%, P activity (260%) were selectively increased in hypothyroidism and reverted by hormone replacement without changes in other nitric oxide isoforms. Moreover, mtNOS activity correlated with serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) and O(2) uptake. Increased mtNOS activity was also observed in skeletal muscle mitochondria from hypothyroid rats. Therefore, we suggest that modulation of mtNOS is a substantial part of thyroid effects on mitochondrial O(2) uptake.

  7. Insight from Mitochondrial Functions and Proteomics to Understand Cardiometabolic Disorders in Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Jade; Spahis, Schohraya; Bonneil, Eric; Garofalo, Carole; Grimard, Guy; Morel, Sophia; Laverdière, Caroline; Krajinovic, Maja; Drouin, Simon; Delvin, Edgard; Sinnett, Daniel; Marcil, Valérie; Levy, Emile

    2018-03-18

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most prevalent form of cancer in children. Due to advances in treatment and therapy, young cALL subjects now achieve a 90% survival rate. However, this tremendous advance does not come without consequence since ~2/3 of cALL survivors are affected by long-term and late, severe complications. Although the metabolic syndrome is a very serious sequel of cALL, the mechanisms remain undefined. It is also surprising to note that the mitochondrion, a central organelle in metabolic functions and the main cellular energy generator, have not yet been explored. To determine whether cALL survivors exhibit impairments in their mitochondrial functions and proteomic profiling in relationship with metabolic disorders in cALL survivors compared to healthy controls. Anthropometric measures, metabolic characteristics and lipid profiles were assessed, mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and proteomic analyzed. Our data demonstrated that metabolically Unhealthy survivors exhibited several metabolic syndrome components (e.g. overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation) whereas Healthy cALL survivors resemble the Controls. In line with these abnormalities, functional experiments in these subjects revealed a significant decrease in the protein expression of mitochondrial antioxidant superoxide dismutase, PGC1-α transcription factor (a key modulator of mitochondrion biogenesis), and an increase in pro-apoptotic cytochrome c. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria by mass spectrometry revealed changes in the regulation of proteins related to inflammation, apoptosis, energy production, redox and antioxidant activity, fatty acid β-oxidation, protein transport and metabolism, and signalling pathways between groups. Through the use of proteomic analysis, our work demonstrated a number of significant alterations in protein expression in mitochondria of cALL survivors, especially the metabolically

  8. Vimentin is involved in regulation of mitochondrial motility and membrane potential by Rac1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Matveeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that binding of mitochondria to vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF is regulated by GTPase Rac1. The activation of Rac1 leads to a redoubling of mitochondrial motility in murine fibroblasts. Using double-mutants Rac1(G12V, F37L and Rac1(G12V, Y40H that are capable to activate different effectors of Rac1, we show that mitochondrial movements are regulated through PAK1 kinase. The involvement of PAK1 kinase is also confirmed by the fact that expression of its auto inhibitory domain (PID blocks the effect of activated Rac1 on mitochondrial motility. The observed effect of Rac1 and PAK1 kinase on mitochondria depends on phosphorylation of the Ser-55 of vimentin. Besides the effect on motility Rac1 activation also decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP which is detected by ∼20% drop of the fluorescence intensity of mitochondria stained with the potential sensitive dye TMRM. One of important consequences of the discovered regulation of MMP by Rac1 and PAK1 is a spatial differentiation of mitochondria in polarized fibroblasts: at the front of the cell they are less energized (by ∼25% than at the rear part.

  9. Improvement of mitochondrial function and dynamics by the metabolic enhancer piracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Carola; Kurz, Christopher; Koch, Konrad A; Eckert, Schamim H; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2013-10-01

    The metabolic enhancer piracetam is used in many countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging, brain injuries, as well as dementia such as AD (Alzheimer's disease). As a specific feature of piracetam, beneficial effects are usually associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In previous studies we were able to show that piracetam enhanced ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential as well as neurite outgrowth in cell and animal models for aging and AD. To investigate further the effects of piracetam on mitochondrial function, especially mitochondrial fission and fusion events, we decided to assess mitochondrial morphology. Human neuroblastoma cells were treated with the drug under normal conditions and under conditions imitating aging and the occurrence of ROS (reactive oxygen species) as well as in stably transfected cells with the human wild-type APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene. This AD model is characterized by expressing only 2-fold more human Aβ (amyloid β-peptide) compared with control cells and therefore representing very early stages of AD when Aβ levels gradually increase over decades. Interestingly, these cells exhibit an impaired mitochondrial function and morphology under baseline conditions. Piracetam is able to restore this impairment and shifts mitochondrial morphology back to elongated forms, whereas there is no effect in control cells. After addition of a complex I inhibitor, mitochondrial morphology is distinctly shifted to punctate forms in both cell lines. Under these conditions piracetam is able to ameliorate morphology in cells suffering from the mild Aβ load, as well as mitochondrial dynamics in control cells.

  10. MELAS syndrome and cardiomyopathy: linking mitochondrial function to heart failure pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Han R; Yogasundaram, Haran; Parajuli, Nirmal; Valtuille, Lucas; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure remains an important clinical burden, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in its pathogenesis. The heart has a high metabolic demand, and mitochondrial function is a key determinant of myocardial performance. In mitochondrial disorders, hypertrophic remodeling is the early pattern of cardiomyopathy with progression to dilated cardiomyopathy, conduction defects and ventricular pre-excitation occurring in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiac dysfunction occurs in approximately a third of patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, a stereotypical example of a mitochondrial disorder leading to a cardiomyopathy. We performed unique comparative ultrastructural and gene expression in a MELAS heart compared with non-failing controls. Our results showed a remarkable increase in mitochondrial inclusions and increased abnormal mitochondria in MELAS cardiomyopathy coupled with variable sarcomere thickening, heterogeneous distribution of affected cardiomyocytes and a greater elevation in the expression of disease markers. Investigation and management of patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy should follow the well-described contemporary heart failure clinical practice guidelines and include an important role of medical and device therapies. Directed metabolic therapy is lacking, but current research strategies are dedicated toward improving mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disorders.

  11. Cutaneous respirometry as novel technique to monitor mitochondrial function: A feasibility study in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) is proposed as a potential clinical non-invasive tool to monitor mitochondrial function. This technique has been evaluated in several animal studies. Mitochondrial respirometry allows measurement in vivo of

  12. The HO-1/CO system regulates mitochondrial-capillary density relationships in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Shelly R H; Potter, Jennifer V F; Cherry, Anne D; Peacher, Dionne F; Welty-Wolf, Karen E; Moon, Richard E; Piantadosi, Claude A; Suliman, Hagir B

    2015-10-15

    The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system induces mitochondrial biogenesis, but its biological impact in human skeletal muscle is uncertain. The enzyme system generates CO, which stimulates mitochondrial proliferation in normal muscle. Here we examined whether CO breathing can be used to produce a coordinated metabolic and vascular response in human skeletal muscle. In 19 healthy subjects, we performed vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and tested one-legged maximal O2 uptake (V̇o2max) before and after breathing air or CO (200 ppm) for 1 h daily for 5 days. In response to CO, there was robust HO-1 induction along with increased mRNA levels for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase subunit IV (COX IV), and mitochondrial-encoded COX I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NDI). CO breathing did not increase V̇o2max (1.96 ± 0.51 pre-CO, 1.87 ± 0.50 post-CO l/min; P = not significant) but did increase muscle citrate synthase, mitochondrial density (139.0 ± 34.9 pre-CO, 219.0 ± 36.2 post-CO; no. of mitochondrial profiles/field), myoglobin content and glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein level and led to GLUT4 localization to the myocyte membrane, all consistent with expansion of the tissue O2 transport system. These responses were attended by increased cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31)-positive muscle capillaries (1.78 ± 0.16 pre-CO, 2.37 ± 0.59 post-CO; capillaries/muscle fiber), implying the enrichment of microvascular O2 reserve. The findings support that induction of the HO-1/CO system by CO not only improves muscle mitochondrial density, but regulates myoglobin content, GLUT4 localization, and capillarity in accordance with current concepts of skeletal muscle plasticity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Non-electron transfer chain mitochondrial defects differently regulate HIF-1α degradation and transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina N. Shvetsova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α. While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation. However, studies investigating non-ETC located mitochondrial defects and their effects on HIF-1α regulation are scarce, if at all existing. Thus, in the present study we examined three cell lines with non-ETC mitochondrial defects and focused on HIF-1α degradation and transcription, target gene expression, as well as ROS levels. We found that cells lacking the key enzyme 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (MECR, and cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD showed a reduced induction of HIF-1α under long-term (20 h hypoxia. By contrast, cells lacking the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome channel protein Mpv17 displayed enhanced levels of HIF-1α already under normoxic conditions. Further, we show that ROS do not exert a uniform pattern when mediating their effects on HIF-1α, although all mitochondrial defects in the used cell types increased ROS formation. Moreover, all defects caused a different HIF-1α regulation via promoting HIF-1α degradation as well as via changes in HIF-1α transcription. Thereby, MECR- and MnSOD-deficient cells showed a reduction in HIF-1α mRNA levels whereas the Mpv17 lacking cells displayed enhanced HIF-1α mRNA levels under normoxia and hypoxia. Altogether, our study shows for the first time that mitochondrial defects which are not related to the ETC and Krebs cycle

  14. Overexpression of DJ-1/PARK7, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, improves mitochondrial function via Akt phosphorylation on threonine 308 in dopaminergic neuron-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Gong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Sun, Hong-Mei; Guo, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Jing-Hong; Ma, Ling; Li, Ping; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-05-01

    DJ-1/PARK7, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, plays an important role in mitochondrial function. However, the mechanisms by which DJ-1 affects mitochondrial function are not fully understood. Akt is a promoter of neuron survival and is partly involved in the neurodegenerative process. This research aimed at investigating a possible relationship between DJ-1 and Akt signalling in regulating mitochondrial function in the dopaminergic neuron-like cells SH-SY5Y and PC-12. Overexpression of DJ-1 was firstly validated at both the transcriptional and translational levels after transit transfection with plasmid pcDNA3-Flag-DJ-1. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that overexpression of DJ-1 increased the mitochondrial mass, but did not disrupt the mitochondrial morphology. In addition, mitochondrial complex I activity was raised in DJ-1-overexpressing cells, and this rise occurred with an increase in cellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate content. Moreover, immunoblotting demonstrated that the levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and the total Akt were not altered in DJ-1-overexpressing cells, and nor was the Akt phosphorylation on serine 473 changed. By contrast, Akt phosphorylation on threonine 308 was significantly augmented by overexpression of DJ-1, and the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, a downstream effector of Akt, was suppressed. In summary, these results suggest that overexpression of DJ-1 improves the mitochondrial function, at least in part, through a mechanism involving Akt phosphorylation on threonine 308. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) expression during skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collu-Marchese, Melania; Shuen, Michael; Pauly, Marion; Saleem, Ayesha; Hood, David A

    2015-05-19

    The ATP demand required for muscle development is accommodated by elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, through the co-ordinated activities of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The most important transcriptional activator of the mitochondrial genome is mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam); however, the regulation of Tfam expression during muscle differentiation is not known. Thus, we measured Tfam mRNA levels, mRNA stability, protein expression and localization and Tfam transcription during the progression of muscle differentiation. Parallel 2-fold increases in Tfam protein and mRNA were observed, corresponding with 2-3-fold increases in mitochondrial content. Transcriptional activity of a 2051 bp promoter increased during this differentiation period and this was accompanied by a 3-fold greater Tfam mRNA stabilization. Interestingly, truncations of the promoter at 1706 bp, 978 bp and 393 bp promoter all exhibited 2-3-fold higher transcriptional activity than the 2051 bp construct, indicating the presence of negative regulatory elements within the distal 350 bp of the promoter. Activation of AMP kinase augmented Tfam transcription within the proximal promoter, suggesting the presence of binding sites for transcription factors that are responsive to cellular energy state. During differentiation, the accumulating Tfam protein was progressively distributed to the mitochondrial matrix where it augmented the expression of mtDNA and COX (cytochrome c oxidase) subunit I, an mtDNA gene product. Our data suggest that, during muscle differentiation, Tfam protein levels are regulated by the availability of Tfam mRNA, which is controlled by both transcription and mRNA stability. Changes in energy state and Tfam localization also affect Tfam expression and action in differentiating myotubes. © 2015 Authors.

  16. Assessment of mitochondrial functions in Daphnia pulex clones using high-resolution respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kake-Guena, Sandrine A; Touisse, Kamal; Vergilino, Roland; Dufresne, France; Blier, Pierre U; Lemieux, Hélène

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of our study were to adapt a method to measure mitochondrial function in intact mitochondria from the small crustacean Daphnia pulex and to validate if this method was sensitive enough to characterize mitochondrial metabolism in clones of the pulex complex differing in ploidy levels, mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, and geographic origins. Daphnia clones belonging to the Daphnia pulex complex represent a powerful model to delineate the link between mitochondrial DNA evolution and mitochondrial phenotypes, as single genotypes with divergent mtDNA can be grown under various experimental conditions. Our study included two diploid clones from temperate environments and two triploid clones from subarctic environments. The whole animal permeabilization and measurement of respiration with high-resolution respirometry enabled the measurement of the functional capacity of specific mitochondrial complexes in four clones. When expressing the activity as ratios, our method detected significant interclonal variations. In the triploid subarctic clone from Kuujjurapik, a higher proportion of the maximal physiological oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity of mitochondria was supported by complex II, and a lower proportion by complex I. The triploid subarctic clone from Churchill (Manitoba) showed the lowest proportion of the maximal OXPHOS supported by complex II. Additional studies are required to determine if these differences in mitochondrial functions are related to differences in mitochondrial haplotypes or ploidy level and if they might be associated with fitness divergences and therefore selective value. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Altered mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in leukocytes of anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Victor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcon, Vanessa; Sangüesa, Maria C; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bañuls, Celia; Falcón, Rosa; Castelló, Raquel; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (Panorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia.

  18. Fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle is predisposed to age-induced impairments in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Díaz, Víctor; Soldini, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of mammalian senescence is suggested to involve the progressive impairment of mitochondrial function; however, direct observations of age-induced alterations in actual respiratory chain function are lacking. Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirom......The etiology of mammalian senescence is suggested to involve the progressive impairment of mitochondrial function; however, direct observations of age-induced alterations in actual respiratory chain function are lacking. Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial function via high......-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial protein expression in soleus, quadricep, and lateral gastrocnemius skeletal muscles, which represent type 1 slow-twitch oxidative muscle (soleus) and type 2 fast-twitch glycolytic muscle (quadricep and gastrocnemius), respectively, in young (10-12 weeks) and mature (74-76 weeks......) mice. Electron transport through mitochondrial complexes I and III increases with age in quadricep and gastrocnemius, which is not observed in soleus. Mitochondrial coupling efficiency during respiration through complex I also deteriorates with age in gastrocnemius and shows a tendency (p = .085...

  19. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. © 2013.

  20. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B.; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. PMID:24212054

  1. Lipid droplet meets a mitochondrial protein to regulate adipocyte lipolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to adrenergic stimulation, adipocytes undergo protein kinase A (PKA)-stimulated lipolysis. A key PKA target in this context is perilipin 1, a major regulator of lipolysis on lipid droplets (LDs). A study published in this issue of The EMBO Journal (Pidoux et al, 2011) identifies optic at...

  2. Autophagy capacity and sub-mitochondrial heterogeneity shape Bnip3-induced mitophagy regulation of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Sehyo Charley; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Brady, Nathan Ryan

    2015-08-08

    Mitochondria are key regulators of apoptosis. In response to stress, BH3-only proteins activate pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family proteins Bax and Bak, which induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). While the large-scale mitochondrial release of pro-apoptotic proteins activates caspase-dependent cell death, a limited release results in sub-lethal caspase activation which promotes tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) targets dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation by lysosomes, and undergoes extensive crosstalk with apoptosis signaling, but its influence on apoptosis remains undetermined. The BH3-only protein Bnip3 integrates apoptosis and mitophagy signaling at different signaling domains. Bnip3 inhibits pro-survival Bcl2 members via its BH3 domain and activates mitophagy through its LC3 Interacting Region (LIR), which is responsible for binding to autophagosomes. Previously, we have shown that Bnip3-activated mitophagy prior to apoptosis induction can reduce mitochondrial activation of caspases, suggesting that a reduction to mitochondrial levels may be pro-survival. An outstanding question is whether organelle dynamics and/or recently discovered subcellular variations of protein levels responsible for both MOMP sensitivity and crosstalk between apoptosis and mitophagy can influence the cellular apoptosis decision event. To that end, here we undertook a systems biology analysis of mitophagy-apoptosis crosstalk at the level of cellular mitochondrial populations. Based on experimental findings, we developed a multi-scale, hybrid model with an individually adaptive mitochondrial population, whose actions are determined by protein levels, embedded in an agent-based model (ABM) for simulating subcellular dynamics and local feedback via reactive oxygen species signaling. Our model, supported by experimental evidence, identified an emergent regulatory structure within canonical apoptosis signaling. We show that the extent of mitophagy is

  3. Disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain function potentiates the pro-apoptotic effects of MAPK inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Andrew P; Gelles, Jesse D; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Loi, Patrick; Arbiser, Jack L; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2017-07-14

    The mitochondrial network is a major site of ATP production through the coupled integration of the electron transport chain (ETC) with oxidative phosphorylation. In melanoma arising from the V600E mutation in the kinase v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF V600E ), oncogenic signaling enhances glucose-dependent metabolism while reducing mitochondrial ATP production. Likewise, when BRAF V600E is pharmacologically inhibited by targeted therapies ( e.g. PLX-4032/vemurafenib), glucose metabolism is reduced, and cells increase mitochondrial ATP production to sustain survival. Therefore, collateral inhibition of oncogenic signaling and mitochondrial respiration may help enhance the therapeutic benefit of targeted therapies. Honokiol (HKL) is a well tolerated small molecule that disrupts mitochondrial function; however, its underlying mechanisms and potential utility with targeted anticancer therapies remain unknown. Using wild-type BRAF and BRAF V600E melanoma model systems, we demonstrate here that HKL administration rapidly reduces mitochondrial respiration by broadly inhibiting ETC complexes I, II, and V, resulting in decreased ATP levels. The subsequent energetic crisis induced two cellular responses involving cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). First, loss of CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of the mitochondrial division GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 promoted mitochondrial fusion, thus coupling mitochondrial energetic status and morphology. Second, HKL decreased CDK2 activity, leading to G 1 cell cycle arrest. Importantly, although pharmacological inhibition of oncogenic MAPK signaling increased ETC activity, co-treatment with HKL ablated this response and vastly enhanced the rate of apoptosis. Collectively, these findings integrate HKL action with mitochondrial respiration and shape and substantiate a pro-survival role of mitochondrial function in melanoma cells after oncogenic MAPK inhibition.

  4. Mitochondrial Dynamics: Coupling Mitochondrial Fitness with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, David; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans. Here, we review the link between alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, aging, and age-related impairment. We propose that the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics leads to age-induced accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria and contributes to alterations linked to aging, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial functions of THP-1 monocytes following the exposure to selected natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Nadin; Wanka, Heike; Zwicker, Paula; Lindequist, Ulrike; Haertel, Beate

    2017-02-15

    The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC 10 and IC 50 determined by MTT) of each compound. The cells showed concentration-dependent elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and induction of apoptosis (except DON) in response to the three test compounds. Mitochondrial functions were characterized by using bioenergetics profiling experiments. In THP-1 monocytes, the IC 50 of CsA decreased basal and maximal respiration as well as ATP production with an impact on spare capacity indicating a mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar reaction patterns were observed following CBD exposure. The basal respiration level and ATP-production decreased in the THP-1 cells exposed to the IC 50 of DON with no major impact on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired mitochondrial function was accompanied by elevated iROS and apoptosis level in a monocytic cell line exposed to CsA and CBD. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be one explanation for the cytotoxicity of CBD and CsA also in other in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Content, and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groennebaek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metabolic and contractile properties are reliant on muscle mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein turnover. The turnover of these specific protein pools is compromised during disease, aging, and inactivity. Oppositely, exercise can accentuate muscle protein turnover, thereby counteracting decay in muscle function. According to a traditional consensus, endurance exercise is required to drive mitochondrial adaptations, while resistance exercise is required to drive myofibrillar adaptations. However, concurrent practice of traditional endurance exercise and resistance exercise regimens to achieve both types of muscle adaptations is time-consuming, motivationally demanding, and contended to entail practice at intensity levels, that may not comply with clinical settings. It is therefore of principle interest to identify effective, yet feasible, exercise strategies that may positively affect both mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein turnover. Recently, reports indicate that traditional high-load resistance exercise can stimulate muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial respiratory function. Moreover, fatiguing low-load resistance exercise has been shown capable of promoting muscle hypertrophy and expectedly entails greater metabolic stress to potentially enhance mitochondrial adaptations. Consequently, fatiguing low-load resistance exercise regimens may possess the ability to stimulate muscle mitochondrial adaptations without compromising muscle myofibrillar accretion. However, the exact ability of resistance exercise to drive mitochondrial adaptations is debatable, not least due to some methodological challenges. The current review therefore aims to address the evidence on the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, content and function. In prolongation, a perspective is taken on the specific potential of low-load resistance exercise on promoting mitochondrial adaptations.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G; Brown, Jamelle A; Feeley, Kyle P; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Weisbrod, Robert M; Widlansky, Michael E; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-31

    Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We assessed non-invasive vascular function and mitochondrial DNA damage in 275 patients (age 57 ± 9 years, 60 % women) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease alone (N = 55), diabetes mellitus alone (N = 74), combined atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (N = 48), and controls age >45 without diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (N = 98). Mitochondrial DNA damage measured by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher with clinical atherosclerosis alone (0.55 ± 0.65), diabetes mellitus alone (0.65 ± 1.0), and combined clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (0.89 ± 1.32) as compared to control subjects (0.23 ± 0.64, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and relevant cardiovascular risk factors, clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher mitochondrial DNA damage levels (β = 0.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and β = 0.21 ± 0.13, P = 0.002, respectively). Higher mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial pulsatility, but not with flow-mediated dilation or hyperemic response, measures of vasodilator function. We found greater mitochondrial DNA damage in patients with diabetes mellitus and clinical atherosclerosis. The association of mitochondrial DNA damage and baseline pulse amplitude may suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially adverse microvascular impact.

  8. A Heme-Sensing Mechanism in the Translational Regulation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Iliana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Myers, Richard S.; Hamel, Patrice; Barrientos, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Heme plays fundamental roles as cofactor and signaling molecule in multiple pathways devoted to oxygen sensing and utilization in aerobic organisms. For cellular respiration, heme serves as a prosthetic group in electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes. Here we report that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a heme-sensing mechanism translationally controls the biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. We show that Mss51, a COX1 mRNA-specific translational activator and Cox1 chaperone, which coordinates Cox1 synthesis in mitoribosomes with its assembly in COX, is a heme-binding protein. Mss51 contains two heme regulatory motifs or Cys-Pro-X domains located in its N-terminus. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have demonstrated that these motifs are important for heme binding and efficient performance of Mss51 functions. We conclude that heme sensing by Mss51 regulates COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production. PMID:23217259

  9. Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Diverse Cauliflower Cultivars under Mild and Severe Drought. Impaired Coordination of Selected Transcript and Proteomic Responses, and Regulation of Various Multifunctional Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rurek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (decreases in abundance mostly in the mitochondrial proteome were assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Respiratory (e.g., complex II, IV (CII, CIV and ATP synthase subunits, transporter (including diverse porin isoforms and matrix multifunctional proteins (e.g., components of RNA editing machinery were diversely affected in their abundance under two drought levels. Western immunoassays showed additional cultivar-specific responses of selected mitochondrial proteins. Dehydrin-related tryptic peptides (found in several 2D spots immunopositive with dehydrin-specific antisera highlighted the relevance of mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins for the drought response. The abundance of selected mRNAs participating in drought response was also determined. We conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis was strongly, but diversely affected in various cauliflower cultivars, and associated with drought tolerance at the proteomic and functional levels. However, discussed alternative oxidase (AOX regulation at the RNA and protein level were largely uncoordinated due to the altered availability of transcripts for translation, mRNA/ribosome interactions, and/or miRNA impact on transcript abundance and translation.

  10. Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Diverse Cauliflower Cultivars under Mild and Severe Drought. Impaired Coordination of Selected Transcript and Proteomic Responses, and Regulation of Various Multifunctional Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michał; Czołpińska, Magdalena; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Nowak, Witold; Krzesiński, Włodzimierz; Spiżewski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (decreases in abundance mostly) in the mitochondrial proteome were assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Respiratory (e.g., complex II, IV (CII, CIV) and ATP synthase subunits), transporter (including diverse porin isoforms) and matrix multifunctional proteins (e.g., components of RNA editing machinery) were diversely affected in their abundance under two drought levels. Western immunoassays showed additional cultivar-specific responses of selected mitochondrial proteins. Dehydrin-related tryptic peptides (found in several 2D spots) immunopositive with dehydrin-specific antisera highlighted the relevance of mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins for the drought response. The abundance of selected mRNAs participating in drought response was also determined. We conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis was strongly, but diversely affected in various cauliflower cultivars, and associated with drought tolerance at the proteomic and functional levels. However, discussed alternative oxidase (AOX) regulation at the RNA and protein level were largely uncoordinated due to the altered availability of transcripts for translation, mRNA/ribosome interactions, and/or miRNA impact on transcript abundance and translation. PMID:29642585

  11. Functional analysis of TMLH variants and definition of domains required for catalytic activity and mitochondrial targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfregola, Jlenia; Cevenini, Armando; Terracciano, Antonio; van Vlies, Naomi; Arbucci, Salvatore; Wanders, Ronald J A; D'Urso, Michele; Vaz, Frédéric M; Ursini, Matilde Valeria

    2005-09-01

    epsilon-N-Trimethyllysine hydroxylase (TMLH) (EC 1.14.11.8) is a non-heme-ferrous iron hydroxylase, Fe(++) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent, catalyzing the first of four enzymatic reactions of the highly conserved carnitine biosynthetic pathway. Otherwise from all the other enzymes of carnitine biosynthesis, TMLH was found to be associated to the mitochondrial fraction. We here report molecular cloning of two alternative spliced forms of TMLH, which appear ubiquitously expressed in human adult and fetal tissues. The deduced proteins are designated TMLH-a and TMLH-b, and contain 421 and 399 amino acids, respectively. They share the first N-terminal 332 amino acids, including a mitochondrial targeting signal, but diverge at the C-terminal end. TMLH-a and TMLH-b exogenous expression in COS-1 cells shows that the first 15 amino acids are necessary and sufficient for mitochondrial import. Furthermore, comparative evolutionary analysis of the C-terminal portion of TMLH-a identifies a conserved domain characterized by a key triad of residues, His242-Glu244-His389 predicted to bind 2OG end. This sequence is conserved in the TMLH enzyme from all species but is partially substituted by a unique sequence in the TMLH-b variant. Indeed, TMLH-b is not functional by itself as well as a TMLH-H389L mutant produced by site directed mutagenesis. As great interest, we found that TMLH-b and TMLH-H389L, individually co-expressed with TMLH-a in COS-1 cells, negatively affect TMLH activity. Therefore, our studies on the TMLH alternative form provide relevant novel information, first that the C-terminal region of TMLH contains the main determinants for its enzymatic activity including a key H389 residue, and second that TMLH-b could act as a crucial physiological negative regulator of TMLH. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The DNLZ/HEP zinc-binding subdomain is critical for regulation of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPA9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T; Zhai, Peng; Lee, Juhye; Guerra, Cecilia; Liu, Shirley; Gustin, Michael C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2012-02-01

    Human mitochondrial DNLZ/HEP regulates the catalytic activity and solubility of the mitochondrial hsp70 chaperone HSPA9. Here, we investigate the role that the DNLZ zinc-binding and C-terminal subdomains play in regulating HSPA9. We show that truncations lacking portions of the zinc-binding subdomain (ZBS) do not affect the solubility of HSPA9 or its ATPase domain, whereas those containing the ZBS and at least 10 residues following this subdomain enhance chaperone solubility. Binding measurements further show that DNLZ requires its ZBS to form a stable complex with the HSPA9 ATPase domain, and ATP hydrolysis measurements reveal that the ZBS is critical for full stimulation of HSPA9 catalytic activity. We also examined if DNLZ is active in vivo. We found that DNLZ partially complements the growth of Δzim17 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we discovered that a Zim17 truncation lacking a majority of the C-terminal subdomain strongly complements growth like full-length Zim17. These findings provide direct evidence that human DNLZ is a functional ortholog of Zim17. In addition, they implicate the pair of antiparallel β-strands that coordinate zinc in Zim17/DNLZ-type proteins as critical for binding and regulating hsp70 chaperones. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  13. Anilinopyrimidine Resistance in Botrytis cinerea Is Linked to Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mosbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop protection anilinopyrimidine (AP fungicides were introduced more than 20 years ago for the control of a range of diseases caused by ascomycete plant pathogens, and in particular for the control of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Although early mode of action studies suggested an inhibition of methionine biosynthesis, the molecular target of this class of fungicides was never fully clarified. Despite AP-specific resistance having been described in B. cinerea field isolates and in multiple other targeted species, the underlying resistance mechanisms were unknown. It was therefore expected that the genetic characterization of resistance mechanisms would permit the identification of the molecular target of these fungicides. In order to explore the widest range of possible resistance mechanisms, AP-resistant B. cinerea UV laboratory mutants were generated and the mutations conferring resistance were determined by combining whole-genome sequencing and reverse genetics. Genetic mapping from a cross between a resistant field isolate and a sensitive reference isolate was used in parallel and led to the identification of an additional molecular determinant not found from the characterized UV mutant collection. Together, these two approaches enabled the characterization of an unrivaled diversity of resistance mechanisms. In total, we report the elucidation of resistance-conferring mutations within nine individual genes, two of which are responsible for almost all instances of AP resistance in the field. All identified resistance-conferring genes encode proteins that are involved in mitochondrial processes, suggesting that APs primarily target the mitochondria. The functions of these genes and their possible interactions are discussed in the context of the potential mode of action for this important class of fungicides.

  14. Effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Skaaby, Stinna; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    intensity training) improves insulin sensitivity in healthy humans and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether patients with type 2 diabetes have the same beneficial effects (same improvement) as control subjects, when it comes to regular physical activity in regard to mitochondrial function......, is not established in the literature. This review will focus only on the effect of physical activity on skeletal muscle (mitochondrial function) in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  15. Functional characterization of the Drosophila MRP (mitochondrial RNA processing) RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary D; Bains, Anupinder K; Rajendra, T K; Dominski, Zbigniew; Matera, A Gregory; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    MRP RNA is a noncoding RNA component of RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (MRP), a multi-protein eukaryotic endoribonuclease reported to function in multiple cellular processes, including ribosomal RNA processing, mitochondrial DNA replication, and cell cycle regulation. A recent study predicted a potential Drosophila ortholog of MRP RNA (CR33682) by computer-based genome analysis. We have confirmed the expression of this gene and characterized the phenotype associated with this locus. Flies with mutations that specifically affect MRP RNA show defects in growth and development that begin in the early larval period and end in larval death during the second instar stage. We present several lines of evidence demonstrating a role for Drosophila MRP RNA in rRNA processing. The nuclear fraction of Drosophila MRP RNA localizes to the nucleolus. Further, a mutant strain shows defects in rRNA processing that include a defect in 5.8S rRNA processing, typical of MRP RNA mutants in other species, as well as defects in early stages of rRNA processing.

  16. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations

  17. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián; Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia; Ferrick, David; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive

  18. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile); Ferrick, David [Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA (United States); Elorza, Alvaro A., E-mail: aelorza@unab.cl [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive.

  19. Compound C prevents Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein stabilization by regulating the cellular oxygen availability via interaction with Mitochondrial Complex I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Thilo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α is a master regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen concentration. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase, has been reported to inhibit hypoxia dependent Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α activation via a mechanism that is independent of AMP-activated kinase but dependent on its interaction with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study is to characterize the interaction of Compound C with the mitochondrial electron transport chain and to determine the mechanism through which the drug influences the stability of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein. We found that Compound C functions as an inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain as demonstrated by its effect on mitochondrial respiration. It also prevents hypoxia-induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stabilization in a dose dependent manner. In addition, Compound C does not have significant effects on reactive oxygen species production from complex I via both forward and reverse electron flux. This study provides evidence that similar to other mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitors, Compound C regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stability by controlling the cellular oxygen concentration.

  20. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis Is Regulated by the Redox State of a Heme-Binding Translational Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Iliana C; Barrientos, Antoni

    2016-02-20

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the last enzyme of the respiratory chain, catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water and therefore is essential for cell function and viability. COX is a multimeric complex, whose biogenesis is extensively regulated. One type of control targets cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1), a key COX enzymatic core subunit translated on mitochondrial ribosomes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cox1 synthesis and COX assembly are coordinated through a negative feedback regulatory loop. This coordination is mediated by Mss51, a heme-sensing COX1 mRNA-specific processing factor and translational activator that is also a Cox1 chaperone. In this study, we investigated whether Mss51 hemylation and Mss51-mediated Cox1 synthesis are both modulated by the reduction-oxidation (redox) environment. We report that Cox1 synthesis is attenuated under oxidative stress conditions and have identified one of the underlying mechanisms. We show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hydrogen peroxide induces the formation of a disulfide bond in Mss51 involving CPX motif heme-coordinating cysteines. Mss51 oxidation results in a heme ligand switch, thereby lowering heme-binding affinity and promoting its release. We demonstrate that in addition to affecting Mss51-dependent heme sensing, oxidative stress compromises Mss51 roles in COX1 mRNA processing and translation. H2O2-induced downregulation of mitochondrial translation has so far not been reported. We show that high H2O2 concentrations induce a global attenuation effect, but milder concentrations specifically affect COX1 mRNA processing and translation in an Mss51-dependent manner. The redox environment modulates Mss51 functions, which are essential for regulation of COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production.

  1. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocito, Laura; Kleckner, Amber S; Yoo, Elsia J; Jones Iv, Albert R; Liesa, Marc; Corkey, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB)/acetoacetate (Acoc), reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(P)H and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  2. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nocito

    Full Text Available Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB/acetoacetate (Acoc, reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG, and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(PH and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  3. Lasp-1 regulates podosome function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Stölting

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells form a variety of adhesive structures to connect with their environment and to regulate cell motility. In contrast to classical focal adhesions, podosomes, highly dynamic structures of different cell types, are actively engaged in matrix remodelling and degradation. Podosomes are composed of an actin-rich core region surrounded by a ring-like structure containing signalling molecules, motor proteins as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Lasp-1 is a ubiquitously expressed, actin-binding protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. This multidomain protein is predominantely present at focal adhesions, however, a second pool of Lasp-1 molecules is also found at lamellipodia and vesicle-like microdomains in the cytosol.In this report, we show that Lasp-1 is a novel component and regulator of podosomes. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of Lasp-1 in the podosome ring structure, where it colocalizes with zyxin and vinculin. Life cell imaging experiments demonstrate that Lasp-1 is recruited in early steps of podosome assembly. A siRNA-mediated Lasp-1 knockdown in human macrophages affects podosome dynamics as well as their matrix degradation capacity. In summary, our data indicate that Lasp-1 is a novel component of podosomes and is involved in the regulation of podosomal function.

  4. Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 regulates sensory cell survival in the cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Quan Chen

    Full Text Available This study delineates the role of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3 in hair cell death induced by several etiologies of acquired hearing loss (noise trauma, aminoglycoside treatment, age. In vivo, Prx3 transiently increased in mouse cochlear hair cells after traumatic noise exposure, kanamycin treatment, or with progressing age before any cell loss occurred; when Prx3 declined, hair cell loss began. Maintenance of high Prx3 levels via treatment with the radical scavenger 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate prevented kanamycin-induced hair cell death. Conversely, reducing Prx3 levels with Prx3 siRNA increased the severity of noise-induced trauma. In mouse organ of Corti explants, reactive oxygen species and levels of Prx3 mRNA and protein increased concomitantly at early times of drug challenge. When Prx3 levels declined after prolonged treatment, hair cells began to die. The radical scavenger p-phenylenediamine maintained Prx3 levels and attenuated gentamicin-induced hair cell death. Our results suggest that Prx3 is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and that maintenance of Prx3 levels in hair cells is a critical factor in their susceptibility to acquired hearing loss.

  5. Enhanced Heme Function and Mitochondrial Respiration Promote the Progression of Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M.; Sullivan, Laura A.; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  6. Soy lecithin interferes with mitochondrial function in frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, I; Gómez-Durán, A; Holt, W V; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2012-01-01

    Egg yolk and milk are the 2 major membrane cryoprotectants commonly used in freezing media for the long-term preservation of semen (alone or in combination with others). However, in recent years, there have been increasing arguments against the use of egg yolk or milk because of the risk of introducing diseases through the use of cryopreserved semen. In this study, we analyzed the protective effect of lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ram semen, using a range of functional markers for sperm viability, motility, apoptosis, and mitochondrial functionality analyses (mitochondrial inner membrane surface [MIMS], mitochondrial inner membrane potential [MIMP], and cell membrane potential) as methods of assessment in samples diluted in 3 different media: Tris-citrate-glucose as control and 2 media supplemented with soy lecithin or egg yolk. The results showed that lecithin was able to effectively protect certain sperm quality characteristics against freezing-induced damage. However, lecithin induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential or mitochondrial loss that was not reflected by modifications in sperm motility in fresh semen. MIMS and MIMP values decreased in thawed lecithin-treated samples, concomitant with a lower (P lecithin may have affected the inner mitochondrial membrane in frozenthawed spermatozoa and confirmed that sublethal damages that seriously affect sperm functionality, not detected by classic sperm quality analyses, can be evidenced by changes in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface. These findings strengthen the relationship between mitochondrial membrane potential and motility and show that the mitochondrial alterations induced by the cryopreservation process could be specific targets for the improvement of semen cryopreservation protocols.

  7. Fortifying the Link between SIRT1, Resveratrol, and Mitochondrial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Denu, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the health benefits of resveratrol remain enigmatic and controversial. Here, Price et al. establish a clear chemical-genetic connection between SIRT1 and resveratrol, providing strong evidence that SIRT1 is critical for resveratrol to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and a switch toward oxidative muscle fibers (Price et al., 2012).

  8. Functional interplay between mitochondrial and proteasome activity in skin aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozie, Rafa; Greussing, Ruth; Maier, Andrea B.; Declercq, Lieve; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder

    According to the mitochondrial theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived primarily from mitochondria cause cumulative oxidative damage to various cellular molecules and thereby contribute to the aging process. On the other hand, a pivotal role of the proteasome, as a main proteolytic

  9. The Effects of NAD+ on Apoptotic Neuronal Death and Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function after Glutamate Excitotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2014-01-01

    NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for cellular energy metabolism and is also involved as a substrate for many cellular enzymatic reactions. It has been shown that NAD+ has a beneficial effect on neuronal survival and brain injury in in vitro and in vivo ischemic models. However, the effect of NAD+ on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ischemia has not been well investigated. In the present study, we used an in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity model of primary cultured cortical neurons to study the effect of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our results show that supplementation of NAD+ could effectively reduce apoptotic neuronal death, and apoptotic inducing factor translocation after neurons were challenged with excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Using different approaches including confocal imaging, mitochondrial DNA measurement and Western blot analysis of PGC-1 and NRF-1, we also found that NAD+ could significantly attenuate glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, NAD+ treatment effectively inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and NADH redistribution after excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NAD+ is capable of inhibiting apoptotic neuronal death after glutamate excitotoxicity via preserving mitochondrial biogenesis and integrity. Our findings provide insights into potential neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke. PMID:25387075

  10. Estrogen-related receptor α is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangwala, Shamina M.; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERRα null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERRα null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1α levels was dependent on ERRα. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1α-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor γ and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERRα. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERRα. The absence of ERRα resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1α overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERRα as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism

  11. Import, maturation, and function of SOD1 and its copper chaperone CCS in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Cu, Zn, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a ubiquitous enzyme localized in multiple cellular compartments, including mitochondria, where it concentrates in the intermembrane space (IMS). Similar to other small IMS proteins, the import and retention of SOD1 in the IMS is linked to its folding and maturation, involving the formation of critical intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds. Therefore, the cysteine residues of SOD1 play a fundamental role in its IMS localization. IMS import of SOD1 involves its copper chaperone, CCS, whose mitochondrial distribution is regulated by the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system in a redox-dependent manner: CCS promotes SOD1 maturation and retention in the IMS. The function of SOD1 in the IMS is still unknown, but it is plausible that it serves to remove superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mutations in SOD1 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whose pathologic features include mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction. Mutant SOD1 localization in the IMS is not dictated by oxygen concentration and the Mia40/Erv1 system, but is primarily dependent on aberrant protein folding and aggregation. Mutant SOD1 localization and aggregation in the IMS might cause the mitochondrial abnormalities observed in familial ALS and could play a significant role in disease pathogenesis.

  12. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  13. Cisplatin Induces a Mitochondrial-ROS Response That Contributes to Cytotoxicity Depending on Mitochondrial Redox Status and Bioenergetic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, Rossella; Werner, Erica; Degtyareva, Natalya; Moore, Bryn; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used anticancer agents for the treatment of several types of tumors. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is thought to be mediated primarily by the generation of nuclear DNA adducts, which, if not repaired, cause cell death as a consequence of DNA replication and transcription blockage. However, the ability of cisplatin to induce nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage per se is not sufficient to explain its high degree of effectiveness nor the toxic effects exerted on normal, post-mitotic tissues. Oxidative damage has been observed in vivo following exposure to cisplatin in several tissues, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced dose-limiting toxicities. However, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced generation of ROS and their contribution to cisplatin cytotoxicity in normal and cancer cells is still poorly understood. By employing a panel of normal and cancer cell lines and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system, we show that exposure to cisplatin induces a mitochondrial-dependent ROS response that significantly enhances the cytotoxic effect caused by nDNA damage. ROS generation is independent of the amount of cisplatin-induced nDNA damage and occurs in mitochondria as a consequence of protein synthesis impairment. The contribution of cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in determining its cytotoxic effect varies among cells and depends on mitochondrial redox status, mitochondrial DNA integrity and bioenergetic function. Thus, by manipulating these cellular parameters, we were able to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This study provides a new mechanistic insight into cisplatin-induced cell killing and may lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies to improve anticancer drug efficacy. PMID:24260552

  14. Integrative Identification of Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Proteome and Its Function Exploitation through Protein Interaction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Liu, Jinghua; Li, Yuhua; Shi, Tieliu

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are major players on the production of energy, and host several key reactions involved in basic metabolism and biosynthesis of essential molecules. Currently, the majority of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial proteins are unknown even for model plant Arabidopsis. We reported a computational framework for predicting Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteins based on a probabilistic model, called Naive Bayesian Network, which integrates disparate genomic data generated from eight bioinformatics tools, multiple orthologous mappings, protein domain properties and co-expression patterns using 1,027 microarray profiles. Through this approach, we predicted 2,311 candidate mitochondrial proteins with 84.67% accuracy and 2.53% FPR performances. Together with those experimental confirmed proteins, 2,585 mitochondria proteins (named CoreMitoP) were identified, we explored those proteins with unknown functions based on protein-protein interaction network (PIN) and annotated novel functions for 26.65% CoreMitoP proteins. Moreover, we found newly predicted mitochondrial proteins embedded in particular subnetworks of the PIN, mainly functioning in response to diverse environmental stresses, like salt, draught, cold, and wound etc. Candidate mitochondrial proteins involved in those physiological acitivites provide useful targets for further investigation. Assigned functions also provide comprehensive information for Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteome. PMID:21297957

  15. Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds (Avena sativa L. exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT. Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H2O2 scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase, and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that the

  16. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  17. Molecular basis for mitochondrial signaling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in the study of structure, function, and regulation of metabolite, protein and ion translocating channels, and transporters in mitochondria. A wide array of cutting-edge methods are covered, ranging from electrophysiology and cell biology to bioinformatics, as well as structural, systems, and computational biology. At last, the molecular identity of two important channels in the mitochondrial inner membrane, the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been established. After years of work on the physiology and structure of VDAC channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane, there have been multiple discoveries on VDAC permeation and regulation by cytosolic proteins. Recent breakthroughs in structural studies of the mitochondrial cholesterol translocator reveal a set of novel unexpected features and provide essential clues for defining therapeutic strategies. Molecular Basis for Mitochondrial Signaling covers these and many more re...

  18. Flow cytometric probing of mitochondrial function in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coignoul Freddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria that is detectable by a fluorescence shift from green to orange. As a consequence, mitochondrial membrane potential can be optically measured by the orange/green fluorescence intensity ratio. A flow cytometric standardized analytic procedure of the mitochondrial function of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells is proposed along with a critical appraisal of the crucial questions of technical aspects, reproducibility, effect of time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing and reference values. Results The JC-1-associated fluorescence orange and green values and their ratio were proved to be stable over time, independent of age and sex and hypersensitive to intoxication with a mitochondrial potential dissipator. Unless time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing does not exceed 5 hours, the values retrieved remain stable. Reference values for clinically normal horses are given. Conclusion Whenever a quantitative measurement of mitochondrial function in a horse is desired, blood samples should be taken in sodium citrate tubes and kept at room temperature for a maximum of 5 hours before the laboratory procedure detailed here is started. The hope is that this new test may help in confirming, studying and preventing equine myopathies that are currently imputed to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. Mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of neurogenesis: From development to the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacho, Mireille; Slack, Ruth S

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions. In this review, we will highlight the recent findings that illustrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in neurodevelopment and neural stem cell function. Developmental Dynamics 247:47-53, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measurement of Oxidative Stress: Mitochondrial Function Using the Seahorse System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Dilys T H; Chu, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The Seahorse XFp Analyzer is a powerful tool for the assessment of various parameters of cellular respiration. Here we describe the process of the Seahorse Cell Phenotype Test using the Seahorse XFp Analyzer to characterize the metabolic phenotype of live cells. The Seahorse XFp Analyzer can also be coupled with other assays to measure cellular energetics. Given that mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in preeclampsia, the Seahorse XFp Analyzer will serve as a useful tool for the understanding of pathological metabolism in this disorder.

  1. Mitochondrial shaping cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Langer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A broad range of cellular processes are regulated by proteolytic events. Proteolysis has now also been established to control mitochondrial morphology which results from the balanced action of fusion and fission. Two out of three known core components of the mitochondrial fusion machinery are under proteolytic control. The GTPase Fzo1 in the outer membrane of mitochondria is degraded along two independent proteolytic pathways. One controls mitochondrial fusion in vegetatively growing cells, the other one acts upon mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest. Fusion also depends on proteolytic processing of the GTPase Mgm1 by the rhomboid protease Pcp1 in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Functional links of AAA proteases or other proteolytic components to mitochondrial dynamics are just emerging. This review summarises the current understanding of regulatory roles of proteolytic processes for mitochondrial plasticity.

  2. Mitochondrial Respiratory Thresholds Regulate Yeast Chronological Lifespan and its Extension by Caloric Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo, Alejandro; Liu, Jingjing; Schroeder, Elizabeth A.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Barrientos, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the role of mitochondrial function in aging by genetically and pharmacologically modifying yeast cellular respiration production during the exponential and/or stationary growth phases, and determining how this affects chronological lifespan (CLS). Our results demonstrate that respiration is essential during both growth phases for standard CLS, but that yeast have a large respiratory capacity and only deficiencies below a threshold (~40% of wild-type) significantly curtail CLS...

  3. Mechanisms of Heshouwuyin in regulating apoptosis of testicular cells in aging rats through mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Wang, Yujuan; Hui, Chenhong; Xi, Yao; Liu, Xiang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Haokun; Wang, Zhenshan; Niu, Siyun

    2016-09-01

    cells, thus improving the spermatogenic function of the testis. This is mainly achieved by regulating the expression of key genes in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  4. Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce CCL20 up-regulation promoting tumorigenic phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sligh, James [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Janda, Jaroslav [University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Jandova, Jana, E-mail: jjandova@email.arizona.edu [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Alterations in mitochondrial DNA are commonly found in various human cancers. • Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce up-regulation of chemokine CCL20. • Increased growth and motility of mtBALB cells is associated with CCL20 levels. • mtDNA changes in BALB induce in vivo tumor growth through CCL20 up-regulation. • Mutations in mitochondrial DNA play important roles in keratinocyte neoplasia. - Abstract: mtDNA mutations are common in human cancers and are thought to contribute to the process of neoplasia. We examined the role of mtDNA mutations in skin cancer by generating fibroblast cybrids harboring a mutation in the gene encoding the mitochondrial tRNA for arginine. This somatic mutation (9821insA) was previously reported in UV-induced hyperkeratotic skin tumors in hairless mice and confers specific tumorigenic phenotypes to mutant cybrids. Microarray analysis revealed and RT-PCR along with Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in mtBALB haplotype containing the mt-Tr 9821insA allele compared to wild type mtB6 haplotype. Based on reported role of CCL20 in cancer progression we examined whether the hyper-proliferation and enhanced motility of mtBALB haplotype would be associated with CCL20 levels. Treatment of both genotypes with recombinant CCL20 (rmCCL20) resulted in enhanced growth and motility of mtB6 cybrids. Furthermore, the acquired somatic alteration increased the in vivo tumor growth of mtBALB cybrids through the up-regulation of CCL20 since neutralizing antibody significantly decreased in vivo tumor growth of these cells; and tumors from anti-CCL20 treated mice injected with mtBALB cybrids showed significantly decreased CCL20 levels. When rmCCL20 or mtBALB cybrids were used as chemotactic stimuli, mtB6 cybrids showed increased motility while anti-CCL20 antibody decreased the migration and in vivo tumor growth of mtBALB cybrids. Moreover, the inhibitors of MAPK signaling and NF

  5. Nutritional Ketosis and Mitohormesis: Potential Implications for Mitochondrial Function and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamena, Frederick A.

    2018-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial function often results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Moderate levels of mitochondrial ROS, however, can protect against chronic disease by inducing upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and endogenous antioxidant defense. This phenomenon, referred to as mitohormesis, is induced through increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration, which can occur through diet or exercise. Nutritional ketosis is a safe and physiological metabolic state induced through a ketogenic diet low in carbohydrate and moderate in protein. Such a diet increases reliance on mitochondrial respiration and may, therefore, induce mitohormesis. Furthermore, the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is elevated during nutritional ketosis to levels no greater than those resulting from fasting, acts as a signaling molecule in addition to its traditionally known role as an energy substrate. BHB signaling induces adaptations similar to mitohormesis, thereby expanding the potential benefit of nutritional ketosis beyond carbohydrate restriction. This review describes the evidence supporting enhancement of mitochondrial function and endogenous antioxidant defense in response to nutritional ketosis, as well as the potential mechanisms leading to these adaptations. PMID:29607218

  6. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca2+ Signaling during Myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca2+ increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination.

  7. Genomic and non-genomic regulation of PGC1 isoforms by estrogen to increase cerebral vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Martin F.; Stirone, Chris; Krause, Diana N.; Duckles, Sue P.; Procaccio, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that estrogen exerts a novel protective effect on mitochondria in brain vasculature. Here we demonstrate in rat cerebral blood vessels that 17β-estradiol (estrogen), both in vivo and ex vivo, affects key transcriptional coactivators responsible for mitochondrial regulation. Treatment of ovariectomized rats with estrogen in vivo lowered mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) but increased levels of the other PGC-1 isoforms: PGC-1β and PGC-1 related coactivator (PRC). In vessels ex vivo, estrogen decreased protein levels of PGC-1α via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Estrogen treatment also increased phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor, FoxO1, a known pathway for PGC-1α downregulation. In contrast to the decrease in PGC-1α, estrogen increased protein levels of nuclear respiratory factor 1, a known PGC target and mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The latter effect of estrogen was independent of PI3K, suggesting a separate mechanism consistent with increased expression of PGC-1β and PRC. We demonstrated increased mitochondrial biogenesis following estrogen treatment in vivo; cerebrovascular levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A and electron transport chain subunits as well as the mitochondrial/ nuclear DNA ratio were increased. We examined a downstream target of PGC-1β, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis. In vivo estrogen increased protein levels of both GCL subunits and total glutathione levels. Together these data show estrogen differentially regulates PGC-1 isoforms in brain vasculature, underscoring the importance of these coactivators in adapting mitochondria in specific tissues. By upregulating PGC-1β and/or PRC, estrogen appears to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis, function and reactive oxygen species protection. PMID:24275351

  8. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  9. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Matti [Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Geriatrics, Turku City Hospital and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Sundström, Erik [Division of Neurodegeneration, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Baumann, Marc [Protein Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Poyhonen, Minna [Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Hospital, HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Tikka, Saara [Protein Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Behbahani, Homira, E-mail: homira.behbahani@ki.se [Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  10. Pregnenolone biosynthesis in C6-2B glioma cell mitochondria: regulation by a mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, V; Guarneri, P; Kreuger, K E; Guidotti, A; Costa, E

    1992-01-01

    The C6-2B glioma cell line, rich in mitochondrial receptors that bind with high affinity to benzodiazepines, imidazopyridines, and isoquinolinecarboxamides (previously called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors), was investigated as a model to study the significance of the polypeptide diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) and the putative DBI processing products on mitochondrial receptor-regulated steroidogenesis. DBI and its naturally occurring fragments have been found to be present in high...

  11. Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Joon Tae; Choi, Kobong; Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Gyu Ree; Lee, Young-Sam; Park, Sang Chul

    2017-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Phosphorylation regulates SIRT1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Sasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIR2 is an NAD(+-dependent deacetylase [1]-[3] implicated in the regulation of lifespan in species as diverse as yeast [4], worms [5], and flies [6]. We previously reported that the level of SIRT1, the mammalian homologue of SIR2 [7], [8], is coupled to the level of mitotic activity in cells both in vitro and in vivo[9]. Cells from long-lived mice maintained SIRT1 levels of young mice in tissues that undergo continuous cell replacement by proliferating stem cells. Changes in SIRT1 protein level were not associated with changes in mRNA level, suggesting that SIRT1 could be regulated post-transcriptionally. However, other than a recent report on sumoylation [10] and identification of SIRT1 as a nuclear phospho-protein by mass spectrometry [11], post-translational modifications of this important protein have not been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 13 residues in SIRT1 that are phosphorylated in vivo using mass spectrometry. Dephosphorylation by phosphatases in vitro resulted in decreased NAD(+-dependent deacetylase activity. We identified cyclinB/Cdk1 as a cell cycle-dependent kinase that forms a complex with and phosphorylates SIRT1. Mutation of two residues phosphorylated by Cyclin B/Cdk1 (threonine 530 and serine 540 disturbs normal cell cycle progression and fails to rescue proliferation defects in SIRT1-deficient cells [12], [13]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pharmacological manipulation of SIRT1 activity is currently being tested as a means of extending lifespan in mammals. Treatment of obese mice with resveratrol, a pharmacological activator of SIRT1, modestly but significantly improved longevity and, perhaps more importantly, offered some protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome [14]-[16]. Understanding the endogenous mechanisms that regulate the level and activity of SIRT1, therefore, has obvious relevance to human health and disease. Our results identify

  13. Melatonin enhances neural stem cell differentiation and engraftment by increasing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil-Perez, Miguel; Soto-Mercado, Viviana; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Fernandez-Gil, Beatriz I; Florido, Javier; Shen, Ying-Qiang; Tejada, Miguel A; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Rusanova, Iryna; Garcia-Verdugo, José M; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Ferrer, José M; Escames, Germaine

    2017-09-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established. We therefore tested the impact of melatonin on NSC proliferation and differentiation in an attempt to determine whether these actions depend on modulating mitochondrial activity. We measured proliferation and differentiation markers, mitochondrial structural and functional parameters as well as oxidative stress indicators and also evaluated cell transplant engraftment. This enabled us to show that melatonin (25 μM) induces NSC differentiation into oligodendrocytes and neurons. These effects depend on increased mitochondrial mass/DNA/complexes, mitochondrial respiration, and membrane potential as well as ATP synthesis in NSCs. It is also interesting to note that melatonin prevented oxidative stress caused by high levels of mitochondrial activity. Finally, we found that melatonin enriches NSC engraftment in the ND mouse model following transplantation. We concluded that a combined therapy involving transplantation of NSCs pretreated with pharmacological doses of melatonin could efficiently restore neuronal cell populations in PD and AD mouse models depending on mitochondrial activity promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Loss of Drp1 function alters OPA1 processing and changes mitochondrial membrane organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moepert, Kristin [Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Hajek, Petr [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frank, Stephan [Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Chen, Christiane [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Children' s Hospital Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kaufmann, Joerg [Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Santel, Ansgar, E-mail: a.santel@silence-therapeutics.com [Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    RNAi mediated loss of Drp1 function changes mitochondrial morphology in cultured HeLa and HUVEC cells by shifting the balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion towards unopposed fusion. Over time, inhibition of Drp1 expression results in the formation of a highly branched mitochondrial network along with 'bulge'-like structures. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are accompanied by a reduction in levels of Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and 2 (Mfn2) and a modified proteolytic processing of OPA1 isoforms, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, our data imply that bulge formation is driven by Mfn1 action along with particular proteolytic short-OPA1 (s-OPA1) variants: Loss of Mfn2 in the absence of Drp1 results in an increase of Mfn1 levels along with processed s-OPA1-isoforms, thereby enhancing continuous 'fusion' and bulge formation. Moreover, bulge formation might reflect s-OPA1 mitochondrial membrane remodeling activity, resulting in the compartmentalization of cytochrome c deposits. The proteins Yme1L and PHB2 appeared not associated with the observed enhanced OPA1 proteolysis upon RNAi of Drp1, suggesting the existence of other OPA1 processing controlling proteins. Taken together, Drp1 appears to affect the activity of the mitochondrial fusion machinery by unbalancing the protein levels of mitofusins and OPA1.

  15. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF) E (p

  16. Molecular Regulation of the Mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPsynthase: Physiological and Pathological Significance of the Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Faccenda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPsynthase sets out the energy homeostasis by producing the bulk of cellular ATP. As for every enzyme, the laws of thermodynamics command it; however, it is privileged to have a dedicated molecular regulator that controls its rotation. This is the so-called ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1 that blocks its reversal to avoid the consumption of cellular ATP when the enzyme acts as an ATP hydrolase. Recent evidence has also demonstrated that IF1 may control the alignment of the enzyme along the mitochondrial inner membrane, thus increasing the interest for the molecule. We conceived this review to outline the fundamental knowledge of the F1Fo-ATPsynthase and link it to the molecular mechanisms by which IF1 regulates its way of function, with the ultimate goal to highlight this as an important and possibly unique means to control this indispensable enzyme in both physiological and pathological settings.

  17. Mitochondrial Energy and Redox Signaling in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: For a plant to grow and develop, energy and appropriate building blocks are a fundamental requirement. Mitochondrial respiration is a vital source for both. The delicate redox processes that make up respiration are affected by the plant's changing environment. Therefore, mitochondrial regulation is critically important to maintain cellular homeostasis. This involves sensing signals from changes in mitochondrial physiology, transducing this information, and mounting tailored responses, by either adjusting mitochondrial and cellular functions directly or reprogramming gene expression. Recent Advances: Retrograde (RTG) signaling, by which mitochondrial signals control nuclear gene expression, has been a field of very active research in recent years. Nevertheless, no mitochondrial RTG-signaling pathway is yet understood in plants. This review summarizes recent advances toward elucidating redox processes and other bioenergetic factors as a part of RTG signaling of plant mitochondria. Critical Issues: Novel insights into mitochondrial physiology and redox-regulation provide a framework of upstream signaling. On the other end, downstream responses to modified mitochondrial function have become available, including transcriptomic data and mitochondrial phenotypes, revealing processes in the plant that are under mitochondrial control. Future Directions: Drawing parallels to chloroplast signaling and mitochondrial signaling in animal systems allows to bridge gaps in the current understanding and to deduce promising directions for future research. It is proposed that targeted usage of new technical approaches, such as quantitative in vivo imaging, will provide novel leverage to the dissection of plant mitochondrial signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2122–2144. PMID:23234467

  18. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Nicole; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-07-05

    Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases.

  19. Fumarate hydratase is a critical metabolic regulator of hematopoietic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Amelie V; Panagopoulou, Theano I; Villacreces, Arnaud; Vukovic, Milica; Sepulveda, Catarina; Allen, Lewis; Carter, Roderick N; van de Lagemaat, Louie N; Morgan, Marcos; Giles, Peter; Sas, Zuzanna; Gonzalez, Marta Vila; Lawson, Hannah; Paris, Jasmin; Edwards-Hicks, Joy; Schaak, Katrin; Subramani, Chithra; Gezer, Deniz; Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Wills, Jimi; Easterbrook, Aaron; Coman, David; So, Chi Wai Eric; O'Carroll, Donal; Vernimmen, Douglas; Rodrigues, Neil P; Pollard, Patrick J; Morton, Nicholas M; Finch, Andrew; Kranc, Kamil R

    2017-03-06

    Strict regulation of stem cell metabolism is essential for tissue functions and tumor suppression. In this study, we investigated the role of fumarate hydratase (Fh1), a key component of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and cytosolic fumarate metabolism, in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. Hematopoiesis-specific Fh1 deletion (resulting in endogenous fumarate accumulation and a genetic TCA cycle block reflected by decreased maximal mitochondrial respiration) caused lethal fetal liver hematopoietic defects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) failure. Reexpression of extramitochondrial Fh1 (which normalized fumarate levels but not maximal mitochondrial respiration) rescued these phenotypes, indicating the causal role of cellular fumarate accumulation. However, HSCs lacking mitochondrial Fh1 (which had normal fumarate levels but defective maximal mitochondrial respiration) failed to self-renew and displayed lymphoid differentiation defects. In contrast, leukemia-initiating cells lacking mitochondrial Fh1 efficiently propagated Meis1 / Hoxa9 -driven leukemia. Thus, we identify novel roles for fumarate metabolism in HSC maintenance and hematopoietic differentiation and reveal a differential requirement for mitochondrial Fh1 in normal hematopoiesis and leukemia propagation. © 2017 Guitart et al.

  20. Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xin, Zhenlong; Di, Wencheng; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Reiter, Russel J; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. In this review, we first clarify the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction during IR and melatonin's protection of mitochondria under this condition. Thereafter, special focus is placed on the protective actions of melatonin against IR injury in brain, heart, liver, and others. Finally, we explore several potential future directions of research in this area. Collectively, the information compiled here will serve as a comprehensive reference for the actions of melatonin in IR injury identified to date and will hopefully aid in the design of future research and increase the potential of melatonin as a therapeutic agent.

  1. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  2. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic imaging for breast cancer detection and treatment: a role for mitochondrial Complex I function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2018-02-01

    Cancer cells are known to display a variety of metabolic reprogramming strategies to fulfill their own growth and proliferative agenda. With the advent of high resolution imaging strategies, metabolomics techniques etc., there is an increasing appreciation of critical role that tumor cell metabolism plays in the overall breast cancer (BC) growth. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that the development of invasive cancers could be causally connected to deficits in mitochondrial function. Using this study as a rationale, we hypothesize that the widely accepted multistep tumor growth model might have a strong metabolic component as well. In this study, we explore the possibility of targeting mitochondrial Complex I enzyme system for not only metabolic detection of cancer-associated redox changes but also for modulating breast cancer cell growth characteristics. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate two approaches (pharmacological and genetic) for modulating mitochondrial Complex I function so as to achieve breast cancer control.

  4. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether...... mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  5. Normal mitochondrial respiratory function is essential for spatial remote memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA with pathogenic mutations has been found in patients with cognitive disorders. However, little is known about whether pathogenic mtDNA mutations and the resultant mitochondrial respiration deficiencies contribute to the expression of cognitive alterations, such as impairments of learning and memory. To address this point, we used two groups of trans-mitochondrial mice (mito-mice with heteroplasmy for wild-type and pathogenically deleted (Δ mtDNA; the "low" group carried 50% or less ΔmtDNA, and the "high" group carried more than 50% ΔmtDNA. Results Both groups had normal phenotypes for not only spatial learning, but also memory at short retention delays, indicating that ΔmtDNA load did not affect learning and temporal memory. The high group, however, showed severe impairment of memory at long retention delays. In the visual cortex and dentate gyrus of these mice, we observed mitochondrial respiration deficiencies, and reduced Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-α (α-CaMKII, a protein important for the establishment of spatial remote memory. Conclusion Our results indicated that normal mitochondrial respiratory function is necessary for retention and consolidation of memory trace; deficiencies in this function due to high loads of pathogenically mutated mtDNA are responsible for the preferential impairment of spatial remote memory.

  6. Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-07-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. A YEAST SPECIFIC INSERTION AMIDST OBG FOLD IS CRITICAL FOR THE MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION OF Mtg2p IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Mehra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein expression in mitochondria is carried out by ribosomes that are distinct from their cytosolic counterpart. Mitochondrial ribosomes are made of individual proteins having distinct lineages: those with clear bacterial orthologues, those conserved in eukaryotes only and proteins that are species specific. MTG2 is the mitochondrial member of the universally conserved Obg family of GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which associates with and regulates mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit assembly. In this study we demonstrate that MTG2, in addition to the universally conserved OBG and GTPase domains, has an essential yeast specific insertion domain positioned within the N terminal OBG fold. Cells expressing mtg2∆201-294, deleted for the insertion domain are not able to support cellular respiration. In addition, we show that large stretches of amino acids can be inserted into MTG2 at the end of the yeast specific insertion domain and the OBG fold without perturbing its cellular functions, consistent with the insertion domain folding into a species specific protein binding platform.

  8. THE MITOCHONDRIAL PARADIGM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND CELLULAR FUNCTION: A COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPT TO MENDELIAN GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzwanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    While there is general agreement that cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral contributors, the actual mechanistic basis of how these factors initiate or promote CVD development in some individuals while others with identical risk profiles do not, is not clearly understood. This review considers the potential role for mitochondrial genetics and function in determining CVD susceptibility from the standpoint that the original features that molded cellular function were based upon mitochondrial-nuclear relationships established millions of years ago and were likely refined during prehistoric environmental selection events that today, are largely absent. Consequently, contemporary risk factors that influence our susceptibility to a variety of age-related diseases, including CVD were probably not part of the dynamics that defined the processes of mitochondrial – nuclear interaction, and thus, cell function. In this regard, the selective conditions that contributed to cellular functionality and evolution should be given more consideration when interpreting and designing experimental data and strategies. Finally, future studies that probe beyond epidemiologic associations are required. These studies will serve as the initial steps for addressing the provocative concept that contemporary human disease susceptibility is the result of selection events for mitochondrial function that increased chances for prehistoric human survival and reproductive success. PMID:21647091

  9. Brain mitochondrial function in a murine model of cerebral malaria and the therapeutic effects of rhEPO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hempel, Casper; Sjövall, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    and no connection between disease severity and mitochondrial respiratory function. Treatment with rhEPO similarly had no effect on respiratory function. Thus cerebral metabolic dysfunction in CM does not seem to be directly linked to altered mitochondrial respiratory capacity as analyzed in brain homogenates ex...

  10. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cardiac function is energetically demanding, reliant on efficient well-coupled mitochondria to generate adenosine triphosphate and fulfill the cardiac demand. Predictably then, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cardiac pathologies, often related to metabolic disease, most commonly diabetes. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by decreased left ventricular function, arises independently of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Dysregulation of Ca2+ handling, metabolic changes, and oxidative stress are observed in DCM, abnormalities reflected in alterations in mitochondrial energetics. Cardiac tissue from DCM patients also presents with altered mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a possible role of mitochondrial dynamics in its pathological progression. Recent Advances: Abnormal mitochondrial morphology is associated with pathologies across diverse tissues, suggesting that this highly regulated process is essential for proper cell maintenance and physiological homeostasis. Highly structured cardiac myofibers were hypothesized to limit alterations in mitochondrial morphology; however, recent work has identified morphological changes in cardiac tissue, specifically in DCM. Critical Issues: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported independently from observations of altered mitochondrial morphology in DCM. The temporal relationship and causative nature between functional and morphological changes of mitochondria in the establishment/progression of DCM is unclear. Future Directions: Altered mitochondrial energetics and morphology are not only causal for but also consequential to reactive oxygen species production, hence exacerbating oxidative damage through reciprocal amplification, which is integral to the progression of DCM. Therefore, targeting mitochondria for DCM will require better mechanistic characterization of morphological distortion and bioenergetic dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1545–1562. PMID

  11. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corum, Daniel G; Tsichlis, Philip N; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (~5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ~1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.

  12. Maternal age and in vitro culture affect mitochondrial number and function in equine oocytes and embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W Karin; Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Paris, Damien B B P; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J; Stout, Tom A E

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age and in vitro embryo production (IVP) predispose to pregnancy loss in horses. We investigated whether mare age and IVP were associated with alterations in mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number or function that could compromise oocyte and embryo development. Effects of mare age

  13. What cost mitochondria? The maintenance of functional mitochondrial DNA within and across generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Spelbrink, J.N.; Beekman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The peculiar biology of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) potentially has detrimental consequences for organismal health and lifespan. Typically, eukaryotic cells contain multiple mitochondria, each with multiple mtDNA genomes. The high copy number of mtDNA implies that selection on mtDNA functionality is

  14. [Ubiquinone: metabolism and functions. Ubiquinone deficiency and its implication in mitochondrial encephalopathies. Treatment with ubiquinone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuch, R; Colomé, C; Vilaseca, M A; Pineda, M; Campistol, J

    Review of ubiquinone-10 metabolism and functions in humans, focusing its implication in the pathogenesis and physiopathology of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Ubiquinone-10 is an endogenously synthesized lipid with a wide distribution in tissues. Tyrosine and acetil-CoA are involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. This molecule has several biological functions in cells: it is a movil electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also acts as antioxidant. Owing to its implication in these functions, ubiquinone deficiency may cause important deletereous effects in tissues. Several authors reported ubiquinone deficient status in some physiological and pathological conditions. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies may be related to a primary or secondary ubiquinone deficient status, or even to an altered function of ubiquinone in the respiratory chain. Moreover, some relevant aspects about ubiquinone therapy in mitochondrial disorders are reported. According to recent reports about ubiquinone implication in several diseases, its determination in different biological samples seems very useful to elucidate the physiopathological mechanisms involved and even the to start a therapy in cases with ubiquinone deficiency.

  15. Pharmacological Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases improves fitness and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirinen, E.; Canto, C.; Jo, Y.S.; Morato, L.; Zhang, H.; Menzies, K.J.; Williams, E.G.; Mouchiroud, L.; Moullan, N.; Hagberg, C.; Li, W.; Timmers, S.; Imhof, R.; Verbeek, J.; Pujol, A.; Loon, B. van; Viscomi, C.; Zeviani, M.; Schrauwen, P.; Sauve, A.A.; Schoonjans, K.; Auwerx, J.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (Parp)-1 gene in mice enhances oxidative metabolism, thereby protecting against diet-induced obesity. However, the therapeutic use of PARP inhibitors to enhance mitochondrial function remains to be explored. Here, we show

  16. Disturbed mitochondrial function restricts glutamate uptake in the human Müller glia cell line, MIO-M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohra, Rupali; Gurubaran, Iswariyaraja Sridevi; Henriksen, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Using the human Müller cell line, MIO-M1, the aim was to study the impact of mitochondrial inhibition in Müller glia through antimycin A treatment. MIO-M1 cell survival, levels of released lactate, mitochondrial function, and glutamate uptake were studied in response to mitochondrial inhibition...... and glucose restriction. Lactate release decreased in response to glucose restriction. Combined glucose restriction and blocked mitochondrial activity decreased survival and caused collapse of the respiratory chain measured by oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate. Mitochondrial...... inhibition caused impaired glutamate uptake and decreased mRNA expression of the glutamate transporter, EAAT1. Over all, we show important roles of mitochondrial activity in MIO-M1 cell function and survival....

  17. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  18. Changes in mitochondrial function by lipid peroxidation and their inhibition by biscoclaurin alkaloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Arita, T.; Inouye, B.; Nakazawa, T.; Utsumi, K.

    1981-01-01

    During in vitro investigation of changes in mitochondrial function accompanying lipid peroxidation, it was found that cepharanthine, a biscoclaurin alkaloid, protects against such change. Results obtained were as follows: (1) Fe2+ induces lipid peroxidation of isolated mitochondria, resulting in diminished oxidative phosphorylation. (2) This diminishment largely depends on deterioration of ion compartmentation of the membrane and an increase in latent ATPase activity. (3) The Fe2+-induced deterioration in ion compartmentation is inhibited by cepharanthine. (4) Cepharanthine inhibits the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+. (5) Cepharanthine inhibits the lipid peroxidation of soybean lecithin liposomes by 60Co-irradiation

  19. The role of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial function and apoptotic susceptibility in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhihetty, Peter J; Uguccioni, Giulia; Leick, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for cellular bioenergetics, and they mediate apoptosis within cells. We used whole body peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) knockout (KO) animals to investigate its role on organelle function, apoptotic signaling, and cytochrome......-c oxidase activity, an indicator of mitochondrial content, in muscle and other tissues (brain, liver, and pancreas). Lack of PGC-1alpha reduced mitochondrial content in all muscles (17-44%; P liver, and pancreas. However, the tissue expression of proteins involved...

  20. Mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production in differentiating murine stem cells: a functional metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C; Beites, Crestina L; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-02-01

    The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of these pluripotent cells. Here, using P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells as a model system, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of metabolic networks during dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation are revealed. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technology aided in profiling key enzymes, such as hexokinase (HK) [EC 2.7.1.1], glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) [EC 5.3.1.9], pyruvate kinase (PK) [EC 2.7.1.40], Complex I [EC 1.6.5.3], and Complex IV [EC 1.9.3.1], that are involved in the energy budget of the differentiated cells. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was shown to be increased in DMSO-treated cells upon exposure to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates, such as succinate and malate. The increased mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Collectively, the results indicate that oxidative energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were sharply upregulated in DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. This functional metabolic and proteomic study provides further evidence that modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is a pivotal component of the cellular differentiation process and may dictate the final destiny of stem cells.

  1. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  2. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Meneghini, Marc D

    2016-11-29

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2's impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation.

  3. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.; Meneghini, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2’s impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation. PMID:27897198

  4. Tetracyclines Disturb Mitochondrial Function across Eukaryotic Models: A Call for Caution in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Moullan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, tetracyclines, such as doxycycline, have become broadly used to control gene expression by virtue of the Tet-on/Tet-off systems. However, the wide range of direct effects of tetracycline use has not been fully appreciated. We show here that these antibiotics induce a mitonuclear protein imbalance through their effects on mitochondrial translation, an effect that likely reflects the evolutionary relationship between mitochondria and proteobacteria. Even at low concentrations, tetracyclines induce mitochondrial proteotoxic stress, leading to changes in nuclear gene expression and altered mitochondrial dynamics and function in commonly used cell types, as well as worms, flies, mice, and plants. Given that tetracyclines are so widely applied in research, scientists should be aware of their potentially confounding effects on experimental results. Furthermore, these results caution against extensive use of tetracyclines in livestock due to potential downstream impacts on the environment and human health.

  5. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Zhang, Hanrui; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Pearson, Kevin; de Cabo, Rafael; Pacher, Pal; Zhang, Cuihua; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2009-07-01

    Pathways that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Resveratrol was shown to impact mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and the liver, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells remains poorly defined. The present study determined whether resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). In CAECs resveratrol increased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA content, upregulated protein expression of electron transport chain constituents, and induced mitochondrial biogenesis factors (proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was induced, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was upregulated in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 (small interfering RNA) or inhibition of NO synthesis prevented resveratrol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In aortas of type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice impaired mitochondrial biogenesis was normalized by chronic resveratrol treatment, showing the in vivo relevance of our findings. Resveratrol increases mitochondrial content in endothelial cells via activating SIRT1. We propose that SIRT1, via a pathway that involves the upregulation of eNOS, induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the aortas of type 2 diabetic mice, suggesting the potential for new treatment approaches targeting endothelial mitochondria in metabolic diseases.

  6. Mitochondrial bioenergetics during the initiation of mercuric chloride-induced renal injury. I. Direct effects of in vitro mercuric chloride on renal cortical mitochondrial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, J.M. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI); Harding, P.G.; Humes, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important early component of nephrotoxin-induced changes in renal cell function and viability. This study was designed to obtain more detailed information about the effects on several basic bioenergetic parameters of the direct interaction of Hg/sup 2 +/ with renal cortical mitochondria in vitro as a necessary prelude to studies of mitochondrial functional changes after treatment with mercuric chloride in vivo. Beginning at a threshhold level of 2 nmol of Hg/sup 2 +//mg of mitochondrial protein Hg/sup 2 +/ induced marked stimulation of State 4 respiration, mild inhibition of State 3 respiration, and 2,4-dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration, a striking increase in atractyloside-insensitive ADP uptake and stimulation of both basal- and Mg/sup 2 +/-activated oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial ATPase activity. These effects of Hg/sup 2 +/ could be prevented and reversed by the sulfhydryl reagent dithioerythritol and by albumin but were not affected by Mg/sup 2 +/. Detailed studies on the addition of HgCl/sub 2/ to the preparation at different stages of the mitochondrial isolation procedure demonstrated that the presence of other proteins decreased mitochondrial Hg/sup 2 +/ binding, that the Hg/sup 2 +/ was not readily washed off the mitochondria by nonprotein-containing solutions, and that prolonged exposure of mitochondria to Hg/sup 2 +/ during the isolation procedure did not markedly alter its functional effects on their reversibility as assessed on the final mitochondrial preparation. These data provide an important basis for critically assessing the changes in function of mitochondria isolated after in vivo treatment with mercuric chloride.

  7. Exercise training protects against aging-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in mouse skeletal muscle in a PGC-1α dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jens Frey; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Olesen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired mitochondrial function, whereas exercise training enhances mitochondrial content and function in part through activation of PGC-1α. Mitochondria form dynamic networks regulated by fission and fusion with profound effects on mitochondrial functions, yet the effect...... evidence that exercise training rescues aging-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in skeletal muscle by suppressing mitochondrial fission protein expression in a PGC-1α dependent manner....

  8. Novel Functional Role of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Mitochondrial Connexin 43-Mediated Hypoxic Postconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hui Tu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90-mediated mitochondrial import of connexin 43 (Cx43 is critical in preconditioning cardioprotection. The present study was designed to test whether postconditioning has the same effect as preconditioning in promoting Cx43 translocation to mitochondria and whether mitochondrial HSP90 modulates this effect. Methods: Cellular models of hypoxic postconditioning (HPC from rat heart-derived H9c2 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were employed. The effects of HPC on cardiomyocytes apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Reactive oxidative species (ROS production was assessed with the peroxide-sensitive fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin in diacetate (DCFH-DA. The anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2 and Bax, HSP90 and Cx43 protein levels were studied by Western blot analysis in total cell homogenate and sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fractions. The effects on HPC of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA, ROS scavengers superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting Cx43 and HSP90 were also investigated. Results: HPC significantly reduced hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These beneficial effects were accompanied by an increase in Bcl-2 levels and a decrease in Bax levels in both sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fractions. HPC with siRNA targeting Cx43 or the ROS scavengers SOD plus CAT significantly prevented ROS generation and HPC cardioprotection, but HPC with either SOD or CAT did not. These data strongly supported the involvement of Cx43 in HPC cardioprotection, likely via modulation of the ROS balance which plays a central role in HPC protection. Furthermore, HPC increased total and mitochondrial levels of HSP90 and the mitochondria-to-sarcolemma ratio of Cx43; blocking the function of HSP90 with the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA or siRNA targeting

  9. The Human Escort Protein Hep Binds to the ATPase Domain of Mitochondrial Hsp70 and Regulates ATP Hydrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8 ± 0.2 × 10-4 s-1) at 25 °C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain. PMID:18632665

  10. The human escort protein Hep binds to the ATPase domain of mitochondrial hsp70 and regulates ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2008-09-19

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8+/-0.2 x 10(-4) s(-1)) at 25 degrees C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain.

  11. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Hongjuan; Tigchelaar, Wardit; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Patel, Hemal H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Westenbrink, B. Daan; Sillje, Herman H. W.

    2013-01-01

    A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The

  12. Changes of mitochondrial ultrastructure and function during ageing in mice and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Tobias; Mourier, Arnaud; Tain, Luke S; Partridge, Linda; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2017-07-12

    Ageing is a progressive decline of intrinsic physiological functions. We examined the impact of ageing on the ultrastructure and function of mitochondria in mouse and fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) by electron cryo-tomography and respirometry. We discovered distinct age-related changes in both model organisms. Mitochondrial function and ultrastructure are maintained in mouse heart, whereas subpopulations of mitochondria from mouse liver show age-related changes in membrane morphology. Subpopulations of mitochondria from young and old mouse kidney resemble those described for apoptosis. In aged flies, respiratory activity is compromised and the production of peroxide radicals is increased. In about 50% of mitochondria from old flies, the inner membrane organization breaks down. This establishes a clear link between inner membrane architecture and functional decline. Mitochondria were affected by ageing to very different extents, depending on the organism and possibly on the degree to which tissues within the same organism are protected against mitochondrial damage.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of macrophage function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder with a key role for macrophages in all disease stages. Macrophages are involved as scavengers of lipids, regulate inflammation, attract other immune cells and contribute to the resolution of inflammation, fibrosis and plaque stability.

  14. New insight into the mechanism of mitochondrial cytochrome c function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chertkova, Rita V; Brazhe, Nadezda A; Bryantseva, Tatiana V

    2017-01-01

    We investigate functional role of the P76GTKMIFA83 fragment of the primary structure of cytochrome c. Based on the data obtained by the analysis of informational structure (ANIS), we propose a model of functioning of cytochrome c. According to this model, conformational rearrangements of the P76...... with conformational changes and reduced mobility of heme porphyrin. This points to a significant role of the P76GTKMIFA83 fragment in the electron transport function of cytochrome c....

  15. Roles of dynamin-related protein 1 in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in response to UV stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Feng, Jie; Wu, Shengnan

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic structures that frequently divide and fuse with one another to form interconnecting network. This network disintegrates into punctiform organelles during apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether this event has a significant impact on the rate of cell death or only accompanies apoptosis as an epiphenomenon. In this study, we investigate the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPase that mediates outer mitochondrial membrane fission, in mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis in response to UV irradiation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) and HeLa cells. Using time-lapse fluorescent imaging, we find that Drp1 primarily distributes in cytosol under physiological conditions. After UV treatment, Drp1 translocates from cytosol to mitochondria, indicating the enhancement of Drp1 mitochondrial accumulation. Down-regulation of Drp1 by shRNA inhibits UV-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that Drp1 is involved in the regulation of transition from a reticulo-tubular to a punctiform mitochondrial phenotype and mitochondrial fission plays an important role in UV-induced apoptosis.

  16. Glucose-regulated protein 75 determines ER–mitochondrial coupling and sensitivity to oxidative stress in neuronal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit; Metz, Isabell; Bendridi, Nadia; Rieusset, Jennifer; Culmsee, Carsten; Dolga, Amalia Mihalea

    2017-01-01

    The crosstalk between different organelles allows for the exchange of proteins, lipids and ions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are physically linked and signal through the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) to regulate the transfer of Ca2+ from ER stores into the mitochondrial

  17. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ −/− mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. ► Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. ► C/EBPβ inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBPβ expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBPβ deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBPβ −/− mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBPβ −/− mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBPβ in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBPβ might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR activation-mediated adverse effects on liver TG metabolism without disrupting its beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  18. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shaikh M., E-mail: rmizanoor@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Miyazaki, Makoto [Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Friedman, Jacob E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP{beta}) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBP{beta} expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBP{beta} deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBP{beta} in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBP{beta} might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR

  19. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Signaling during Myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Daisuke; Sagara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Junji; Kanemaru, Kazunori; Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

    2015-09-29

    Schwann cells (SCs) myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca(2+) increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Paula I.; Custodio, Jose B.A.; Nunes, Elsa; Moreno, Antonio; Seica, Raquel; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Santos, Maria S.

    2007-01-01

    Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca 2+ delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 μM E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H 2 O 2 in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered

  1. Nutritional support contributes to recuperation in a rat model of aplastic anemia by enhancing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Lifen; Liu, Bing; Shan, Yujia; Li, Yang; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

    2018-02-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease that leads to hematopoietic disorder and peripheral blood pancytopenia. We investigated whether nutritional support is helpful to AA recovery. We established a rat model with AA. A nutrient mixture was administered to rats with AA through different dose gavage once per day for 55 d. Animals in this study were assigned to one of five groups: normal control (NC; group includes normal rats); AA (rats with AA); high dose (AA + nutritional mixture, 2266.95 mg/kg/d); medium dose (1511.3 mg/kg/d); and low dose (1057.91 mg/kg/d). The effects of nutrition administration on general status and mitochondrial function of rats with AA were evaluated. The nutrient mixture with which the rats were supplemented significantly improved weight, peripheral blood parameters, and histologic parameters of rats with AA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that the number of mitochondria in the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain was increased after supplementation by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Nutrient administration also improved mitochondrial DNA content, adenosine triphosphate content, and membrane potential but inhibited oxidative stress, thus, repairing the mitochondrial dysfunction of the rats with AA. Taken together, nutrition supplements may contribute to the improvement of mitochondrial function and play an important role in the recuperation of rats with AA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in morbidly obese patients is normalized one year after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Guy H E J; Bouvy, Nicole D; Hoeks, Joris; Wijers, Sander; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism. As an intrinsic characteristic of an individual, skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction could be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity-associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, impaired skeletal muscle metabolism could be a consequence of obesity. We hypothesize that marked weight loss after bariatric surgery recovers skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function as assessed by high-resolution respirometry was measured in 8 morbidly obese patients (body mass index [BMI], 41.3±4.7 kg/m(2); body fat, 48.3%±5.2%) before and 1 year after bariatric surgery (mean weight loss: 35.0±8.6 kg). The results were compared with a lean (BMI 22.8±1.1 kg/m(2); body fat, 15.6%±4.7%) and obese (BMI 33.5±4.2 kg/m(2); body fat, 34.1%±6.3%) control group. Before surgery, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated (state 3) respiration on glutamate/succinate was decreased compared with lean patients (9.5±2.4 versus 15.6±4.4 O2 flux/mtDNA; Psurgery, mitochondrial function was comparable to that of lean controls (after weight loss, 12.3±5.5; lean, 15.6±4.4 O2 flux/mtDNA). In addition, we observed an increased state 3 respiration on a lipid substrate after weight loss (10.0±3.2 versus 14.0±6.6 O2 flux/mtDNA; Pweight loss. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger Loss of Function and Perturbation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Primary Hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishaali Natarajan

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles are one of the most highly manufactured and employed nanomaterials in the world with applications in copious industrial and consumer products. The liver is a major accumulation site for many nanoparticles, including TiO2, directly through intentional exposure or indirectly through unintentional ingestion via water, food or animals and increased environmental contamination. Growing concerns over the current usage of TiO2 coupled with the lack of mechanistic understanding of its potential health risk is the motivation for this study. Here we determined the toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (commercially available rutile, anatase and P25 on primary rat hepatocytes. Specifically, we evaluated events related to hepatocyte functions and mitochondrial dynamics: (1 urea and albumin synthesis using colorimetric and ELISA assays, respectively; (2 redox signaling mechanisms by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS production, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; (3 OPA1 and Mfn-1 expression that mediates the mitochondrial dynamics by PCR; and (4 mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker Green FM staining. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss (p < 0.05 in hepatocyte functions even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with commercially used P25 causing maximum damage. TiO2 nanoparticles induced a strong oxidative stress in primary hepatocytes. TiO2 nanoparticles exposure also resulted in morphological changes in mitochondria and substantial loss in the fusion process, thus impairing the mitochondrial dynamics. Although this study demonstrated that TiO2 nanoparticles exposure resulted in substantial damage to primary hepatocytes, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the complete toxicological mechanism in primary hepatocytes and subsequently liver function.

  4. Enhanced Neuroplasticity by the Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam Associated with Improved Mitochondrial Dynamics and Altered Permeability Transition Pore Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Stockburger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cascade hypothesis of dementia assumes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to reduced energy supply, impaired neuroplasticity, and finally cell death as one major pathomechanism underlying the continuum from brain aging over mild cognitive impairment to initial and advanced late onset Alzheimer’s disease. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function has become an important strategy to treat the early stages of this continuum. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been proposed as possible prototype for those compounds by increasing impaired mitochondrial function and related aspects like mechanisms of neuroplasticity. We here report that piracetam at therapeutically relevant concentrations improves neuritogenesis in the human cell line SH-SY5Y over conditions mirroring the whole spectrum of age-associated cognitive decline. These effects go parallel with improvement of impaired mitochondrial dynamics shifting back fission and fusion balance to the energetically more favorable fusion site. Impaired fission and fusion balance can also be induced by a reduction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP function as atractyloside which indicates the mPTP has similar effects on mitochondrial dynamics. These changes are also reduced by piracetam. These findings suggest the mPTP as an important target for the beneficial effects of piracetam on mitochondrial function.

  5. Enhanced Neuroplasticity by the Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam Associated with Improved Mitochondrial Dynamics and Altered Permeability Transition Pore Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Carola; Miano, Davide; Pallas, Thea; Friedland, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial cascade hypothesis of dementia assumes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to reduced energy supply, impaired neuroplasticity, and finally cell death as one major pathomechanism underlying the continuum from brain aging over mild cognitive impairment to initial and advanced late onset Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function has become an important strategy to treat the early stages of this continuum. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been proposed as possible prototype for those compounds by increasing impaired mitochondrial function and related aspects like mechanisms of neuroplasticity. We here report that piracetam at therapeutically relevant concentrations improves neuritogenesis in the human cell line SH-SY5Y over conditions mirroring the whole spectrum of age-associated cognitive decline. These effects go parallel with improvement of impaired mitochondrial dynamics shifting back fission and fusion balance to the energetically more favorable fusion site. Impaired fission and fusion balance can also be induced by a reduction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) function as atractyloside which indicates the mPTP has similar effects on mitochondrial dynamics. These changes are also reduced by piracetam. These findings suggest the mPTP as an important target for the beneficial effects of piracetam on mitochondrial function.

  6. MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur cluster protein ISCU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Favaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in cancers results in the upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 and a microRNA, hsa-miR-210 (miR-210 which is associated with a poor prognosis.In human cancer cell lines and tumours, we found that miR-210 targets the mitochondrial iron sulfur scaffold protein ISCU, required for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, cofactors for key enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and iron metabolism. Down regulation of ISCU was the major cause of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in hypoxia. ISCU suppression reduced mitochondrial complex 1 activity and aconitase activity, caused a shift to glycolysis in normoxia and enhanced cell survival. Cancers with low ISCU had a worse prognosis.Induction of these major hallmarks of cancer show that a single microRNA, miR-210, mediates a new mechanism of adaptation to hypoxia, by regulating mitochondrial function via iron-sulfur cluster metabolism and free radical generation.

  7. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y; Vorobyeva, Darya A; Carter, Christy S; Anton, Stephen D; Lezza, Angela M S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2010-05-11

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn) mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10) (Q-ter), creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+) retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age. These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months). The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months) was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  8. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  9. Mitochondrial electron transport chain functions in long-lived Ames dwarf mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choksi, Kashyap B.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; DeFord, James H.; Papaconstantinou, John

    2011-01-01

    The age-associated decline in tissue function has been attributed to ROS-mediated oxidative damage due to mitochondrial dysfunction. The long-lived Ames dwarf mouse exhibits resistance to oxidative stress, a physiological characteristic of longevity. It is not known, however, whether there are differences in the electron transport chain (ETC) functions in Ames tissues that are associated with their longevity. In these studies we analyzed enzyme activities of ETC complexes, CI-CV and the coupled CI-CII and CII-CIII activities of mitochondria from several tissues of young, middle aged and old Ames dwarf mice and their corresponding wild type controls to identify potential mitochondrial prolongevity functions. Our studies indicate that post-mitotic heart and skeletal muscle from Ames and wild-type mice show similar changes in ETC complex activities with aging, with the exception of complex IV. Furthermore, the kidney, a slowly proliferating tissue, shows dramatic differences in ETC functions unique to the Ames mice. Our data show that there are tissue specific mitochondrial functions that are characteristic of certain tissues of the long-lived Ames mouse. We propose that this may be a factor in the determination of extended lifespan of dwarf mice. PMID:21934186

  10. Sexual conflict explains the extraordinary diversity of mechanisms regulating mitochondrial inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Lane, Nick; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2017-10-26

    Mitochondria are predominantly inherited from the maternal gamete, even in unicellular organisms. Yet an extraordinary array of mechanisms enforce uniparental inheritance, which implies shifting selection pressures and multiple origins. We consider how this high turnover in mechanisms controlling uniparental inheritance arises using a novel evolutionary model in which control of mitochondrial transmission occurs either during spermatogenesis (by paternal nuclear genes) or at/after fertilization (by maternal nuclear genes). The model treats paternal leakage as an evolvable trait. Our evolutionary analysis shows that maternal control consistently favours strict uniparental inheritance with complete exclusion of sperm mitochondria, whereas some degree of paternal leakage of mitochondria is an expected outcome under paternal control. This difference arises because mito-nuclear linkage builds up with maternal control, allowing the greater variance created by asymmetric inheritance to boost the efficiency of purifying selection and bring benefits in the long term. In contrast, under paternal control, mito-nuclear linkage tends to be much weaker, giving greater advantage to the mixing of cytotypes, which improves mean fitness in the short term, even though it imposes a fitness cost to both mating types in the long term. Sexual conflict is an inevitable outcome when there is competition between maternal and paternal control of mitochondrial inheritance. If evolution has led to complete uniparental inheritance through maternal control, it creates selective pressure on the paternal nucleus in favour of subversion through paternal leakage, and vice versa. This selective divergence provides a reason for the repeated evolution of novel mechanisms that regulate the transmission of paternal mitochondria, both in the fertilized egg and spermatogenesis. Our analysis suggests that the widespread occurrence of paternal leakage and prevalence of heteroplasmy are natural outcomes of

  11. Resistance Training with Co-ingestion of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Attenuates Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele A. Cardinale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to examine the effects of resistance exercise with concomitant consumption of high vs. low daily doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. As a secondary aim, we compared the effects of eccentric overload with conventional training.Methods: Twenty participants were randomized to either a group taking high doses (3 × 400 mg/day of ibuprofen (IBU; 27 ± 5 year; n = 11 or a group ingesting a low dose (1 × 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 26 ± 4 year; n = 9 during 8 weeks of supervised knee extensor resistance training. Each of the subject's legs were randomized to complete the training program using either a flywheel (FW device emphasizing eccentric overload, or a traditional weight stack machine (WS. Maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (CI+IIP from permeabilized skeletal muscle bundles was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. Citrate synthase (CS activity was assessed using spectrophotometric techniques and mitochondrial protein content using western blotting.Results: After training, CI+IIP decreased (P < 0.05 in both IBU (23% and ASA (29% with no difference across medical treatments. Although CI+IIP decreased in both legs, the decrease was greater (interaction p = 0.015 in WS (33%, p = 0.001 compared with FW (19%, p = 0.078. CS activity increased (p = 0.027 with resistance training, with no interactions with medical treatment or training modality. Protein expression of ULK1 increased with training in both groups (p < 0.001. The increase in quadriceps muscle volume was not correlated with changes in CI+IIP (R = 0.16.Conclusion: These results suggest that 8 weeks of resistance training with co-ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces mitochondrial function but increases mitochondrial content. The observed changes were not affected by higher doses of NSAIDs consumption, suggesting that the resistance training

  12. Metformin regulates global DNA methylation via mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, E; Fernández-Arroyo, S; Verdura, S; García, R Á-F; Stursa, J; Werner, L; Blanco-González, E; Montes-Bayón, M; Joven, J; Viollet, B; Neuzil, J; Menendez, J A

    2018-02-15

    The anti-diabetic biguanide metformin may exert health-promoting effects via metabolic regulation of the epigenome. Here we show that metformin promotes global DNA methylation in non-cancerous, cancer-prone and metastatic cancer cells by decreasing S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a strong feedback inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent DNA methyltransferases, while promoting the accumulation of SAM, the universal methyl donor for cellular methylation. Using metformin and a mitochondria/complex I (mCI)-targeted analog of metformin (norMitoMet) in experimental pairs of wild-type and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-, serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2)- and mCI-null cells, we provide evidence that metformin increases the SAM:SAH ratio-related methylation capacity by targeting the coupling between serine mitochondrial one-carbon flux and CI activity. By increasing the contribution of one-carbon units to the SAM from folate stores while decreasing SAH in response to AMPK-sensed energetic crisis, metformin can operate as a metabolo-epigenetic regulator capable of reprogramming one of the key conduits linking cellular metabolism to the DNA methylation machinery.

  13. Global DNA methylation synergistically regulates the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Johnson, Jacqueline; St John, Justin C

    2018-05-02

    Replication of mitochondrial DNA is strictly regulated during differentiation and development allowing each cell type to acquire its required mtDNA copy number to meet its specific needs for energy. Undifferentiated cells establish the mtDNA set point, which provides low numbers of mtDNA copy but sufficient template for replication once cells commit to specific lineages. However, cancer cells, such as those from the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, HSR-GBM1, cannot complete differentiation as they fail to enforce the mtDNA set point and are trapped in a 'pseudo-differentiated' state. Global DNA methylation is likely to be a major contributing factor, as DNA demethylation treatments promote differentiation of HSR-GBM1 cells. To determine the relationship between DNA methylation and mtDNA copy number in cancer cells, we applied whole genome MeDIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to HSR-GBM1 cells and following their treatment with the DNA demethylation agents 5-azacytidine and vitamin C. We identified key methylated regions modulated by the DNA demethylation agents that also induced synchronous changes to mtDNA copy number and nuclear gene expression. Our findings highlight the control exerted by DNA methylation on the expression of key genes, the regulation of mtDNA copy number and establishment of the mtDNA set point, which collectively contribute to tumorigenesis.

  14. Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Maintains Blood Flow, Mitochondrial Function, and Redox Balance in Old Mice Following Prolonged Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Miura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a major factor in the decline of limb blood flow with ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS with regard to limb perfusion recovery in aging during ischemia. We performed femoral artery ligation in young and old mice with or without treatment with a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide, MitoTEMPO (180 μg/kg/day, from pre-operative day 7 to post-operative day (POD 21 infusion using an implanted mini-pump. The recoveries of cutaneous blood flow in the ischemic hind limb were lower in old mice than in young mice but were improved in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Mitochondrial DNA damage appeared in ischemic aged muscles but was eliminated by MitoTEMPO treatment. For POD 2, MitoTEMPO treatment suppressed the expression of p53 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ischemic aged skeletal muscles. For POD 21, MitoTEMPO treatment preserved the expression of PGC-1α in ischemic aged skeletal muscle. The ischemic soleus of old mice showed a lower mitochondrial respiratory control ratio in POD 21 compared to young mice, which was recovered in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide attenuated mitochondrial DNA damage and preserved the mitochondrial respiration, in addition to suppression of the expression of p53 and preservation of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in ischemic skeletal muscles with aging. Resolution of excessive mitochondrial superoxide could be an effective therapy to recover blood flow of skeletal muscle during ischemia in senescence.

  15. AMPK activation through mitochondrial regulation results in increased substrate oxidation and improved metabolic parameters in models of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonchu Jenkins

    Full Text Available Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively. R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both (13C-palmitate and (13C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models.

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Monocyte and Macrophage Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marten A.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key players in tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Epigenetic processes tightly regulate cellular functioning in health and disease. Recent Advances: Recent technical developments have allowed detailed characterizations of the transcriptional circuitry underlying

  17. Downregulation of PGC-1α Prevents the Beneficial Effect of EET-Heme Oxygenase-1 on Mitochondrial Integrity and Associated Metabolic Function in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra P. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Obesity and metabolic syndrome and associated adiposity are a systemic condition characterized by increased mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and inhibition of antioxidant genes, HO-1, and EETs levels. We postulate that EETs attenuate adiposity by stimulating mitochondrial function and induction of HO-1 via activation of PGC-1α in adipose and hepatic tissue. Methods. Cultured murine adipocytes and mice fed a high fat (HF diet were used to assess the functional relationship among EETs, PGC-1α, HO-1, and mitochondrial signaling using an EET-agonist (EET-A and PGC-1α-deficient cells and mice using lentiviral PGC-1α(sh. Results. EET-A is a potent inducer of PGC-1α, HO-1, mitochondrial biogenesis (cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 4 and SIRT3, fusion proteins (Mfn 1/2 and OPA1 and fission proteins (DRP1 and FIS1 (p<0.05, fasting glucose, BW, and blood pressure. These beneficial effects were prevented by administration of lenti-PGC-1α(sh. EET-A administration prevented HF diet induced mitochondrial and dysfunction in adipose tissue and restored VO2 effects that were abrogated in PGC-1α-deficient mice. Conclusion. EET is identified as an upstream positive regulator of PGC-1α that leads to increased HO-1, decreased BW and fasting blood glucose and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation, that is, increased insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial integrity, and possible use of EET-agonist for treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  18. THE MITOCHONDRIAL PARADIGM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND CELLULAR FUNCTION: A COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPT TO MENDELIAN GENETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Kryzwanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    While there is general agreement that cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral contributors, the actual mechanistic basis of how these factors initiate or promote CVD development in some individuals while others with identical risk profiles do not, is not clearly understood. This review considers the potential role for mitochondrial genetics and function in determining CVD susceptibility from the standpoint that the orig...

  19. Effects of vildagliptin versus sitagliptin, on cardiac function, heart rate variability and mitochondrial function in obese insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pintana, Hiranya; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to cause insulin resistance, which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia with metabolic inflexibility. Insulin resistance is associated with cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, are oral anti-diabetic drugs often prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a murine model of insulin resistance. Experimental Approach Male Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g, were fed either a normal diet (20% energy from fat) or a HFD (59% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. These rats were then divided into three subgroups to receive vildagliptin (3 mg·kg−1·day−1), sitagliptin (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or vehicle for another 21 days. Metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Key Results Rats that received HFD developed insulin resistance characterized by increased body weight, plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels along with a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial morphology changes were observed in HFD rats. Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin decreased plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress as well as increased HDL level. Furthermore, vildagliptin and sitagliptin attenuated cardiac dysfunction, prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and completely restored HRV. Conclusions and Implications Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin share similar efficacy in cardioprotection in obese insulin-resistant rats. PMID:23488656

  20. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, mitochondrial replacement (MR, and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  1. Age-related mitochondrial DNA depletion and the impact on pancreatic Beta cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Donna L; Brown, Audrey E; Kumaheri, Meutia A; Blair, Helen R; Heggie, Alison; Miwa, Satomi; Cree, Lynsey M; Payne, Brendan; Chinnery, Patrick F; Brown, Louise; Gunn, David A; Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterised by an age-related decline in insulin secretion. We previously identified a 50% age-related decline in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in isolated human islets. The purpose of this study was to mimic this degree of mtDNA depletion in MIN6 cells to determine whether there is a direct impact on insulin secretion. Transcriptional silencing of mitochondrial transcription factor A, TFAM, decreased mtDNA levels by 40% in MIN6 cells. This level of mtDNA depletion significantly decreased mtDNA gene transcription and translation, resulting in reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and ATP production. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired following partial mtDNA depletion, but was normalised following treatment with glibenclamide. This confirms that the deficit in the insulin secretory pathway precedes K+ channel closure, indicating that the impact of mtDNA depletion is at the level of mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, partial mtDNA depletion to a degree comparable to that seen in aged human islets impaired mitochondrial function and directly decreased insulin secretion. Using our model of partial mtDNA depletion following targeted gene silencing of TFAM, we have managed to mimic the degree of mtDNA depletion observed in aged human islets, and have shown how this correlates with impaired insulin secretion. We therefore predict that the age-related mtDNA depletion in human islets is not simply a biomarker of the aging process, but will contribute to the age-related risk of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meex, R.C.R.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Mensink, M.R.; Phielix, E.; Weijer, van de T.; Sels, J.P.; Schrauwen, P.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2

  3. Defective mitochondrial function in vivo in skeletal muscle in adults with Down's syndrome: a 31P-MRS study.

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    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available Down's syndrome (DS is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID. We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr, which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7 ± 0.1 min(-1 vs 2.1 ± 0.1 min(-1 respectively who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using (31P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS.

  4. The metabolic enhancer piracetam ameliorates the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurite outgrowth induced by beta-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, C; Ungerer, I; Lipka, U; Kirr, S; Schütt, T; Eckert, A; Leuner, K; Müller, W E

    2010-05-01

    beta-Amyloid peptide (Abeta) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by initiating a cascade of events from mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been shown to improve mitochondrial dysfunction following brain aging and experimentally induced oxidative stress. We used cell lines (PC12 and HEK cells) and murine dissociated brain cells. The protective effects of piracetam in vitro and ex vivo on Abeta-induced impairment of mitochondrial function (as mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production), on secretion of soluble Abeta and on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells were investigated. Piracetam improves mitochondrial function of PC12 cells and acutely dissociated brain cells from young NMRI mice following exposure to extracellular Abeta(1-42). Similar protective effects against Abeta(1-42) were observed in dissociated brain cells from aged NMRI mice, or mice transgenic for mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) treated with piracetam for 14 days. Soluble Abeta load was markedly diminished in the brain of those animals after treatment with piracetam. Abeta production by HEK cells stably transfected with mutant human APP was elevated by oxidative stress and this was reduced by piracetam. Impairment of neuritogenesis is an important consequence of Abeta-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Abeta-induced reduction of neurite growth in PC12 cells was substantially improved by piracetam. Our findings strongly support the concept of improving mitochondrial function as an approach to ameliorate the detrimental effects of Abeta on brain function.

  5. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Cardiac Structural, Functional, and Mitochondrial Consequences of Diet-Induced Metabolic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Aaron L; Elezaby, Aly; Qin, Fuzhong; Behring, Jessica B; Luptak, Ivan; Calamaras, Timothy D; Siwik, Deborah A; Miller, Edward J; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Pimentel, David R; Cohen, Richard A; Bachschmid, Markus M; Colucci, Wilson S

    2016-01-11

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with metabolic heart disease (MHD). However, the mechanism by which ROS cause MHD is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial ROS are a key mediator of MHD. Mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet develop MHD with cardiac diastolic and mitochondrial dysfunction that is associated with oxidative posttranslational modifications of cardiac mitochondrial proteins. Transgenic mice that express catalase in mitochondria and wild-type mice were fed an HFHS or control diet for 4 months. Cardiac mitochondria from HFHS-fed wild-type mice had a 3-fold greater rate of H2O2 production (P=0.001 versus control diet fed), a 30% decrease in complex II substrate-driven oxygen consumption (P=0.006), 21% to 23% decreases in complex I and II substrate-driven ATP synthesis (P=0.01), and a 62% decrease in complex II activity (P=0.002). In transgenic mice that express catalase in mitochondria, all HFHS diet-induced mitochondrial abnormalities were ameliorated, as were left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. In HFHS-fed wild-type mice complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and activity were restored ex vivo by dithiothreitol (5 mmol/L), suggesting a role for reversible cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications. In vitro site-directed mutation of complex II subunit B Cys100 or Cys103 to redox-insensitive serines prevented complex II dysfunction induced by ROS or high glucose/high palmitate in the medium. Mitochondrial ROS are pathogenic in MHD and contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, at least in part, by causing oxidative posttranslational modifications of complex I and II proteins including reversible oxidative posttranslational modifications of complex II subunit B Cys100 and Cys103. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Williams

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that control various aspects of cellular and organism homeostasis. Quality control mechanisms are in place to ensure maximal mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis at the cellular level. Dysregulation of these pathways is a common theme in human disease. In this mini-review, we discuss how alterations of the mitochondrial network influences mitochondrial function, focusing on the molecular regulators of mitochondrial dynamics (organelle’s shape and localization. We highlight similarities and critical differences in the mitochondrial network of cancer and type 2 diabetes, which may be relevant for treatment of these diseases.

  7. Fe(III Is Essential for Porcine Embryonic Development via Mitochondrial Function Maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available Iron is an important trace element involved in several biological processes. The role of iron in porcine early embryonic development remains unknown. In the present study, we depleted iron (III, Fe3+ with deferoxamine (DFM, a specific Fe3+ chelator, in cultured porcine parthenotes and monitored embryonic development, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP production. Results showed biphasic function of Fe3+ in porcine embryo development. 0.5 μM DFM obviously increased blastocyst formation (57.49 ± 2.18% vs. control, 43.99 ± 1.72%, P < 0.05 via reduced (P < 0.05 production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, further increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in blastocysts (P < 0.05. 0.5 μM DFM decreased mRNA expression of Caspase 3 (Casp3 and increased Bcl-xL. However, results showed a significant reduction in blastocyst formation in the presence of 5.0 μM DFM compared with the control group (DFM, 21.62 ± 3.92% vs. control, 43.99 ± 1.73%, P < 0.05. Fe3+ depletion reduced the total (DFM, 21.10 ± 8.78 vs. control, 44.09 ± 13.65, P < 0.05 and increased apoptotic cell number (DFM, 11.10 ± 5.24 vs. control, 2.64 ± 1.43, P < 0.05 in the blastocyst. An obvious reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level after 5.0 μM DFM treatment was observed. Co-localization between mitochondria and cytochrome c was reduced after high concentration of DFM treatment. In conclusion, Fe3+ is essential for porcine embryonic development via mitochondrial function maintenance, but redundant Fe3+ impairs the function of mitochondria.

  8. Clinical benefit of drugs targeting mitochondrial function as an adjunct to reperfusion in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Morciano, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of drugs targeting mitochondrial function vs. placebo in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing mechanical coronary reperfusion. METHODS...

  9. Alcohol alters hepatic FoxO1, p53, and mitochondrial SIRT5 deacetylation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, Charles S.; Leo, Maria Anna; Wang, Xiaolei; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects the gene expression of a NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC-1α). Our aim was to verify that it also alters the forkhead (FoxO1) and p53 transcription factor proteins, critical in the hepatic response to oxidative stress and regulated by SIRT1 through its deacetylating capacity. Accordingly, rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-containing liquid diets for 28 days. Alcohol increased hepatic mRNA expression of FoxO1 (p = 0.003) and p53 (p = 0.001) while corresponding protein levels remained unchanged. However phospho-FoxO1 and phospho-Akt (protein kinase) were both decreased by alcohol consumption (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively) while hepatic p53 was found hyperacetylated (p = 0.017). Furthermore, mitochondrial SIRT5 was reduced (p = 0.0025), and PGC-1α hyperacetylated (p = 0.027), establishing their role in protein modification. Thus, alcohol consumption disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial interactions by post-translation protein modifications, which contribute to alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis through the newly discovered reduction of SIRT5

  10. Executive functions and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2012-03-01

    Self-regulation is a core aspect of adaptive human behavior that has been studied, largely in parallel, through the lenses of social and personality psychology as well as cognitive psychology. Here, we argue for more communication between these disciplines and highlight recent research that speaks to their connection. We outline how basic facets of executive functioning (working memory operations, behavioral inhibition, and task-switching) may subserve successful self-regulation. We also argue that temporary reductions in executive functions underlie many of the situational risk factors identified in the social psychological research on self-regulation and review recent evidence that the training of executive functions holds significant potential for improving poor self-regulation in problem populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial function in type I cells isolated from rabbit arterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchen, M R; Biscoe, T J

    1992-05-01

    1. In this, and the accompanying paper (Duchen & Biscoe, 1992), we test the hypothesis that the oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial electron transport forms a basis for transduction in the carotid body, the primary peripheral arterial oxygen sensor. We here describe for isolated type I cells the changes in autofluorescence of mitochondrial NAD(P)H that accompany changes in PO2. 2. NAD(P)H autofluorescence (excitation, 340-360 nm; emission peak, 450 nm) increased with anoxia, reflecting a rise in the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratio. Graded increases in autofluorescence were seen in response to graded decreases in PO2, suggesting that mitochondrial function is progressively altered below a PO2 of about 60 mmHg. 3. A mitochondrial origin for the NAD(P)H autofluorescence was suggested by the mutual exclusion of the responses to anoxia and cyanide. 4. Oxidized flavoproteins fluoresce when excited at 450 nm with an emission peak at 550 nm. The small signals obtained under these conditions increased with uncoupler and showed a graded decrease with falling PO2 reflecting a rise in the FADH/FAD ratio. 5. Hypoxia raises [Ca2+]i. The hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial function were not secondary to this rise. A brief K(+)-induced depolarization leads to a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. At the same time there is a rapid decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence followed by an increase that far outlasts the rise in [Ca2+]i. This delayed increase in autofluorescence was smaller than was the increase with anoxia, even though K(+)-induced depolarization raised [Ca2+]i more than does anoxia. In Ca(2+)-free solutions the depolarization-induced changes were abolished, while those associated with hypoxia were maintained. 6. The changes of autofluorescence with K(+)-induced depolarization appear to reflect (i) oxidation of NAD(P)H by stimulation of respiration following mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and (ii) reduction of NAD(P) by the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. This

  12. Mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore

    2006-11-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is expanding rapidly. In this review, I will give the latest information on disorders affecting predominantly or exclusively skeletal muscle. The most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency and mutations in genes controlling mitochondrial DNA abundance and structure, such as POLG, TK2, and MPV17. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with decreased amount and altered structure of cardiolipin, the main phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a secondary impairment of respiratory chain function is plausible. The role of mutations in protein-coding genes of mitochondrial DNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. Mutations in tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA can also cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and--contrary to conventional wisdom--these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  13. The regulation of mitochondrial respiration by opening of mKCa channels is age-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, André; Winning, Adrian; Schlack, Wolfgang; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt; Frässdorf, Jan; Weber, Nina C.

    2008-01-01

    The protective potency of ischemic preconditioning decreases with increasing age. A key step in ischemic preconditioning is the opening of mitochondrial Ca(2+) sensitive K(+) (mK(Ca)) channels, which causes mild uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration. We hypothesized that aging reduces the effects

  14. Xanthurenic acid translocates proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins into mitochondria and impairs mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Otto M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous molecule produced by tryptophan degradation, produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Its accumulation can be observed in aging-related diseases, e.g. senile cataract and infectious disease. We previously reported that xanthurenic acid provokes apoptosis, and now present a study of the response of mitochondria to xanthurenic acid. Results Xanthurenic acid at 10 or 20 μM in culture media of human aortic smooth muscle cells induces translocation of the proteins Bax, Bak, Bclxs, and Bad into mitochondria. In 20 μM xanthurenic acid, Bax is also translocated to the nucleus. In isolated mitochondria xanthurenic acid leads to Bax and Bclxs oligomerization, accumulation of Ca2+, and increased oxygen consumption. Conclusion Xanthurenic acid interacts directly with Bcl-2 family proteins, inducing mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis and impairing mitochondrial functions.

  15. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  17. PINK1 is necessary for long term survival and mitochondrial function in human dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wood-Kaczmar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease, we studied PINK1 loss of function in human and primary mouse neurons. Using RNAi, we created stable PINK1 knockdown in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from foetal ventral mesencephalon stem cells, as well as in an immortalised human neuroblastoma cell line. We sought to validate our findings in primary neurons derived from a transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse. For the first time we demonstrate an age dependent neurodegenerative phenotype in human and mouse neurons. PINK1 deficiency leads to reduced long-term viability in human neurons, which die via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Human neurons lacking PINK1 demonstrate features of marked oxidative stress with widespread mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. We report that PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in the mitochondria of mammalian neurons, especially against stress such as staurosporine. In addition we provide evidence that cellular compensatory mechanisms such as mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of lysosomal degradation pathways occur in PINK1 deficiency. The phenotypic effects of PINK1 loss-of-function described here in mammalian neurons provides mechanistic insight into the age-related degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons seen in PD.

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Control Reactive Oxygen Species Release, Mitochondrial Autophagy and C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase/P38 Phosphorylation During Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Baregamian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the disruption of the protective gut barrier through various mechanisms; mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and oxidative injury may potentially be a significant source of apoptosis during necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα is thought to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and activate the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/p38 pathway. Hence, the focus of our study was to examine the effects of TNFα/ROs on mitochondrial function, ASK1-JNK/p38 cascade activation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC.

  19. KDM4A Coactivates E2F1 to Regulate the PDK-Dependent Metabolic Switch between Mitochondrial Oxidation and Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The histone lysine demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2A has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis through its role in transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe KDM4A as a E2F1 coactivator and demonstrate a functional role for the E2F1-KDM4A complex in the control of tumor metabolism. KDM4A associates with E2F1 on target gene promoters and enhances E2F1 chromatin binding and transcriptional activity, thereby modulating the transcriptional profile essential for cancer cell proliferation and survival. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs PDK1 and PDK3 are direct targets of KDM4A and E2F1 and modulate the switch between glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. Downregulation of KDM4A leads to elevated activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial oxidation, resulting in excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The altered metabolic phenotypes can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of PDK1 and PDK3, indicating a KDM4A-dependent tumor metabolic regulation via PDK. Our results suggest that KDM4A is a key regulator of tumor metabolism and a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

  20. Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity by thyroid hormones: focus on "old" triiodothyronine and the "emerging" 3,5-diiodothyronine".

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta eLombardi; Maria eMoreno; Pieter eDe Lange; Susanna eIossa; Rosa Anna eBusiello; Fernando eGoglia

    2015-01-01

    3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) plays a crucial role in regulating metabolic rate and fuel oxidation; however, the mechanisms by which it affects whole-body energy metabolism are still not completely understood. Skeletal muscle (SKM) plays a relevant role in energy metabolism and responds to thyroid state by remodeling the metabolic characteristics and cytoarchitecture of myocytes. These processes are coordinated with changes in mitochondrial content, bioenergetics, substrate oxidation rate, ...

  1. Cutaneous Respirometry as Novel Technique to Monitor Mitochondrial Function: A Feasibility Study in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, Robert Jan; Mik, Egbert

    2016-01-01

    Background The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) is proposed as a potential clinical non-invasive tool to monitor mitochondrial function. This technique has been evaluated in several animal studies. Mitochondrial respirometry allows measurement in vivo of mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) and mitochondrial oxygen consumption (mitoVO2) in skin. This study describes the first use of a clinical prototype in skin of humans. Methods The clinical prototype was tested in 30 healthy volunteers. A self-adhesive patch containing 2 mg 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was applied on the skin of the anterior chest wall (sternal) for induction of mitochondrial protoporphyrin IX and was protected from light for 5 h. MitoPO2 was measured by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX. MitoVO2 was determined by dynamic mitoPO2 measurements on the primed skin, while locally blocking oxygen supply by applying local pressure with the measurement probe. MitoPO2 was recorded before and during a 60-s period of compression of the microcirculation, at an interval of 1 Hz. Oxygen consumption (i.e. the local oxygen disappearance rate) was calculated from the decay of the mitoPO2 slope. Results Oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence measurements were successfully performed in the skin of 27 volunteers. The average value (± SD) of mitoPO2 was 44 ± 17 mmHg and mean mitoVO2 values were 5.8 ± 2.3 and 6.1 ± 1.6 mmHg s-1 at a skin temperature of 34°C and 40°C, respectively. No major discomfort during measurement and no long-term dermatological abnormalities were reported in a survey performed 1 month after measurements. Conclusion These results show that the clinical prototype allows measurement of mitochondrial oxygenation and oxygen consumption in humans. The development of this clinically applicable device offers opportunities for further evaluation of the technique in humans and the start of first clinical studies. PMID:27455073

  2. Evaluation of ubiquinone concentration and mitochondrial function relative to cerivastatin-induced skeletal myopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, William H.; Lawrence, Jeffery W.; Loughlin, Amy F.; Stoffregen, Dana A.; Mixson, Lori A.; Dean, Dennis C.; Raab, Conrad E.; Yu, Nathan X.; Lankas, George R.; Frederick, Clay B.

    2004-01-01

    As a class, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors can potentially cause skeletal myopathy. One statin, cerivastatin, has recently been withdrawn from the market due to an unacceptably high incidence of rhabdomyolysis. The mechanism underlying statin-induced myopathy is unknown. This paper sought to investigate the relationship among statin-induced myopathy, mitochondrial function, and muscle ubiquinone levels. Rats were administered cerivastatin at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 (mg/kg)/day or dose vehicle (controls) by oral gavage for 15 days. Samples of type I-predominant skeletal muscle (soleus) and type II-predominant skeletal muscle [quadriceps and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)], and blood were collected on study days 5, 10, and 15 for morphological evaluation, clinical chemistry, mitochondrial function tests, and analysis of ubiquinone levels. No histological changes were observed in any of the animals on study days 5 or 10, but on study day 15, mid- and high-dose animals had necrosis and inflammation in type II skeletal muscle. Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in blood (a clinical marker of myopathy) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis of myopathy. Ultrastructural characterization of skeletal muscle revealed disruption of the sarcomere and altered mitochondria only in myofibers with degeneration, while adjacent myofibers were unaffected and had normal mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial effects appeared not to precede myofiber degeneration. Mean coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9) levels in all dose groups were slightly decreased relative to controls in type II skeletal muscle, although the difference was not significantly different in most cases. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle was not affected by the changes in ubiquinone levels. The ubiquinone levels in high-dose-treated animals exhibiting myopathy were not significantly different from low-dose animals with no observable toxic effects. Furthermore, ubiquinone levels did not correlate

  3. Bcl-xL regulates mitochondrial energetics by stabilizing the inner membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Bei; Aon, Miguel A; Hsu, Yi-Te; Soane, Lucian; Teng, Xinchen; McCaffery, J Michael; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Qi, Bing; Li, Hongmei; Alavian, Kambiz N; Dayhoff-Brannigan, Margaret; Zou, Shifa; Pineda, Fernando J; O'Rourke, Brian; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Jonas, Elizabeth A; Hardwick, J Marie

    2011-10-17

    Mammalian Bcl-x(L) protein localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it inhibits apoptosis by binding Bax and inhibiting Bax-induced outer membrane permeabilization. Contrary to expectation, we found by electron microscopy and biochemical approaches that endogenous Bcl-x(L) also localized to inner mitochondrial cristae. Two-photon microscopy of cultured neurons revealed large fluctuations in inner mitochondrial membrane potential when Bcl-x(L) was genetically deleted or pharmacologically inhibited, indicating increased total ion flux into and out of mitochondria. Computational, biochemical, and genetic evidence indicated that Bcl-x(L) reduces futile ion flux across the inner mitochondrial membrane to prevent a wasteful drain on cellular resources, thereby preventing an energetic crisis during stress. Given that F(1)F(O)-ATP synthase directly affects mitochondrial membrane potential and having identified the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit in a screen for Bcl-x(L)-binding partners, we tested and found that Bcl-x(L) failed to protect β subunit-deficient yeast. Thus, by bolstering mitochondrial energetic capacity, Bcl-x(L) may contribute importantly to cell survival independently of other Bcl-2 family proteins.

  4. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabben, M.; Schmitz, J.P.J.; Ciapaite, J.; le Clercq, C.M.P.; van Riel, N.A.; Haak, H.R.; Nicolay, K.; de Coo, I.F.M.; Smeets, H.; Praet, S.F.; van Loon, L.J.; Prompers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle weakness and exercise intol erance negatively affect the quality of life of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We

  5. Inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin and chloroquine decreases mitochondrial quality and bioenergetic function in primary neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Redmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important cell recycling program responsible for the clearance of damaged or long-lived proteins and organelles. Pharmacological modulators of this pathway have been extensively utilized in a wide range of basic research and pre-clinical studies. Bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine are commonly used compounds that inhibit autophagy by targeting the lysosomes but through distinct mechanisms. Since it is now clear that mitochondrial quality control, particularly in neurons, is dependent on autophagy, it is important to determine whether these compounds modify cellular bioenergetics. To address this, we cultured primary rat cortical neurons from E18 embryos and used the Seahorse XF96 analyzer and a targeted metabolomics approach to measure the effects of bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine on bioenergetics and metabolism. We found that both bafilomycin and chloroquine could significantly increase the autophagosome marker LC3-II and inhibit key parameters of mitochondrial function, and increase mtDNA damage. Furthermore, we observed significant alterations in TCA cycle intermediates, particularly those downstream of citrate synthase and those linked to glutaminolysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate a significant impact of bafilomycin and chloroquine on cellular bioenergetics and metabolism consistent with decreased mitochondrial quality associated with inhibition of autophagy.

  6. Evaluation of the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetonitrile-induced biochemical, oxidative, histopathological, and mitochondrial functional alterations: Subacute oral toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Fang; Shen, Haijun; Lu, Rongzhu; Yin, Siqi; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhuangfa; Wang, Suhua

    2018-03-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product, is more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the currently regulated carbonaceous disinfection by-products such as haloacetic acids. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted on the hepatic and renal toxicities of DCAN. This study examined the clinical biochemical, hematological, histopathological, oxidative, and mitochondrial functional alterations to evaluate the systematic toxicity after subacute oral exposure of 11 or 44 mg/kg/day in rats for 28 days. Body and spleen weights were lower, and organ-to-body weight ratios of the liver and kidney were higher in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN than in controls. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of blood serum urea nitrogen and retinol-binding protein were increased in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN compared with those of controls, thereby indicating hepatic and renal damage in this group. This was confirmed by histopathological alterations, including hepatic sinus dilation, extensive hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration in the liver and glomerulus hemorrhage, and renal tubular swelling, in DCAN-exposed rats. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN induced hepatic oxidative damage shown by the significant increase in malonaldehyde levels, a poisonous product of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN significantly increased hepatic glutathione content and mitochondrial bioenergy as noted by the elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity, which might be attributed to compensatory pathophysiologic responses to DCAN-induced hepatic mitochondrial damage.

  7. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  8. Insulin and IGF-1 improve mitochondrial function in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner and reduce mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species in Huntington's disease knock-in striatal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Rosenstock, Tatiana R; Oliveira, Ana M; Oliveira, Catarina R; Rego, A Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been described in Huntington's disease, a disorder caused by expression of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). IGF-1 was previously shown to protect HD cells, whereas insulin prevented neuronal oxidative stress. In this work we analyzed the role of insulin and IGF-1 in striatal cells derived from HD knock-in mice on mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant and signaling pathways influencing mitochondrial function. Insulin and IGF-1 decreased mitochondrial ROS induced by mHtt and normalized mitochondrial SOD activity, without affecting intracellular glutathione levels. IGF-1 and insulin promoted Akt phosphorylation without changing the nuclear levels of phosphorylated Nrf2 or Nrf2/ARE activity. Insulin and IGF-1 treatment also decreased mitochondrial Drp1 phosphorylation, suggesting reduced mitochondrial fragmentation, and ameliorated mitochondrial function in HD cells in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increased total and phosphorylated Akt, Tfam, and mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome c oxidase II, as well as Tom20 and Tom40 in mitochondria of insulin- and IGF-1-treated mutant striatal cells. Concomitantly, insulin/IGF-1-treated mutant cells showed reduced apoptotic features. Hence, insulin and IGF-1 improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial ROS caused by mHtt by activating the PI-3K/Akt signaling pathway, in a process independent of Nrf2 transcriptional activity, but involving enhanced mitochondrial levels of Akt and mitochondrial-encoded complex IV subunit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Different Routes to Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Picone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are dynamic ATP-generating organelle which contribute to many cellular functions including bioenergetics processes, intracellular calcium regulation, alteration of reduction-oxidation potential of cells, free radical scavenging, and activation of caspase mediated cell death. Mitochondrial functions can be negatively affected by amyloid β peptide (Aβ, an important component in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis, and Aβ can interact with mitochondria and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. One of the most accepted hypotheses for AD onset implicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are one of the primary events in the insurgence of the pathology. Here, we examine structural and functional mitochondrial changes in presence of Aβ. In particular we review data concerning Aβ import into mitochondrion and its involvement in mitochondrial oxidative stress, bioenergetics, biogenesis, trafficking, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP formation, and mitochondrial protein interaction. Moreover, the development of AD therapy targeting mitochondria is also discussed.

  10. Cisplatin impairs rat liver mitochondrial functions by inducing changes on membrane ion permeability: Prevention by thiol group protecting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, Jose B.A.; Cardoso, Carla M.P.; Santos, Maria S.; Almeida, Leonor M.; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Fernandes, Maria A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is the most important platinum anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of head, neck, ovarian and testicular cancers. However, the mechanisms by which CisPt induces cytotoxicity, namely hepatotoxicity, are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of CisPt on rat liver mitochondrial functions (Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial bioenergetics, and mitochondrial oxidative stress) to better understand the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity. The effect of thiol group protecting agents and some antioxidants against CisPt-induced mitochondrial damage was also investigated. Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with CisPt (20 nmol/mg protein) induced Ca 2+ -dependent mitochondrial swelling, depolarization of membrane potential (ΔΨ), Ca 2+ release, and NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity decay. These effects were prevented by cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPT. In the concentration range of up to 40 nmol/mg protein, CisPt slightly inhibited state 3 and stimulated state 2 and state 4 respiration rates using succinate as respiratory substrate. The respiratory indexes, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratios, the ΔΨ, and the ADP phosphorylation rate were also depressed. CisPt induced mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to protons (proton leak) but did not induce significant changes on mitochondrial H 2 O 2 generation. All the effects induced by CisPt on rat liver mitochondria were prevented by thiol group protecting agents namely, glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine (CYS), whereas superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate (ASC) were without effect. In conclusion, the anticancer drug CisPt: (1) increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca 2+ -induced MPT; (2) interferes with mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to

  11. Nanotized PPARα Overexpression Targeted to Hypertrophied Myocardium Improves Cardiac Function by Attenuating the p53-GSK3β-Mediated Mitochondrial Death Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Santanu; Datta, Ritwik; Chaudhuri, Ratul Datta; Chatterjee, Emeli; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2018-05-09

    Metabolic remodeling of cardiac muscles during pathological hypertrophy is characterized by downregulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Thereby, we hypothesized that a cardiac-specific induction of PPARα might restore the FAO-related protein expression and resultant energy deficit. In the present study, consequences of PPARα augmentation were evaluated for amelioration of chronic oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis, and cardiac function during pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Nanotized PPARα overexpression targeted to myocardium was done by a stearic acid-modified carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) conjugated to a 20-mer myocyte-targeted peptide (CMCP). Overexpression of PPARα ameliorated pathological hypertrophy and improved cardiac function. Augmented PPARα in hypertrophied myocytes revealed downregulated p53 acetylation (lys 382), leading to reduced apoptosis. Such cells showed increased binding of PPARα with p53 that in turn reduced interaction of p53 with glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which upregulated inactive phospho-GSK3β (serine [Ser]9) expression within mitochondrial protein fraction. Altogether, the altered molecular milieu in PPARα-overexpressed hypertrophy groups restored mitochondrial structure and function both in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of a protein of interest (PPARα) by nanotized plasmid has been described for the first time in this study. Our data provide a novel insight towards regression of pathological hypertrophy by ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress in targeted PPARα-overexpressed myocardium. PPARα-overexpression during pathological hypertrophy showed substantial betterment of mitochondrial structure and function, along with downregulated apoptosis. Myocardium-targeted overexpression of PPARα during pathological cardiac hypertrophy led to an overall improvement of cardiac energy deficit and subsequent cardiac

  12. Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio

    2018-06-01

    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.

  13. Influence of heavy ions on cell survival, cytogenetic damage and mitochondrial function of human endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sylvia; Helm, Alexander; Lee, Ryonfa; Pollet, Dieter; Durante, Marco

    There is increasing evidence that there is an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors and radiotherapy patients, typically developing with a long latency. However, essentially no information is available on the potential cardiovascular risks associated with space radiation, in particular heavy ions. To address this issue, we have chosen human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model system. Cells at an early passage number were irradiated with 0.1 to 4 Gy of either 9.8 MeV/u C-ions (LET=170 keV/µm), 91 MeV/u C-ions (LET=29 keV/µm) or 250 kV X-rays. Cells were regularly subcultured up to 40 days (20 population doublings) post-irradiation. Immediately after exposure cell inactivation was deter-mined by the colony forming assay. Furthermore, at selected time-points cytogenetic damage (formation of micronuclei in binucleated cells) and the mitochondrial membrane potential ΨM (flow cytometric analysis following JC-1 staining) were assessed. Measurement of the directly induced radiation damage showed that 9.8 MeV/u and 91 MeV/u C-ions were more effective than X-rays (i.e. about 3 and 2 times, respectively) with respect to cell inactivation or the in-duction of cytogenetic damage. At the subsequent days in the irradiated cultures the number of cells with micronuclei declined to the control level (3-5Altogether our data indicate that under the applied radiation conditions the integrity of mitochondria which play a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular cell function is not impaired. With respect to directly induced genetic damage C-ions are more effective than X-rays as observed in other cell systems. If the effectiveness of charged particles for the occurrence of late chromosomal damage in endothelial cells is higher than that of sparsely ionizing radiation needs further clarification. The data obtained up to now indicate that sophisticated cytogenetic techniques have to be applied in order to draw any firm

  14. Elucidation of the therapeutic role of mitochondrial biogenesis transducers NRF-1 in the regulation of renal fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, Shu-Fen [Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hung, Tsung-Jen [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chien-Ya [Department of Food Nutrition, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, Guo-Zheng [Graduate Institute of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Lea-Yea [Department of Biochemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mei-Fen [Department of Acupressure Technology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jue-Long [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Shi, Ming-Der [Graduate Institute of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Technology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital Tainan Branch, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chen Hung [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Yow-Ling, E-mail: shiue.shirley@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yu-Lin, E-mail: Call0955443221@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-15

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a newly established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is a transcriptional regulation factor that plays a central role in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the transcription factor of this process in renal fibrosis is unknown. Thus, we hereby discussed the correlations of NRF-1 and renal interstitial fibrosis. Materials and methods: In vitro fibrosis model was established by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in NRK-49F (Normal Rat kidney fibroblast). We investigated the ROS production, mitochondrial biogenesis and fibrogenic marker (e.q. fibronectin) during the progression of renal fibrosis by kit and Western blotting assay. Here, we used that two distinct mechanisms regulate NRF-1 activation and degradation of NRF-1. NRF-1 was transfect by pcDNA-NRF-1 overexpression gene to evaluate the NRF-1 activity of the therapeutic effect in renal fibrosis. In addition, NRF-1 was silenced by shRNA-NRF-1 to evaluate the significance of NRF-1. ELISA was used to evaluate the secreted fibronectin. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assay the in situ expression of proteins (e.g. fibronectin, NRF-1). Results: Under renal fibrosis conditions, TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) increased ROS. Simultaneously, TGF-β1-induced extracellular fibronectin by ELISA assay. In addition, TGF-β1 decreased expression of mitochondrial biogenesis. This is the first time to demonstrate that expression of NRF-1 is significantly decreased in renal fibrosis. However, NRK49F was a transfection with pcDNA-NRF-1 (2 μg/ml) expression vector dramatically reverse TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis concomitantly with the suppression of fibronectin (both intracellular and extracellular fibronectin). More importantly, transfection with shRNA-NRF-1 (2 μg/ml) significantly increased the expression of fibronectin

  15. Osmotic regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore investigated by light scattering, fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, Artyom Y; Elustondo, Pia A; Negoda, Alexander; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2017-07-08

    Mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) is a phenomenon of an increase of the inner membrane permeability in response to an excessive matrix calcium accumulation. PTP is caused by the opening of the large weakly selective channel. Molecular composition and regulation of permeability transition pore (PTP) are not well understood. Here we used isolated mitochondria to investigate dependence of PTP activation on the osmotic pressure. We found that in low osmotic strength solution calcium-induced PTP is significantly inhibited. We propose that this effect is linked to the changes in the curvature of the mitochondrial inner membrane. This interpretation is consistent with the idea about the importance of ATP synthase dimerization in modulation of the PTP activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effect of Sex Differences on Brain Mitochondrial Function and Its Suppression by Ovariectomy and in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaignard, Pauline; Savouroux, Stéphane; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Thérond, Patrice; Schumacher, Michael; Slama, Abdelhamid; Guennoun, Rachida

    2015-08-01

    Sex steroids regulate brain function in both normal and pathological states. Mitochondria are an essential target of steroids, as demonstrated by the experimental administration of 17β-estradiol or progesterone (PROG) to ovariectomized female rodents, but the influence of endogenous sex steroids remains understudied. To address this issue, mitochondrial oxidative stress, the oxidative phosphorylation system, and brain steroid levels were analyzed under 3 different experimental sets of endocrine conditions. The first set was designed to study steroid-mediated sex differences in young male and female mice, intact and after gonadectomy. The second set concerned young female mice at 3 time points of the estrous cycle in order to analyze the influence of transient variations in steroid levels. The third set involved the evaluation of the effects of a permanent decrease in gonadal steroids in aged male and female mice. Our results show that young adult females have lower oxidative stress and a higher reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked respiration rate, which is related to a higher pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity as compared with young adult males. This sex difference did not depend on phases of the estrous cycle, was suppressed by ovariectomy but not by orchidectomy, and no longer existed in aged mice. Concomitant analysis of brain steroids showed that pregnenolone and PROG brain levels were higher in females during the reproductive period than in males and decreased with aging in females. These findings suggest that the major male/female differences in brain pregnenolone and PROG levels may contribute to the sex differences observed in brain mitochondrial function.

  17. An Ingenol Derived from Euphorbia kansui Induces Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Triggering G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Regulating the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural product lingenol, a purified diterpenoid compound derived from the root of Euphorbia kansui, exerts serious hepatotoxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In the present study, cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, inverted phase contrast microscope and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate that lingenol significantly inhibited L-O2 cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the results investigated that lingenol markedly disrupted mitochondrial functions by high content screening (HCS. In addition, the up-regulation of cytochrome c, AIF and Apaf-1 and activation of caspases were found in L-O2 cells detected by Western blotting and ELISA assay, which was required for lingenol activation of cytochrome c-mediated caspase cascades and AIF-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistic investigations revealed that lingenol significantly down-regulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and enhanced the reactive oxygen species (ROS in L-O2 cells. These data collectively indicated that lingenol modulation of ROS and Bcl-2/Bax ratio led to cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in L-O2 cells in vitro. All of these results will be helpful to reveal the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Euphorbia kansui and to effectively guide safer and better clinical application of this herb.

  18. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  19. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman W. El-Hattab

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform a variety of essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA while more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA. Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs of various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular noncompaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain (ETC complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial tRNAs, rRNAs, ribosomal proteins, and translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  20. Evaluation of functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain with NADH and FAD autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylovych, H V

    2016-01-01

    We prove the feasibility of evaluation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in isolated mitochondria of smooth muscle cells of rats from uterus using fluorescence of NADH and FAD coenzymes. We found the inversely directed changes in FAD and NADH fluorescence intensity under normal functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The targeted effect of inhibitors of complex I, III and IV changed fluorescence of adenine nucleotides. Rotenone (5 μM) induced rapid increase in NADH fluorescence due to inhibition of complex I, without changing in dynamics of FAD fluorescence increase. Antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor, in concentration of 1 μg/ml caused sharp increase in NADH fluorescence and moderate increase in FAD fluorescence in comparison to control. NaN3 (5 mM), a complex IV inhibitor, and CCCP (10 μM), a protonophore, caused decrease in NADH and FAD fluorescence. Moreover, all the inhibitors caused mitochondria swelling. NO donors, e.g. 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite similarly to the effects of sodium azide. Energy-dependent Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondrial matrix (in presence of oxidation substrates and Mg-ATP2- complex) is associated with pronounced drop in NADH and FAD fluorescence followed by increased fluorescence of adenine nucleotides, which may be primarily due to Ca2+- dependent activation of dehydrogenases of citric acid cycle. Therefore, the fluorescent signal of FAD and NADH indicates changes in oxidation state of these nucleotides in isolated mitochondria, which may be used to assay the potential of effectors of electron transport chain.

  1. miR-125b affects mitochondrial biogenesis and impairs brite adipocyte formation and function

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    Maude Giroud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In rodents and humans, besides brown adipose tissue (BAT, islands of thermogenic adipocytes, termed “brite” (brown-in-white or beige adipocytes, emerge within white adipose tissue (WAT after cold exposure or β3-adrenoceptor stimulation, which may protect from obesity and associated diseases. microRNAs are novel modulators of adipose tissue development and function. The purpose of this work was to characterize the role of microRNAs in the control of brite adipocyte formation. Methods/Results: Using human multipotent adipose derived stem cells, we identified miR-125b-5p as downregulated upon brite adipocyte formation. In humans and rodents, miR-125b-5p expression was lower in BAT than in WAT. In vitro, overexpression and knockdown of miR-125b-5p decreased and increased mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. In vivo, miR-125b-5p levels were downregulated in subcutaneous WAT and interscapular BAT upon β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Injections of an miR-125b-5p mimic and LNA inhibitor directly into WAT inhibited and increased β3-adrenoceptor-mediated induction of UCP1, respectively, and mitochondrial brite adipocyte marker expression and mitochondriogenesis. Conclusion: Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-125b-5p plays an important role in the repression of brite adipocyte function by modulating oxygen consumption and mitochondrial gene expression. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: miR-125b-5p, White adipocyte, Brite adipocyte, Mitochondriogenesis

  2. Regulation of Mammalian Metabolism by Facilitated Transport Across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Vacanti, Nathaniel Martin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes and reactions of the metabolic network provide cells with a means to utilize the energy stored in substrate chemical bonds and to rearrange those bonds to form biosynthetic building blocks. The chapters of this dissertation are all independent bodies of work exploring how the metabolic network influences and regulates cellular function or dysfunction. Chapter 1, titled "Exploring Metabolic Pathways that Contribute to the Stem Cell Phenotype", is a case study on how the metabolic n...

  3. Melatonin antiproliferative effects require active mitochondrial function in embryonal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Rute; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Mesquita, Katia A.; Baldeiras, Ines; Sousa, Isabel S.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Barbosa, Ines A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Although melatonin oncostatic and cytotoxic effects have been described in different types of cancer cells, the specific mechanisms leading to its antitumoral effects and their metabolic context specificity are still not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of melatonin in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs) and in their differentiated counterparts, cultured in either high glucose medium or in a galactose (glucose-free) medium which leads to glycolytic suppression and increased mitochondrial metabolism. We found that highly glycolytic P19 CSCs were less susceptible to melatonin antitumoral effects while cell populations relying on oxidative metabolism for ATP production were more affected. The observed antiproliferative action of melatonin was associated with an arrest at S-phase, decreased oxygen consumption, down-regulation of BCL-2 expression and an increase in oxidative stress culminating with caspase-3-independent cell death. Interestingly, the combined treatment of melatonin and dichloroacetate had a synergistic effect in cells grown in the galactose medium and resulted in an inhibitory effect in the highly resistant P19 CSCs. Melatonin appears to exert its antiproliferative activity in P19 carcinoma cells through a mitochondrially-mediated action which in turn allows the amplification of the effects of dichloroacetate, even in cells with a more glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26025920

  4. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma, Amalia; de Lacoba, Mario García; Rial, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters, present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, that mediate a regulated discharge of the proton gradient that is generated by the respiratory chain. This energy-dissipatory mechanism can serve functions such as thermogenesis, maintenance of the redox balance, or reduction in the production of reactive oxygen species. Some UCP homologs may not act as true uncouplers, however, and their activity has yet to be defined. The UCPs are integral membrane...

  5. Improved mitochondrial function with diet-induced increase in either docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi J Khairallah

    Full Text Available Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP. We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3 and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6 in mitochondrial membranes is associated with a greater Ca(2+ load required to induce MPTP opening. Here we manipulated mitochondrial phospholipid composition by supplementing the diet with DHA, ARA or combined DHA+ARA in rats for 10 weeks. There were no effects on cardiac function, or respiration of isolated mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids showed DHA supplementation increased DHA and displaced ARA in mitochondrial membranes, while supplementation with ARA or DHA+ARA increased ARA and depleted linoleic acid (18:2n6. Phospholipid analysis revealed a similar pattern, particularly in cardiolipin. Tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin was depleted by 80% with ARA or DHA+ARA supplementation, with linoleic acid side chains replaced by ARA. Both the DHA and ARA groups had delayed Ca(2+-induced MPTP opening, but the DHA+ARA group was similar to the control diet. In conclusion, alterations in mitochondria membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition caused by dietary DHA or ARA was associated with a greater cumulative Ca(2+ load required to induced MPTP opening. Further, high levels of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin were not essential for normal mitochondrial function if replaced with very-long chain n3 or n6 PUFAs.

  6. L-carnitine protects against nickel-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function in Neuro-2a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Mindi; Xu Shangcheng; Lu Yonghui; Li Li; Zhong Min; Zhang Yanwen; Wang Yuan; Li Min; Yang Ju; Zhang Guangbin; Yu Zhengping; Zhou Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be a part of the mechanism underlying nickel-induced neurotoxicity. L-carnitine (LC), a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine in all mammalian species, manifests its neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial energetics and function. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LC could efficiently protect against nickel-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we exposed a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro-2a) to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl 2 ) (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM) for 24 h, or to 0.5 mM and 1 mM NiCl 2 for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h). We found that nickel significantly increased the cell viability loss and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in Neuro-2a cells. In addition, nickel exposure significantly elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), reduced adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers and mtRNA transcript levels. However, all of the cytotoxicities and mitochondrial dysfunctions that were triggered by nickel were efficiently attenuated by pretreatment with LC. These protective effects of LC may be attributable to its role in maintaining mitochondrial function in nickel-treated cells. Our results suggest that LC may have great pharmacological potential in protecting against the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system.

  7. Cyclopamine tartrate, an inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, strongly interferes with mitochondrial function and suppresses aerobic respiration in lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Sohoni, Sagar; Kalainayakan, Sarada Preeta; Garrossian, Massoud; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is associated with the development of many cancers including prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and basal cell carcinoma. The Hh signaling pathway has been one of the most intensely investigated targets for cancer therapy, and a number of compounds inhibiting Hh signaling are being tested clinically for treating many cancers. Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three most common cancers (colon, breast, and prostate) combined. Cyclopamine was the first compound found to inhibit Hh signaling and has been invaluable for understanding the function of Hh signaling in development and cancer. To find novel strategies for combating lung cancer, we decided to characterize the effect of cyclopamine tartrate (CycT), an improved analogue of cyclopamine, on lung cancer cells and its mechanism of action. The effect of CycT on oxygen consumption and proliferation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines was quantified by using an Oxygraph system and live cell counting, respectively. Apoptosis was detected by using Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. CycT’s impact on ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial morphology in NSCLC cells was monitored by using fluorometry and fluorescent microscopy. Western blotting and fluorescent microscopy were used to detect the levels and localization of Hh signaling targets, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and heme-related proteins in various NSCLC cells. Our findings identified a novel function of CycT, as well as another Hh inhibitor SANT1, to disrupt mitochondrial function and aerobic respiration. Our results showed that CycT, like glutamine depletion, caused a substantial decrease in oxygen consumption in a number of NSCLC cell lines, suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Further, we found that CycT increased ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, and

  8. Melatonin: A Mitochondrial Targeting Molecule Involving Mitochondrial Protection and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Qin, Lilan; Reiter, Russel J.

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been speculated to be mainly synthesized by mitochondria. This speculation is supported by the recent discovery that aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase/serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT/SNAT) is localized in mitochondria of oocytes and the isolated mitochondria generate melatonin. We have also speculated that melatonin is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. It accumulates in mitochondria with high concentration against a concentration gradient. This is probably achieved by an active transportation via mitochondrial melatonin transporter(s). Melatonin protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), and activating uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Thus, melatonin maintains the optimal mitochondrial membrane potential and preserves mitochondrial functions. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is also regulated by melatonin. In most cases, melatonin reduces mitochondrial fission and elevates their fusion. Mitochondrial dynamics exhibit an oscillatory pattern which matches the melatonin circadian secretory rhythm in pinealeocytes and probably in other cells. Recently, melatonin has been found to promote mitophagy and improve homeostasis of mitochondria. PMID:27999288

  9. A functional test of Neandertal and modern human mitochondrial targeting sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gralle, Matthias, E-mail: gralle@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-590 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter [Department of Molecular Cell Therapy, Leipzig University, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Paeaebo, Svante [Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Two mutations in mitochondrial targeting peptides occurred during human evolution, possibly after Neandertals split off from modern human lineage. {yields} The ancestral and modern human versions of these two targeting peptides were tested functionally for their effects on localization and cleavage rate. {yields} In spite of recent evolution, and to the contrary of other mutations in targeting peptides, these mutations had no visible effects. -- Abstract: Targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins to different organelles, such as mitochondria, is a process that can result in the redeployment of proteins to new intracellular destinations during evolution. With the sequencing of the Neandertal genome, it has become possible to identify amino acid substitutions that occurred on the modern human lineage since its separation from the Neandertal lineage. Here we analyze the function of two substitutions in mitochondrial targeting sequences that occurred and rose to high frequency recently during recent human evolution. The ancestral and modern versions of the two targeting sequences do not differ in the efficiency with which they direct a protein to the mitochondria, an observation compatible with the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

  10. Targeting Mitochondrial Function to Treat Quiescent Tumor Cells in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The disorganized nature of tumor vasculature results in the generation of microenvironments characterized by nutrient starvation, hypoxia and accumulation of acidic metabolites. Tumor cell populations in such areas are often slowly proliferating and thus refractory to chemotherapeutical drugs that are dependent on an active cell cycle. There is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic interventions that circumvent growth dependency. The screening of drug libraries using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS or glucose-starved tumor cells has led to the identification of several compounds with promising therapeutic potential and that display activity on quiescent tumor cells. Interestingly, a common theme of these drug screens is the recurrent identification of agents that affect mitochondrial function. Such data suggest that, contrary to the classical Warburg view, tumor cells in nutritionally-compromised microenvironments are dependent on mitochondrial function for energy metabolism and survival. These findings suggest that mitochondria may represent an “Achilles heel” for the survival of slowly-proliferating tumor cells and suggest strategies for the development of therapy to target these cell populations.

  11. A functional test of Neandertal and modern human mitochondrial targeting sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralle, Matthias; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Paeaebo, Svante

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two mutations in mitochondrial targeting peptides occurred during human evolution, possibly after Neandertals split off from modern human lineage. → The ancestral and modern human versions of these two targeting peptides were tested functionally for their effects on localization and cleavage rate. → In spite of recent evolution, and to the contrary of other mutations in targeting peptides, these mutations had no visible effects. -- Abstract: Targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins to different organelles, such as mitochondria, is a process that can result in the redeployment of proteins to new intracellular destinations during evolution. With the sequencing of the Neandertal genome, it has become possible to identify amino acid substitutions that occurred on the modern human lineage since its separation from the Neandertal lineage. Here we analyze the function of two substitutions in mitochondrial targeting sequences that occurred and rose to high frequency recently during recent human evolution. The ancestral and modern versions of the two targeting sequences do not differ in the efficiency with which they direct a protein to the mitochondria, an observation compatible with the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

  12. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier function determines cell stemness and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Kan, Quancheng; Fan, Zhirui; Li, Yaqing; Ji, Yasai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Berge, Viktor; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; M. Nesland, Jahn; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout. It was discovered that the MPC1 gene knockout cells revealed a metabolism reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis with reduced ATP production, and the cells became more migratory and resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In addition, the MPC1 knockout cells expressed significantly higher levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Hif1α, Notch1, CD44 and ALDH. To further verify the correlation of MPC gene function and cell stemness/metabolic reprogramming, MPC inhibitor UK5099 was applied in two ovarian cancer cell lines and similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results reveal that functional MPC may determine the fate of metabolic program and the stemness status of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:28624784

  13. Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S.; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Durand, Christelle M.; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H.; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

  14. Dynamic microtubule organization and mitochondrial transport are regulated by distinct Kinesin-1 pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Melkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microtubule (MT plus-end motor kinesin heavy chain (Khc is well known for its role in long distance cargo transport. Recent evidence showed that Khc is also required for the organization of the cellular MT network by mediating MT sliding. We found that mutations in Khc and the gene of its adaptor protein, kinesin light chain (Klc resulted in identical bristle morphology defects, with the upper part of the bristle being thinner and flatter than normal and failing to taper towards the bristle tip. We demonstrate that bristle mitochondria transport requires Khc but not Klc as a competing force to dynein heavy chain (Dhc. Surprisingly, we demonstrate for the first time that Dhc is the primary motor for both anterograde and retrograde fast mitochondria transport. We found that the upper part of Khc and Klc mutant bristles lacked stable MTs. When following dynamic MT polymerization via the use of GFP-tagged end-binding protein 1 (EB1, it was noted that at Khc and Klc mutant bristle tips, dynamic MTs significantly deviated from the bristle parallel growth axis, relative to wild-type bristles. We also observed that GFP-EB1 failed to concentrate as a focus at the tip of Khc and Klc mutant bristles. We propose that the failure of bristle tapering is due to defects in directing dynamic MTs at the growing tip. Thus, we reveal a new function for Khc and Klc in directing dynamic MTs during polarized cell growth. Moreover, we also demonstrate a novel mode of coordination in mitochondrial transport between Khc and Dhc.

  15. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a...

  16. Combined effects of cadmium, temperature and hypoxia-reoxygenation on mitochondrial function in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onukwufor, John O.; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ternary interactions of Cd, temperature and H-R alter their individual and binary effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics. • Oxidative stress explains many effects of Cd, H-R and temperature on mitochondria. • Cd accumulation does not explain increased sensitivity of mitochondria to multiple stressors. • Cd induces hormetic responses during H-R stress. • Cd at low dose blunts conversion of complex I active (A)- to deactive (D)-form after H-R. - Abstract: Although aquatic organisms face multiple environmental stressors that may interact to alter adverse outcomes, our knowledge of stressor–stressor interaction on cellular function is limited. We investigated the combined effects of cadmium (Cd), hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) and temperature on mitochondrial function. Liver mitochondria from juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to Cd (0–20 μM) and H-R (0 and 5 min) at 5, 13 and 25 °C followed by measurements of mitochondrial Cd load, volume, complex I active (A) ↔ deactive (D) transition, membrane potential, ROS release and ultrastructural changes. At high temperature Cd exacerbated H-R-imposed reduction of maximal complex I (CI) respiration whereas at low temperature 5 and 10 μM stimulated maximal CI respiration post H-R. The basal respiration showed a biphasic response at high temperatures with low Cd concentrations reducing the stimulatory effect of H-R and high concentrations enhancing this effect. At low temperature Cd monotonically enhanced H-R-induced stimulation of basal respiration. Cd and H-R reduced both the P/O ratio and the RCR at all 3 temperatures. Temperature rise alone increased mitochondrial Cd load and toxicity, but combined H-R and temperature exposure reduced mitochondrial Cd load but surprisingly exacerbated the mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by H-R was associated with swelling of the organelle and blocking of conversion of CI D to A form. However, low amounts of Cd protected against H

  17. Establishment of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene knockout mice with preliminary gene function analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Han, Gaoyang; Li, Xiaoran; Ji, Yasai; Fan, Zhirui; Zhong, Yali; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Mariusz, Goscinski; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate plays a critical role in the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and it is the center product for the synthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Pyruvate transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane appears to be essential in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) mounted in the inner membrane of mitochondria serves as the channel to facilitate pyruvate permeating. In mammals, the MPC is formed by two paralogous subunits, MPC1 and MPC2. It is known that complete ablation of MPC2 in mice causes death on the 11th or 12th day of the embryonic period. However, MPC1 deletion and the knowledge of gene function in vivo are lacking. Using the new technology of gene manipulation known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems, we gained stable MPC1 gene heterozygous mutation mice models, and the heterozygous mutations could be stably maintained in their offsprings. Only one line with homozygous 27 bases deletion in the first exon was established, but no offsprings could be obtained after four months of mating experiments, indicating infertility of the mice with such homozygous deletion. The other line of MPC1 knockout (KO) mice was only heterozygous, which mutated in the first exon with a terminator shortly afterwards. These two lines of MPC1 KO mice showed lower fertility and significantly higher bodyweight in the females. We concluded that heterozygous MPC1 KO weakens fertility and influences the metabolism of glucose and fatty acid and bodyweight in mice. PMID:27835892

  18. Hyperoxia activates ATM independent from mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resseguie, Emily A; Staversky, Rhonda J; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) are often used to treat individuals with respiratory distress, yet prolonged hyperoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage molecules such as DNA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by nuclear DNA double strand breaks and delays hyperoxia-induced cell death through downstream targets p53 and p21. Evidence for its role in regulating mitochondrial function is emerging, yet it has not been determined if mitochondrial dysfunction or ROS activates ATM. Because ATM maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, we hypothesized that hyperoxia induces both mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS that activate ATM. In A549 lung epithelial cells, hyperoxia decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity at 12h and basal respiration by 48 h. ROS were significantly increased at 24h, yet mitochondrial DNA double strand breaks were not detected. ATM was not required for activating p53 when mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by chronic exposure to antimycin A. Also, ATM was not further activated by mitochondrial ROS, which were enhanced by depleting manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). In contrast, ATM dampened the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS during exposure to hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS do not activate ATM. ATM more likely carries out its canonical response to nuclear DNA damage and may function to attenuate mitochondrial ROS that contribute to oxygen toxicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA: A Blind Spot in Neuroepigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manev, Hari; Dzitoyeva, Svetlana; Chen, Hu

    2012-04-01

    Neuroepigenetics, which includes nuclear DNA modifications such as 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydoxymethylcytosine and modifications of nuclear proteins such as histones, is emerging as the leading field in molecular neuroscience. Historically, a functional role for epigenetic mechanisms, including in neuroepigenetics, has been sought in the area of the regulation of nuclear transcription. However, one important compartment of mammalian cell DNA, different from nuclear but equally important for physiological and pathological processes (including in the brain), mitochondrial DNA has for the most part not had a systematic epigenetic characterization. The importance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (particularly its mutations) in central nervous system physiology and pathology has long been recognized. Only recently have mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, including the discovery of mitochondrial DNA-methyltransferases and the presence and the functionality of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mitochondrial DNA (e.g., in modifying the transcription of mitochondrial genome), been unequivocally recognized as a part of mammalian mitochondrial physiology. Here we summarize for the first time evidence supporting the existence of these mechanisms and we propose the term "mitochondrial epigenetics" to be used when referring to them. Currently, neuroepigenetics does not include mitochondrial epigenetics - a gap that we expect to close in the near future.

  20. Doxycycline Impairs Mitochondrial Function and Protects Human Glioma Cells from Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death: Implications of Using Tet-Inducible Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Anna-Luisa; Sauer, Benedikt; Lorenz, Nadja I; Engel, Anna L; Braun, Yannick; Voss, Martin; Harter, Patrick N; Steinbach, Joachim P; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W

    2018-05-17

    Inducible gene expression is an important tool in molecular biology research to study protein function. Most frequently, the antibiotic doxycycline is used for regulation of so-called tetracycline (Tet)-inducible systems. In contrast to stable gene overexpression, these systems allow investigation of acute and reversible effects of cellular protein induction. Recent reports have already called for caution when using Tet-inducible systems as the employed antibiotics can disturb mitochondrial function and alter cellular metabolism by interfering with mitochondrial translation. Reprogramming of energy metabolism has lately been recognized as an important emerging hallmark of cancer and is a central focus of cancer research. Therefore, the scope of this study was to systematically analyze dose-dependent metabolic effects of doxycycline on a panel of glioma cell lines with concomitant monitoring of gene expression from Tet-inducible systems. We report that doxycycline doses commonly used with inducible expression systems (0.01⁻1 µg/mL) substantially alter cellular metabolism: Mitochondrial protein synthesis was inhibited accompanied by reduced oxygen and increased glucose consumption. Furthermore, doxycycline protected human glioma cells from hypoxia-induced cell death. An impairment of cell growth was only detectable with higher doxycycline doses (10 µg/mL). Our findings describe settings where doxycycline exerts effects on eukaryotic cellular metabolism, limiting the employment of Tet-inducible systems.

  1. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content

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    Elisa Balboa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria.

  2. The Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Protease FtSH4 Is Involved in Leaf Senescence via Regulation of WRKY-Dependent Salicylic Acid Accumulation and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengchun; Li, Cui; Wang, Rui; Chen, Yaxue; Shu, Si; Huang, Ruihua; Zhang, Daowei; Li, Jian; Xiao, Shi; Yao, Nan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondria and autophagy play important roles in the networks that regulate plant leaf senescence and cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between mitochondrial signaling and autophagy are currently not well understood. This study characterized the function of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mitochondrial AAA-protease gene FtSH4 in regulating autophagy and senescence, finding that FtSH4 mediates WRKY-dependent salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and signaling. Knockout of FtSH4 in the ftsh4-4 mutant resulted in severe leaf senescence, cell death, and high autophagy levels. The level of SA increased dramatically in the ftsh4-4 mutant. Expression of nahG in the ftsh4-4 mutant led to decreased SA levels and suppressed the leaf senescence and cell death phenotypes. The transcript levels of several SA synthesis and signaling genes, including SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 ( SID2 ), NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 ( NDR1 ), and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 ( NPR1 ), increased significantly in the ftsh4-4 mutants compared with the wild type. Loss of function of SID2 , NDR1 , or NPR1 in the ftsh4-4 mutant reversed the ftsh4-4 senescence and autophagy phenotypes. Furthermore, ftsh4-4 mutants had elevated levels of transcripts of several WRKY genes, including WRKY40 , WRKY46 , WRKY51 , WRKY60 , WRKY63 , and WRKY75 ; all of these WRKY proteins can bind to the promoter of SID2 Loss of function of WRKY75 in the ftsh4-4 mutants decreased the levels of SA and reversed the senescence phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that the mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease FtSH4 may regulate the expression of WRKY genes by modifying the level of reactive oxygen species and the WRKY transcription factors that control SA synthesis and signaling in autophagy and senescence. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Early Stress History Alters Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Impairs Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Banerjee, K K; Vaidya, V A; Kolthur-Seetharam, U

    2016-09-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content. Adult ES animals exhibited dyslipidaemia, decreased serum IGF1 levels, increased expression of liver IGF binding proteins, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, including Pck1, Lpl, Pdk4 and Hmox1. These changes occurred in the absence of alterations in body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance or insulin levels. ES animals also exhibited a decline in markers of muscle mitochondrial content, such as mitochondrial DNA levels and expression of TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). Furthermore, the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial function, such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cat, Sesn3 and Ucp3, was reduced in skeletal muscle. Adult-onset chronic unpredictable stress resulted in overlapping and distinct consequences from ES, including increased circulating triglyceride levels, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, with no change in the expression of genes involved in muscle mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of early adversity can evoke persistent changes in circulating IGF-1 and muscle mitochondrial function and content, which could serve to enhance predisposition for metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. ROS-mediated PARP activity undermines mitochondrial function after permeability transition pore opening during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Peek, Clara Bien; Bass, Joseph; Schumacker, Paul T

    2013-04-18

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) studies have implicated oxidant stress, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as contributing factors in myocardial cell death. However, the interdependence of these factors in the intact, blood-perfused heart is not known. We therefore wanted to determine whether oxidant stress, mPTP opening, and PARP activity contribute to the same death pathway after myocardial I/R. A murine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion (30 minutes) and release (1 to 4 hours) model was employed. Experimental groups included controls and antioxidant-treated, mPTP-inhibited, or PARP-inhibited hearts. Antioxidant treatment prevented oxidative damage, mPTP opening, ATP depletion, and PARP activity, placing oxidant stress as the proximal death trigger. Genetic deletion of cyclophilin D (CypD(-/-)) prevented loss of total NAD(+) and PARP activity, and mPTP-mediated loss of mitochondrial function. Control hearts showed progressive mitochondrial depolarization and loss of ATP from 1.5 to 4 hours of reperfusion, but not outer mitochondrial membrane rupture. Neither genetic deletion of PARP-1 nor its pharmacological inhibition prevented the initial mPTP-mediated depolarization or loss of ATP, but PARP ablation did allow mitochondrial recovery by 4 hours of reperfusion. These results indicate that oxidant stress, the mPTP, and PARP activity contribute to a single death pathway after I/R in the heart. PARP activation undermines cell survival by preventing mitochondrial recovery after mPTP opening early in reperfusion. This suggests that PARP-mediated prolongation of mitochondrial depolarization contributes significantly to cell death via an energetic crisis rather than by mitochondrial outer membrane rupture.

  5. Naringin Improves Neuronal Insulin Signaling, Brain Mitochondrial Function, and Cognitive Function in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Yan, Junqiang; Chen, Jing; Wu, Wenlan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The epidemic and experimental studies have confirmed that the obesity induced by high-fat diet not only caused neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment in mice. Naringin has been reported to posses biological functions which are beneficial to human cognitions, but its protective effects on HFD-induced cognitive deficits and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. In the present study Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for 20 weeks and then randomized into four groups treated with their respective diets including control diet, control diet + naringin, high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet + naringin (HFDN). The behavioral performance was assessed by using novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. Hippocampal mitochondrial parameters were analyzed. Then the protein levels of insulin signaling pathway and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampus were detected by Western blot method. Our results showed that oral administration of naringin significantly improved the learning and memory abilities as evidenced by increasing recognition index by 52.5% in the novel object recognition test and inducing a 1.05-fold increase in the crossing-target number in the probe test, and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction in mice caused by HFD consumption. Moreover, naringin significantly enhanced insulin signaling pathway as indicated by a 34.5% increase in the expression levels of IRS-1, a 47.8% decrease in the p-IRS-1, a 1.43-fold increase in the p-Akt, and a 1.89-fold increase in the p-GSK-3β in the hippocampus of the HFDN mice versus HFD mice. Furthermore, the AMPK activity significantly increased in the naringin-treated (100 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) group. These findings suggest that an enhancement in insulin signaling and a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction through the activation of AMPK may be one of the mechanisms that naringin

  6. Unacylated ghrelin does not alter mitochondrial function, redox state and triglyceride content in rat liver in vivo

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    Gianluca Gortan Cappellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in liver mitochondrial function with more oxidized redox state and enhanced inflammation may contribute to the onset of obesity- and insulin resistance-associated hepatic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steato-hepatitis. Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG is a gastric hormone reported to be associated with lower oxidative stress in different cell types, but its potential effects on liver mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation in vivo remains undetermined. We investigated the impact of chronic UnAG overexpression (Tg Myh6/Ghrl leading to systemic upregulation of circulating hormone on mitochondrial ATP production, redox state (oxidized-to-total glutathione and inflammation markers in lean mice. Compared to wild-type animals (wt, Tg Myh6/Ghrl had superimposable liver weight, triglyceride content and plasma lipid profile. Liver mitochondrial enzyme activities and ATP production as well as oxidized-to-total glutathione were also similar in the two groups. In addition, no differences were observed in tissue inflammation marker TNF-alpha between wild-type and Tg Myh6/Ghrl animals. Thus, chronic systemic UnAG upregulation does not alter liver triglyceride content, mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation markers in lean mice. These findings do not support a major role of UnAG as a physiological modulator of in vivo liver oxidative-lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  7. ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.

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    Sara Baldanta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM after vaccinia virus (VACV infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Mitochondrial respiration, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production was higher in ISG15+/+ BMDM than in ISG15-/- BMDM following IFN treatment, indicating the involvement of ISG15-dependent mechanisms. An additional consequence of ISG15 depletion was a significant change in macrophage polarization. Although infected ISG15-/- macrophages showed a robust proinflammatory cytokine expression pattern typical of an M1 phenotype, a clear blockade of nitric oxide (NO production and arginase-1 activation was detected. Accordingly, following IFN treatment, NO release was higher in ISG15+/+ macrophages than in ISG15-/- macrophages concomitant with a decrease in viral titer. Thus, ISG15-/- macrophages were permissive for VACV replication following IFN treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ISG15 governs the dynamic functionality of mitochondria, specifically, OXPHOS and mitophagy, broadening its physiological role as an antiviral agent.

  8. Ancestral sequence reconstruction in primate mitochondrial DNA: compositional bias and effect on functional inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Seligmann, Hervé; Stewart, Caro-Beth; De Koning, A P Jason; Pollock, David D

    2004-10-01

    Reconstruction of ancestral DNA and amino acid sequences is an important means of inferring information about past evolutionary events. Such reconstructions suggest changes in molecular function and evolutionary processes over the course of evolution and are used to infer adaptation and convergence. Maximum likelihood (ML) is generally thought to provide relatively accurate reconstructed sequences compared to parsimony, but both methods lead to the inference of multiple directional changes in nucleotide frequencies in primate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). To better understand this surprising result, as well as to better understand how parsimony and ML differ, we constructed a series of computationally simple "conditional pathway" methods that differed in the number of substitutions allowed per site along each branch, and we also evaluated the entire Bayesian posterior frequency distribution of reconstructed ancestral states. We analyzed primate mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes and found that ML reconstructs ancestral frequencies that are often more different from tip sequences than are parsimony reconstructions. In contrast, frequency reconstructions based on the posterior ensemble more closely resemble extant nucleotide frequencies. Simulations indicate that these differences in ancestral sequence inference are probably due to deterministic bias caused by high uncertainty in the optimization-based ancestral reconstruction methods (parsimony, ML, Bayesian maximum a posteriori). In contrast, ancestral nucleotide frequencies based on an average of the Bayesian set of credible ancestral sequences are much less biased. The methods involving simpler conditional pathway calculations have slightly reduced likelihood values compared to full likelihood calculations, but they can provide fairly unbiased nucleotide reconstructions and may be useful in more complex phylogenetic analyses than considered here due to their speed and

  9. Glucose-regulated protein 78 regulates the expression of mitochondrial genesis proteins in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical analysis

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    LI Yaping

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC and its association with clinicopathological features, as well as its regulatory effect on mitochondrial genesis proteins in hepatoma cells, and to provide a basis for new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HCC. MethodsTissue samples were collected from 54 patients with HBV-HCC, and immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to measure the expression of GRP78, Lon, TFAM, and cytochrome C oxidase Ⅳ (COXⅣ. The expression of GRP78 in hepatoma cells was interfered by siRNA, and then the expression of GRP78, Lon, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM, and COX Ⅳ was measured. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in clinical specimens and HCC cells after GRP78 expression was interfered with. A statistical analysis was performed for clinical and experimental data. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results Compared with the adjacent tissues, HBV-HCC tissues had significantly higher expression of GRP78 and Lon (t=9.135 and 5523, both P<0.0001 and significantly lower expression of the mitochondrial genesis proteins TFAM and COX Ⅳ and mtDNA level (t=2.765, 4260, and 12.280, P=0.011, <0.001, and <0.001. There were significant increases in the expression of the mitochondrial genesis proteins TFAM and COX Ⅳ and mtDNA level after the interference with GRP78 expression in hepatoma cells (all P<0.05. There were significant differences in the expression of GRP78 between patients with different numbers of tumors, patients with and without portal vein tumor thrombus, and patients with different tumor stages (P=0.016, 0.003, and 0.045. The patients with low GRP78

  10. Evaluation of Cardiac Mitochondrial Function by a Nuclear Imaging Technique using Technetium-99m-MIBI Uptake Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in energy production for the cell. The proper function of a myocardial cell largely depends on the functional capacity of the mitochondria. Therefore it is necessary to establish a novel and reliable method for a non-invasive assessment of mitochondrial function and metabolism in humans. Although originally designed for evaluating myocardial perfusion, 99m Tc-MIBI can be also used to evaluate cardiac mitochondrial function. In a clinical study on ischemic heart disease, reverse redistribution of 99m Tc-MIBI was evident after direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The presence of increased washout of 99m Tc-MIBI was associated with the infarct-related artery and preserved left ventricular function. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, an increased washout rate of 99m Tc-MIBI, which correlated inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction, was observed in patients with congestive heart failure. Increased 99m Tc-MIBI washout was also observed in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac mitochondrial function could be greatly beneficial in monitoring possible cardiotoxic drug use and in the evaluation of cardiac damage in clinical medicine

  11. Insulin Resistance Is Not Associated with an Impaired Mitochondrial Function in Contracting Gastrocnemius Muscle of Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats In Vivo.

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    Michael Macia

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, altered lipid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle would play a major role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM development, but the causal relationships between these events remain conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a non-obese T2DM model developing peripheral insulin resistant without abnormal level of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Wistar rats were used as controls. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively using magnetic resonance (MR imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS. Compared with control group, plasma insulin and glucose were respectively lower and higher in GK rats, but plasma NEFA level was normal. In resting GK muscle, phosphocreatine content was reduced whereas glucose content and intracellular pH were both higher. However, there were not differences between both groups for basal oxidative ATP synthesis rate, citrate synthase activity, and intramyocellular contents for lipids, glycogen, ATP and ADP (an important in vivo mitochondrial regulator. During a standardized fatiguing protocol (6 min of maximal repeated isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz, mechanical performance and glycolytic ATP production rate were reduced in diabetic animals whereas oxidative ATP production rate, maximal mitochondrial capacity and ATP cost of contraction were not changed. These findings provide in vivo evidence that insulin resistance is not caused by an impairment of mitochondrial function in this diabetic model.

  12. Tumor microenvironment and metabolic synergy in breast cancers: critical importance of mitochondrial fuels and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic synergy or metabolic coupling between glycolytic stromal cells (Warburg effect) and oxidative cancer cells occurs in human breast cancers and promotes tumor growth. The Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis is the catabolism of glucose to lactate to obtain adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This review summarizes the main findings on this stromal metabolic phenotype, and the associated signaling pathways, as well as the critical role of oxidative stress and autophagy, all of which promote carcinoma cell mitochondrial metabolism and tumor growth. Loss of Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) and the upregulation of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in stromal cells are novel markers of the Warburg effect and metabolic synergy between stromal and carcinoma cells. MCT4 and Cav-1 are also breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of the stromal Warburg effect. High ROS also favors cancer cell mitochondrial metabolism and tumorigenesis, and anti-oxidants can reverse this altered stromal and carcinoma metabolism. A pseudo-hypoxic state with glycolysis and low mitochondrial metabolism in the absence of hypoxia is a common feature in breast cancer. High ROS induces loss of Cav-1 in stromal cells and is sufficient to generate a pseudo-hypoxic state. Loss of Cav-1 in the stroma drives glycolysis and lactate extrusion via HIF-1α stabilization and the upregulation of MCT4. Stromal cells with loss of Cav-1 and/or high expression of MCT4 also show a catabolic phenotype, with enhanced macroautophagy. This catabolic state in stromal cells is driven by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and JNK activation and high ROS generation. A feed-forward loop in stromal cells regulates pseudo-hypoxia and metabolic synergy, with Cav-1, MCT4, HIF-1α, NFκB, and ROS as its key elements. Metabolic synergy also may occur between cancer cells and cells in distant organs from the tumor. Cancer cachexia, which is due to severe organismal

  13. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  14. Melatonin and human mitochondrial diseases

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    Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin increases the permeability of membranes and is the stimulator of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. It also acts as an inhibitor of lipoxygenase. Melatonin can cause resistance to oxidation damage by fixing the microsomal membranes. Melatonin has been shown to retard aging and inhibit neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, septic shock, diabetes, cancer, and other complications related to oxidative stress. The purpose of the current study, other than introducing melatonin, was to present the recent findings on clinical effects in diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction including diabetes, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and diseases related to brain function.

  15. Subconductance states of mitochondrial chloride channels: implication for functionally-coupled tetramers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Milan; Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Tomaskova, Zuzana

    2017-08-01

    Recently, it has been discovered that isoforms of intracellular chloride channels (CLIC) are present in cardiac mitochondria. By reconstituting rat cardiac mitochondrial chloride channels into bilayer lipid membranes, we detected three equally separated subconductance states with conductance increment of 45 pS and < 2% occupancy. The observed rare events of channel decomposition into substates, accompanied by disrupted gating, provide an insight into channel quaternary structure. Our findings suggest that the observed channels work as four functionally coupled subunits with synchronized gating. We discuss the putative connection of channel activity from native mitochondria with the recombinant CLIC channels. However, conclusive evidence is needed to prove this connection. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  17. PTP1B controls non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption by regulating RNF213 to promote tumour survival during hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Robert S; Iorio, Caterina; Marcotte, Richard; Xu, Yang; Cojocari, Dan; Rahman, Anas Abdel; Pawling, Judy; Zhang, Wei; Sinha, Ankit; Rose, Christopher M; Isasa, Marta; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Ronald; Virtanen, Carl; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Habu, Toshiyuki; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Koizumi, Akio; Wilkins, Sarah E; Kislinger, Thomas; Gygi, Steven P; Schofield, Christopher J; Dennis, James W; Wouters, Bradly G; Neel, Benjamin G

    2016-07-01

    Tumours exist in a hypoxic microenvironment and must limit excessive oxygen consumption. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls mitochondrial oxygen consumption, but how/if tumours regulate non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption (NMOC) is unknown. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is required for Her2/Neu-driven breast cancer (BC) in mice, although the underlying mechanism and human relevance remain unclear. We found that PTP1B-deficient HER2(+) xenografts have increased hypoxia, necrosis and impaired growth. In vitro, PTP1B deficiency sensitizes HER2(+) BC lines to hypoxia by increasing NMOC by α-KG-dependent dioxygenases (α-KGDDs). The moyamoya disease gene product RNF213, an E3 ligase, is negatively regulated by PTP1B in HER2(+) BC cells. RNF213 knockdown reverses the effects of PTP1B deficiency on α-KGDDs, NMOC and hypoxia-induced death of HER2(+) BC cells, and partially restores tumorigenicity. We conclude that PTP1B acts via RNF213 to suppress α-KGDD activity and NMOC. This PTP1B/RNF213/α-KGDD pathway is critical for survival of HER2(+) BC, and possibly other malignancies, in the hypoxic tumour microenvironment.

  18. Hepatic Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Is Required for Efficient Regulation of Gluconeogenesis and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lawrence R; Sultana, Mst Rasheda; Rauckhorst, Adam J; Oonthonpan, Lalita; Tompkins, Sean C; Sharma, Arpit; Fu, Xiaorong; Miao, Ren; Pewa, Alvin D; Brown, Kathryn S; Lane, Erin E; Dohlman, Ashley; Zepeda-Orozco, Diana; Xie, Jianxin; Rutter, Jared; Norris, Andrew W; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Potthoff, Matthew J; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-10-06

    Gluconeogenesis is critical for maintenance of euglycemia during fasting. Elevated gluconeogenesis during type 2 diabetes (T2D) contributes to chronic hyperglycemia. Pyruvate is a major gluconeogenic substrate and requires import into the mitochondrial matrix for channeling into gluconeogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) comprising the Mpc1 and Mpc2 proteins is required for efficient regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Liver-specific deletion of Mpc1 abolished hepatic MPC activity and markedly decreased pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle flux. Loss of MPC activity induced adaptive utilization of glutamine and increased urea cycle activity. Diet-induced obesity increased hepatic MPC expression and activity. Constitutive Mpc1 deletion attenuated the development of hyperglycemia induced by a high-fat diet. Acute, virally mediated Mpc1 deletion after diet-induced obesity decreased hyperglycemia and improved glucose tolerance. We conclude that the MPC is required for efficient regulation of gluconeogenesis and that the MPC contributes to the elevated gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in T2D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle

  20. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Wonchung [Department of Sports Medicine, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju 363-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taeyoung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chounghun, E-mail: kangx119@umn.edu [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and Exercise Science, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  1. Investigation of structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaidong; Li, Qin; Wang, Lina; Chen, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohol using NAD + or NADP + as cofactor. Three ADH homologues have been identified in Komagataella phaffii GS115 (also named Pichia pastoris GS115), ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, among which adh3 is the only gene responsible for consumption of ethanol in Komagataella phaffii GS115. However, the relationship between structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115 (KpADH3) is still not clear yet. KpADH3 was purified, identified and characterized by multiple biophysical techniques (Nano LC-MS/MS, Enzymatic activity assay, X-ray crystallography). The crystal structure of KpADH3, which was the first ADH structure from Komagataella phaffii GS115, was solved at 1.745 Å resolution. Structural analysis indicated that KpADH3 was the sole dimeric ADH structure with face-to-face orientation quaternary structure from yeast. The major structural different conformations located on residues 100-114 (the structural zinc binding loop) and residues 337-344 (the loop between α12 and β15 which covered the catalytic domain). In addition, three channels were observed in KpADH3 crystal structure, channel 2 and channel 3 may be essential for substrate specific recognition, ingress and egress, channel 1 may be the pass-through for cofactor. KpADH3 plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohols in Komagataella phaffii GS115, and its crystal structure is the only dimeric medium-chain ADH from yeast described so far. Knowledge of the relationship between structure and function of KpADH3 is crucial for understanding the role of KpADH3 in Komagataella phaffii GS115 mitochondrial metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  3. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  4. Electronic Connection Between the Quinone and Cytochrome c Redox Pools and Its Role in Regulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport and Redox Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration, an important bioenergetic process, relies on operation of four membranous enzymatic complexes linked functionally by mobile, freely diffusible elements: quinone molecules in the membrane and water-soluble cytochromes c in the intermembrane space. One of the mitochondrial complexes, complex III (cytochrome bc1 or ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase), provides an electronic connection between these two diffusible redox pools linking in a fully reversible manner two-electron quinone oxidation/reduction with one-electron cytochrome c reduction/oxidation. Several features of this homodimeric enzyme implicate that in addition to its well-defined function of contributing to generation of proton-motive force, cytochrome bc1 may be a physiologically important point of regulation of electron flow acting as a sensor of the redox state of mitochondria that actively responds to changes in bioenergetic conditions. These features include the following: the opposing redox reactions at quinone catalytic sites located on the opposite sides of the membrane, the inter-monomer electronic connection that functionally links four quinone binding sites of a dimer into an H-shaped electron transfer system, as well as the potential to generate superoxide and release it to the intermembrane space where it can be engaged in redox signaling pathways. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding how cytochrome bc1 may accomplish this regulatory physiological function, what is known and remains unknown about catalytic and side reactions within the quinone binding sites and electron transfers through the cofactor chains connecting those sites with the substrate redox pools. We also discuss the developed molecular mechanisms in the context of physiology of mitochondria. PMID:25540143

  5. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den N.M.A.; Ciapaite, J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of

  6. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  7. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in

  8. Rev1 contributes to proper mitochondrial function via the PARP-NAD(+)-SIRT1-PGC1 alpha axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakouri, Nima Borhan; Durhuus, Jon Ambaek; Regnell, Christine Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    (ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) activity, low endogenous NAD+, low expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α and low adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) activity. We conclude that replication stress via Rev1-deficiency contributes to metabolic stress caused by compromized mitochondrial function via...... the PARP-NAD+-SIRT1-PGC1α axis....

  9. Preserved cardiac mitochondrial function and reduced ischaemia/reperfusion injury afforded by chronic continuous hypoxia: Role of opioid receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslov, L. N.; Naryzhnaya, N. V.; Prokudina, E. S.; Kolář, František; Gorbunov, A. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Tsibulnikov, S.Yu.; Portnichenko, A. G.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 496-501 ISSN 1440-1681 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cardioprotection * chronic hypoxia * ischaemia/reperfusion * mitochondrial function * opioid receptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2015

  10. Effects of nuclear mutations for recombination and repair functions and of caffeine on mitochondrial recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenkel, A.H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms indicate that pathways governing repair of damage to nuclear DNA caused by x-ray or ultraviolet irradiation overlap with those controlling recombination. Fourteen nuclear mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested in order to determine whether these mutant genes affected mitochondrial recombination. None of the mutations studied significantly affected mitochondrial recombination. The nuclear recombination and repair pathways studied do not overlap with the nuclear pathway which controls recombination of mitochondrial DNA. A second set of experiments was designed to test the effect of caffeine on both nuclear and mitochondrial recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (U.S.)

  11. High-confidence assessment of functional impact of human mitochondrial non-synonymous genome variations by APOGEE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Castellana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 24,189 are all the possible non-synonymous amino acid changes potentially affecting the human mitochondrial DNA. Only a tiny subset was functionally evaluated with certainty so far, while the pathogenicity of the vast majority was only assessed in-silico by software predictors. Since these tools proved to be rather incongruent, we have designed and implemented APOGEE, a machine-learning algorithm that outperforms all existing prediction methods in estimating the harmfulness of mitochondrial non-synonymous genome variations. We provide a detailed description of the underlying algorithm, of the selected and manually curated training and test sets of variants, as well as of its classification ability.

  12. Mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism in the placenta with gestational diabetes mellitus: role of miR-143.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    A predisposing factor for development of the hyperglycaemic state of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is obesity. We previously showed that increasing maternal obesity is associated with significant reductions in placental mitochondrial respiration. MicroRNA (miR)-143 has been previously shown to regulate the metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in cancer tissues. We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiration is reduced and aerobic glycolysis is up-regulated via changes in miR-143 expression in the placenta of women with GDM. Placental tissue was collected at term from women with A1GDM (controlled by diet), A2GDM (controlled by medication) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (CTRL). miR-143 expression was measured by RT-PCR. Expression of mitochondrial complexes, transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), components of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling, glucose transporter GLUT1 and glycolytic enzymes [hexokinase-2 (HK-2), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were measured by Western blot. Trophoblast respiration was measured by XF24 Analyser. Expression of miR-143, mitochondrial complexes, and PPARγ and PGC1α, which act downstream of miR-143, were significantly decreased in A2GDM placentae compared with A1GDM and CTRL (P<0.01). Placental hPL (human placental lactogen) levels, expression of glycolytic enzymes, GLUT1 and mTOR signalling were also significantly increased by more than 2-fold in A2GDM compared with A1GDM and CTRL (P<0.05). There was a 50% reduction in mitochondrial respiration in trophoblast cells isolated from A2GDM placentae. Overexpression of miR-143 was able to increase mitochondrial respiration, increase protein expression of mitochondrial complexes and decrease expression of glycolytic enzymes by 40% compared with A2GDM. Down-regulation of miR-143 mediates

  13. Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial activity and alters cellular functions in human coronary artery endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sugamura, Koichi; Toyama, Kensuke; Matsubara, Junichi; Fujisue, Koichiro; Ohba, Keisuke; Maeda, Hirofumi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Sumida, Hitoshi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cellular senescence and impaired function of vascular endothelium, resulted in cardiovascular diseases. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type I receptor blocker that has been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in high risk patients. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis and endothelial function. This study assessed whether telmisartan enhances mitochondrial function and alters cellular functions via AMPK in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). In cultured HCAECs, telmisartan significantly enhanced mitochondrial activity assessed by mitochondrial reductase activity and intracellular ATP production and increased the expression of mitochondria related genes. Telmisartan prevented cellular senescence and exhibited the anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of genes related anti-oxidant and pro-angiogenic properties were increased by telmisartan. Telmisartan increased endothelial NO synthase and AMPK phosphorylation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling was not involved in telmisartan-induced improvement of mitochondrial function. All of these effects were abolished by inhibition of AMPK. Telmisartan enhanced mitochondrial activity and exhibited anti-senescence effects and improving endothelial function through AMPK in HCAECs. Telmisartan could provide beneficial effects on vascular diseases via enhancement of mitochondrial activity and modulating endothelial function through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Ricki Y; Cree, Melanie G; Wolfe, Robert R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Qian, Ting; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N

    2010-06-01

    To institute intensive insulin therapy protocol in an acute pediatric burn unit and study the mechanisms underlying its benefits. Prospective, randomized study. An acute pediatric burn unit in a tertiary teaching hospital. Children, 4-18 yrs old, with total body surface area burned > or =40% and who arrived within 1 wk after injury were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized to one of two groups. Intensive insulin therapy maintained blood glucose levels between 80 and 110 mg/dL. Conventional insulin therapy maintained blood glucose patients were included in the data analysis consisting of resting energy expenditure, whole body and liver insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Studies were performed at 7 days postburn (pretreatment) and at 21 days postburn (posttreatment). Resting energy expenditure significantly increased posttreatment (1476 +/- 124 to 1925 +/- 291 kcal/m(2) x day; p = .02) in conventional insulin therapy as compared with a decline in intensive insulin therapy. Glucose infusion rate was identical between groups before treatment (6.0 +/- 0.8 conventional insulin therapy vs. 6.8 +/- 0.9 mg/kg x min intensive insulin therapy; p = .5). Intensive insulin therapy displayed a significantly higher glucose clamp infusion rate posttreatment (9.1 +/- 1.3 intensive insulin therapy versus 4.8 +/- 0.6 mg/kg x min conventional insulin therapy, p = .005). Suppression of hepatic glucose release was significantly greater in the intensive insulin therapy after treatment compared with conventional insulin therapy (5.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg x min; intensive insulin therapy vs. conventional insulin therapy; p = .03). States 3 and 4 mitochondrial oxidation of palmitate significantly improved in intensive insulin therapy (0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.1 microm O(2)/CS/mg protein/min for state 3, p = .004; and 0.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microm O(2)/CS/mg protein/min for state 4, p protocol improves insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial

  15. Improved mitochondrial function in brain aging and Alzheimer disease - the new mechanism of action of the old metabolic enhancer piracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Leuner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs’ is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g. might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease (AD. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, these new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions.

  16. Resveratrol rescues cadmium-induced mitochondrial injury by enhancing transcriptional regulation of PGC-1α and SOD2 via the Sirt3/FoxO3a pathway in TCMK-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Beibei; Zhao, Jiamin; Peng, Wei; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to ameliorate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. However, the beneficial effects of resveratrol on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms of this protection remain unclear. Here, we showed that mouse renal tubular epithelial (TCMK-1) cells exposed to Cd experienced significantly increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production, as well as decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Cd exposure dramatically decreased Sirt3 protein expression and activity and promoted the acetylation of forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a). Moreover, Cd exposure led to a decreased binding affinity of FoxO3a to the promoters of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), powerful and broad regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and mROS metabolism. Meanwhile, resveratrol remarkably reduced mROS generation by promoting Sirt3 enrichment within the mitochondria and subsequent upregulation of FoxO3a-mediated mitochondria gene expression of PGC-1α and SOD2. Importantly, mechanistic study revealed that ERK1/2 activation was associated with increased apoptosis induced by Cd, resveratrol suppressed Cd-induced apoptosis in mice kidney. Taken together, our data suggest a novel mechanism of action for resveratrol-attenuated Cd-induced cellular damage, which, in part, was mediated through the activation of the Sirt3/FoxO3a signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Resveratrol alleviates Cd-induced mitochondrial damage and improves mitochondrial biogenesis. • Mitochondrial-protective effect of resveratrol on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity is through a Sirt3-FoxO3a-dependent mechanism. • Resveratrol suppresses Cd-induced apoptosis through ERK1/2 in vivo.

  17. Implication of advanced glycation end products (Ages) and their receptor (Rage) on myocardial contractile and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviere, Remi; Yu, Yichi; Wang, Lei; Tessier, Frederic; Boulanger, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role for the development and/or progression of cardiovascular diseases, mainly through induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of molecules formed by non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with amino acids of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. AGEs are mainly formed endogenously, while recent studies suggest that diet constitutes an important exogenous source of AGEs. The presence and accumulation of AGEs in various cardiac cell types affect extracellular and intracellular structure and function. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Activation of RAGE by AGEs causes up regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and its target genes. of the RAGE engagement stimulates oxidative stress, evokes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, which all contribute to the development and progression of devastating cardiovascular disorders. This review discusses potential targets of glycation in cardiac cells, and underlying mechanisms that lead to heart failure with special interest on AGE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the myocardium.