WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulates human natural

  1. Regulation of human natural killer cell migration and proliferation by the exodus subfamily of CC chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M J; Williams, B T; Christopherson, K; Brahmi, Z; Hromas, R

    2000-01-10

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses to obligate intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the regulation of NK cell trafficking and migration to inflammatory sites is poorly understood. Exodus-1/MIP-3alpha/LARC, Exodus-2/6Ckine/SLC, and Exodus-3/MIP-3beta/ELC/CKbeta-11 are CC chemokines that share a unique aspartate-cysteine-cysteine-leucine motif near their amino terminus and preferentially stimulate the migration of T lymphocytes. The effects of Exodus chemokines on human NK cells were examined. Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not induce detectable chemotaxis of resting peripheral blood NK cells. In contrast, Exodus-2 and -3 stimulated migration of polyclonal activated peripheral blood NK cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Exodus-2 and -3 also induced dose-dependent chemotaxis of NKL, an IL-2-dependent human NK cell line. Results of modified checkerboard assays indicate that migration of NKL cells in response to Exodus-2 and -3 represents true chemotaxis and not simply chemokinesis. Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not induce NK cell proliferation in the absence of other stimuli. Nevertheless, Exodus-2 and -3 significantly augmented IL-2-induced proliferation of normal human CD56(dim) NK cells. In contrast, Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not affect the cytolytic activity of resting or activated peripheral blood NK cells. Expression of message for CCR7, a shared receptor for Exodus-2 and -3, was detected in activated polyclonal NK cells and NKL cells but not resting NK cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Exodus-2 and -3 can participate in the recruitment and proliferation of activated NK cells. Exodus-2 and -3 may regulate interactions between T cells and NK cells that are crucial for the generation of optimal immune responses.

  2. Human nature and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Allen

    2009-03-01

    Appeals to the idea of human nature are frequent in the voluminous literature on the ethics of enhancing human beings through biotechnology. Two chief concerns about the impact of enhancements on human nature have been voiced. The first is that enhancement may alter or destroy human nature. The second is that if enhancement alters or destroys human nature, this will undercut our ability to ascertain the good because, for us, the good is determined by our nature. The first concern assumes that altering or destroying human nature is in itself a bad thing. The second concern assumes that human nature provides a standard without which we cannot make coherent, defensible judgments about what is good. I will argue (1) that there is nothing wrong, per se, with altering or destroying human nature, because, on a plausible understanding of what human nature is, it contains bad as well as good characteristics and there is no reason to believe that eliminating some of the bad would so imperil the good as to make the elimination of the bad impermissible, and (2) that altering or destroying human nature need not result in the loss of our ability to make judgments about the good, because we possess a conception of the good by which we can and do evaluate human nature. I will argue that appeals to human nature tend to obscure rather than illuminate the debate over the ethics of enhancement and can be eliminated in favor of more cogent considerations.

  3. Defects in Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    By tracing the defects of society back to the defects of human nature, humanity's essence is proved to be inherent evil. Man's natural tendency to do evil remain harnessed through the controls and conventions imposed by civilization, however, when rules or civilization are weakened, man' s dark side is unleashed.

  4. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in constru

  5. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef: What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mwimanzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 causes a chronic infection in humans that is characterized by high plasma viremia, progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, and severe immunodeficiency resulting in opportunistic disease and AIDS. Viral persistence is mediated in part by the ability of the Nef protein to down-regulate HLA molecules on the infected cell surface, thereby allowing HIV-1 to evade recognition by antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes. Extensive research has been conducted on Nef to determine protein domains that are required for its immune evasion activities and to identify critical cellular co-factors, and our mechanistic understanding of this process is becoming more complete. This review highlights our current knowledge of Nef-mediated HLA class I down-regulation and places this work in the context of naturally occurring sequence variation in this protein. We argue that efforts to fully understand the critical role of Nef for HIV-1 pathogenesis will require greater analysis of patient-derived sequences to elucidate subtle differences in immune evasion activity that may alter clinical outcome.

  7. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salas

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises.

  8. Art and human nature

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    Mirta Toledo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a visual artist’s point of view about art. This view confronts the Eurocentric traditional cannon with some ignored, but valuable traditions, thus proposing a contra-canon. These ideas are examined on the light of a variety of sources, including prehistoric, pre-Columbian, and 20th century art expressions, in a variety of media, from sculpture to literature. Recent art expressions are characterized by their incorporation of minority values and perspectives that challenge “universal” views. Using samples of works from Latino and African American artists, the author shows that, even today, art is a means to know the world and its people, to exhibit personal life, to create personal symbolism, and to show one’s identity or the search for it. Like the human nature it represents, art has multiple faces.

  9. Human Nature and the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the procedural and philosophical perspectives taken by science in examining human characteristics. Discusses the different levels of accuracy of various scientific fields. Encourages discussion of what biological and behavioral sciences can and cannot reveal about complex human nature. Considers some characteristics of quality science…

  10. Who creates the Time: Nature or Human?

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The paper defends the thesis that analysis of time meaning in a context of philosophy of physical and mathematical natural sciences and philosophical anthropology allows to clear basis of human being and to construct special model of general understanding of time as a creation of nature or creation of human. Regulations on discretization and virtual nature of cultural interaction, mutual tension of limits of cultural and historical process allow connecting philosophy of the nature and philosophical anthropology with system of categories (energy, weight, distance, etc.). It finds application both in the physical and mathematical sphere and in the field of humanitarian studies. We can make a conclusion that neither nature nor human create the time. Time is an imaginary phenomenon connecting human activity and natural processes in the limits of human consciousness.

  11. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  12. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  13. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on obs

  14. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  15. Solidarity and human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel dos Santos Luzio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of solidarity inhabits the collective unconscious and is usually related to something consensual, linked to the most basic values of mankind, but to expand that understanding leads to more complex views. Human solidarity would be conditioned by biological, or cultural issue that goes beyond any possible biological determinism. This study seeks to analyze the phenomenon of solidarity and its correlation with life in society from the perspective of complexity, through a cross-sectional analysis in order to cover the phenomenon in question from different perspectives. For that, we appealed to sociobiology, and the social sciences interpretation. We tried to thereby renounce the sole idea and permanent solution, by approaching to the assumptions of complex thinking, which rely precisely to overcome a single organizing principle or a single cause to explain the same phenomenon. It noticed the need of new societal experiences, which would block the advance of competitive individualist paradigm as the sole alternative, highlighting the experiences of the solidarity economy and third sector organizations that have a new business logic, a third social force among the state and the market.

  16. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  17. Natural Resources and Human Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkel, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    It is rotational movement of the Earth that decides on the climatic zonation of natural resources, as modified by the positions of the continents and oceans and the irregular spread of fossil fuels. Intensive human activity poses threats to the development of natural geoecosystems. The last century also brought growing civilizational threats to the environment on the global, regional and local scales. The author characterise the prospects in regard to global changes, and discuss the solutions needing to be pursued if human geoecosystems are to be protected (through management and education).

  18. Swift, Gulliver, and Human Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    I have some Time since, with a World of Pains and Art, dissected the Carcass of Human Nature, and read many useful Lectures upon the several Parts … till at last it smelt so strong, I could preserve it no longer. The objects of Swift’s satire in Gulliver’s Travels are numerous and disparate, ranging from the follies of natural philosophers to the varieties of human pride, English politics under Queen Anne and King George, Walpole and ministerial government, and of course the genre of travel w...

  19. The nature of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, the author points out that, unlike in the past, in our time human rights developed into a fair legal institution, and even a special system. They are formulated and protected both internally and internationally. The second part deals with the approach according to which human rights are part of the so-called. natural law. The author notes that the theory of natural law can not be accepted for many reasons. It is pure construction, which is far from reality, and besides it is unnecessary. Law and thus human rights as a part of it, is a social creation, developing along with the society itself, whereby, in the longer term, advanced norms in the matter of human rights replace obsolete ones. Life and human needs are the ones who impose such development. In the third part the writer notes that since under human rights one can have in mind various things, at least such a special concept and, on the other hand, specific rights, it is not possible to give a single answer to what is the nature of human rights. It is even harder as human rights, have a variety of dimensions - legal, philosophical, ideological, political, economic, social, educational, etc. However, he gives his view of the main characteristics of the modern concept of human rights. In the fourth part, the author notes that, speaking not about the concept, but human rights as such, their main characteristics are that they are: 1 source - belong to anyone on the grounds that he is a human being (general rights or a member specific vulnerable groups (special rights; 2 universal - belong to everyone or all members of vulnerable groups, without any discrimination based on personal characteristics, and on the other hand, the most important such rights shall be recognized in all states; 3 inalienable - one can not give up or else share his basic human rights, such as the right to life, the right to vote, etc.; 4 somewhat different - although, in principle, all

  20. Colamus humanitatem: Nurturing human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R. Papini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In an essay on anger, the ancient philosopher Seneca warns of the futility of harboring negative emotions given the imminence of death—the ultimate human equalizer. Ancient philosophers like Seneca believed that emotions are based on cognitions (beliefs and are therefore modifiable through spiritual exercises. Modern research shows that the emotional and cognitive aspects of human psychology are malleable (nurture, but also require gene expression (nature. A parallel between individual behavior and socio-political forces suggests a framework for the current environmental crisis— another human equalizer. Two critical questions are suggested: Is the amassed experience of the last few centuries suffi cient to lead to corrective measures that would avoid environmental degradation? Or would a catastrophic event with signifi cant longterm environmental degradation have to occur before corrective measures reach consensus at the socio-political level?

  1. TWEAK Negatively Regulates Human Dicer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by processing microRNA precursors (pre-microRNAs) into microRNAs, a class of 19- to 24-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of ≈60% of the genes in humans. To gain further insights into the function and regulation of Dicer in human cells, we performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2HB) screen using human Dicer double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) as bait. This approach identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like w...

  2. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  3. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  4. Regulation of natural health products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alysyn; Jogalekar, Sumedha; Gibson, Adam

    2014-12-02

    In Canada, all natural health products (NHPs) are regulated by Health Canada (HC) under the Food and Drugs Act and the Natural Health Product Regulations. All authorized products undergo pre-market assessment for safety, efficacy and quality and the degree of pre-market oversight varies depending on the risk of the product. In Canada, over 70,000 products have been authorized for sale and over 2000 sites have been licensed to produce NHPs. In the management of NHPs on the Canadian market, HC employs a number of active and collaborative methods to address the most common issues such as contamination, adulteration and deceptive or misleading advertising practices. HC is currently evolving its approaches to NHPs to recognize them as part of the larger group of health products available without a prescription. As such, the regulatory responsibility for all over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including non-prescription drugs and NHPs, has been transferred to a single federal division. As a result of this transition a number of benefits are being realized with respect to government efficiency, clarity for industry, support for new innovations and consolidated government interactions with the Canadian market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transduction into human lung cancer cells differentially regulates metastasis formations in various organ microenvironments of natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, S; Nishioka, Y; Nokihara, H; Sone, S

    1997-02-15

    We investigated whether local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), responsible for migration and activation of monocytes/macrophages at a tumor growth site, affected the metastatic pattern of lung cancer. For this, highly metastatic human squamous (RERF-LC-AI) or small (H69/VP) cell lung carcinoma cells were transduced with the human M-CSF gene inserted into pRc/CMV-MCSF to establish M-CSF-producing clones (MCSF-AI-9-18, MCSF-AI-9-24, and MCSF-VP-5). M-CSF gene transduction had no effect on the expression of surface antigen or on in vitro proliferation. After s.c. injection into SCID mice, the growth rates of M-CSF-producing cells were slower than those of parent or mock-transduced cells. In the metastatic model in SCID mice depleted of natural killer cells, RERF-LC-AI cells formed metastases mainly in the liver and kidneys, whereas H69/VP cells metastasized mainly to the liver and systemic lymph nodes. The numbers of metastatic colonies of MCSF-AI-9-18 and MCSF-AI-9-24 cells in the liver but not the kidneys were significantly reduced. The development of lymph node metastases of MCSF-VP-5 cells was also less than that of parent or mock-transduced cells. Treatment of SCID mice with anti-human M-CSF antibody resulted in a significant increase in liver metastases of their M-CSF gene transfectants. No significant differences were observed in the distributions in mice or in the in vitro invasive potentials of MCSF-AI-9-18 cells and Neo-AI-3 cells. These findings indicate that the antimetastatic effect of M-CSF may be specific to particular organs, suggesting the influence of heterogeneity of organ microenvironments on the metastasis of lung cancer.

  6. Genetic enhancement, human nature, and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Terrance

    2010-08-01

    Authors such as Francis Fukuyama, the President's Council on Bioethics, and George Annas have argued that biotechnological interventions that aim to promote genetic enhancement pose a threat to human nature. This paper clarifies what conclusions these critics seek to establish, and then shows that there is no plausible account of human nature that will meet the conditions necessary to support this position. Appeals to human nature cannot establish a prohibition against the pursuit of genetic enhancement.

  7. Human morphology and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. S.

    For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one's thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.

  8. The human nature of culture and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Gratier, Maya; Osborne, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Human cultures educate children with different strategies. Ancient hunter-gatherers 200,000 years ago, with bodies and brains like our own, in bands of a hundred well-known individuals or less, depended on spontaneous cooperative practice of knowledge and skills in a natural world. Before creating language, they appreciated beautiful objects and music. Anthropologists observe that similar living cultures accept that children learn in playful 'intent participation'. Large modern industrial states with millions of citizens competing in a global economy aim to instruct young people in scientific concepts and the rules of literacy and numeracy deemed important for employment with elaborate machines. Our psychobiological theories commonly assume that an infant starts with a body needing care and emotional regulation and a mind that assimilates concepts of objects by sensorimotor action and requires school instruction in rational principles after several years of cognitive development. Evidence from archeology and evolutionary anthropology indicates that Homo sapiens are born with an imaginative and convivial brain ready for the pleasure of shared invention and with a natural sense of beauty in handmade objects and music. In short, there are innate predispositions for culture for practicing meaningful habits and artful performances that are playfully inventive and seductive for companionship in traditions, and soon capable of grasping the clever purpose of shared tasks and tools. This knowledge of inventive human nature with esthetic and moral sensibilities has important implications for educational policy in our schools. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:173-192. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1276 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Human Nature Evil in Ancient Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2015-01-01

    Whether man is good or evil by nature is a constant topic tophilosophers and writers. Is a man born virtuous or evil? What onearth is human nature? Is the origin of human nature kind or wicked?People have been debating over this topic for centuries. Theseseemingly simple questions have perplexed those Great Minds forthousands of years in European countries and are the constant themesof literary works as well. The problem of human nature is the deepestof the issues regarding human beings which have long been underdiscussion since ancient time.

  10. The nature of human altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

    2004-01-01

    Some of the most fundamental questions concerning our evolutionary origins, our social relations, and the organization of society are centred around issues of altruism and selfishness. Experimental evidence indicates that human altruism is a powerful force and is unique in the animal world. However, there is much individual heterogeneity and the interaction between altruists and selfish individuals is vital to human cooperation. Depending on the environment, a minority of altruists can force ...

  11. Human Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Nix-Stevenson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates on the connection between socioeconomic status, education, and the ability to respond to natural disasters. Using the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and other natural disasters as teachable moments, I foreground how uneven access to resources and capital leave some people more vulnerable than others to natural disasters and how marginal communities inevitably bear the accompanying repercussions of who gets what, when, and how much in the postdisaster emergency relief and reconstruction phase. This occurs not necessarily and merely through a “natural” disaster, as the Boxer Day Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina, but through processes of social, political, and economic disempowerment associated with prior racialized histories and inequitable access to cultural capital.

  12. Natural Phenomena in the Mechanism of Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Malyshkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interaction of nature phenomena and law in the regulation of social relations. The author proves that natural phenomena should be considered when legal acts are worked out. The analysis of the place and role of natural phenomena in the mechanism of legal regulation is analysed.

  13. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  14. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  15. The Nonscience of Human Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1974-01-01

    Possible reasons for the current resurgence of biological determinism are discussed. Deterministic arguments are classified as being based on the general human species or based on presumed differences among racial groups. The first type of argument is presented and some alternate interpretations proposed. (LS)

  16. The Reasons of Human Nature Evil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荔枝

    2015-01-01

    The topic about human nature has been discussed all the time.Meng Zi said: "one always has a good nature when he was born."However, another Chinese great man has a totally opposite idea about future. As far as I am concerned, goodness and evil both exist inhuman nature. The key point we should be clear is: why couldsomeone be good but others not? Our society always is in disorderbecause of evil. The reasons of evil of human nature should beclassified so society can run in order. In my point, the reasons mainlyexist in the education of family and school

  17. The development of human nature in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Simonovski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of human nature in children from 4 to 12 years of age. The concept of human nature is described by Oerter (Oerter, 1991, 1994; Oerter, Oerter, Agostiani, Kim, in Wibowo, 1996 in his theory of development of implicit anthropology. Two procedures were applied in the research: an interview on adulthood and a social dilemma story, which was followed by a guided interview. The distribution of the developmental stages of the concept of human nature in children of different age is presented, along with the frequency of higher-stage answers that progressively rises with subject's age. The frequency of the answers on the first, the second and the third developmental stage is compared between sexes. Higher level of conceptualisation of human nature in girls was found when compared with boys. The intering in personality, social and action theory are explained.

  18. Medicine as combining natural and human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L

    2011-08-01

    Medicine is unique in being a combination of natural science and human science in which both are essential. Therefore, in order to make sense of medical practice, we need to begin by drawing a clear distinction between the natural and the human sciences. In this paper, I try to bring the old distinction between the Geistes and Naturwissenschaften up to date by defending the essential difference between a realist explanatory theoretical study of nature including the body in which the scientist discovers the causal properties of natural kinds and the interpretive understanding of human beings as embodied agents which, as Charles Taylor has convincingly argued, requires a hermeneutic account of self-interpreting human practices.

  19. Cortisol Exerts Bi-Phasic Regulation of Inflammation in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Yeager, Mark P.; Pioli, Patricia A.; Guyre, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used for decades to suppress inflammation. In this paper, we re-examine the role of the endogenous GC, cortisol, as a primary homeostatic regulator of the human inflammatory response to injury. Our data show that cortisol regulation of innate immunity can be both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. Using a human model of in vivo cortisol depletion, we first show that baseline (diurnal) cortisol concentrations do not exert an anti-infla...

  20. Optimal Price Regulation for Natural and Legal Monopolies

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Vogelsang

    1999-01-01

    Optimal price regulation for natural and legal monopolies is an impossible task. The still difficult .task of good price regulation can be systematized by considering separately price level and price structure of the regulated firm. Various methods of price level and price structure regulation are evaluated and then considered for the regulation of electricity transmission, both in the context of an independent transmission company and of vertical integration between transmission and most of ...

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the regulation of human invariant natural killer T cells: lessons from obesity, diabetes and psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A E

    2011-11-01

    The innate immune cells, invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells), are implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, an inflammatory condition associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and dyslipidaemia. We observed an improvement in psoriasis severity in a patient within days of starting treatment with an incretin-mimetic, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. This was independent of change in glycaemic control. We proposed that this unexpected clinical outcome resulted from a direct effect of GLP-1 on iNKT cells.

  2. Melatonin down-regulates hTERT expression induced by either natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol) or metalloestrogens (cadmium) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Campa, Carlos M; Alonso-González, Carolina; Mediavilla, Maria D; Cos, Samuel; González, Alicia; Sanchez-Barcelo, Emilio J

    2008-09-18

    The goal was to evaluate whether melatonin (Mel) down-regulates hTERT expression induced by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or cadmium (Cd) in breast cancer cells. We found that: (a) Mel inhibits E(2) or Cd-induced hTERT transcription in hTERT-Luc transfected MCF-7 cells, (b) Mel significantly reduces E(2)- and Cd-mediated hTERT transactivation triggered by ERalpha in transfected HeLa cells, (c) Mel inhibits hTERT expression induced by E(2) or Cd in MCF-7 cells. Melatonin inhibition of telomerase activity supports a possible role in treatment of estrogen-dependent tumors or carcinogenesis by environmental or occupational exposure to xenoestrogens.

  3. Regulating the use of human bodily material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Loane

    2013-12-01

    The articles in this special issue consider recent developments in the law regulating the use of human bodily material and the wider implications of those developments. For some time, the law has accepted that a person who has undertaken "work and skill" on excised bodily material may obtain at least a possessory right; but the person from whom the material came did not have such a right. Now, however, the law has recognised that people may have some legal rights regarding their own bodily material. What is the nature and source of those rights? Should they be expanded? If so, what legal principles are best to do that? The most frequent suggestion is the law of property but many other areas of law are also relevant: the law of contract; tort (bailment and consent); criminal law (e.g., forensic testing); gifts; custodianship and others. These regulatory options are outlined in this editorial and discussed by lawyers and other contributors in their articles in this special issue. There are also stimulating philosophical reflections on the nature of human bodily material.

  4. Natural diterpenes from coffee, cafestol and kahweol induce apoptosis through regulation of specificity protein 1 expression in human malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung-Ae

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a highly aggressive cancer with a very poor prognosis. Several clinical studies such as immunotherapy, gene therapy and molecular targeting agents have been tried for treatment of malignant mesothelioma, however, there is no application for effective clinical treatment. Coffee has various biological functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activities. The therapeutic activities of the bioactive compounds in coffee was sugested to influence intracellular signaling of MPM. Regarding to the cancer-related functions, In this study, suppression of Sp1 protein level followed by induction of MSTO-211H cell apoptosis by cafestol and kahweol were investigated in oreder to determine Sp1's potential as a significant target for human MPM therapy as well. Methods Cells were treated separately with final concentration of cafestol and kahweol and the results were analyzed by MTS assay, DAPI staining, PI staining, luciferase assay, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting. Results Viability of MSTO-211H and H28 cells were decreased, and apoptotic cell death was increased in MSTO-211H as a result of cafestol and kahweol treatment. Cafestol and kahweol increased Sub-G1 population and nuclear condensation in MSTO-211H cells. Roles of Sp1 in cell proliferation and apoptosis of the MSTO-211H cells by the Sp1 inhibitor of Mithramycin A were previously confirmed. Cafestol and kahweol significantly suppressed Sp1 protein levels. Kahweol slightly attenuated Sp1 mRNA, while Cafestol did not affect in MSTO-211H cells. Cafestol and kahweol modulated the promoter activity and protein expression level of the Sp1 regulatory genes including Cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and Survivin in mesothelioma cells. Apoptosis signaling cascade was activated by cleavages of Bid, Caspase-3, and PARP with cafestol and by upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-xl by kahweol. Conclusions Sp1 can be a novel

  5. Selective role of mevalonate pathway in regulating perforin but not FasL and TNFalpha release in human Natural Killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Poggi

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of fluvastatin, an inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase involved in mevalonate synthesis, on human NK cell-mediated anti-tumor cytolysis. Fluvastatin inhibited the activation of the small guanosin triphosphate binding protein (GTP RhoA and the consequent actin redistribution induced by ligation of LFA1 involved in NK-tumor target cell adhesion. Also, fluvastatin reduced ganglioside M1 rafts formation triggered through the engagement of NK cell activating receptors as FcγRIIIA (CD16, NKG2D and DNAM1. Cytolysis of tumor targets was inhibited up to 90% when NK cells were cultured with fluvastatin by affecting i receptor-mediated increase of the intracellular free calcium concentration, ii activation of akt1/PKB and iii perforin and granzyme release. Fluvastatin displayed a stronger inhibiting effect on NKG2D, DNAM1, 2B4, NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46 than on CD16-mediated NK cell triggering. This was in line with the impairment of surface expression of all these receptors but not of CD16. Remarkably, fluvastatin did not affect the expression of the inhibiting receptors CD94, KIR2D and LAIR1. FasL release elicited by either NK-tumor cell interaction or CD16 or NKG2D engagement, as well as FasL-mediated killing, were not sensitive to fluvastatin. Moreover, TNFα secretion triggered in NK cells upon incubation with tumor target cells or engagement of NKG2D receptor was not impaired in fluvastatin-treated NK cells. Likewise, antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC triggered through FcγRIIIA engagement with the humanized monoclonal antibody rituximab or trastuzumab was only marginally affected in fluvastatin-treated NK cells. Altogether these findings suggest that interference with mevalonate synthesis impairs activation and assembly of cytoskeleton, degranulation and cytotoxic effect of perforins and granzyme but not FasL- and TNFα-mediated cytotoxicity.

  6. Essential Building Blocks of Human Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Ulrich J; Willführ, Kai P

    2011-01-01

    To understand why we humans are as we are, it is necessary to look at the essential building blocks that comprise our nature. The foundations of this structure are our evolutionary origins as primates and our social roots. Upon these rest features such as our emotions, language and aesthetic preferences, with our self-perceptions, self-deceptions and thirst for knowledge right at the top. The unifying force holding these blocks together is evolutionary theory. Evolution provides a deeper understanding of human nature and, in particular, of the common roots of these different perspectives. To build a reliable and coherent model of man, leading authors from fields as diverse as primatology, anthropology, neurobiology and philosophy have joined forces to present essays  each describing their own expert perspective. Together they provide a convincing and complete picture of our own human nature.

  7. Natural resources, redistribution and Human capital formation

    OpenAIRE

    Aguero, Jorge; Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Maldonado, Stanislao; Ñopo, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    How do resource booms affect human capital accumulation? We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodity boom across local governments in Peru to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation. We explore the effect of both mining production and tax revenues on test scores, finding a substantial and statistically significant effect for the latter. Transfers to local governments from mining tax revenues are linked to an increase in math test scores of aroun...

  8. Worship of Authority and Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangRuisheng

    2005-01-01

    Authority is a cultural phenomenon that by its nature implies social relations between individuals. At the heart of authority is power-holders' maximization of their own interests by virtue of their ruling positions. In ancient society based on the small-scale peasant economy, the concept of authority worship was unavoidable. It is rooted in the premise that man is by nature evil and hence needs the awe-inspiring powers of authority. A highly developed cult of authority exerts enormous influence on and seriously distorts human nature. But the authority cult was not the only ideology in feudal society;

  9. Exergetic analysis of human & natural processes

    CERN Document Server

    Banhatti, Dilip G

    2011-01-01

    Using the concept of available work or exergy, each human and natural process can be characterized by its contextual efficiency, that is, efficiency with the environment as a reference. Such an efficiency is termed exergy efficiency. Parts of the process which need to be made more efficient & less wasteful stand out in such an analysis, in contrast to an energy analysis. Any new idea for a process can be similarly characterized. This exercise naturally generates paths to newer ideas in given contexts to maximize exergy efficiency. The contextual efficiency is not just output/input, it also naturally includes environmental impact (to be minimized) and any other relevant parameter(s) to be optimized. Natural life processes in different terrestrial environments are already optimized for their environments, and act as guides, for example, in seeking to evolve sustainable energy practices in different contexts. Energy use at lowest possible temperature for each situation is a natural result. Variety of renewab...

  10. Nature and nurture of human pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Inna

    2013-01-01

    Humans are very different when it comes to pain. Some get painful piercings and tattoos; others can not stand even a flu shot. Interindividual variability is one of the main characteristics of human pain on every level including the processing of nociceptive impulses at the periphery, modification of pain signal in the central nervous system, perception of pain, and response to analgesic strategies. As for many other complex behaviors, the sources of this variability come from both nurture (environment) and nature (genes). Here, I will discuss how these factors contribute to human pain separately and via interplay and how epigenetic mechanisms add to the complexity of their effects.

  11. Synthesis of human-nature feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hull

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In today's globalized world, humans and nature are inextricably linked. The coupled human and natural systems (CHANS framework provides a lens with which to understand such complex interactions. One of the central components of the CHANS framework involves examining feedbacks among human and natural systems, which form when effects from one system on another system feed back to affect the first system. Despite developments in understanding feedbacks in single disciplines, interdisciplinary research on CHANS feedbacks to date is scant and often site-specific, a shortcoming that prevents complex coupled systems from being fully understood. The special feature "Exploring Feedbacks in Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS" makes strides to fill this critical gap. Here, as an introduction to the special feature, we provide an overview of CHANS feedbacks. In addition, we synthesize key CHANS feedbacks that emerged in the papers of this special feature across agricultural, forest, and urban landscapes. We also examine emerging themes explored across the papers, including multilevel feedbacks, time lags, and surprises as a result of feedbacks. We conclude with recommendations for future research that can build upon the foundation provided in the special feature.

  12. Homosexuals' and Lesbians' Philosophies of Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; Benozio, Motti

    1987-01-01

    Compared 57 homosexual men and 45 lesbians on six dimensions of beliefs about human nature. On only one dimension was significant difference found: lesbians saw people as more altruistic and less selfish than did homosexual men. Findings are consistent with the few personality studies which report no differences between homosexuals and lesbians.…

  13. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  14. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  15. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  16. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  17. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Socol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  18. Neural networks of human nature and nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Levine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural network methods have facilitated the unifi - cation of several unfortunate splits in psychology, including nature versus nurture. We review the contributions of this methodology and then discuss tentative network theories of caring behavior, of uncaring behavior, and of how the frontal lobes are involved in the choices between them. The implications of our theory are optimistic about the prospects of society to encourage the human potential for caring.

  19. Neural networks of human nature and nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Levine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural network methods have facilitated the unification of several unfortunate splits in psychology, including nature versus nurture. We review the contributions of this methodology and then discuss tentative network theories of caring behavior, of uncaring behavior, and of how the frontal lobes are involved in the choices between them. The implications of our theory are optimistic about the prospects of society to encourage the human potential for caring.

  20. Themes in the human experience of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, Howard R; Heaps, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    To identify themes in the human experience of nature, a three-part study was run. In the first part, 100 undergraduate students were asked to list three situations in which they are or were aware of nature and to describe one of these in detail. In the second part, 26 descriptions were selected from these responses, summarized to a 2- to 5-sentence format, and presented to a different group of 30 subjects who sorted them into groups on the basis of cross-item similarity. These groupings were then analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling procedures to produce thematic meanings. In the third part, a qualitative analysis of themes was performed over the unabridged initial versions of the same set of descriptions. Results of both qualitative and quantitative procedures led to the identification of four themes--Power and Scale, Danger and Safety, Beauty, and Connection and Alienation --and to a smaller number of themes unique to each mode of analysis. All themes were related to the everyday meanings of nature and to the more abstract definitions of nature employed in scientific or aesthetic analyses of the human response to this domain.

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting Human Natural Killer Cell Cytolytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Hyoungjun; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synaps...

  2. Human nature: neither material nor spiritually being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alba Martínez Amorós

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of «human nature» defended by Ortega y Gasset is as original as opposite to what is usually understood. We are making a mistake if the starting point is to conceive Man as one living being among others. Neither science nor philosophy, while remaining in the Eleatic tradition, can give a clear explanation. Science, because if we look at Man, as he is presented to us, it is impossible to distinguish in him materially from spiritually; his body and his psyche. Philosophy, because the concept of «human nature» is an invention of our reason, a fantasy. That nature doesn’t exist because the being of man is so strange and different from other beings that its consistency is just going to be what it never manages to be. Therefore, it is what happens, a journey, a history that is running within a circumstance. This is my life, and that of everyone.

  3. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.20 Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations. (a) General. Regulations for assessing natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases under the...

  4. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  5. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  6. ECONOMIC NATURE OF THE FINANCIAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shirinyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.

  7. Natural sweeteners in a human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Sweeteners, both natural and artificial, play an important role in a human diet as well as are of great importance to the food industry and dieticians. Many people associate sweet taste with sucrose, which is commonly known as table sugar. However, there are many sweet substances that food manufacturers add to food products because none of them is ideal for all applications. Besides sucrose there are also other sugars such as glucose and fructose that originate both from natural sources such as fruits and honey or from added sugars. Among sweeteners there are also compounds which have a sweet taste and contain no calories or those which sweetness is so intense so can be used at very low concentrations, thus, their impact on the total caloric value of the product is negligible. They can be classified due to their origin (natural or synthetic agents), the technological function (sweeteners and fillers), texture (powders and syrups), and nutritional value (caloric and non-caloric). Natural sweetening substances include carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, thaumatin and stevia. Besides providing well tasting foods, they might have an impact on products' texture, color, preservation and caloric value. Sugar alcohols, which belong to carbohydrates, are both natural sugar substitutes and food additives. They are becoming more and more popular among consumers mainly due to their lower caloric values and glycemic indexes as well as anticariogenic effects. Sugar alcohols are often combined with other sweeteners to enhance food products' sweetness. Stevia, which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, is a non caloric substance whereas thaumatin, a sweet protein, provides 4 kcal/g but characterizes with sweetness about 2000 times higher than sucrose (on a weight basis).

  8. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  9. Theorising Learning and Nature: Post-Human Possibilities and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2013-01-01

    In their predominantly theoretical turn to the material, post-humanist feminists often focus on "nature", arguing that the nature/culture binary has collapsed and that fixed distinctions between human and non-human spheres no longer hold. Conversely, outdoor learning sees nature as a space where humans act and has been more concerned…

  10. Theorising Learning and Nature: Post-Human Possibilities and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2013-01-01

    In their predominantly theoretical turn to the material, post-humanist feminists often focus on "nature", arguing that the nature/culture binary has collapsed and that fixed distinctions between human and non-human spheres no longer hold. Conversely, outdoor learning sees nature as a space where humans act and has been more concerned…

  11. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  12. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  13. Natural killer cells in human autoimmune disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play a critical role in early host defense against viruses. Through their cytolytic capacity and generation of cytokines and chemokines, NK cells modulate the activity of other components of the innate and adaptive immune systems and have been implicated in the initiation or maintenance of autoimmune responses. This review focuses on recent research elucidating a potential immunoregulatory role for NK cells in T-cell and B-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders in humans, with a particular focus on multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematous. A better understanding of the contributions of NK cells to the development of autoimmunity may lead to novel therapeutic targets in these diseases. PMID:23856014

  14. Are Human and Natural Systems Decoupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, P. R.; Ehrlich, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Typically, studies of coupled human and natural systems focus on reciprocating interactions and feedbacks between social systems and their biophysical environments. A major challenge today for CHANS scholars is to determine whether significant coupling remains or whether society is simply plunging ahead without reacting effectively to the deterioration of the environment. Thresholds for serious climate disruption are passing, toxification of Earth is proceeding apace and producing worrying symptoms, losses of vital biodiversity are at a 65 million-year high with serious consequences for ecosystem services, the epidemiological environment is deteriorating and a race is building to control water flows and extract the last high-quality resources, increasing the chances of ending civilization in an environment-wrecking nuclear war. The social system has attempted to respond to this perfect storm of problems. In the 1960s, building on much earlier work, scientists began assessing the consequences of an ever-growing human population and expanding consumption, overuse of pesticides, radioactive fallout, air and water pollution, and other environmental issues - and to recommend ameliorative steps. In the mid-1980s, biologists formed the discipline of conservation biology with the explicit purpose of stemming the hemorrhage of biodiversity. In the late 1980s, perhaps the single most important reaction to the worsening environmental situation was the development of the Montreal Protocol to preserve the vital stratospheric ozone layer. Around the same time, it dawned on the scientific community that climate disruption was going to be more immediate and dangerous than previously thought, but attempts by the world community to take mitigating steps have been pathetic. Action to deal with other dimensions of the environmental dilemma has been utterly inadequate. To see the growing disconnect, one only has to consider the attention paid in public discourse to the relatively

  15. MicroRNA regulation of natural killer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eSullivan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes critical for host defense against viral infection and surveillance against malignant transformation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a family of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Recent advances have highlighted the importance of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in NK cell development, maturation, and function. This review focuses on several facets of this regulatory mechanism in NK cells: 1 the expressed NK cell miRNA transcriptome; 2 the impact of total miRNA deficiency on NK cells; 3 the role of specific miRNAs regulating NK cell development, survival, and maturation; 4 the intrinsic role of miRNAs regulating NK cell function, including cytokine production, proliferation, and cytotoxicity; and 5 the role of NK cell miRNAs in disease. Currently our knowledge of how miRNAs regulate NK cell biology is limited, and thus we also explore key open questions in the field, as well as approaches and techniques to ascertain the role of individual miRNAs as important molecular regulators.

  16. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, Trevor B.; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a tw...

  17. China to Regulate Natural Gas Import from Mid-Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government plans to introduce new measures on June 10 to regulate imports of natural gas in order to protect its three major gas importers from intense domestic competition. The Ministry of Commerce said late-May that the move would end the chaotic competition between China's big-three oil and gas companies - China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) - in the purchase of gas,which has helped overseas exporters raise prices. The competition has been blamed on the lax import system for natural gas that is currently in place. Enterprises, at present, do not have to satisfy any conditions to obtain import permits for natural gas. After June 10, each application for an import permit will be examined and approved.

  18. Regulation of chromatin structure by long noncoding RNAs: focus on natural antisense transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistri, Marco; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; St Laurent, Georges; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2012-08-01

    In the decade following the publication of the Human Genome, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have reshaped our understanding of the broad landscape of genome regulation. During this period, natural antisense transcripts (NATs), which are transcribed from the opposite strand of either protein or non-protein coding genes, have vaulted to prominence. Recent findings have shown that NATs can exert their regulatory functions by acting as epigenetic regulators of gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of epigenetic modifications by NATs and their emerging role as master regulators of chromatin states. Unlike other long ncRNAs, antisense RNAs usually regulate their counterpart sense mRNA in cis by bridging epigenetic effectors and regulatory complexes at specific genomic loci. Understanding the broad range of effects of NATs will shed light on the complex mechanisms that regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression in development and disease.

  19. Expression of RHOGTPase regulators in human myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RHOGTPases play a significant role in modulating myometrial contractility in uterine smooth muscle. They are regulated by at least three families of proteins, RHO guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RHOGEFs, RHOGTPase-activating proteins (RHOGAPs and RHO guanine nucleotide inhibitors (RHOGDIs. RHOGEFs activate RHOGTPases from the inactive GDP-bound to the active GTP-bound form. RHOGAPs deactivate RHOGTPases by accelerating the intrinsic GTPase activity of the RHOGTPases, converting them from the active to the inactive form. RHOGDIs bind to GDP-bound RHOGTPases and sequester them in the cytosol, thereby inhibiting their activity. Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM proteins regulate the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and an ERM protein, moesin (MSN, is activated by and can also activate RHOGTPases. Methods We therefore investigated the expression of various RHOGEFs, RHOGAPs, a RHOGDI and MSN in human myometrium, by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR, real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of these molecules was also examined in myometrial smooth muscle cells. Results ARHGEF1, ARHGEF11, ARHGEF12, ARHGAP5, ARHGAP24, ARHGDIA and MSN mRNA and protein expression was confirmed in human myometrium at term pregnancy, at labour and in the non-pregnant state. Furthermore, their expression was detected in myometrial smooth muscle cells. It was determined that ARHGAP24 mRNA expression significantly increased at labour in comparison to the non-labour state. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time the expression of the RHOGTPase regulators ARHGEF1, ARHGEF11, ARHGEF12, ARHGAP5, ARHGAP24, ARHGDIA and MSN in human myometrium, at term pregnancy, at labour, in the non-pregnant state and also in myometrial smooth muscle cells. ARHGAP24 mRNA expression significantly increased at labour in comparison to the non-labouring state. Further investigation of these molecules may enable us

  20. An atlas of human kinase regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Jonikas, Mindaugas; Lawrence, Robert T; El Debs, Bachir; Selkrig, Joel; Typas, Athanasios; Villén, Judit; Santos, Silvia Dm; Beltrao, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The coordinated regulation of protein kinases is a rapid mechanism that integrates diverse cues and swiftly determines appropriate cellular responses. However, our understanding of cellular decision-making has been limited by the small number of simultaneously monitored phospho-regulatory events. Here, we have estimated changes in activity in 215 human kinases in 399 conditions derived from a large compilation of phosphopeptide quantifications. This atlas identifies commonly regulated kinases as those that are central in the signaling network and defines the logic relationships between kinase pairs. Co-regulation along the conditions predicts kinase-complex and kinase-substrate associations. Additionally, the kinase regulation profile acts as a molecular fingerprint to identify related and opposing signaling states. Using this atlas, we identified essential mediators of stem cell differentiation, modulators of Salmonella infection, and new targets of AKT1. This provides a global view of human phosphorylation-based signaling and the necessary context to better understand kinase-driven decision-making. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. Materialism, conspicuous consumption and the human nature.:Materialism, conspicuous consumption and the human nature.

    OpenAIRE

    Lens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    By nature, humans are social beings. We are constantly communicating and we interact with many different people in a variety of contexts. Some interactions fulfill an economic function, aimed at exchanging products,while other interactions may have an in- or explicit sexual purpose. Irrespective of the purpose of an interaction, numerous factors may shape its course, outcome, or the way the interaction is experienced by those involved in it. In four essays, this dissertation aims to investiga...

  2. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  3. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    CERN Document Server

    Arp, Trevor B; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a two-channel quantum heat engine photocell, thus enabling the efficient conversion of varying incident solar spectrum at Earth's surface. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum is avoided, as it provides no inherent regulatory benefit. Our findings illuminate a quantum structural origin of regulation, provide a novel optoelectronic design strategy, and may elucidate the link between photoprotection in photosynthesis and the predominance of green plants on Earth.

  4. Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Function by STAT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eCacalano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, key members of a distinct hempatopoietic lineage, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs, are critical effectors that mediate cytotoxicity toward tumor and virally-infected cells but also regulate inflammation, antigen presentation and the adaptive immune response. It has been shown that NK cells can regulate the development and activation of many other components of the immune response such as dendritic cells, which in turn, modulate the function of NK cells in multiple synergistic feed back loops driven by cell-cell contact and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines that control effector function and migration of cells to sites of immune activation. The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT-3 is involved in driving almost all of the pathways that control NK cytolytic activity as well as the reciprocal regulatory interactions between NK cells and other components of the immune system. In the context of tumor immunology, NK cells are a first line of defense that eliminates pre-cancerous and transformed cells early in the process of carcinogenesis, through a mechanism of immune surveillance. Even after tumors become established, NK cells are critical components of anti-cancer immunity: dysfunctional NK cells are often found in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and the lack of NK cells in the tumor microenvironment often correlates with poor prognosis. The pathways and soluble factors activated in tumor-associated NK cells, cancer cells, and regulatory myeloid cells which determine the outcome of cancer immunity are all critically regulated by STAT3. Using the tumor microenvironment as a paradigm, we present here an overview of the research that has revealed fundamental mechanisms through which STAT3 regulates all aspects of natural killer cell biology, including NK development, activation, target cell killing, and fine tuning of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  5. The Nature of Effective Human Resource Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Daniel; Kleiner, Brian H.

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of the human resource planning function in organizations and the responsibilities at each level of management are discussed. A framework for constructing and implementing a human resource planning system is outlined, and several approaches for human resource forecasting are examined. (MSE)

  6. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.

  7. Relationship Between Human and Nature In America Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷炎炎

    2007-01-01

    Nature is one of an important themes in America literature. This article mainly analyzes Ralph Emerson, Henry David Thoreau,Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway and Robert Frost's different representative stylistic works on nature; inquires into nature's various forms in America literature, such as its personification, objectification, deification and so on; elaborates on its significant meanings; expounds and proves the relationship between and nature in different writer's works and points out nature's profound impact on human.

  8. Epigenetic Regulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidong eHu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been tremendous progress in characterizing the transcriptional network regulating hESCs (MacArthur et al., 2009; Loh et al., 2011, including those signaling events mediated by Oct4, Nanog and Sox2. There is growing interest in the epigenetic machinery involved in hESC self-renewal and differentiation. In general, epigenetic regulation includeschromatin reorganization, DNA modification and histone modification, which are not directly related to alterations in DNA sequences. Various protein complexes, includingPolycomb, trithorax, NuRD, SWI/SNF andOct4, have been shown to play critical roles in epigenetic control of hESC maintenance and differentiation. Hence, we will formally review recent advances in unraveling the multifaceted role of epigenetic regulation in hESC self-renewal and induced differentiation, particularly with respect to chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation events. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance/differentiation of hESCs and reprogramming of somatic cells will greatly strengthen our capacity to generate various types of cells to treat human diseases.

  9. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  10. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  11. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-02-12

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  12. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

  13. Naturalizing language: human appraisal and (quasi) technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Using contemporary science, the paper builds on Wittgenstein’s views of human language. Rather than ascribing reality to inscription-like entities, it links embodiment with distributed cognition. The verbal or (quasi) technological aspect of language is traced to not action, but human specific...... the verbal aspect of language constrains action and thinking, we also develop customary ways of behaving. Humans extend embodiment by linking real-time activity to actions through which the collectivity imposes a variable degree of control over how individuals realise values....

  14. Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, K; McClintock, M K

    1998-03-12

    Pheromones are airborne chemical signals that are released by an individual into the environment and which affect the physiology or behaviour of other members of the same species. The idea that humans produce pheromones has excited the imagination of scientists and the public, leading to widespread claims for their existence, which, however, has remained unproven. Here we investigate whether humans produce compounds that regulate a specific neuroendocrine mechanism in other people without being consciously detected as odours (thereby fulfilling the classic definition of a pheromone). We found that odourless compounds from the armpits of women in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycles accelerated the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone of recipient women and shortened their menstrual cycles. Axillary (underarm) compounds from the same donors which were collected later in the menstrual cycle (at ovulation) had the opposite effect: they delayed the luteinizing-hormone surge of the recipients and lengthened their menstrual cycles. By showing in a fully controlled experiment that the timing of ovulation can be manipulated, this study provides definitive evidence of human pheromones.

  15. Liberal eugenics and human nature. Against Habermas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In the course of developing his arguments against making genetic enhancements to one's children, Habermas assumes that a clear line can be drawn between the natural and the manufactured. But given the current state of medical science, this is precisely what we can no longer take for granted.

  16. Climate and Human History of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the ideas that have prevented environmental knowledge from developing into action and change. According to Clarence J. Glacken throughout European history design ideas about the relation between man and nature have prevented the many local observations of the negative...

  17. Regulation of gene expression in human tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21539748

  18. The historical character of human nature in Freud's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbersheid, Uri

    2013-06-01

    In Freud' theories of human development, human nature is described and analyzed as essentially historical. At the core of human history is the restructuring of the sexual instinct and the death instinct (or its unique form as destructive impulses). The conscious, asked-for shaping of these two instincts, under the rule of the "reality principle", forms the basis of human society at all stages. This conscious restructuring has also unintended, unasked-for results, which are part of the historically developing human nature. The historical choice has been the building of human society as a social complex based on the de-eroticization of both the individual and society. Freud suggested that the historical process of changing human nature and maintaining the achieved new structure has mainly been an enterprise of enlightened political elite, which has imposed (in all societies) the various elements of the new nature upon the ordinary people. Human history is essentially a deed of the political sphere. In viewing human nature as consisting of both asked-for and unasked-for results of human conscious purposeful activity Freud belongs to the same historical school as Marx.

  19. Defensins: natural component of human innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kościuczuk, Ewa M; Lisowski, Paweł; Strzałkowska, Nina; Jóźwik, Artur; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Krzyżewski, Józef; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2013-09-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has contributed to a huge increase in the number of resistant bacteria. New classes of drugs are therefore being developed of which defensins are a potential source. Defensins are a group of antimicrobial peptides found in different living organisms, involved in the first line of defense in their innate immune response against pathogens. This review summarizes the results of studies of this family of human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). There is a special emphasis on describing the entire group and individual peptides, history of their discovery, their functions and expression sites. The results of the recent studies on the use of the biologically active peptides in human medicine are also presented. The pharmaceutical potential of human defensins cannot be ignored, especially considering their strong antimicrobial activity and properties such as low molecular weight, reduced immunogenicity, broad activity spectrum and resistance to proteolysis, but there are still many challenges and questions regarding the possibilities of their practical application.

  20. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  1. Natural Compounds Regulate Glycolysis in Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early twentieth century, Otto Heinrich Warburg described an elevated rate of glycolysis occurring in cancer cells, even in the presence of atmospheric oxygen (the Warburg effect. Recently it became a therapeutically interesting strategy and is considered as an emerging hallmark of cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is one of the key transcription factors that play major roles in tumor glycolysis and could directly trigger Warburg effect. Thus, how to inhibit HIF-1-depended Warburg effect to assist the cancer therapy is becoming a hot issue in cancer research. In fact, HIF-1 upregulates the glucose transporters (GLUT and induces the expression of glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. So small molecules of natural origin used as GLUT, hexokinase, or pyruvate kinase isoform M2 inhibitors could represent a major challenge in the field of cancer treatment. These compounds aim to suppress tumor hypoxia induced glycolysis process to suppress the cell energy metabolism or enhance the susceptibility of tumor cells to radio- and chemotherapy. In this review, we highlight the role of natural compounds in regulating tumor glycolysis, with a main focus on the glycolysis under hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  2. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  3. HUMAN NATURE: BETWEEN PERSUASION AND MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LUCIA ȘUTIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Each word is an attempt to influence other persons, as Alex Mucchielli said. Communication, by using words, is a characteristic of human beings, and it plays an important role in everyday life. Communication can be seen as an attempt to share information through a process of symbolic interaction between human beings. It is an essential life process through which humans create, transmit and utilize information by words. Putting words in act, we can express feelings, we can share opinions and we can obtain whatever we want, finally. It is essential to take into account certain ethical rules whenever we start a communication process. As the main purpose of communication is to convince people, this goal can be achieved only by using persuasion and/or manipulation. The last century is a sort of witness as regards the use of words in order to persuade people to adhere to certain ideological precepts and to determine them to act in a certain desirable way by the initiators of the communication process. Practically, there is a fine line between persuasion and manipulation; and in this situation, it is hard for ordinary people to distinguish between them. Manipulation appears like a persuasive process and it hides its true aims. This is the only way by which it can operate and for that it is considered immoral and invasive in the mind and soul of people. Human beings are now in the position to look for a way to protect themselves against such an invasive act and to find a way to distinguish between correct and false information. What can we do? In this study we analyze persuasion and manipulation from an ethical point of view and we search for paths to protect ourselves from the manipulative techniques.

  4. The ethics of impossible and possible changes to human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators speak freely about genetics being poised to change human nature. Contrary to such rhetoric, Norman Daniels believes no such thing is plausible since 'nature' describes characteristic traits of human beings as a whole. Genetic interventions that do their work one individual at a time are unlikely to change the traits of human beings as a class. Even so, one can speculate about ways in which human beings as a whole could be genetically altered, and there is nothing about that venture that could not be deliberated in the way other high-impact questions can be evaluated. There might well come a time when it would be defensible to use genetics to change human beings as a class, in order to protect people in the face of changed environmental circumstances or to enhance existing capacities. Moreover, if one understands human nature not in an empirically descriptive way but in a metaphysical way having implications about human behavior, it can make sense to talk about de-naturing individuals through genetic changes. Even under a metaphysical conception of human nature, however, one can still imagine that people in the future might want to alter their traits in pursuit of another normative idea of a good and valuable life, and genetic modifications might function as a pathway to that change.

  5. HUMAN NATURE, MARXISN-LENINISM AND AFRICAN SOCIALISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pbiz

    basis upon which to found a peaceful, ordered and incorruptible society. ... of society, others hold the view that human nature is a product of biological .... totalitarianism on the individual personality of the soviet dissidents and the reformers of.

  6. HUMAN NATURE, DIRTY HANDS AND SOCIAL DISORDER: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    problems and various forms of immorality. Every society desires ..... 2(c) Human Nature and Machiavellian Challenge. Politics, in the .... salary (enforcing the laws against tax evasion with threats of .... shares something of the others concerns.

  7. RpoS is required for natural transformation of Vibrio cholerae through regulation of chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalia, Ankur B

    2016-11-01

    Vibrio species naturally reside in the aquatic environment and a major metabolite in this habitat is the chitinous exoskeletons of crustacean zooplankton. In addition to serving as a nutrient, chitin-derived oligosaccharides also induce natural genetic competence in many Vibrio spp., a physiological state in which bacteria take up DNA from the extracellular environment and can integrate it into their chromosome by homologous recombination. Another inducing cue required for competence are quorum-sensing autoinducers. The alternative sigma factor RpoS is critical for natural transformation in Vibrio cholerae, and it was previously presumed to exert this effect through regulation of quorum sensing. Here, we show that RpoS does not affect quorum sensing-dependent regulation of competence. Instead, we show that an rpoS mutant has reduced chitinase activity, which is required to liberate the soluble chitin oligosaccharides that serve as an inducing cue for competence. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that RpoS is required for growth of V. cholerae on insoluble chitin. RpoS also regulates the mucosal escape response in pathogenic strains of V. cholerae. Thus, in addition to promoting egress from its human host, RpoS may also prime this pathogen for successful reentry into the aquatic environment. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. New perspectives in the debate about human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Marcos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous article, entitled Philosophy of Human Nature, I have stated my criticism against the denial of human nature, against their complet naturalization and against its complete artificialization. Here I will give a brief summary of these arguments (section 1. Then I will try to deepen the criticism in dialogue with several contemporary authors who shape a crucial change in the current perspectives on human nature (section 2. Taken together, these authors present a lucid review of the radical naturalism. They suggest as well a new and more accurate theory of human nature. I will focus especially on the contributions of Thomas Nagel, because I believe that he lays the foundation for a possible constructive interchange on human nature between theistic and non theistic positions (section 3. This dialogue should be oriented, as I argue in the concluding section, by the guidelines of a critical common sense.

  9. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  10. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  11. Linking human and natural systems in the planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin; Roger B. Hammer

    2012-01-01

    Planning links human and natural systems in the urban-rural interface by engaging people in consideration of the future of natural resources. We review evolving ideas about what planning entails, who it involves, and what its outcomes should be. Sense of place, collaboration, emergent planning, and other new developments in planning are discussed. Smaller plans,...

  12. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  13. Regulation of Nav1.7 : A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Werdehausen, Robert; Linley, John E; Habib, Abdella M; Vernon, Jeffrey; Lolignier, Stephane; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Zhao, Jing; Okorokov, Andrei L; Woods, C Geoffrey; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT) for SCN9A that is conse

  14. A Chess Game among Human,Wolves and Nature%A Chess Game among Human, Wolves and Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世萌

    2011-01-01

    Wolf Totem is a famous novel describing wolves as a main part.The article goes deeper into the novel,analyzing the relationship between human beirgs and nature and the relationship between Mongols and wolves.

  15. Fieldwork: man in the system of nature and priority of natural laws in human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinyakova, Elena

    2007-06-01

    Fieldwork is a branch of inseparable unity of natural and humanitarian sciences; it is aimed at the cultural origin of humanity on the maximum level of its variety. Practically all natural sciences have some space determined by ethnic conscience in nature cognition: ethnodemography, ethnobotany, ethnozoology, etc. Fieldwork guides the research of human culture from the laws of nature. This kind of knowledge is useful to balance human relations with nature and avoid conflicts. Peoples should exchange their wisdom in the dialogue with nature to be more safe. Fieldwork understood as traditional culture only, explaining the variety of ethnoses on our earth, is just the narrow and diachronic level of this branch of knowledge. The cosmological knowledge, where fantasy and not exhausted in its cognition understanding the world of nature are mixed, forms the source of fieldwork and in many respects explains the direction of knowledge: the man finds himself under the open sky, he is the child of nature. Then as time went on there appeared a gradual transition--first nature was creating the man, then by and by he began turning to answer nature by his activity. Nowadays the man is actively creating nature. There are two levels of fieldwork: the ancient one which deals with the origin of ethnoses and the modern one which explores how contemporary life is determined by ethnic specific traits. Fieldwork is the core of multidisciplinary situation in man's knowledge. It is related to such humanitarian sciences: semiotics, culturology, sociology, history, philosophy, literature, linguistics. In the cycle of natural sciences fieldwork stands close to anthropology, geography, biology, demography. Fieldwork as a science has the two main levels--the "sophy" level and the logos "level". The first one discovers wisdom of human life, the second one is aimed at logical structuring of knowledge, here proceed various classifications of peoples.

  16. Quantifying Human Mobility Perturbation and Resilience in Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the {\\beta} value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data ...

  17. Natural auditory scene statistics shapes human spatial hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Knorre, Katharina; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-04-22

    Human perception, cognition, and action are laced with seemingly arbitrary mappings. In particular, sound has a strong spatial connotation: Sounds are high and low, melodies rise and fall, and pitch systematically biases perceived sound elevation. The origins of such mappings are unknown. Are they the result of physiological constraints, do they reflect natural environmental statistics, or are they truly arbitrary? We recorded natural sounds from the environment, analyzed the elevation-dependent filtering of the outer ear, and measured frequency-dependent biases in human sound localization. We find that auditory scene statistics reveals a clear mapping between frequency and elevation. Perhaps more interestingly, this natural statistical mapping is tightly mirrored in both ear-filtering properties and in perceived sound location. This suggests that both sound localization behavior and ear anatomy are fine-tuned to the statistics of natural auditory scenes, likely providing the basis for the spatial connotation of human hearing.

  18. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  19. Human nature and culture: an evolutionary psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M

    2001-12-01

    Personality psychology is the broadest of all psychological subdisciplines in that it seeks a conceptually integrated understanding of both human nature and important individual differences. Cultural differences pose a unique set of problems for any comprehensive theory of personality-how can they be reconciled with universals of human nature on the one hand and within-cultural variation on the other? Evolutionary psychology provides one set of conceptual tools by which this conceptual integration can be made. It requires jettisoning the false but still-pervasive dichotomy of culture versus biology, acknowledging a universal human nature, and recognizing that the human mind contains many complex psychological mechanisms that are selectively activated, depending on cultural contexts. Culture rests on a foundation of evolved psychological mechanisms and cannot be understood without those mechanisms.

  20. Relationship between Humans and Nature in Melville's Moby Dick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余奕汶

    2015-01-01

    Herman Melville,with Moby Dick as his masterpiece,is a famous romantic writer.Moby Dick is a"bright pearl" in the literary treasury of the world.By allegorically depicting the cruel killing of whales by the Captain Ahab and other sailors in his whaling ship,and their tragically being drowned in the sea,the writer reveals that if humans are too self-centered,we will inevitably be punished by nature.Start with the three states that humans get along with nature in Moby Dick,my thesis aims at exploring the transformations of the relationship between humans and nature as well as the edification that humans may gain from the tragic story.

  1. Digital technology and human development: a charter for nature conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffey, Georgina; Homans, Hilary; Banks, Ken; Arts, Koen

    2015-11-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development-which holds parallels with the nature conservation sector-has seen a proliferation of innovation in technological development. Throughout this Perspective, we consider what nature conservation can learn from the introduction of digital technology in human development. From this, we derive a charter to be used before and throughout project development, in order to help reduce replication and failure of digital innovation in nature conservation projects. We argue that the proposed charter will promote collaboration with the development of digital tools and ensure that nature conservation projects progress appropriately with the development of new digital technologies.

  2. The effect of natural whey proteins on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Car

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a rich natural source of peptides and amino acids. It has been reported in numerous studies that biological active peptides isolated from cow’s milk whey may affect blood pressure regulation. Studies on animals and humans have shown that α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin obtained from enzymatically hydrolysed whey inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, while lactorphins lower blood pressure by normalizing endothelial function or by opioid receptors dependent mechanism. Whey proteins or their bioactive fragments decrease total cholesterol, LDL fraction and triglycerides, thus reducing the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of whey proteins on the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

  3. Human-like Three-dimensional Walking with Natural Dynamic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Natural dynamics can be exploited in the control of biped walking robots: the swing leg can swing passively, the compliant ankle can naturally transfer the center of pressure along the foot and help in toe off.These mechanisms simplify control and result in motion that is smooth and natural looking.Imitated human being's behavior, we presented a control strategy for HIT-III biped robot, in which active and passive motions were combined.The experiment result shows that robot walked at a faster speed (approximately 0.25m/s) than previous and had a natural and smooth looking gait.

  4. Antagonism of human formyl peptide receptor 1 with natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Quinn, Mark T

    2016-08-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) regulates a wide variety of neutrophil functional responses and plays an important role in inflammation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. To date, a variety of natural and synthetic molecules have been identified as FPR1 ligands. Here, we review current knowledge on natural products and natural product-inspired small molecules reported to antagonize and/or inhibit the FPR1-mediated responses. Based on this literature, additional screening of selected commercially available natural compounds for their ability to inhibit fMLF-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in human neutrophils and FPR1 transfected HL-60 cells, and pharmacophore modeling, natural products with potential as FPR1 antagonists are considered and discussed in this review. The identification and characterization of natural products that antagonize FPR1 activity may have potential for the development of novel therapeutics to limit or alter the outcome of inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The nature and perception of fluctuations in human musical rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Fredebohm, Anneke; Hagmayer, York; Nagler, Jan; Witt, Annette; Theis, Fabian; Geisel, Theo

    2012-02-01

    Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. However, the built-in humanizing units are essentially random number generators producing only simple uncorrelated fluctuations. Here, for the first time, we establish long-range fluctuations as an inevitable natural companion of both simple and complex human rhythmic performances [1]. Moreover, we demonstrate that listeners strongly prefer long-range correlated fluctuations in musical rhythms. Thus, the favorable fluctuation type for humanizing interbeat intervals coincides with the one generically inherent in human musical performances. [1] HH et al., PLoS ONE,6,e26457 (2011)

  6. The nature and perception of fluctuations in human musical rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hennig

    Full Text Available Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. However, the built-in humanizing units are essentially random number generators producing only simple uncorrelated fluctuations. Here, for the first time, we establish long-range fluctuations as an inevitable natural companion of both simple and complex human rhythmic performances. Moreover, we demonstrate that listeners strongly prefer long-range correlated fluctuations in musical rhythms. Thus, the favorable fluctuation type for humanizing interbeat intervals coincides with the one generically inherent in human musical performances.

  7. Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature's Supply and Human's Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...

  8. Ontological And Anthropological Aspects of the Concept of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asha Nimali Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology is the study of the origin of the man. It is basically concern with the concept of Homo sapiens, and it is scientifically questioning what are human physical traits as well how do men behave and the variation among different groups of  human with his social and cultural dimensions. Ontology is a subfield in traditional philosophy which is mainly focuses on the nature of being, existence or reality as such. There are some similarities and differences among these two areas. However when we deeply study the philosophical basis of the anthropology it is proof that it was derived from ontology.Anthropology discusses the social and cultural world or the physical entity of human nature. Ontology focuses the invisible aspect of human nature along with the ultimate reality. Therefore, it has a metaphysical aspect of human being; this philosophical notion has in fact, contributed to the development of the subject of anthropology. The present modern day has given very little attention to this philosophical combination of  ontolog y to anthropology, rendering further investigation into the philosophical roots of anthropology.This research paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between ontology and anthropology by paying attention to the ontological arguments about the concept of man and human nature within Greek and modern western thoughts, in comparing with modern anthropological arguments.

  9. TECHNOLOGY VS NATURE: HUMAN ERROR IN DEALING WITH NATURE IN CRICHTON'S JURASSIC PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prasasti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessing the euphoria of the era of biotechnology in the late twentieth century, Crichton exposes the theme of biotechnology in his works. In Jurassic Park, he voices his concern about the impact of the use of biotechnology to preserve nature and its living creatures. He further describes how the purpose of preserving nature and the creatures has turned out to be destructive. This article discusses Crichton's main character, Hammond, who attempts to control nature by genetically recreating the extinct fossil animals. It seems that the attempt ignores his human limitations. Although he is confident that has been equipped with the technology, he forgets to get along with nature. His way of using technology to accomplish his purpose proves not to be in harmony with nature. As a consequence, nature fights back. And he is conquered.

  10. Review the Nature and the Humanity in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-lan

    2015-01-01

    Tragedy is the art that purifies the mind. Through richly-drawn impressive characters, King Lear illustrates the same⁃ness of human nature and manifest the common outlook on humanity in Chinese and western culture. King Lear should be studied from the perspectives of dialectics of nature and history of social development.Through manifestation of nature and human beings, King Lear proves to be deeply touching for being earthshaking, society-changing and mind-purifying.The artistic value of this trag⁃edy lies in that the truth, the good and the beauty against the fake,the bad and the ugly. All these contributes to its extraordinary standing in aesthetics, philosophy, anthropology, sociology and psychology.

  11. Regulation of open access in natural gas pipeline services; Regulacao do livre acesso aos dutos de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Anderson Souza da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: andersonssmagister@yahoo.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The recent development of natural gas market lived nowadays in Brazil brings the discussion about the regulation model designed for this industry, in the face of the flexibility of constitutional monopoly achieved by Constitutional Amendment no. 09 and Petroleum Law (Nbr. 9.478/97). The present paper analyses the introduction of open access conception in the pipeline services - foreseen in Petroleum Law - and the open access regulation in the case of natural gas pipeline services. The paper points out the juridical issues of the introduction of open access and its role for the creation of an environment of competition in natural gas market. (author)

  12. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS WITH RESPECT TO SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF IRAN AND...

  13. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  14. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Mo

    Full Text Available Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  15. Assessing sustainable biophysical human-nature connectedness at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, Christian; Abson, David J.; Fischer, Joern; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Humans are biophysically connected to the biosphere through the flows of materials and energy appropriated from ecosystems. While this connection is fundamental for human well-being, many modern societies have—for better or worse—disconnected themselves from the natural productivity of their immediate regional environment. In this paper, we conceptualize the biophysical human-nature connectedness of land use systems at regional scales. We distinguish two mechanisms by which primordial connectedness of people to regional ecosystems has been circumvented via the use of external inputs. First, ‘biospheric disconnection’ refers to people drawing on non-renewable minerals from outside the biosphere (e.g. fossils, metals and other minerals). Second, ‘spatial disconnection’ arises from the imports and exports of biomass products and imported mineral resources used to extract and process ecological goods. Both mechanisms allow for greater regional resource use than would be possible otherwise, but both pose challenges for sustainability, for example, through waste generation, depletion of non-renewable resources and environmental burden shifting to distant regions. In contrast, biophysically reconnected land use systems may provide renewed opportunities for inhabitants to develop an awareness of their impacts and fundamental reliance on ecosystems. To better understand the causes, consequences, and possible remedies related to biophysical disconnectedness, new quantitative methods to assess the extent of regional biophysical human-nature connectedness are needed. To this end, we propose a new methodological framework that can be applied to assess biophysical human-nature connectedness in any region of the world.

  16. Acetylcholine regulates ghrelin secretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Broglio (Fabio); E. Ghigo (Ezio); C. Gottero; F. Prodam (Flavia); S. Destefanis; A. Benso; C. Gauna (Carlotta); L.J. Hofland (Leo); E. Arvat; A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGhrelin secretion has been reportedly increased by fasting and energy restriction but decreased by food intake, glucose, insulin, and somatostatin. However, its regulation is still far from clarified. The cholinergic system mediates some ghrelin actions, e.g.

  17. INHUMAN HUMAN NATURE: LOIS LOWRY’S THE GIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Cengiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lois Lowry (1937- is a prolific author having a number of books – Number the Stars (1989, Gathering Blue (2000, and Messenger (2004 – and awards especially in the field of children’s literature. Her significant science fiction novel, The Giver (1993, presents a social panorama in order to thoroughly analyze the society’s mechanical life style. As an example of dystopia, the author delineates a systematically organized social order where people abide by the rules naturally. Nevertheless, Jonas, the protagonist and Receiver of Memory, is the first person to discern robotic/mechanical order in the society which is transformed into “sameness” eliminating all individual differences and emotions such as pain, happiness, cold, colors, and so on. Therefore, Receiver of Memory storing past memories of the society is the only one who is aware of human characteristics. The crucial point is that human figure, far from the current one, displays inhuman (non-human features without memories and hope. Mechanical association between individuals and social structure ascertains artificial form of life in which there is no chance to choose. After learning truths behind the strict order, Jonas is in pursuit of real world with all kinds of feelings; however, his recognition is not able to change the whole society. Hence, this paper aims at delving into the relationship between human nature and society with regard to posthuman approach and inhuman human form in accordance with transformation of human nature.

  18. Natural Rubber Nanocomposite with Human-Tissue-Like Mechanical Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniati, Riri; Novita, Nanda; Sutisna; Wibowo, Edy; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2017-07-01

    The blends of synthetic rubber and natural rubber with nanosilica were prepared using a blending technique in presence of different filler volume fraction. The effect of filler on morphological and mechanical characteristics was studied. Utilization of human cadaver in means of medical study has been commonly used primarily as tools of medical teaching and training such as surgery. Nonetheless, human cadaver brought inevitable problems. So it is necessary to find a substitute material that can be used to replace cadavers. In orthopaedics, the materials that resemble in mechanical properties to biological tissues are elastomers such as natural rubber (latex) and synthetic rubber (polyurethanes, silicones). This substitution material needs to consider the potential of Indonesia to help the development of the nation. Indonesia is the second largest country producer of natural rubber in the world. This paper aims to contribute to adjusting the mechanical properties of tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) to the recommended range of biological tissue value and thus allow the development of phantoms with greater stability and similarity to human tissues. Repeatability for the phantom fabrication process was also explored. Characteristics were then compared to the control and mechanical characteristics of different human body part tissue. Nanosilica is the best filler to produce the best nanocomposite similarities with human tissue. We produced composites that approaching the properties of human internal tissues.

  19. 16 CFR 1.8 - Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules. 1.8 Section 1.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND... Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules. (a) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions...

  20. Mathematical Thinking and Human Nature: Consonance and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leron, Uri

    2004-01-01

    Human nature had traditionally been the realm of novelists, philosophers, and theologicians, but has recently been studied by cognitive science, neuroscience, research on babies and on animals, anthropology, and evolutionary psychology. In this paper I will show--by surveying relevant research and by analyzing some mathematical "case studies"--how…

  1. Natural hazards, disasters and human kind: Whither ecosystem management?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    in the himalayas. Monetary loss due to the tsunami touched 3,242 crore rupees Encroachment of sensitive landforms such as coastal sand dunes and hill slopes is a major concern. As such, the relentless natural hazards culminate in disasters when humans come...

  2. Philosophies of Human Nature and Perception of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of social perceptions of differential perception of beauty. Men and women (N=62) rated 10 passport pictures on five-point scale from very ugly to very beautiful. Subjects also completed Philosophies of Human Nature Scale. Positive correlations with perception of beauty were obtained for four of the six subscales. (Author)

  3. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H

    2001-04-01

    Research and teaching in environmental health have centered on the hazardous effects of various environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, radiation, and biological and physical agents. However, some kinds of environmental exposures may have positive health effects. According to E.O. Wilson's "biophilia" hypothesis, humans are innately attracted to other living organisms. Later authors have expanded this concept to suggest that humans have an innate bond with nature more generally. This implies that certain kinds of contact with the natural world may benefit health. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented from four aspects of the natural world: animals, plants, landscapes, and wilderness. Finally, the implications of this hypothesis for a broader agenda for environmental health, encompassing not only toxic outcomes but also salutary ones, are discussed. This agenda implies research on a range of potentially healthful environmental exposures, collaboration among professionals in a range of disciplines from public health to landscape architecture to city planning, and interventions based on research outcomes.

  4. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funahashi, Nobuaki, E-mail: nfunahashi@ri.ncgm.go.jp [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Department of Metabolic Disorder, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirota, Yoshihisa [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Suhara, Yoshitomo [Department of Bioscience and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Okano, Toshio [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K{sub 1}) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K{sub 2}). Menadione (vitamin K{sub 3}) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1

  5. Polymorphic cis- and trans-regulation of human gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian G Cheung

    Full Text Available Expression levels of human genes vary extensively among individuals. This variation facilitates analyses of expression levels as quantitative phenotypes in genetic studies where the entire genome can be scanned for regulators without prior knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms, thus enabling the identification of unknown regulatory relationships. Here, we carried out such genetic analyses with a large sample size and identified cis- and trans-acting polymorphic regulators for about 1,000 human genes. We validated the cis-acting regulators by demonstrating differential allelic expression with sequencing of transcriptomes (RNA-Seq and the trans-regulators by gene knockdown, metabolic assays, and chromosome conformation capture analysis. The majority of the regulators act in trans to the target (regulated genes. Most of these trans-regulators were not known to play a role in gene expression regulation. The identification of these regulators enabled the characterization of polymorphic regulation of human gene expression at a resolution that was unattainable in the past.

  6. Concept Model of Ecological Civilization Regulated by Nature,Society and Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretic development of ecological civilization,and put forward the concept model of ecological civilization regulated by nature,society and government.In the construction of ecological civilization,the nature,society and government play different roles and have respective functions.Therefore,we should build a self-regulating network of ecological civilization through natural law,social law,as well as scientific outlook on development.

  7. Acetylcholine regulates ghrelin secretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Broglio (Fabio); E. Ghigo (Ezio); C. Gottero; F. Prodam (Flavia); S. Destefanis; A. Benso; C. Gauna (Carlotta); L.J. Hofland (Leo); E. Arvat; A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGhrelin secretion has been reportedly increased by fasting and energy restriction but decreased by food intake, glucose, insulin, and somatostatin. However, its regulation is still far from clarified. The cholinergic system mediates some ghrelin actions, e.g. stimulatio

  8. Human brain evolution: transcripts, metabolites and their regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Mehmet; Liu, Xiling; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    What evolutionary events led to the emergence of human cognition? Although the genetic differences separating modern humans from both non-human primates (for example, chimpanzees) and archaic hominins (Neanderthals and Denisovans) are known, linking human-specific mutations to the cognitive phenotype remains a challenge. One strategy is to focus on human-specific changes at the level of intermediate phenotypes, such as gene expression and metabolism, in conjunction with evolutionary changes in gene regulation involving transcription factors, microRNA and proximal regulatory elements. In this Review we show how this strategy has yielded some of the first hints about the mechanisms of human cognition.

  9. Natural Product Polyamines That Inhibit Human Carbonic Anhydrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan A. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural product compound collections have proven an effective way to access chemical diversity and recent findings have identified phenolic, coumarin, and polyamine natural products as atypical chemotypes that inhibit carbonic anhydrases (CAs. CA enzymes are implicated as targets of variable drug therapeutic classes and the discovery of selective, drug-like CA inhibitors is essential. Just two natural product polyamines, spermine and spermidine, have until now been investigated as CA inhibitors. In this study, five more complex natural product polyamines 1–5, derived from either marine sponge or fungi, were considered for inhibition of six different human CA isozymes of interest in therapeutic drug development. All compounds share a simple polyamine core fragment, either spermine or spermidine, yet display substantially different structure activity relationships for CA inhibition. Notably, polyamines 1–5 were submicromolar inhibitors of the cancer drug target CA IX, this is more potent than either spermine or spermidine.

  10. Do natural landscapes reduce future discounting in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Arianne J; Schade, Hannah M; Krabbendam, Lydia; van Vugt, Mark

    2013-12-22

    An important barrier to enduring behavioural change is the human tendency to discount the future. Drawing on evolutionary theories of life history and biophilia, this study investigates whether exposure to natural versus urban landscapes affects people's temporal discount rates. The results of three studies, two laboratory experiments and a field study reveal that individual discount rates are systematically lower after people have been exposed to scenes of natural environments as opposed to urban environments. Further, this effect is owing to people placing more value on the future after nature exposure. The finding that nature exposure reduces future discounting-as opposed to exposure to urban environments-conveys important implications for a range of personal and collective outcomes including healthy lifestyles, sustainable resource use and population growth.

  11. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...

  12. Natural goodness and the political form of human life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical Naturalism attempts to explain the objective normativity effective in human practices by reference to the relation between a living individual and the life-form it exhibits. This explanation falls short in the case of human beings (1 - not merely because of their essential rationality, but because the idea of normativity implicit in practice is dependent on the form of normativity’s being made explicit (2. I argue that this explicit form of normativity’s force and claim - the law in general - implies a tension between an explicit norm’s claim to absoluteness and the particularity of the situational case it is applied to. This tension may seem to produce an inherent violence corrupting the very idea of objective normativity inherent in the human form of life (3; in fact, it shows that the human form of life is essentially political. That the human form of life is essentially political does not contradict the idea of objective normativity - provided that this objectivity is not derived from a conception of “natural goodness”, but rather from the actuality of human practice and its principle, justice (4.

  13. Human Nature:A Reflection of "The Minister's Black Veil:A Parable"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝; 杨辉; 李艳萌

    2009-01-01

    According to Hawthorne's "The Minister's Black Veil:A Parable",we can know that the author thinks human nature is evil.This paper discusses the following questions:what is human nature?Whether human nature axists?And how tO realize human nature?

  14. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  15. Tension in the Natural History of Human Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moll Henrike

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tomasello has greatly expanded our knowledge of human cognition and how it differs from that of other animals. In this commentary to his recent book A Natural History of Human Thinking, I first critique some of the presuppositions and arguments of his evolutionary story about how homo sapiens’ cognition emerged. For example, I question the strategy of relying on the modern chimpanzee as a model for our last shared ancestor, and I doubt the idea that what changed first over evolutionary time was hominin behavior, which then in turn brought about changes in cognition. In the second half of the commentary I aim to show that the author oscillates between an additive and a transformative account of human shared intentionality. I argue that shared intentionality shapes cognition in its entirety and therefore precludes the possibility that humans have the same, individual intentionality (as shown in, e.g. their instrumental reasoning as other apes.

  16. Cost planning as the tool of regulation of natural monopolies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Adarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers cost planning methods in activity of the utility companies. Particular focus is given to features of two methods - cost-based planning of utility expenses and normative-based planning. The author concludes that the optimal choice of method should count for the institutional factors (incomes of consumers, financial sustainability of utilities company, availability of supportive infrastructure, and nature of expenses (current or investment expenditures.

  17. Enhancement and human nature: the case of Sandel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, T

    2009-06-01

    If we assume that "enhancement" names all efforts to boost human mental and physical capacities beyond the normal upper range found in our species, then enhancement covers such a broad range of interventions that it becomes implausible to think that there is any generic ethical case to be made either for or against it. Michael Sandel has recently made such a generic case, which focuses on the importance of respecting the "giftedness" of human nature. Sandel succeeds in diagnosing an important worry we may have about the use of some enhancements by some parents, but his arguments are better understood as opposing "procrustean parenting" rather than enhancement in general.

  18. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  19. VOLTAIRE’S PHILOSOPHY: HUMAN NATURE AND INTERPRETATION OF RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Zimaryova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine and reconsider Voltaire’s ideas concerning religion and human nature. In order to achieve this purpose it is necessary to complete the following tasks: to analyse academic literature on Voltaire’s interpretation of the phenomenon of religion; to expose Voltaire’s basic ideas about human nature; to substantiate the importance of anthropological approach to the phenomenon of religion with the ideas of Voltaire’s philosophical works. Methodology. The achievements of anthropocentric philosophical thought of the XIX century possess great potential in the process of constructive comprehension and theoretical reconstruction of the anthropological intention that accompanies the process of philosophising. The research extensively applies hermeneutical method for interpreting Voltaire’s philosophy. Scientific novelty. In academic literature on Voltaire’s works we have ascertained the basic anthropological component of his philosophy and reconsider Voltaire’s ideas about religion as something that is rooted in human nature. Conclusions. In academic literature the interpretation of the phenomenon of religion in Voltaire’s heritage is a rather controversial one. At the one hand, Voltaire criticizes religion for its superstitions and fanaticism. On the other hand, he recognises the existence of God. In our opinion, the phenomenon of religion should be examined in the context of human nature and basic problems related to it such as the problem of soul and the problem of free will. The anthropological approach to the phenomenon of religion allows to avoid the extremity of atheistic and metaphysical approaches and to enable its anthropological interpretation.

  20. Circadian clock-regulated physiological outputs: dynamic responses in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Golembeski, Greg S; Imaizumi, Takato

    2013-05-01

    The plant circadian clock is involved in the regulation of numerous processes. It serves as a timekeeper to ensure that the onset of key developmental events coincides with the appropriate conditions. Although internal oscillating clock mechanisms likely evolved in response to the earth's predictable day and night cycles, organisms must integrate a range of external and internal cues to adjust development and physiology. Here we introduce three different clock outputs to illustrate the complexity of clock control. Clock-regulated diurnal growth is altered by environmental stimuli. The complexity of the photoperiodic flowering pathway highlights numerous nodes through which plants may integrate information to modulate the timing of flowering. Comparative analyses among ecotypes that differ in flowering response reveal additional environmental cues and molecular processes that have developed to influence flowering. We also explore the process of cold acclimation, where circadian inputs, light quality, and stress responses converge to improve freezing tolerance in anticipation of colder temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An empirically informed critique of Habermas' argument from human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    In a near-future world of bionics and biotechnology, the main ethical and political issue will be the definition of who we are. Could biomedical enhancements transform us to such an extent that we would be other than human? Habermas argues that any genetic enhancement intervention that could potentially alter 'human nature' should be morally prohibited since it alters the child's nature or the very essence that makes the child who he is. This practice also commits the child to a specific life project or, in any case, it puts specific restrictions on his freedom to choose a life of his own. Ultimately, genetic enhancement jeopardizes the very foundations of moral equality. I contend that Habermas' argument is based either on a series of presuppositions that imply a gross misunderstanding of evolution or the relevant factual information concerning the action we are about to morally assess is not empirically supported. Hence, the argument from human nature is based on a series of false or problematic assumptions, and, as such, it fails to play the normative role intended by Habermas.

  2. Legal regulation on utilization of natural resources of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Azem Hajdari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is part of South-Eastern Europe, inside the Balkan Pe-ninsula. It has a surface area of 10.877 square kilometres, surroun-ded by Albania, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro.[1] Kosovo for-ms a geographical unit surrounded by impressive mountains and hills.[2] Kosovo’s location in the centre of the Balkan Peninsula defi-nes itself as the crossroad of important terrestrial routes, crossing from Northern and Central Europe towards South and West Euro-pe.[3] The Kosovo’s relief, taken in general, is a mountainous one. Kosovo does have agricultural land, which is generally arable, considerable forest land, large water bodies, flora and fauna rich areas, and considerable ground resources.[4] These and other resources Kosovo is endowed with represent the key supporting factors of Kosovo’s development, current and future. In fact, as any other country, Kosovo is also characterized by limiting elements in terms of extent of natural resources that may be available for utilization. As it is widely known, in conditions of free market economy and privatization, possibilities of ensuring a proper planning for the utilization of all natural resources available are considerably relative. Setting from the fact that there are no inexhaustible resources, it is necessary that relevant mechanisms are in place and authority to undertake all possible measures to provide for a diligent and rational utilization thereof. To achieve such a goal, modern countries, including Kosovo, have passed relevant laws. Setting from such terms, this article aims to present the current situation of Kosovo in terms of legal norms on utilization of natural resources it is endowed with. [1] Kosovo, an encyclopaedic view, Tirana, 1999, pg. 7. [2] Kosovo, a short history, Noel Malcolm, Tirana, 2001, pg. 1. [3] Kosovo, an encyclopaedic view, Tirana, 1999, pg. 8. [4] Ibid, pgs. 26-44.

  3. Episodic memory and appetite regulation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Brunstrom

    Full Text Available Psychological and neurobiological evidence implicates hippocampal-dependent memory processes in the control of hunger and food intake. In humans, these have been revealed in the hyperphagia that is associated with amnesia. However, it remains unclear whether 'memory for recent eating' plays a significant role in neurologically intact humans. In this study we isolated the extent to which memory for a recently consumed meal influences hunger and fullness over a three-hour period. Before lunch, half of our volunteers were shown 300 ml of soup and half were shown 500 ml. Orthogonal to this, half consumed 300 ml and half consumed 500 ml. This process yielded four separate groups (25 volunteers in each. Independent manipulation of the 'actual' and 'perceived' soup portion was achieved using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump. This was designed to either refill or draw soup from a soup bowl in a covert manner. Immediately after lunch, self-reported hunger was influenced by the actual and not the perceived amount of soup consumed. However, two and three hours after meal termination this pattern was reversed - hunger was predicted by the perceived amount and not the actual amount. Participants who thought they had consumed the larger 500-ml portion reported significantly less hunger. This was also associated with an increase in the 'expected satiation' of the soup 24-hours later. For the first time, this manipulation exposes the independent and important contribution of memory processes to satiety. Opportunities exist to capitalise on this finding to reduce energy intake in humans.

  4. Silibinin regulates lipid metabolism and differentiation in functional human adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio eBarbagallo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin, a natural plant flavonoid, is the main active constituent found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum. It is known to have hepatoprotective, anti-neoplastic effect and suppresses lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silibinin on adipogenic differentiation and thermogenic capacity of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Silibinin (10 μM treatment, either at the beginning or at the end of adipogenic differentiation, resulted in an increase of SIRT-1, PPARα, Pgc-1α and UCPs gene expression. Moreover, silibinin administration resulted in a decrease of PPARγ, FABP4, FAS and MEST/PEG1 gene expression during the differentiation, confirming that this compound is able to reduce fatty acid accumulation and adipocyte size. Our data showed that silibinin regulated adipocyte lipid metabolism, inducing thermogenesis and promoting a brown remodelling in adipocyte. Taken together, our findings suggest that silibinin increases UCPs expression by stimulation of SIRT1, PPARα and Pgc-1α, improved metabolic parameters, decreased lipid mass leading to the formation of functional adipocytes.

  5. Natural grape extracts regulate colon cancer cells malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Paola; Fabiani, Carlotta; Brizzolari, Andrea; Paroni, Rita; Casas, Josefina; Fabriàs, Gemma; Rossi, Dario; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Caretti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Natural dietary components are evolutionary-selected molecules able to control inflammation and cancerous transformation and progression. Because many studies assessed the beneficial properties of key molecules extracted from grapes, we aimed at investigating the properties of Liofenol™, a natural red wine lyophilized extract, devoid of alcohol and composed by a miscellaneous of components (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins). We proved that the colon cancer cell line HCT116 responded to Liofenol™ treatment by reducing their proliferation, in association with an increase of p53 and p21 cell cycle gate keepers. Liofenol™ increased dihydroceramides, sphingolipid mediators involved in cell cycle arrest and reduced proliferation rate. We observed a strong induction of antioxidant response, with the activation of the transcriptional factor Nrf2, involved in redox homeostasis and differentiation, without altering tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Liofenol™ induced an important morphology change in HCT116 cells, migration inhibition, undifferentiated stem/stem-like cells markers downregulation, and E-cadherin downregulation, interested in epithelia to mesenchymal malignant transition. We conclude that lyophilized grape extract, at dose comparable to putative dietary doses, can activate molecular pathways, involving Nrf2 signaling and the modulation of structural and signaling sphingolipid mediators that cooperate in promoting differentiation and reducing proliferation of digestive tract cancer cells.

  6. The 'Disadapted' Animal: Niko Tinbergen on Human Nature and the Human Predicament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2017-07-18

    This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism. These ideas can be seen in the work he carried out with his wife, Elisabeth Tinbergen, on autism. The paper concludes that Tinbergen's vision of human nature constitutes another version of what anthropologist Clifford Geertz called in 1966 the "stratigraphic" conception of the human: a view of human nature as a composite of levels in which a universal ancestral biological core is superimposed by psychological and cultural layers that represent accidental variation at best and pathological deviation at worst.

  7. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34(+)CD45RA(+) hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of a natural human serotype 3 parainfluenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Jing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parainfluenza virus is an important pathogen threatening the health of animals and human, which brings human many kinds of disease, especially lower respiratory tract infection involving infants and young children. In order to control the virus, it is necessary to fully understand the molecular basis resulting in the genetic diversity of the virus. Homologous recombination is one of mechanisms for the rapid change of genetic diversity. However, as a negative-strand virus, it is unknown whether the recombination can naturally take place in human PIV. In this study, we isolated and identified a mosaic serotype 3 human PIV (HPIV3 from in China, and also provided several putative PIV mosaics from previous reports to reveal that the recombination can naturally occur in the virus. In addition, two swine PIV3 isolates transferred from cattle to pigs were found to have mosaic genomes. These results suggest that homologous recombination can promote the genetic diversity and potentially bring some novel biologic characteristics of HPIV.

  9. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  10. Human-Nature for Climate Action: Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Santiago Fink

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global climate change agenda proceeds at an incremental pace while the Earth is approaching critical tipping points in its development trajectory. Climate action at this pinnacle juncture needs to be greatly accelerated and rooted in the fundamentals of the problem—human beings’ disconnection from nature. This paper underscores the valuable role nature and nature-based solutions can play in addressing climate change at the city scale and its implications for broader sustainability. Urban ecosystems (nature in cities are seen as an integral part of a proposed local climate action rubric wherein policy measures and integrated planning guide lowcarbon/impact development to create more resilient and sustainable urban environments. The use of green infrastructure is highlighted as a cost-effective means to contribute to mitigation and adaptation needs as well as to promote human wellbeing. The paper takes an exploratory view of the influence of ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, and its economics in relation to the individual and society to understand how biophilia can be nurtured to promote environmental stewardship and climate action.

  11. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  12. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  13. Type I Interferons and Natural Killer Cell Regulation in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lena; Aigner, Petra; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are known to mediate antitumor effects against several tumor types and have therefore been commonly used in clinical anticancer treatment. However, how IFN signaling exerts its beneficial effects is only partially understood. The clinically relevant activity of type I IFNs has been mainly attributed to their role in tumor immune surveillance. Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain how type I IFNs stimulate the immune system. On the one hand, they modulate innate immune cell subsets such as natural killer (NK) cells. On the other hand, type I IFNs also influence adaptive immune responses. Here, we review evidence for the impact of type I IFNs on immune surveillance against cancer and highlight the role of NK cells therein.

  14. From nature-dominated to human-dominated environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Bruno; Grosjean, Martin; Hofer, Thomas; Núñez, Lautaro; Pfister, Christian

    2000-01-01

    To what extent is it realistic and useful to view human history as a sequence of changes from highly vulnerable societies of hunters and gatherers through periods with less vulnerable, well buffered and highly productive agrarian-urban societies to a world with regions of extreme overpopulation and overuse of life support systems, so that vulnerability to climatic-environmental changes and extreme events is again increasing? This question cannot be fully answered in our present state of knowledge, but at least we can try to illustrate, with three case studies from different continents, time periods and ecosystems, some fundamental changes in the relationship between natural processes and human activities that occur, as we pass from a nature-dominated to a human dominated environment. 1. Early-mid Holocene: Nature dominated environment — human adaptation, mitigation, and migration. In the central Andes, the Holocene climate changed from humid (10,800-8000 BP) to extreme arid (8000-3600 BP) conditions. Over the same period, prehistoric hunting communities adopted a more sedentary pattern of resource use by settling close to the few perennial water bodies, where they began the process of domesticating camelids around 5000 BP and irrigation from about 3100 BP. 2. Historical period: An agrarian society in transition from an "enduring" to an innovative human response. Detailed documentary evidence from Western Europe may be used to reconstruct quite precisely the impacts of climatic variations on agrarian societies. The period considered spans a major transition from an apparently passive response to the vagaries of the environment during the 16th century to an active and innovative attitude from the onset of the agrarian revolution in the late 18th century through to the present day. The associated changes in technology and in agricultural practices helped to create a society better able to survive the impact of climatic extremes. 3. The present day: A human dominated

  15. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines.

  16. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  17. Introduction: Human-nature Interactions through a Multispecies Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Aisher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction brings together a group of papers focusing on conservation theory and practice, and argues strongly for a new place-based conservation through a multispecies lens. Honouring the work of Brian Morris, a scholar who has consistently forged a persuasive set of conceptual connections between science and society, and building on his insights into environmental history and human-nature interactions, we outline a vision of conservation that incorporates new narratives – at the intersection between the ecological and the social – to reimagine the world in the Anthropocene. This includes challenging the persistence of fortress, neoprotectionist and other top-down forms of conservation, through a recognition that conservation is deeply rooted in (human, nonhuman and more-than-human senses of place. The introduction urges scholars to focus on landscapes as units of analysis: 'multispecies assemblages' that are easily overlooked at other spatial and historical scales. It calls for increased attention to the contact zones where the lives of humans and other species biologically, culturally and politically intersect, as a counterpoint to the dominant planetary perspective of earth systems and conservation science. It underlines the importance of deep relational analyses of human interactions with other life forms, through renewed attention to multispecies histories, locality, and forms of knowledge rooted in place. It is at this level, through historically nuanced accounts founded on a more place-based conception of ourselves as a species, that new narratives and answers to our current predicament will emerge.

  18. Regulation of Nav1.7: A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Koenig

    Full Text Available The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT for SCN9A that is conserved in humans and mice. The NAT has a similar tissue expression pattern to the sense gene and is alternatively spliced within dorsal root ganglia. The human and mouse NATs exist in cis with the sense gene in a tail-to-tail orientation and both share sequences that are complementary to the terminal exon of SCN9A/Scn9a. Overexpression analyses of the human NAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK293A and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cell lines show that it can function to downregulate Nav1.7 mRNA, protein levels and currents. The NAT may play an important role in regulating human pain thresholds and is a potential candidate gene for individuals with chronic pain disorders that map to the SCN9A locus, such as Inherited Primary Erythromelalgia, Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder and Painful Small Fibre Neuropathy, but who do not contain mutations in the sense gene. Our results strongly suggest the SCN9A NAT as a prime candidate for new therapies based upon augmentation of existing antisense RNAs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions in man.

  19. Regulation of Nav1.7: A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Werdehausen, Robert; Linley, John E; Habib, Abdella M; Vernon, Jeffrey; Lolignier, Stephane; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Zhao, Jing; Okorokov, Andrei L; Woods, C Geoffrey; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT) for SCN9A that is conserved in humans and mice. The NAT has a similar tissue expression pattern to the sense gene and is alternatively spliced within dorsal root ganglia. The human and mouse NATs exist in cis with the sense gene in a tail-to-tail orientation and both share sequences that are complementary to the terminal exon of SCN9A/Scn9a. Overexpression analyses of the human NAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK293A) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines show that it can function to downregulate Nav1.7 mRNA, protein levels and currents. The NAT may play an important role in regulating human pain thresholds and is a potential candidate gene for individuals with chronic pain disorders that map to the SCN9A locus, such as Inherited Primary Erythromelalgia, Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder and Painful Small Fibre Neuropathy, but who do not contain mutations in the sense gene. Our results strongly suggest the SCN9A NAT as a prime candidate for new therapies based upon augmentation of existing antisense RNAs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions in man.

  20. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  1. Natural killer cells and cancer: regulation by the killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Amanda K; Campbell, Kerry S

    2009-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effector cells that make up approximately 10-15% of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in humans and are primarily involved in immunosurveillance to eliminate transformed and virally-infected cells. They were originally defined by their ability to spontaneously eliminate rare cells lacking expression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) self molecules, which is commonly referred to as "missing self" recognition. The molecular basis for missing self recognition emerges from the expression of MHC-I-specific inhibitory receptors on the NK cell surface that tolerize NK cells toward normal MHC-I-expressing cells. By lacking inhibitory receptor ligands, tumor cells or virus-infected cells that have down-modulated surface MHC-I expression become susceptible to attack by NK cells. Killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR; CD158) constitute a family of MHC-I binding receptors that plays a major role in regulating the activation thresholds of NK cells and some T cells in humans. Here, we review the multiple levels of KIR diversity that contribute to the generation of a highly varied NK cell repertoire and explain how this diversity can influence susceptibility to a variety of diseases, including cancer. We further describe strategies by which KIR can be manipulated therapeutically to treat cancer, through the exploitation of KIR/MHC-I ligand mismatch to potentiate hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the use of KIR blockade to enhance tumor cell killing.

  2. A Simple Model for Human and Nature Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J.; Kalnay, E.

    2012-12-01

    There are widespread concerns that current trends in population and resource-use are unsustainable, but the possibilities of an overshoot and collapse remain unclear and controversial. Collapses of civilizations have occurred many times in the past 5000 years, often followed by centuries of economic, intellectual, and population decline. Many different natural and social phenomena have been invoked to explain specific collapses, but a general explanation remains elusive. Two important features seem to appear across societies that have collapsed: Ecological Strain and Economic Stratification. Our new model (Human And Nature DYnamics, HANDY) has just four equations that describe the evolution of Elites, Commoners, Nature, and Wealth. Mechanisms leading to collapse are discussed and the measure "Carrying Capacity" is developed and defined. The model shows that societal collapse can happen due to either one of two independent factors: (1) over-consumption of natural resources, and/or (2) deep inequity between Elites and Commoners. The model also portrays two distinct types of collapse: (i) collapse followed by recovery of nature, and (ii) full collapse. The model suggests that the estimation of Carrying Capacity is a practical means for early detection of a collapse. Collapse can be avoided, and population can reach a sustainable equilibrium, if the rate of depletion of nature is reduced to a sustainable level, and if resources are distributed in a reasonably equitable fashion.; A type-ii (full) collapse is shown in this figure. With high inequality and high depletion, societies are doomed to collapse. Wealth starts to decrease when population rises above the carrying capacity. The large gap between carrying capacity and its maximum is a result of depletion factor being much larger than the sustainable limit. ; It is possible to overshoot, oscillate, and eventually converge to an equilibrium, even in an inequitable society. However, it requires policies that control

  3. Regulation of natural gas: the issue of open access; Regulacao em materia de gas natural: a questao do livre acesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandes, Ingrid; Siqueira, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The present work discusses the question of the open access to the natural gas ducts, trying to show the most relevant aspects of it. Analyzing the regulation existent in Brazil and the main important characteristics of the natural gas activities, it will be tried to suggest new directions to be taken in the future. The open access it is a very important way to introduce new agents on the sector and, in that way, the discussions that try to show new aspects of it, are very relevant (author)

  4. The Natural Antimicrobial Enzyme Lysozyme is Up-Regulated in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract (GI, that is, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum are constantly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as different pH, enzymes, and bacterial flora. With exception of the oral cavity, these microenvironments also contain remnant cocktails of secreted enzymes and bacteria from upper organs along the tract. The density of the GI bacteria varies, from 103/mL near the gastric outlet, to 1010/mL at the ileocecal valve, to 1011 to 1012/mL in the colon. The total microbial population (ca. 1014 exceeds the total number of cells in the tract. It is, therefore, remarkable that despite the prima facie inauspicious mixture of harmful secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To counteract the hostile microenvironment, the GI epithelia react by speeding cell exfoliation (the GI mucosa has a turnover time of two to three days, by increasing peristalsis, by eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial compounds, such as defensin-5 and lysozyme. Only recently, lysozyme was found up-regulated in Barrett’s oesophagitis, chronic gastritis, gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (coeliac disease, collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis, and Crohn’s colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed to the special types of bacteria recently detected in these diseases. The aim of lysozyme up-regulation is to protect individual mucosal segments to chronic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms connected to the crosstalk between the intraluminal bacterial flora and the production of lysozyme released by the GI mucosae, are discussed. Bacterial resistance continues to exhaust our supply of commercial antibiotics. The potential use of lysozyme to treat infectious diseases is receiving much attention.

  5. Goddess Science, Primates and Feminism. Primatology and Human Nature Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Derra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author introduces basic aims, notions, methodological tools and theories of primatology. Underlining crucial role this discipline has played in defining human nature, she points out how it has changed due to its social duties, close relations to popular culture and growing impact of female researchers with feminist sensitivity. She posits the question about female or feminist character of primatology, indicating that the answer depends on taking for granted certain disputable assumptions about femininity and female scientific methods. Subsequently she presents androcentric bias of primatology studies (concerning sexuality, reproduction, male domination, female roles, aggression, and its later critique. Finally she problematizes culture/nature division which is used both in scientific and everyday discourse.

  6. 'Nature and the Greeks' and 'Science and Humanism'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    2014-11-01

    Foreword; Part I. Nature and the Greeks: 1. The motives for returning to ancient thought; 2. The competition, reason v. senses; 3. The Pythagoreans; 4. The Ionian enlightenment; 5. The religion of Xenophanes, Heraclitus of Ephesus; 6. The atomists; 7. What are the special features?; Part II. Science and Humanism: 1. The spiritual bearing of science on life; 2. The practical achievements of science tending to obliterate its true import; 3. A radical change in our ideas of matter; 4. Form, not substance, the fundamental concept; 5. The nature of our 'models'; 6. Continuous descriptions and causality; 7. The intricacy of the continuum; 8. The makeshift of wave mechanics; 9. The alleged breakdown of the barrier between subject and object; 10. Atoms or quanta - the counter-spell of old standing, to escape the intricacy of the continuum; 11. Would physical indeterminacy give free will a chance?; 12. The bar to prediction, according to Niels Bohr; Literature.

  7. Combining Natural Human-Computer Interaction and Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Gheorghe PENTIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present how human-computer interaction can be improved by using wireless communication between devices. Devices that offer a natural user interaction, like the Microsoft Surface Table and tablet PCs, can work together to enhance the experience of an application. Users can use physical objects for a more natural way of handling the virtual world on one hand, and interact with other users wirelessly connected on the other. Physical objects, that interact with the surface table, have a tag attached to them, allowing us to identify them, and take the required action. The TCP/IP protocol was used to handle the wireless communication over the wireless network. A server and a client application were developed for the used devices. To get a wide range of targeted mobile devices, different frameworks for developing cross platform applications were analyzed.

  8. Dynamics of the two process model of human sleep regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenngott, Max; McKay, Cavendish

    2011-04-01

    We examine the dynamics of the two process model of human sleep regulation. In this model, sleep propensity is governed by the interaction between a periodic threshold (process C) and a saturating growth/decay (process S). We find that the parameter space of this model admits sleep cycles with a wide variety of characteristics, many of which are not observed in normal human sleepers. We also examine the effects of phase dependent feedback on this model.

  9. Natural User Interface Sensors For Human Body Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, J.

    2012-01-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and obser...

  10. Subsets of human natural killer cells and their regulatory effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Binqing; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2014-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells have distinct functions as NKtolerant, NKcytotoxic and NKregulatory cells and can be divided into different subsets based on the relative expression of the surface markers CD27 and CD11b. CD27+ NK cells, which are abundant cytokine producers, are numerically in the minority in human peripheral blood but constitute the large population of NK cells in cord blood, spleen, tonsil and decidua tissues. Recent data suggest that these NK cells may have immunoregulatory properties under certain conditions. In this review, we will focus on these new NK cell subsets and discuss how regulatory NK cells may serve as rheostats or sentinels in controlling inflammation and maintaining immune homeostasis in various organs. PMID:24303897

  11. Natural human mobility patterns and spatial spread of infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Belik, Vitaly; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a model for spatial epidemics explicitly taking into account bi-directional movements between base and destination locations on individual mobility networks. We provide a systematic analysis of generic dynamical features of the model on regular and complex metapopulation network topologies and show that significant dynamical differences exist to ordinary reaction-diffusion and effective force of infection models. On a lattice we calculate an expression for the velocity of the propagating epidemic front and find that in contrast to the diffusive systems, our model predicts a saturation of the velocity with increasing traveling rate. Furthermore, we show that a fully stochastic system exhibits a novel threshold for attack ratio of an outbreak absent in diffusion and force of infection models. These insights not only capture natural features of human mobility relevant for the geographical epidemic spread, they may serve as a starting point for modeling important dynamical processes in human and an...

  12. Non-reductive continental naturalism in the contemporary humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Tuin, Iris

    2013-01-01

    This article engages with the philosophical reflections of the French historian of science Hélène Metzger (1886–1944) in order to develop a vocabulary for understanding the rise of non-reductive Continental naturalism in the contemporary humanities. The bibliography of current naturalist approaches in the arts and the human sciences is still in the making, but it is altogether clear that the trend is not scientist or historicist or relativist. This epistemological diagnosis refers us to Metzger, who found herself surrounded with the logical positivism of the Wiener Kreis, on the one hand, and the historicism of her French colleagues, on the other, as well as with the infiltration of the history of science by a chronological empiricism. In this article I will take the most recent book of Vicki Kirby – Quantum Anthropologies: Life at Large from 2011 – as an exemplary case of non-reductive Continental naturalist scholarship in the humanities today and by reading it through the concepts of Metzger, I will demonstrate how this type of research leads to refreshing insights in what constitutes positive humanities knowledge and what is the role of the a priori in the field. PMID:23908566

  13. The cultural animal human nature, meaning, and social life

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2005-01-01

    What makes us human? Why do people think, feel, and act as they do? What is the essence of human nature? What is the basic relationship between the individual and society? These questions have fascinated both great thinkers and ordinary humans for centuries. Now, at last, there is a solid basis for answering them, in the form of the accumulated efforts and studies by thousands of psychology researchers. We no longer have to rely on navel-gazing and speculation to understand why people are the way they are - we can instead turn to solid, objective findings. This book, by an eminent social psychologist at the peak of his career, not only summarizes what we know about people - it also offers a coherent, easy-to-understand, through radical, explanation. Turning conventional wisdom on its head, the author argues that culture shaped human evolution. Contrary to theories that depict the individual's relation to society as one of victimization, endless malleability, or just a square peg in a round hole, he proposes t...

  14. Contemporary assumptions on human nature and work and approach to human potential managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Dobrila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A general problem of this research is to identify if there is a relationship between the assumption on human nature and work (Mcgregor, Argyris, Schein, Steers and Porter and a general organizational model preference, as well as a mechanism of human resource management? This research was carried out in 2005/2006. The sample consisted of 317 subjects (197 managers, 105 highly educated subordinates and 15 entrepreneurs in 7 big enterprises in a group of small business enterprises differentiating in terms of the entrepreneur’s structure and a type of activity. A general hypothesis "that assumptions on human nature and work are statistically significant in connection to the preference approach (models, of work motivation commitment", has been confirmed. A specific hypothesis have been also confirmed: ·The assumptions on a human as a rational economic being are statistically significant in correlation with only two mechanisms of traditional models, the mechanism of method work control and the working discipline mechanism. ·Statistically significant assumptions on a human as a social being are correlated with all mechanisms of engaging employees, which belong to the model of the human relations, except the mechanism introducing the adequate type of prizes for all employees independently of working results. ·The assumptions on a human as a creative being are statistically significant, positively correlating with preference of two mechanisms belonging to the human resource model by investing into education and training and making conditions for the application of knowledge and skills. The young with assumptions on a human as a creative being prefer much broader repertoire of mechanisms belonging to the human resources model from the remaining category of subjects in the pattern. The connection between the assumption on human nature and preference models of engaging appears especially in the sub-pattern of managers, in the category of young subjects

  15. Analyzing the regulation of metabolic pathways in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm Gunnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment.

  16. Natural gas industry transformation, competitive institutions and the role of regulation: lessons from open access in US natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vaney, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)); Walls, W.D. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong))

    1994-09-01

    Open access pipeline transport transformed the US natural gas industry. This paper examines the role that transport rights played in the industry's transformation. It documents the convergence of gas field prices, pooling area prices and city gate prices that has occurred since the adoption of open access. The analysis suggests the most important reasons for this convergence to be the fact that direct dealing between gas suppliers and users has replaced the pipeline merchant; that gas transactions are made within a competitive market institution; and that transport trading has created an interconnected grid of pipelines in place of the closed and disconnected grid that preceded open access. This open and interconnected grid supplied the means for price arbitrage. These changes have made natural gas markets contestable. The conclusions about the role of regulation in an industry organized around transferable transport rights extend to natural gas markets beyond those in North America. (Author)

  17. Natural Defense Mechanisms of the Human Brain against Chronic Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the structural bases of natural defense mechanisms of the human brain against chronic ischemia. Materials and methods. To accomplish this, histological, immunohistochemical (NSE, calbindin, NPY, p38 and morphometric examinations of intraoperative biopsy specimens were performed to determine the reorganization of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the ischemic penumbra of the temporal cerebral cortex (CC. Morphometric analysis was made using the specially developed algorithms to verify neurons and their elements in the ImageJ 1.46 program. Results. The reduction in the total numerical density of neurons and synapses in chronic ischemia was ascertained to be accompanied by the compensatorily enhanced expression of NSE, calbindin, p38, and NPY in the remaining CC neurons. There were signs of hypertrophy of inhibitory CC interneurons and growth of their processes. In consequence, the impact of inhibitory CC interneurons on excitatory neurons was likely to enhance. Conclusion. In chronic ischemia, the human brain is anticipated to respond to damage to some cells via compensatory excitatory and inhibitory neuronal reorganization directed towards its natural defense against excitatory damage and towards better conditions for compensatory recovery of the structure and function of CC. 

  18. Human kidney 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: regulation by adrenocorticotropin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, S; Quinkler, M; Miller, K; Heilmann, P; Schoneshofer, M; Oelkers, W

    1996-03-01

    In ectopic adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) with higher ACTH levels than in pituitary Cushing's syndrome and during ACTH infusion, the ratio of cortisol to cortisone in plasma and urine is increased, suggesting inhibition of renal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) by ACTH or by ACTH-dependent steroids. Measuring the conversion of cortisol to cortisone by human kidney slices under different conditions, we tested the possibility of 11 beta-HSD regulation by ACTH and corticosteroids. Slices prepared from unaffected parts of kidneys removed because of renal cell carcinoma were incubated with unlabeled or labeled cortisol, and cortisol and cortisone were quantitated after HPLC separation by UV or radioactive detection. The 11 beta HSD activity was not influenced by incubation with increasing concentrations (10(-12)-10(-9) mol/l) of ACTH (1-24 or 1-39) for 1 h. Among 12 ACTH-dependent steroids tested (10(-9)-10(-6) mol/l), only corticosterone (IC50 = 2 x 10(-7) mol/l), 18-OH-corticosterone and 11 beta-OH-androstenedione showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of 11 beta-HSD activity. The percentage conversion rate of cortisol to cortisone was concentration dependent over the whole range of cortisol concentrations tested (10(-8) - 10(-5) mol/l. A direct inhibitory effect of ACTH on 11 beta-HSD is, therefore, unlikely. The only steroids inhibiting the conversion of cortisol to cortisone are natural substrates for 11 beta-HSD. Kinetic studies show a saturation of the enzyme at high cortisol concentrations. Thus, the reduced percentage renal cortisol inactivation in EAS seems to be due mainly to overload of the enzyme with endogenous substrates (cortisol, corticosterone and others) rather than to direct inhibition of 11 beta-HSD by ACTH or ACTH-dependent steroids, not being substrates of 11 beta-HSD.

  19. The natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin for human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncevičiūtė-Eringienė, Elena; Rotkevič, Kristina; Grikienis, Ruta Grikienyte

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new theory of the immunological control of cancer corresponding to the hypothesis that the specific natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin has a potential role in human cancer prevention. The results of our studies have shown that IgMNAE, i.e. endogenous or spontaneous IgM class antibodies to enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide molecules (lipid A), control the immune mechanisms responsible for the internal medium stability not only against the damaging impact of the carcinogenic factors, but also against the malignant transformation of its own degenerated cells. Among people who in 1979 and 1982 had IgMNAE in their blood serum, after 15-30years fell ill with cancer 10%, versus 15% among people who had no IgMNAE (pimmunity to endotoxin it is possible to see the formation of the respective evolutionary protective reactions which protect the damaged cells from acquiring resistance to damaging factors and thus from becoming an independent new parasitic population. Thereby the presented theory of the immunological control of cancer has a causal connection with our evolutionary resistance theory of the origin of cancer. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of natural immunity to endotoxin and production of vaccines against evolutionary atavistic endotoxin or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin can be helpful when applied in cancer prophylaxis for persons with a low level of natural immunity to endotoxin and perhaps in creating immunotherapeutic methods for stopping the endogenous parasitism of tumour cells by binding IgMNAE to atavistic endotoxin in cancer patients.

  20. MicroRNAs: potential regulators involved in human anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Chang, Huibo; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ting; Zou, Jizhen; Zheng, Xiaoying; Wu, Jianxin

    2010-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of messenger RNA activity. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital anomalies that substantially impact an infant's morbidity and mortality. The miRNAs are known to be dynamically regulated during neurodevelopment; their role in human NTDs, however, is still unknown. In this study, we show the presence of a specific miRNA expression profile from tissues of fetuses with anencephaly, one of the most severe forms of NTDs. Furthermore, we map the target genes of these miRNAs in the human genome. In comparison to healthy human fetal brain tissues, tissues from fetuses with anencephaly exhibited 97 down-regulated and 116 up-regulated miRNAs. The microarray findings were extended using real-time qRT-PCR for nine miRNAs. Specifically, of these validated miRNAs, miR-126, miR-198, and miR-451 were up-regulated, while miR-9, miR-212, miR-124, miR-138, and miR-103/107 were down-regulated in the tissues of fetuses with anencephaly. A bioinformatic analysis showed 881 potential target genes that are regulated by the validated miRNAs. Seventy-nine of these potential genes are involved in a protein interaction network. There were 6 co-occurrence annotations within the GOSlim process and 7 co-occurrence annotations within the GOSlim function found by GeneCodis 2.0. Our results suggest that miRNA dysregulation is possibly involved in the pathogenesis of anencephaly.

  1. Ethical regulation or regulating ethics? The need for both internal and external governance of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomossy, George F

    2002-10-01

    Research regulation is a timely topic for discussions in bioethics and public health policy. This response to articles in the previous special issue of the Monash Bioethics Review emphasises the importance of having both internal and external controls on human experimentation. Unless both elements are incorporated into research ethics governance frameworks, they will ultimately fail to achieve what should be their primary goal: human subject protection.

  2. Regulation of Metabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth

    Regulation of glucose metabolism, despite intense research through decades, is still not clear. Skeletal muscle is highly important for maintaining glucose homeostasis. Regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism is influenced by protein signaling and changes in the activity of metabolic enz...... interval exercise). The abundance of signaling proteins and metabolic enzymes are in most cases different in type I and type II muscle fibers, indicating that their glucose metabolism is different.......Regulation of glucose metabolism, despite intense research through decades, is still not clear. Skeletal muscle is highly important for maintaining glucose homeostasis. Regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism is influenced by protein signaling and changes in the activity of metabolic...... enzymes. Skeletal muscle consists of thousands of muscle fibers. These fibers can roughly be classified into type I and type II muscle fibers. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the effect of insulin and exercise on human muscle fiber type specific metabolic signaling. The importance...

  3. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use. PMID:27621697

  4. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of transposable element derived human gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Ahsan; Bowen, Nathan J; Conley, Andrew B; Jordan, I King

    2011-04-01

    It was previously thought that epigenetic histone modifications of mammalian transposable elements (TEs) serve primarily to defend the genome against deleterious effects associated with their activity. However, we recently showed that, genome-wide, human TEs can also be epigenetically modified in a manner consistent with their ability to regulate host genes. Here, we explore the ability of TE sequences to epigenetically regulate individual human genes by focusing on the histone modifications of promoter sequences derived from TEs. We found 1520 human genes that initiate transcription from within TE-derived promoter sequences. We evaluated the distributions of eight histone modifications across these TE-promoters, within and between the GM12878 and K562 cell lines, and related their modification status with the cell-type specific expression patterns of the genes that they regulate. TE-derived promoters are significantly enriched for active histone modifications, and depleted for repressive modifications, relative to the genomic background. Active histone modifications of TE-promoters peak at transcription start sites and are positively correlated with increasing expression within cell lines. Furthermore, differential modification of TE-derived promoters between cell lines is significantly correlated with differential gene expression. LTR-retrotransposon derived promoters in particular play a prominent role in mediating cell-type specific gene regulation, and a number of these LTR-promoter genes are implicated in lineage-specific cellular functions. The regulation of human genes mediated by histone modifications targeted to TE-derived promoters is consistent with the ability of TEs to contribute to the epigenomic landscape in a way that provides functional utility to the host genome.

  6. FHL2 Regulates Natural Killer Cell Development and Activation during Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Thomas; Morello, Eric; Valayer, Alexandre; Aimar, Rose-France; Bréa, Déborah; Henry, Clemence; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Dalloneau, Emilie; Guillon, Antoine; Dequin, Pierre-François; Narni-Mancinelli, Emilie; Vivier, Eric; Laurent, Fabrice; Wei, Yu; Paget, Christophe; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Recent in silico studies suggested that the transcription cofactor LIM-only protein FHL2 is a major transcriptional regulator of mouse natural killer (NK) cells. However, the expression and role of FHL2 in NK cell biology are unknown. Here, we confirm that FHL2 is expressed in both mouse and human NK cells. Using FHL2−/− mice, we found that FHL2 controls NK cell development in the bone marrow and maturation in peripheral organs. To evaluate the importance of FHL2 in NK cell activation, FHL2−/− mice were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. FHL2−/− mice are highly susceptible to this infection. The activation of lung NK cells is altered in FHL2−/− mice, leading to decreased IFNγ production and a loss of control of bacterial burden. Collectively, our data reveal that FHL2 is a new transcription cofactor implicated in NK cell development and activation during pulmonary bacterial infection.

  7. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2006-06-01

    The set point has been used to define the regulated level of body temperature, suggesting that displacements of core temperature from the set point initiate heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) responses. Human and animal experiments have demonstrated that the responses of sweating and shivering do not coincide at a set point but rather establish a thermoeffector threshold zone. Neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that the sensor-to-effector pathways for HP and HL overlap and, in fact, mutually inhibit each other. This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation. The present review examines the actions of these nonthermal factors within the context of neuronal models of temperature regulation, suggesting that examination of these factors may provide further insights into the nature of temperature regulation. It is concluded that, although there is no evidence to doubt the existence of the HP and HL pathways reciprocally inhibiting one another, it appears that such a mechanism is of little consequence when comparing the effects of nonthermal factors on the thermoregulatory system, since most of these factors seem to exert their influence in the region after the reciprocal cross-inhibition. At any given moment, both thermal and several nonthermal factors will be acting on the thermoregulatory system. It may, therefore, not be appropriate to dismiss the contribution of either when discussing the regulation of body temperature in humans.

  8. Regulation and bilateral monopoly: Long-term contracting in natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, G.R.; Weiner, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In the US, natural gas is sold by producers to pipelines under long-term contracts. Many of these contracts are no longer viable in today's market. The authors develop a simple model of contracting between a single buyer and seller, with and without uncertainty or regulation. They address the implications of introducing contract diversity into the model for the impact of regulation, and discuss empirical application of the model.

  9. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Since the secret agent Alexander Litvinenko was murdered in 2006 by a {sup 210}Po lethal dose, presumably ingested, there is renovated interest on the toxicity of this radionuclide in humans. {sup 210}Po is a radioactive isotope naturally found in nature, mainly incorporated by humans via food and water ingestion, as well as inhaled through its progenitor, the {sup 222}Rn. The total amount of natural {sup 210}Po in the human body can vary from person to person depending on their lifestyle: dietary habits, drinking water source, place of residence (associated with exposure to {sup 222}Rn), etc- and therefore in the concentrations of this element to be found in urine. To analyze the influence of dietary habits on the amount of {sup 210}Po excreted in urine, two volunteers in Seville had a well-defined and time-varying diet for a month, following a daily collection of their urine and determination of the concentrations therein of this radionuclide. The results obtained and the conclusions derived from them form the core of this communication. {sup 210}Po determinations were performed daily in 200 ml aliquots of urine using the technique of high resolution alpha spectrometry. This has involved the application of a single radiochemical method for the concentration and isolation {sup 210}Po, followed by its auto-deposition on copper planchets for proper measure. Daily {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in voluntary urine analyzed during the month of study show high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the diet type followed in the various stages of the experiment. The lowest concentrations obtained are associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and proteins 'terrestrial' (pork, beef,...), while the highest concentrations were obtained in the final phase of the experiment when the diet was enriched with presence of marine products in fair correspondence with the

  10. Water: Challenges at the Intersection of Human and Natural Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, J.H.; Gephart, R. E.; Kabat-Lensch, E.; McKnight, D. M.; Pyrtle, A.; Schimel, J. P.; Smyth, R. L.; Skole, D. L. Wilson, J. L.; Gephart, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    There is a growing recognition about the critical role water plays in sustaining people and society. This workshop established dialog between disciplinary scientists and program managers from diverse backgrounds in order to share perspectives and broaden community understanding of ongoing fundamental and applied research on water as a complex environmental problem. Three major scientific themes emerged: (1) coupling of cycles and process, with emphasis on the role of interfaces; (2) coupling of human and natural systems across spatial and temporal scales; and (3) prediction in the face of uncertainty. In addition, the need for observation systems, sensors, and infrastructure; and the need for data management and synthesis were addressed. Current barriers to progress were noted as educational and institutional barriers and the integration of science and policy.

  11. Natural Good Theories and the Value of Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muders, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    One of the widely recognized facts about human dignity is its vastly divergent applicability-from highly controversial issues in bioethics to broader topics in political philosophy. A group of theories that this article subsumes under the header "natural good theories" appears to be especially fitted for normatively multifaceted notions like dignity. However, the heavy normative weight the concept of dignity has to bear due to the central position it occupies within these theories creates its own difficulties. As is shown in a discussion of Martha Nussbaum's capability conception of dignity, dignity appears to be unable to mirror the special normative relevance people want to assign to it in cases of great moral misconduct. The article provides a suggestion on how to solve this problem by means of paradigmatic cases that work as material constraints regarding the exact boundaries of dignity violations.

  12. The idea of human prehistory: the natural sciences, the human sciences, and the problem of human origins in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    The idea of human prehistory was a provocative and profoundly influential new notion that took shape gradually during the nineteenth century. While archaeology played an important role in providing the evidence for this idea many other sciences such as geology, paleontology, ethnology, and physical anthropology all made critical contributions to discussions about human prehistory. Many works have explored the history of prehistoric archaeology but this paper examines the conceptual content of the idea of "human prehistory" as it developed in the British scientific community. Both the natural and the human sciences contributed to what was in fact a complex collection of individual elements that together constituted the prevailing idea of human prehistory, although there were other competing conceptions of human prehistory endorsed by various scientists and critics of the new view of early human history.

  13. Binding of Natural and Synthetic Polyphenols to Human Dihydrofolate Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Neptuno Rodríguez-López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR is the subject of intensive investigation since it appears to be the primary target enzyme for antifolate drugs. Fluorescence quenching experiments show that the ester bond-containing tea polyphenols (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin gallate (ECG are potent inhibitors of DHFR with dissociation constants (KD of 0.9 and 1.8 μM, respectively, while polyphenols lacking the ester bound gallate moiety [e.g., (--epigallocatechin (EGC and (--epicatechin (EC] did not bind to this enzyme. To avoid stability and bioavailability problems associated with tea catechins we synthesized a methylated derivative of ECG (3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl-(--epicatechin; TMECG, which effectively binds to DHFR (KD = 2.1 μM. In alkaline solution, TMECG generates a stable quinone methide product that strongly binds to the enzyme with a KD of 8.2 nM. Quercetin glucuronides also bind to DHFR but its effective binding was highly dependent of the sugar residue, with quercetin-3-xyloside being the stronger inhibitor of the enzyme with a KD of 0.6 μM. The finding that natural polyphenols are good inhibitors of human DHFR could explain the epidemiological data on their prophylactic effects for certain forms of cancer and open a possibility for the use of natural and synthetic polyphenols in cancer chemotherapy.

  14. What’s blocking sustainability? Human nature, cognition, and denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rees

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, 1,700 of the world’s top scientists issued a public statement titled The World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity. They reported that “a great change in our stewardship of the Earth and the life on it is required if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated.” More than a decade later, the authors of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment were moved to echo the scientists’ warning asserting that “[h]uman activity is putting such a strain on the natural functions of the Earth that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.” Ours is allegedly a science-based culture. For decades, our best science has suggested that staying on our present growth-based path to global development implies catastrophe for billions of people and undermines the possibility of maintaining a complex global civilization. Yet there is scant evidence that national governments, the United Nations, or other official international organizations have begun seriously to contemplate the implications for humanity of the scientists’ warnings, let alone articulate the kind of policy responses the science evokes. The modern world remains mired in a swamp of cognitive dissonance and collective denial seemingly dedicated to maintaining the status quo. We appear, in philosopher Martin Heidegger’s words, to be “in flight from thinking.” Just what is going on here? I attempt to answer this question by exploring the distal, biosocial causes of human economic behavior. My working hypothesis is that modern H. sapiens is unsustainable by nature—unsustainability is an inevitable emergent property of the systemic interaction between contemporary technoindustrial society and the ecosphere. I trace this conundrum to humanity’s once-adaptive, subconscious, genetic predisposition to expand (shared with all other species, a tendency reinforced by

  15. Human fertility, molecular genetics, and natural selection in modern societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Tropf

    Full Text Available Research on genetic influences on human fertility outcomes such as number of children ever born (NEB or the age at first childbirth (AFB has been solely based on twin and family-designs that suffer from problematic assumptions and practical limitations. The current study exploits recent advances in the field of molecular genetics by applying the genomic-relationship-matrix based restricted maximum likelihood (GREML methods to quantify for the first time the extent to which common genetic variants influence the NEB and the AFB of women. Using data from the UK and the Netherlands (N = 6,758, results show significant additive genetic effects on both traits explaining 10% (SE = 5 of the variance in the NEB and 15% (SE = 4 in the AFB. We further find a significant negative genetic correlation between AFB and NEB in the pooled sample of -0.62 (SE = 0.27, p-value = 0.02. This finding implies that individuals with genetic predispositions for an earlier AFB had a reproductive advantage and that natural selection operated not only in historical, but also in contemporary populations. The observed postponement in the AFB across the past century in Europe contrasts with these findings, suggesting an evolutionary override by environmental effects and underscoring that evolutionary predictions in modern human societies are not straight forward. It emphasizes the necessity for an integrative research design from the fields of genetics and social sciences in order to understand and predict fertility outcomes. Finally, our results suggest that we may be able to find genetic variants associated with human fertility when conducting GWAS-meta analyses with sufficient sample size.

  16. Human fertility, molecular genetics, and natural selection in modern societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Stulp, Gert; Barban, Nicola; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C

    2015-01-01

    Research on genetic influences on human fertility outcomes such as number of children ever born (NEB) or the age at first childbirth (AFB) has been solely based on twin and family-designs that suffer from problematic assumptions and practical limitations. The current study exploits recent advances in the field of molecular genetics by applying the genomic-relationship-matrix based restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) methods to quantify for the first time the extent to which common genetic variants influence the NEB and the AFB of women. Using data from the UK and the Netherlands (N = 6,758), results show significant additive genetic effects on both traits explaining 10% (SE = 5) of the variance in the NEB and 15% (SE = 4) in the AFB. We further find a significant negative genetic correlation between AFB and NEB in the pooled sample of -0.62 (SE = 0.27, p-value = 0.02). This finding implies that individuals with genetic predispositions for an earlier AFB had a reproductive advantage and that natural selection operated not only in historical, but also in contemporary populations. The observed postponement in the AFB across the past century in Europe contrasts with these findings, suggesting an evolutionary override by environmental effects and underscoring that evolutionary predictions in modern human societies are not straight forward. It emphasizes the necessity for an integrative research design from the fields of genetics and social sciences in order to understand and predict fertility outcomes. Finally, our results suggest that we may be able to find genetic variants associated with human fertility when conducting GWAS-meta analyses with sufficient sample size.

  17. MicroRNA-145 regulates human corneal epithelial differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Ka-Wai Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic factors, such as microRNAs, are important regulators in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells and progenies. Here we investigated the microRNAs expressed in human limbal-peripheral corneal (LPC epithelia containing corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs and early transit amplifying cells, and their role in corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human LPC epithelia was extracted for small RNAs or dissociated for CEPC culture. By Agilent Human microRNA Microarray V2 platform and GeneSpring GX11.0 analysis, we found differential expression of 18 microRNAs against central corneal (CC epithelia, which were devoid of CEPCs. Among them, miR-184 was up-regulated in CC epithelia, similar to reported finding. Cluster miR-143/145 was expressed strongly in LPC but weakly in CC epithelia (P = 0.0004, Mann-Whitney U-test. This was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization on corneal rim cryosections showed miR-143/145 presence localized to the parabasal cells of limbal epithelium but negligible in basal and superficial epithelia. With holoclone forming ability, CEPCs transfected with lentiviral plasmid containing mature miR-145 sequence gave rise to defective epithelium in organotypic culture and had increased cytokeratin-3/12 and connexin-43 expressions and decreased ABCG2 and p63 compared with cells transfected with scrambled sequences. Global gene expression was analyzed using Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray and GeneSpring GX11.0. With a 5-fold difference compared to cells with scrambled sequences, miR-145 up-regulated 324 genes (containing genes for immune response and down-regulated 277 genes (containing genes for epithelial development and stem cell maintenance. As validated by qPCR and luciferase reporter assay, our results showed miR-145 suppressed integrin β8 (ITGB8 expression in both human corneal epithelial cells

  18. Northern Rocky Mountain streamflow records: Global warming trends, human impacts or natural variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Sauchyn, David J.; Zhao, Yang

    2010-03-01

    The ˜60 year Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a major factor controlling streamflow in the northern Rocky Mountains, causing dryness during its positive phase, and wetness during its negative phase. If the PDO’s influence is not incorporated into a trend analysis of streamflows, it can produce detected declines that are actually artifacts of this low-frequency variability. Further difficulties arise from the short length and discontinuity of most gauge records, human impacts, and residual autocorrelation. We analyze southern Alberta and environs instrumental streamflow data, using void-filled datasets from unregulated and regulated gauges and naturalized records, and Generalized Least Squares regression to explicitly model the impacts of the PDO and other climate oscillations. We conclude that streamflows are declining at most gauges due to hydroclimatic changes (probably from global warming) and severe human impacts, which are of the same order of magnitude as the hydroclimate changes, if not greater.

  19. Uterine Natural Killer Cells: Functional Distinctions and Influence on Pregnancy in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Louise M.; Colucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of development and function of natural killer (NK) cells has progressed significantly in recent years. However, exactly how uterine NK (uNK) cells develop and function is still unclear. To help investigators that are beginning to study tissue NK cells, we summarize in this review our current knowledge of the development and function of uNK cells, and what is yet to be elucidated. We compare and contrast the biology of human and mouse uNK cells in the broader context of the biology of innate lymphoid cells and with reference to peripheral NK cells. We also review how uNK cells may regulate trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral arterial remodeling in human and murine pregnancy. PMID:28484462

  20. Dynamics and distribution of natural and human-caused hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Rabalais

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Water masses can become undersaturated with oxygen when natural processes alone or in combination with anthropogenic processes produce enough organic carbon that is aerobically decomposed faster than the rate of oxygen re-aeration. The dominant natural processes usually involved are photosynthetic carbon production and microbial respiration. The re-supply rate is indirectly related to its isolation from the surface layer. Hypoxic water masses (<2 mg L−1, or approximately 30% saturation can form, therefore, under "natural" conditions, and are more likely to occur in marine systems when the water residence time is extended, water exchange and ventilation are minimal, stratification occurs, and where carbon production and export to the bottom layer are relatively high. Hypoxia has occurred through geological time and naturally occurs in oxygen minimum zones, deep basins, eastern boundary upwelling systems, and fjords.

    Hypoxia development and continuation in many areas of the world's coastal ocean is accelerated by human activities, especially where nutrient loading increased in the Anthropocene. This higher loading set in motion a cascading set of events related to eutrophication. The formation of hypoxic areas has been exacerbated by any combination of interactions that increase primary production and accumulation of organic carbon leading to increased respiratory demand for oxygen below a seasonal or permanent pycnocline. Nutrient loading is likely to increase further as population growth and resource intensification rises, especially with increased dependency on crops using fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, urbanization, and waste water generation. It is likely that the occurrence and persistence of hypoxia will be even more widespread and have more impacts than presently observed.

    Global climate change will further complicate the causative factors in both natural and human-caused hypoxia. The likelihood of

  1. Influence of human cytomegalvirus on the expression of natural-killer group 2-members receptors on the natural killer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾绍庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of human cytomegalovirus(CMV)on the expressions of natural-killer group2-members(NKG2),including natural-killer group 2-member A(NKG2A),natural-killer group 2-member C(NKG2C)and natural-killer group 2-member D(NKG2D)receptors on the natural killer(NK)cells.Methods NK cells were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 20 healthy individuals using

  2. NFATc1 regulation of TRAIL expression in human intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingding Wang

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; Apo2 has been shown to promote intestinal cell differentiation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT participates in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including differentiation. Here, we examined the role of NFAT in the regulation of TRAIL in human intestinal cells. Treatment with a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (Io increased NFAT activation and TRAIL expression; pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, an antagonist of NFAT signaling, diminished NFAT activation and TRAIL induction. In addition, knockdown of NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4 blocked PMA/Io increased TRAIL protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 activated TRAIL promoter activity and increased TRAIL mRNA and protein expression. Deletion of NFAT binding sites from the TRAIL promoter did not significantly abrogate NFATc1-increased TRAIL promoter activity, suggesting an indirect regulation of TRAIL expression by NFAT activation. Knockdown of NFATc1 increased Sp1 transcription factor binding to the TRAIL promoter and, importantly, inhibition of Sp1, by chemical inhibition or RNA interference, increased TRAIL expression. These studies identify a novel mechanism for TRAIL regulation by which activation of NFATc1 increases TRAIL expression through negative regulation of Sp1 binding to the TRAIL promoter.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the human mitochondrial peptide deformylase (PDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Costa, Luís Teixeira da; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luisa

    2012-05-18

    The last years of research have been particularly dynamic in establishing the importance of peptide deformylase (PDF), a protein of the N-terminal methionine excision (NME) pathway that removes formyl-methionine from mitochondrial-encoded proteins. The genomic sequence of the human PDF gene is shared with the COG8 gene, which encodes a component of the oligomeric golgi complex, a very unusual case in Eukaryotic genomes. Since PDF is crucial in maintaining mitochondrial function and given the atypical short distance between the end of COG8 coding sequence and the PDF initiation codon, we investigated whether the regulation of the human PDF is affected by the COG8 overlapping partner. Our data reveals that PDF has several transcription start sites, the most important of which only 18 bp from the initiation codon. Furthermore, luciferase-activation assays using differently-sized fragments defined a 97 bp minimal promoter region for human PDF, which is capable of very strong transcriptional activity. This fragment contains a potential Sp1 binding site highly conserved in mammalian species. We show that this binding site, whose mutation significantly reduces transcription activation, is a target for the Sp1 transcription factor, and possibly of other members of the Sp family. Importantly, the entire minimal promoter region is located after the end of COG8's coding region, strongly suggesting that the human PDF preserves an independent regulation from its overlapping partner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversification of both KIR and NKG2 natural killer cell receptor genes in macaques - implications for highly complex MHC-dependent regulation of natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lutz; Petersen, Beatrix

    2017-02-01

    The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) as well as their MHC class I ligands display enormous genetic diversity and polymorphism in macaque species. Signals resulting from interaction between KIR or CD94/NKG2 receptors and their cognate MHC class I proteins essentially regulate the activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Macaque and human KIR share many features, such as clonal expression patterns, gene copy number variations, specificity for particular MHC class I allotypes, or epistasis between KIR and MHC class I genes that influence susceptibility and resistance to immunodeficiency virus infection. In this review article we also annotated publicly available rhesus macaque BAC clone sequences and provide the first description of the CD94-NKG2 genomic region. Besides the presence of genes that are orthologous to human NKG2A and NKG2F, this region contains three NKG2C paralogues. Hence, the genome of rhesus macaques contains moderately expanded and diversified NKG2 genes in addition to highly diversified KIR genes. The presence of two diversified NK cell receptor families in one species has not been described before and is expected to require a complex MHC-dependent regulation of NK cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of human thromboxane synthase gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.D.; Baek, S.J.; Fleischer, T [Univ. of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The human thromboxane synthase (TS) gene encodes a microsomal enzyme catalyzing the conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxide into thromboxane A{sub 2}(TxA{sub 2}), a potent inducer of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. A deficiency in platelet TS activity results in bleeding disorders, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Increased TxA{sub 2} has been associated with many pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and thrombosis in sickle cell patients. Since the formation of TxA{sub 2} is dependent upon TS, the regulation of TS gene expression may presumably play a crucial role in vivo. Abrogation of the regulatory mechanism in TS gene expression might contribute, in part, to the above clinical manifestations. To gain insight into TS gene regulation, a 1.7 kb promoter of the human TS gene was cloned and sequenced. RNase protection assay and 5{prime} RACE protocols were used to map the transcription initiation site to nucleotide A, 30 bp downstream from a canonical TATA box. Several transcription factor binding sites, including AP-1, PU.1, and PEA3, were identified within this sequence. Transient expression studies in HL-60 cells transfected with constructs containing various lengths (0.2 to 5.5 kb) of the TS promoter/luciferase fusion gene indicated the presence of multiple repressor elements within the 5.5 kb TS promoter. However, a lineage-specific up-regulation of TS gene expression was observed in HL-60 cells induced by TPA to differentiate along the macrophage lineage. The increase in TS transcription was not detectable until 36 hr after addition of the inducer. These results suggest that expression of the human TS gene may be regulated by a mechanism involving repression and derepression of the TS promoter.

  7. Regulation mechanism of EM parameters in natural ferrite and its application in microwave absorbing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yongchun; WANG; Shijie; FENG; Junming; LI; Chunlai; OUYANG; Ziyuan; LIU; Jianzhong; LI; Xiaobiao

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) parameters (ε', ε″,μ', μ″ ) of several M2+Fe2O4 and Fe2O3 type natural ferrites with different geological occurrences are measured in this paper. The measurement results show that EM parameters of a magmatic-occurring natural ferrite is very different from other types occurring from sedimentary-metamorphic iron deposit, hydrothermal vein iron deposit, outer contact of magmatic iron deposit. It has potential to be used as magnetic absorbent in microwave absorbing materials. After mineral separation and concentration, this magmatic-occurring natural ferrite was processed into type A ferrite absorbent. Type A natural ferrite absorbent is a kind of magnetic material with low dielectric constants, high magnetic conductivity and high EM loss. Its EM parameters areε' = 58.60, ε″ = 10.0, μ' = 1.2-1.5, μ″ = 1.0-1.2, respectively. In order to illuminate the regulation mechanism of EM parameters, we studied the chemical and mineral composition of type A ferrite absorbent. There is high concentration of natural impurities, which regulate the EM parameters of type A ferrite greatly. For comparison, the other types of natural ferrite, single-phase magnetite and two-phase iron minerals (ilmenite and magnetite), have few impurity. Thus regulation mechanism of EM parameters was absent in these ferrites. As a result, the regulation of EM parameters is advantageous to develop type A natural ferrite as excellent absorbent, lowers the reflectivity coefficients and enhances the absorbing efficiency of MAM made from it. Furthermore, the impurities in type A natural ferrite and its effects on EM parameters are very difficult to simulate in the synthesize ferrite. The carbonyl-iron powder is another kind of absorbent that is used extensively in MAM. To compare the absorbing properties of these two absorbent, type A natural ferrite and carbonyl-iron powder were mixed with rubber and processed into microwave absorbing sheets with the same procedures and

  8. Air quality in natural areas: interface between the public, science and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, K E; Karnosky, D F

    2007-10-01

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O(3)) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O(3) exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O(3) impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O(3) risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy.

  9. Mechanism of human natural killer cell activation by Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Janowicz, Diane M; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2009-08-15

    The role of natural killer (NK) cells in the host response to Haemophilus ducreyi infection is unclear. In pustules obtained from infected human volunteers, there was an enrichment of CD56bright NK cells bearing the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, compared with peripheral blood. To study the mechanism by which H. ducreyi activated NK cells, we used peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected volunteers. H. ducreyi activated NK cells only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells. H. ducreyi-infected monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages activated NK cells in a contact- and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-dependent manner, whereas monocyte-derived dendritic cells induced NK activation through soluble IL-12. More lesional NK cells than peripheral blood NK cells produced IFN-gamma in response to IL-12 and IL-18. We conclude that NK cells are recruited to experimental lesions and likely are activated by infected macrophages and dendritic cells. IFN-gamma produced by lesional NK cells may facilitate phagocytosis of H. ducreyi.

  10. Harvesting energy from the natural vibration of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiqing; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Jin; Bai, Peng; Su, Yuanjie; Jing, Qingsheng; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-12-23

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), a unique technology for harvesting ambient mechanical energy based on the triboelectric effect, has been proven to be a cost-effective, simple, and robust approach for self-powered systems. However, a general challenge is that the output current is usually low. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed TENG with integrated rhombic gridding, which greatly improved the total current output owing to the structurally multiplied unit cells connected in parallel. With the hybridization of both the contact-separation mode and sliding electrification mode among nanowire arrays and nanopores fabricated onto the surfaces of two contact plates, the newly designed TENG produces an open-circuit voltage up to 428 V, and a short-circuit current of 1.395 mA with the peak power density of 30.7 W/m(2). Relying on the TENG, a self-powered backpack was developed with a vibration-to-electric energy conversion efficiency up to 10.62(±1.19) %. And it was also demonstrated as a direct power source for instantaneously lighting 40 commercial light-emitting diodes by harvesting the vibration energy from natural human walking. The newly designed TENG can be a mobile power source for field engineers, explorers, and disaster-relief workers.

  11. Modelling human decision-making in coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, G.

    2012-12-01

    A solid understanding of human decision-making is essential to analyze the complexity of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and inform policies to promote resilience in the face of environmental change. Human decisions drive and/or mediate the interactions and feedbacks, and contribute to the heterogeneity and non-linearity that characterize CHANS. However, human decision-making is usually over-simplistically modeled, whereby human agents are represented deterministically either as dumb or clairvoyant decision-makers. Decision-making models fall short in the integration of both environmental and human behavioral drivers, and concerning the latter, tend to focus on only one category, e.g. economic, cultural, or psychological. Furthermore, these models render a linear decision-making process and therefore fail to account for the recursive co-evolutionary dynamics in CHANS. As a result, these models constitute only a weak basis for policy-making. There is therefore scope and an urgent need for better approaches to human decision-making, to produce the knowledge that can inform vulnerability reduction policies in the face of environmental change. This presentation synthesizes the current state-of-the-art of modelling human decision-making in CHANS, with particular reference to agricultural systems, and delineates how the above mentioned shortcomings can be overcome. Through examples from research on pesticide use and adaptation to climate change, both based on the integrative agent-centered framework (Feola and Binder, 2010), the approach for an improved understanding of human agents in CHANS are illustrated. This entails: integrative approach, focus on behavioral dynamics more than states, feedbacks between individual and system levels, and openness to heterogeneity.

  12. Erythropoietin regulations in humans under different environmental and experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunga, H-C; Kirsch, K A; Roecker, L; Kohlberg, E; Tiedemann, J; Steinach, M; Schobersberger, W

    2007-09-30

    In the adult human, the kidney is the main organ for the production and release of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is stimulating erythropoiesis by increasing the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of the erythroid precursors. In the last decades, enormous efforts were made in the purification, molecular encoding and description of the EPO gene. This led to an incredible increase in the understanding of the EPO-feedback-regulation loop at a molecular level, especially the oxygen-dependent EPO gene expression, a key function in the regulation loop. However, studies in humans at a systemic level are still very scanty. Therefore, it is the purpose of the present review to report on the main recent investigations on EPO production and release in humans under different environmental and experimental conditions, including: (i) studies on EPO circadian, monthly and even annual variations, (ii) studies in connection with short-, medium- and long-term exercise at sea-level which will be followed (iii) by studies performed at moderate and high altitude.

  13. Hypoxia-regulated microRNAs in human cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guomin SHEN; Xiaobo LI; Yong-feng JIA; Gary A PIAZZA; Yaguang XI

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment by allowing the development and maintenance of cancer cells,but the regulatory mechanisms by which tumor cells adapt to hypoxic conditions are not yet well understood.MicroRNAs are recognized as a new class of master regulators that control gene expression and are responsible for many normal and pathological cellular processes.Studies have shown that hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) regulates a panel of microRNAs,whereas some of microRNAs target HIF1.The interaction between microRNAs and HIF1 can account for many vital events relevant to tumorigenesis,such as angiogenesis,metabolism,apoptosis,cell cycle regulation,proliferation,metastasis,and resistance to anticancer therapy.This review will summarize recent findings on the roles of hypoxia and microRNAs in human cancer and illustrate the machinery by which microRNAs interact with hypoxia in tumor cells,It is expected to update our knowledge about the regulatory roles of microRNAs in regulating tumor microenvironments and thus benefit the development of new anticancer drugs.

  14. Kinome analysis of receptor-induced phosphorylation in human natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian König

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK cells contribute to the defense against infected and transformed cells through the engagement of multiple germline-encoded activation receptors. Stimulation of the Fc receptor CD16 alone is sufficient for NK cell activation, whereas other receptors, such as 2B4 (CD244 and DNAM-1 (CD226, act synergistically. After receptor engagement, protein kinases play a major role in signaling networks controlling NK cell effector functions. However, it has not been characterized systematically which of all kinases encoded by the human genome (kinome are involved in NK cell activation. RESULTS: A kinase-selective phosphoproteome approach enabled the determination of 188 kinases expressed in human NK cells. Crosslinking of CD16 as well as 2B4 and DNAM-1 revealed a total of 313 distinct kinase phosphorylation sites on 109 different kinases. Phosphorylation sites on 21 kinases were similarly regulated after engagement of either CD16 or co-engagement of 2B4 and DNAM-1. Among those, increased phosphorylation of FYN, KCC2G (CAMK2, FES, and AAK1, as well as the reduced phosphorylation of MARK2, were reproducibly observed both after engagement of CD16 and co-engagement of 2B4 and DNAM-1. Notably, only one phosphorylation on PAK4 was differentally regulated. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has identified a significant portion of the NK cell kinome and defined novel phosphorylation sites in primary lymphocytes. Regulated phosphorylations observed in the early phase of NK cell activation imply these kinases are involved in NK cell signaling. Taken together, this study suggests a largely shared signaling pathway downstream of distinct activation receptors and constitutes a valuable resource for further elucidating the regulation of NK cell effector responses.

  15. Bacterial natural products : Prediction, regulation and characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters in Actinobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceniceros, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced by many microbes. They are not essential for life, but may provide a competitive advantage in the natural environment. Antibiotics are an important example, crucial agents in the human health system, widely used to combat infectious diseases. In view of the emergen

  16. Bacterial natural products : Prediction, regulation and characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters in Actinobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceniceros, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced by many microbes. They are not essential for life, but may provide a competitive advantage in the natural environment. Antibiotics are an important example, crucial agents in the human health system, widely used to combat infectious diseases. In view of the

  17. Translational regulation of human p53 gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, L.; Minden, M D; Benchimol, S

    1996-01-01

    In blast cells obtained from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, p53 mRNA was present in all the samples examined while the expression of p53 protein was variable from patient to patient. Mutations in the p53 gene are infrequent in this disease and, hence, variable protein expression in the majority of the samples cannot be accounted for by mutation. In this study, we examined the regulation of p53 gene expression in human leukemic blasts and characterized the p53 transcripts in these c...

  18. Complement regulators in human disease: lessons from modern genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Liszewski, M; Atkinson, J P

    2015-03-01

    First identified in human serum in the late 19th century as a 'complement' to antibodies in mediating bacterial lysis, the complement system emerged more than a billion years ago probably as the first humoral immune system. The contemporary complement system consists of nearly 60 proteins in three activation pathways (classical, alternative and lectin) and a terminal cytolytic pathway common to all. Modern molecular biology and genetics have not only led to further elucidation of the structure of complement system components, but have also revealed function-altering rare variants and common polymorphisms, particularly in regulators of the alternative pathway, that predispose to human disease by creating 'hyperinflammatory complement phenotypes'. To treat these 'complementopathies', a monoclonal antibody against the initiator of the membrane attack complex, C5, has received approval for use. Additional therapeutic reagents are on the horizon.

  19. Integrated modeling of natural and human systems - problems and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J.; Gunnink, J.; Hughes, A.; Moore, R. V.; Peach, D.

    2009-12-01

    Governments and their executive agencies across the world are facing increasing pressure to make decisions about the management of resources in light of population growth and environmental change. In the UK and the Netherlands, for example, groundwater is becoming a scarce resource for large parts of its most densely populated areas. At the same time river and groundwater flooding resulting from high rainfall events are increasing in scale and frequency and sea level rise is threatening the defences of coastal cities. There is also a need for affordable housing, improved transport infrastructure and waste disposal as well as sources of renewable energy and sustainable food production. These challenges can only be resolved if solutions are based on sound scientific evidence. Although we have knowledge and understanding of many individual processes in the natural sciences it is clear that a single science discipline is unable to answer the questions and their inter-relationships. Modern science increasingly employs computer models to simulate the natural, economic and human system. Management and planning requires scenario modelling, forecasts and “predictions”. Although the outputs are often impressive in terms of apparent accuracy and visualisation, they are inherently not suited to simulate the response to feedbacks from other models of the earth system, such as the impact of human actions. Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) are increasingly employing advances in Information Technology to visualise and improve their understanding of geological systems. Instead of 2 dimensional paper maps and reports many GSOs now produce 3 dimensional geological framework models and groundwater flow models as their standard output. Additionally the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of the Netherlands have developed standard routines to link geological data to groundwater models, but these models are only aimed at solving one specific part of the earth

  20. Expression and regulation of nampt in human islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kover

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt is a rate-limiting enzyme in the mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis of a salvage pathway and exists in 2 known forms, intracellular Nampt (iNampt and a secreted form, extracellular Nampt (eNampt. eNampt can generate an intermediate product, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, which has been reported to support insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Nampt has been reported to be expressed in the pancreas but islet specific expression has not been adequately defined. The aim of this study was to characterize Nampt expression, secretion and regulation by glucose in human islets. Gene and protein expression of Nampt was assessed in human pancreatic tissue and isolated islets by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence/confocal imaging respectively. Variable amounts of Nampt mRNA were detected in pancreatic tissue and isolated islets. Immunofluorescence staining for Nampt was found in the exocrine and endocrine tissue of fetal pancreas. However, in adulthood, Nampt expression was localized predominantly in beta cells. Isolated human islets secreted increasing amounts of eNampt in response to high glucose (20 mM in a static glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay (GSIS. In addition to an increase in eNampt secretion, exposure to 20 mM glucose also increased Nampt mRNA levels but not protein content. The secretion of eNampt was attenuated by the addition of membrane depolarization inhibitors, diazoxide and nifedipine. Islet-secreted eNampt showed enzymatic activity in a reaction with increasing production of NAD+/NADH over time. In summary, we show that Nampt is expressed in both exocrine and endocrine tissue early in life but in adulthood expression is localized to endocrine tissue. Enzymatically active eNampt is secreted by human islets, is regulated by glucose and requires membrane depolarization.

  1. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions

  2. Epigenetic regulation of putative tumor suppressor TGFBI in human leukemias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Hongbo; Liu Jing; Guo Dan; Liu Peixiang; Zhao Yongliang

    2014-01-01

    Background Both in vitro and in vivo data have demonstrated the TGFBI gene functions as a putative tumor suppressor and is frequently downregulated in human tumors of different histological types.The hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter,as one of the main regulatory mechanisms,is associated with TGFBI silencing.In this study,we used a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) method to evaluate the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in human leukemias.Methods Real-time RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR approaches were performed to define the TGFBI expression and promoter methylation in human leukemia call lines and clinical samples.Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leukemia patients,bisulfite-converted,and analyzed by the MSP method.Results Hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter occurred in leukemia cell lines and demethylation treatment reexpressed TGFBI at a substantially increased level in most of leukemia cell lines tested.Furthermore,a much higher level of CpG island methylation and a significantly lower TGFBI expression were also identified in clinical leukemia samples.Conclusion The results suggest an important role of promoter methylation in regulating TGFBI expression in leukemia,which provides a useful diagnostic marker for clinical management of human leukemias.

  3. MicroRNA Regulation of Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Shimono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are involved in virtually all biological processes, including stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and development. The dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with many human diseases including cancer. We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs and non-tumorigenic cancer cells. In addition, these miRNAs are similarly upregulated or downregulated in normal mammary stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we mainly describe the miRNAs that are dysregulated in human breast CSCs directly isolated from clinical specimens. The miRNAs and their clusters, such as the miR-200 clusters, miR-183 cluster, miR-221-222 cluster, let-7, miR-142 and miR-214, target the genes and pathways important for stem cell maintenance, such as the self-renewal gene BMI1, apoptosis, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the current evidence shows that metastatic breast CSCs acquire a phenotype that is different from the CSCs in a primary site. Thus, clarifying the miRNA regulation of the metastatic breast CSCs will further advance our understanding of the roles of human breast CSCs in tumor progression.

  4. Colostro humano: fonte natural de probióticos? Human colostrum: a natural source of probiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz R. Novak

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de obter dados sobre a microbiota do colostro humano, visando correlacioná-la com a possibilidade de que seja uma fonte natural de probióticos, que seriam transmitidos da mãe para o filho durante a amamentação natural. MÉTODOS: foram estudados, em 70 amostras de colostro humano ordenhado, os seguintes microorganismos: mesófilos, termodúricos, psicrotróficos, proteolíticos, proteolíticos-psicrotróficos, lipolíticos, bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Streptococcus do Grupo D e bactérias lácticas. RESULTADOS: as análises microbiológicas revelaram a ocorrência de diversos grupos clássicos de microorganismos: mesófilos, 68,6%; termodúricos, 38,6%; psicrotróficos, 8,6%; proteolíticos, 15,7%; proteolíticos-psicrotróficos, 1,4%; lipolíticos, 4,3%; bolores e leveduras, 11,4%; Staphylococcus aureus, 44,3%; coliformes totais, 7,2%; e bactérias lácticas, 37,2%. Demonstrou-se, assim, uma microbiota bastante diversificada, não tendo sido identificados microorganismos termodúricos-psicrotróficos, coliformes fecais e Streptococcus do grupo D em nenhuma das amostras. CONCLUSÕES: a avaliação conjunta dos resultados revela a ocorrência de uma microbiota rica em bactérias lácticas que poderiam funcionar como probióticos, se disponibilizados para os bebês nos primeiros dias pós-parto.OBJECTIVE: the aim of the present study was to obtain data on the microbiota of human colostrum, and to correlate it with a possible source of probiotics transferred from mother to infant during breastfeeding. METHODS: 70 samples of milked human colostrum were analyzed as to the presence of mesophylic, thermoduric, psychrotrophic, proteolytic, proteolytic-psychrotrophic, lipolytic microorganisms, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Group D Streptococcus species and lactic acid bacteria. RESULTS: the

  5. Dual mechanisms regulate the nucleocytoplasmic localization of human DDX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jo-Hsi; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chen, Yen-Chun; Chang, Yi-Ling; Chu, Chia-Ying

    2017-01-01

    DDX6 is a conserved DEAD-box protein (DBP) that plays central roles in cytoplasmic RNA regulation, including processing body (P-body) assembly, mRNA decapping, and translational repression. Beyond its cytoplasmic functions, DDX6 may also have nuclear functions because its orthologues are known to localize to nuclei in several biological contexts. However, it is unclear whether DDX6 is generally present in human cell nuclei, and the molecular mechanism underlying DDX6 subcellular distribution remains elusive. In this study, we showed that DDX6 is commonly present in the nuclei of human-derived cells. Our structural and molecular analyses deviate from the current model that the shuttling of DDX6 is directly mediated by the canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES), which are recognized and transported by Importin-α/β and CRM1, respectively. Instead, we show that DDX6 can be transported by 4E-T in a piggyback manner. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a novel nuclear targeting mechanism in which DDX6 enters the newly formed nuclei by “hitch-hiking” on mitotic chromosomes with its C-terminal domain during M phase progression. Together, our results indicate that the nucleocytoplasmic localization of DDX6 is regulated by these dual mechanisms. PMID:28216671

  6. The Economic Development of Natural Resources: Fracking and Self-Regulation in the Market for Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Kubik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to apply some of the lessons learned during the period of industrialization in 19th century Europe to the study of the effects and appropriate regulation of the contemporary process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the natural gas industry. An attempt is made to support the conclusion that the harmful side effects associated with the creation of self-regulating markets for land, labor and money during the 19th century is paralleled today by the self-regulating character of the process of hydraulic fracturing. As a result, the negative consequences associated with industrialization are been visited again on present day market economies.

  7. The Economic Development of Natural Resources: Fracking and Self-Regulation in the Market for Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Kubik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to apply some of the lessons learned during the period of industrialization in 19th century Europe to the study of the effects and appropriate regulation of the contemporary process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the natural gas industry. An attempt is made to support the conclusion that the harmful side effects associated with the creation of self-regulating markets for land, labor and money during the 19th century is paralleled today by the self-regulating character of the process of hydraulic fracturing. As a result, the negative consequences associated with industrialization are been visited again on present day market economies.

  8. Neutrons reveal how nature uses structural themes and variation in biological regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, Jill [School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: jtrewhella@usyd.edu.au

    2006-11-15

    Healthy cellular function requires tight regulation of a multitude of bio-molecular interactions and processes, often in response to external stimuli. In achieving this regulation, nature uses a number of 'second messengers' that are released inside cells in response to first messengers, such as hormones that bind to the cell surface. Divalent calcium and cyclic nucleotides, like cAMP, are among nature's second messengers that bind to receptor proteins inside cells order to regulate the activities of various targets, including many protein kinases. Kinases are enzymes that catalyze the attachment of phosphate groups to proteins in order to modulate their functions. We have been using neutron contrast variation and small-angle solution scattering to study the interactions of the second messenger receptor proteins and their regulatory targets in order to understand the structural basis for these complex processes that use a number of common structural motifs to accomplish highly regulated function. Our most recent work has focused on the different isoforms of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the muscle regulatory complex troponin.

  9. Regulated expression of erythropoietin by two human hepatoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.A.; Glass, G.A.; Cunningham, J.M.; Bunn, H.F.

    1987-11-01

    The development of a cell culture system that produces erythropoietin (Epo) in a regulated manner has been the focus of much effort. The authors have screened multiple renal and hepatic cell lines for either constitutive or regulated expression of Epo. Only the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, made significant amounts of Epo as measured both by radioimmunoassay and in vitro bioassay (as much as 330 milliunits per 10/sup 6/ cells in 24 hr). The constitutive production of Epo increased dramatically as a function of cell density in both cell lines. At cell densities < 3.3 x 10/sup 5/ cells per cm/sup 2/, there was little constitutive release of Epo in the medium. With Hep3B cells grown at low cell densities, a mean 18-fold increase in Epo expression was seen in response to hypoxia and a 6-fold increase was observed in response to incubation in medium containing 50 ..mu..M cobalt(II) chloride. At similar low cell densities, Epo production in HepG2 cells could be enhanced an average of about 3-fold by stimulation with either hypoxia or cobalt(II) chloride. Upon such stimulation, both cell lines demonstrated markedly elevated levels of Epo mRNA. Hence, both Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines provide an excellent in vitro system in which to study the physiological regulation of Epo expression.

  10. Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase: Structure, Function and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Chaney

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP is a 100 kDa glycoprotein composed of two subunits. Recent advances demonstrate that cellular PAcP (cPAcP functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase by dephosphorylating ErbB-2/Neu/HER-2 at the phosphotyrosine residues in prostate cancer (PCa cells, which results in reduced tumorigenicity. Further, the interaction of cPAcP and ErbB-2 regulates androgen sensitivity of PCa cells. Knockdown of cPAcP expression allows androgen-sensitive PCa cells to develop the castration-resistant phenotype, where cells proliferate under an androgen-reduced condition. Thus, cPAcP has a significant influence on PCa cell growth. Interestingly, promoter analysis suggests that PAcP expression can be regulated by NF-κB, via a novel binding sequence in an androgen-independent manner. Further understanding of PAcP function and regulation of expression will have a significant impact on understanding PCa progression and therapy.

  11. Overview of human obesity and central mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Vivion E F

    2008-05-01

    Obesity is now regarded as a global epidemic affecting both adults and children, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Thus the effective management of obesity has become an important clinical focus. Therefore, an understanding of the pathways controlling appetite, satiety and food intake is critical for gaining an insight into the pathogenesis of obesity and also for the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for use in the clinical management of this condition. Over the last decade or more research using both mouse and human genetic models has elucidated the critical role of the leptin-melanocortin pathway in the hypothalamus, in regulating mammalian energy balance. In tandem with this, a clearer understanding of the regulation of gut-derived hormones and their interaction with the central nervous system has further illuminated the complex interplay between central and peripheral aspects of energy regulation. The obesity epidemic and the expanded knowledge base relating to its aetiopathogenesis have specific implications for clinical biochemistry. In particular, an increase in workload may be expected due to biochemical investigation of obesity and its co-morbidities. Moreover, advice on the in-depth investigation of complex cases of obesity may be sought, including information on newer diagnostic tests, such as serum leptin or molecular genetic analysis. There may also be a substantive role for chemical pathologists in establishing and running clinical obesity services. Finally, clinical biochemistry has a role in research pertaining to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    OpenAIRE

    Veltink, Peter H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Chris T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Spek, van der, R.J.; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need for sensory feedback in FES control systems and gives an overview of available artificial sensors for human use and progress in the derivation and application of signals from natural sensors

  13. The problem of moral based on human nature in David Hume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Çelebi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The biggest dream of Scottish philosopher David Hume was to establish a science to provide all the unknown about human life with concreteness as is in positive sciences. The science that he called “Human Nature Science” seems as a concept including all human actions like moral, knowledge and liberty. Naturally, everything related to human actions imply a sense in respect of moral, as well. In this study, we try to understand how Hume explained the problem of morality based on human nature.

  14. The problem of moral based on human nature in David Hume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Çelebi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The biggest dream of Scottish philosopher David Hume was to establish a science to provide the entire unknown about human life with concreteness as is in positive sciences. The science that he called “Human Nature Science” seems as a concept including all human actions like moral, knowledge and liberty. Naturally, everything related to human actions imply a sense in respect of moral, as well. In this study, we try to understand how Hume explained the problem of morality based on human nature.

  15. [A brief history of the natural causes of human disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips-Castro, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism).

  16. NPCARE: database of natural products and fractional extracts for cancer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwanho; Cho, Sun Young; Pak, Ho Jeong; Kim, Youngsoo; Choi, Jung-Yun; Lee, Yoon Jae; Gong, Byung Hee; Kang, Yeon Seok; Han, Taehoon; Choi, Geunbae; Cho, Yeeun; Lee, Soomin; Ryoo, Dekwoo; Park, Hwangseo

    2017-01-01

    Natural products have increasingly attracted much attention as a valuable resource for the development of anticancer medicines due to the structural novelty and good bioavailability. This necessitates a comprehensive database for the natural products and the fractional extracts whose anticancer activities have been verified. NPCARE (http://silver.sejong.ac.kr/npcare) is a publicly accessible online database of natural products and fractional extracts for cancer regulation. At NPCARE, one can explore 6578 natural compounds and 2566 fractional extracts isolated from 1952 distinct biological species including plants, marine organisms, fungi, and bacteria whose anticancer activities were validated with 1107 cell lines for 34 cancer types. Each entry in NPCARE is annotated with the cancer type, genus and species names of the biological resource, the cell line used for demonstrating the anticancer activity, PubChem ID, and a wealth of information about the target gene or protein. Besides the augmentation of plant entries up to 743 genus and 197 families, NPCARE is further enriched with the natural products and the fractional extracts of diverse non-traditional biological resources. NPCARE is anticipated to serve as a dominant gateway for the discovery of new anticancer medicines due to the inclusion of a large number of the fractional extracts as well as the natural compounds isolated from a variety of biological resources.

  17. Predicting natural streamflows in regulated snowmelt-driven watersheds using regionalization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting streamflows in snow-fed watersheds in the Western United States is important for water allocation. Since many of these watersheds are heavily regulated through canal networks and reservoirs, predicting expected natural flows and therefore water availability under limited data is always a challenge. This study investigates the applicability of the flow duration curve (FDC method for predicting natural flows in gauged and ungauged snow-fed watersheds. Point snow observations, air temperature, precipitation, and snow water equivalent, are used to simulate snowmelt process with SNOW-17 model and extended to streamflow generation by a FDC method with modified current precipitation index. For regulated (ungauged watersheds, a parametric regional FDC method is applied to reconstruct natural flow. For comparison, a simplified Tank Model is used as well. The proximity regionalization method is used to generate streamflow using the Tank Model in ungauged watersheds. The results show that the FDC method can produce acceptable natural flow estimates in both gauged and ungauged watersheds under data limited conditions. The performance of the FDC method is better in watersheds with relatively low evapotranspiration (ET. Multiple donor data sets including current precipitation index are recommended to reduce uncertainty of the regional FDC method for ungauged watersheds. In spite of its simplicity, the FDC method can perform better than the Tank Model under minimal data availability.

  18. Mindsets and Human Nature: Promoting Change in the Middle East, the Schoolyard, the Racial Divide, and Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    Debates about human nature often revolve around what is built in. However, the hallmark of human nature is how much of a person's identity is not built in; rather, it is humans' great capacity to adapt, change, and grow. This nature versus nurture debate matters--not only to students of human nature--but to everyone. It matters whether people…

  19. Mindsets and Human Nature: Promoting Change in the Middle East, the Schoolyard, the Racial Divide, and Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    Debates about human nature often revolve around what is built in. However, the hallmark of human nature is how much of a person's identity is not built in; rather, it is humans' great capacity to adapt, change, and grow. This nature versus nurture debate matters--not only to students of human nature--but to everyone. It matters whether people…

  20. Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Martin A; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F; Michaëlsson, Jakob

    2013-09-01

    The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I-negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-β-mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-β signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-β-mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I-negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD-induced fetal anemia.

  1. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  2. Natural Disasters and Human Behavior: Explanation, Research and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    A survey of published research determined that individual and group reactions to natural disasters differ greatly and depend partially on the predisaster personality. Four models are examined to explain individual and group reactions to natural disasters. A conglomerate model and a possible structure to future disaster research are offered.…

  3. Regulation of the retinoblastoma proteins by the human herpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalejta Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that alter the environment of infected cells in order to replicate more efficiently. One way viruses achieve this is by modulating cell cycle progression. The main regulators of progression out of G0, through G1, and into S phase are the members of the retinoblastoma (Rb family of tumor suppressors. Rb proteins repress the transcription of genes controlled by the E2F transcription factors. Because the expression of E2F-responsive genes is required for cell cycle progression into the S phase, Rb arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1. A number of viral proteins directly target Rb family members for inactivation, presumably to create an environment more hospitable for viral replication. Such viral proteins include the extensively studied oncoproteins E7 (from human papillomavirus, E1A (from adenovirus, and the large T (tumor antigen (from simian virus 40. Elucidating how these three viral proteins target and inactivate Rb has proven to be an invaluable approach to augment our understanding of both normal cell cycle progression and carcinogenesis. In addition to these proteins, a number of other virally-encoded inactivators of the Rb family have subsequently been identified including a surprising number encoded by human herpesviruses. Here we review how the human herpesviruses modulate Rb function during infection, introduce the individual viral proteins that directly or indirectly target Rb, and speculate about what roles Rb modulation by these proteins may play in viral replication, pathogenesis, and oncogenesis.

  4. The Nature and Perception of Fluctuations in Human Musical Rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Hennig; Ragnar Fleischmann; Anneke Fredebohm; York Hagmayer; Jan Nagler; Annette Witt; Theis, Fabian J.; Theo Geisel

    2011-01-01

    Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. Howe...

  5. Genistein inhibits human TNF-α-induced porcine endothelial cell adhesiveness for human monocytes and natural killer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cellular immune response is a major barrier to xenotransplantation. Human tumor necrosis factor-α (hTNF-α) possesses cross-species activity and directly amplifies the immune rejection via the upregulation of adhesion molecules on porcine endothelium. We investigated the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the induction of expression of E-sclectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the augmentation of adhesion of human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMo) and natural killer cells (PBNK), after rhTNF-α-stimulation of porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in vitro, rhTNF-α-increased adhesiveness of PAEC for both PBMo and PBNK was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment of PAEC with the selective protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein. The inhibitory effect occurred at the early time of PAEC activation triggered by rhTNF-α, and was completely reversible. PTK activity assay indicated that genistein also suppressed rhTNF-α stimulated activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in PAEC in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that genistein inhibited the upregulation of E-selectin and VCAM-1 by rhTNF-α. These results suggest that PTKs may regulate the expression of E-selectin and VCAM-1 on PAEC and the adherence of PBMo and PBNK induced by rhTNF-α. Moreover, dietary genistein, used as an adhesion antagonist, may contribute to managing the cell-mediated rejection in the clinical application.

  6. Natural gas - the new Argentine regulation and the impact on the international relationships; Gas natural - nueva regulacion argentina y su impacto en las relaciones internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Ximena [Escritorio Marval, O' Farrell and Mairal, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Energia

    2005-07-15

    Under the mentioned regulations important enterprises have been developed such as natural gas exportation to three specific regions of Chile (the mining region of North; the central region supplying the Santiago and Concepcion markets; and the supplying of a methanol plant at the extreme south); the natural gas exportation to a power plant at southern Brazil (Uruguaiana), at Mato Grosso (through Bolivia) and the natural gas exportation to Uruguay.

  7. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  8. Essentialism Regarding Human Nature in the Defence of Gender Equality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Katariina

    2007-01-01

    In this article I consider contemporary philosophical conceptions of human nature from the point of view of the ideal of gender equality. My main argument is that an essentialist account of human nature, unlike what I take to be its two main alternatives (the subjectivist account and the cultural account), is able coherently to justify the…

  9. Shallow water benthic foraminifera as proxy for natural versus human-induced environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijer, L.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem composition and functioning is not only subjected to human-induced alterations, ecosystems also subjected to natural (e.g. climate-induced) variability. To quantify human impacts on ecosystems, these natural fluctuations must be accounted for. Since long-term biological monitoring programs

  10. Shallow water benthic foraminifera as proxy for natural versus human-induced environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijer, L.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem composition and functioning is not only subjected to human-induced alterations, ecosystems also subjected to natural (e.g. climate-induced) variability. To quantify human impacts on ecosystems, these natural fluctuations must be accounted for. Since long-term biological monitoring programs

  11. From Human Nature to Moral Judgments : Reframing Debates about Disability and Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harnacke, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    My goal in my dissertation is to develop an account of how a theory of human nature should be integrated into bioethics and to show what bioethics can gain from using this account. I explore the relevance of human nature for moral argumentation, and especially for bioethics. Thereby, I focus on deba

  12. Viral symbiosis and the holobiontic nature of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Francis Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is a holobiontic union of the mammalian nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome and large numbers of endogenized retroviral genomes. This article defines and explores this symbiogenetic pattern of evolution, looking at the implications for human genetics, epigenetics, embryogenesis, physiology and the pathogenesis of inborn errors of metabolism and many other diseases.

  13. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  14. Regulating edible insects: the challenge of adressing food security, nature conservation, and the erosion of traditional food culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul; Hanboonsong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    and the roles they play are discussed. Insects have only recently entered into the sustainable food dialogue, but have not yet been incorporated into policy documents and have been largely omitted from regulatory frameworks. Moreover, even in nations where there is a tradition of consuming a variety of insect...... species, they do not appear explicitly in dietary guidelines. Although food safety is a major concern, it can undermine the importance of nature conservation, traditional food culture, food security, and potential economic development. Thus, entomophagy should be viewed holistically and development......Entomophagy is a common practice in many regions of the world but there are few examples of national regulations that govern insects for human consumption. Where entomophagy is not common, the current regulatory discourse focuses primarily on food safety and consumer protection. In countries where...

  15. Regional neuromuscular regulation within human rectus femoris muscle during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Kouzaki, Motoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    The spatial distribution pattern of neuromuscular activation within the human rectus femoris (RF) muscle was investigated during gait by multi-channel surface electromyography (surface EMG). Eleven healthy men walked on a treadmill with three gait speeds (4, 5, and 6 km/h) and gradients (0°, 12.5°, and 25°). The spatial distribution of surface EMG was tested by central locus activation (CLA), which is calculated from 2-D multi-channel surface EMG with 46 surface electrodes. For all conditions, CLA was around the middle regions during the swing-to-stance transition and moved in a proximal direction during the stance phase and stance-to-swing transition (pphase significantly moved to proximal site with increasing gait speed (pphases, with increasing grade, CLA significantly moved distally (pgait cycle and is non-uniformly regulated longitudinally.

  16. APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moore

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons.

  17. Regulation of the skeletal muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Saltin, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    In humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by an interaction between several locally formed vasodilators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. In plasma, ATP is a potent vasodilator that stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins and very importantly can offset local...... sympathetic vasoconstriction. ATP is released into plasma from erythrocytes and endothelial cells and the plasma concentration increases in both the feeding artery and the vein draining the contracting skeletal muscle. Adenosine also stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but the plasma adenosine...... and endothelial cells. In the interstitium, both ATP and adenosine stimulate the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but ATP has also been suggested to induce vasoconstriction and stimulate afferent nerves that signal to increase sympathetic nerve activity. Adenosine has been shown to contribute to exercise...

  18. Natural Products Mediated Regulation of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Ultraviolet Exposed Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Ammad A; Li, Ruei-Nian; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Ismail, Muhammad; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Wang, Hui-Min D; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Data obtained through high-throughput technologies have gradually revealed that a unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways provided vital defensive mechanisms against UV radiation. However, it is noteworthy that skin is a major target for toxic insult by UV radiations that can alter its structure and function. Substantial fraction of information has been added into the existing pool of knowledge related to natural products mediated biological effects in UV exposed skin cells. Accumulating evidence has started to shed light on the potential of these bioactive ingredients as protective natural products in cosmetics against UV photodamage by exerting biological effects mainly through wide ranging intracellular signalling cascades of oxidative stress and modulation of miRNAs. In this review, we have summarized recently emerging scientific evidences addressing underlying mechanisms of UV induced oxidative stress and deregulation of signalling cascades and how natural products can be used tactfully to protect against UV induced harmful effects.

  19. Constructing Ritual and Musical Ceremony Based on Human Nature:Studies on Xunzi’s Human Nature%基于人性论的礼乐建构--荀子人性论再研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧子

    2014-01-01

    荀子从对人性分析入手,展开由个体到群体的制度建构,旨在解决群体生存的幸福与和谐问题。他的“性恶论”可以被重新诠释为人性自爱论。他认为,人都有自爱与自利的本性,这是人自我提升的原动因,也是利益纷争的起因;无限度的自爱、自利会导致社会无序和混乱;人是生活于群体中的关系性存在,群体的安定由正义所决定。基于自爱的人性观,他建立相应的伦理和法律思想以规范、约束无限度扩张的自爱本性所导致的社会失序;而个体有限度的、被压抑的自爱诉求则是通过音乐的调和力量得以保护、净化与提升。%Xunzi’s thought of social order based on his understanding of human nature, and his view of evil human nature can be reinterpreted into human nature of self-love. First of all, human beings do have nature of self-love and self-benefit, which are the reasons why people can promote themselves. Secondly, self-love and self-benefit without limitation and restriction will cause society in disorder, chaos and wars. Thirdly, people are living in relations of society, and the orders and regulation of society are based on justice. Therefore, based on the human nature of self-love, Xunzi tries to build social orders, laws and regulations to restrict people’s behavior and restrain bad things happen caused by the nature of self-benefit without limitation. In xunzi’s thought, the need of depressed human nature of self-benefit can be protected, promoted and cleaned by music education.

  20. Four basic levels of the interactions between humanity and the imbalanced Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    There are the clearly distinguishable four basic levels of interaction the humanity with the imbalanced Nature: 1 Level - Naivety: Self-healing Nature in defiance of the humanity activities. 2 Level - Collaboration: Restoration of Nature in cooperation with humanity. 3 Level - Conflict: The resistance of Nature against the humanity's interference. 4 Level - Disappearance: Nature destroys humanity as the trouble maker. On the first level the people were afraid and respected Nature and are taking from Nature only what Nature gave willingly. Therefore Nature could easy regenerate itself. So it was thousands of years and people become under the false impression that it will be forever. The first signs the end of this period was visible in the era of industrialization. It turned out that resources are not infinite, and the waste of humanity grows much faster than Nature can utilize or dispose it. But in the world still had plenty of the untouched places and industrialization continued to develop rapidly. Thus problems with Nature were dislocated into the colonies rather far off from the prosperous metropolitan countries. The false impression about the man's victory over Nature has increased. Very soon the main untouched place was used, and the global circulations bring the pollutions from colonies to the metropolis. The second level was started as processes to creating the national parks, natural reservations, etc. It was some beginning of the cooperation humanity with Nature. The invasion into the Nature of the colonies was intensified. In addition start increasing the pollution in the metropolis from the waste of resources which have been imported from the colonies. The third level was started and Nature began to resist and revenge to the self-confident man. But man didn't stop and continued create more and more aggressive processes which provoked some avalanches-looks reactions of Nature. Now people can start these avalanches, but cannot stop it. One of these man

  1. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  2. Epac Activation Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migration and Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao-Le; Deng, Ruixia; Chung, Sookja K; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-04-01

    How to enhance the homing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge nowadays. To overcome this barrier, the mechanism responsible for the hMSCs migration and engraftment has to be defined. Currently, the exact mechanism involved in migration and adhesion of hMSCs remains unknown. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a novel protein discovered in cAMP signaling pathway, may have a potential role in regulating cells adhesion and migration by triggering the downstream Rap family signaling cascades. However, the exact role of Epac in cells homing is elusive. Our study evaluated the role of Epac in the homing of hMSCs. We confirmed that hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs significantly. The Epac activation was further found to be contributed directly to the chemotactic responses induced by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) which is a known chemokine in regulating hMSCs homing. These findings suggested Epac is connected to the SDF-1 signaling cascades. In conclusion, our study revealed that Epac plays a role in hMSCs homing by promoting adhesion and migration. Appropriate manipulation of Epac may enhance the homing of hMSCs and facilitate their future clinical applications.

  3. Regulation of alternative splicing in human obesity loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Dorota; Käkelä, Pirjo; Nikkola, Elina; Venesmaa, Sari; Ilves, Imre; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Karhunen, Leila; Kuusisto, Johanna; Gylling, Helena; Pajukanta, Päivi; Laakso, Markku; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Multiple obesity susceptibility loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies, yet the mechanisms by which these loci influence obesity remain unclear. Alternative splicing could contribute to obesity by regulating the transcriptomic and proteomic diversity of genes in these loci. Based on a database search, 72 of the 136 genes at the 13 obesity loci encoded multiple protein isoforms. Thus, alternative splicing of these genes in adipose tissue samples was analyzed from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men population-based study and from two weight loss intervention studies (surgical and very low calorie diet). Alternative splicing was confirmed in 11 genes with PCR capillary electrophoresis in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, differential splicing of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 was observed between lean individuals with normoglycemia and overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Of these genes, we detected fat depot-dependent splicing of TRA2B and BAG6 and weight loss-induced regulation of MSH5 splicing in the intervention studies. Finally, body mass index was a major determinant of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 splicing in the combined data. This study provides evidence for alternative splicing in obesity loci, suggesting that alternative splicing at least in part mediates the obesity-associated risk in these loci. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. Book review: Pragmatic humanism: on the nature and value of sociological knowledge by Marcus Morgan

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Pragmatic Humanism: On the Nature and Value of Sociological Knowledge, Marcus Morgan positions sociology not as a science of society, but as a discipline of humanity. Rather than resurrect a problematic, classical conception of humanism, Morgan instead engages with past and contemporary critiques of humanist thought to position humanism as a pragmatic approach to sociology that draws on human action as a tool for progressive social change. Adam Carter heartily recommends this invigorating ...

  5. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Root Growth-Regulating Brevicompanine Natural Products Modulate the Plant Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Krahn, Jan H; Suliman, Mohamed N S; Halder, Vivek; de Ansorena, Elisa; Nickel, Sabrina; Schlicht, Markus; Plíhal, Ondřej; Kubiasová, Karolina; Radová, Lenka; Kracher, Barbara; Tóth, Réka; Kaschani, Farnusch; Coupland, George; Kombrink, Erich; Kaiser, Markus

    2017-06-16

    Plant growth regulating properties of brevicompanines (Brvs), natural products of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum, have been known for several years, but further investigations into the molecular mechanism of their bioactivity have not been performed. Following chemical synthesis of brevicompanine derivatives, we studied their activity in the model plant Arabidopsis by a combination of plant growth assays, transcriptional profiling, and numerous additional bioassays. These studies demonstrated that brevicompanines cause transcriptional misregulation of core components of the circadian clock, whereas other biological read-outs were not affected. Brevicompanines thus represent promising chemical tools for investigating the regulation of the plant circadian clock. In addition, our study also illustrates the potential of an unbiased -omics-based characterization of bioactive compounds for identifying the often cryptic modes of action of small molecules.

  7. Regional selection of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 provides new insight into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Hu, Enzhi; Wang, Zhenbo; Liu, Jiewei; Li, Jin; Li, Ming; Chen, Hua; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi; Su, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 and found that in recent human evolution, CASC5 has accumulated many modern human specific amino acid changes, including two fixed changes and six polymorphic changes. Among human populations, 4 of the 6 amino acid polymorphic sites have high frequencies of derived alleles in East Asians, but are rare in Europeans and Africans. We proved that this between-population allelic divergence was caused by regional Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. Further analysis of brain image data of Han Chinese showed significant associations of the amino acid polymorphic sites with gray matter volume. Hence, CASC5 may contribute to the morphological and structural changes of the human brain during recent evolution. The observed between-population divergence of CASC5 variants was driven by natural selection that tends to favor a larger gray matter volume in East Asians.

  8. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  9. The nature of the refractive granules in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, N.P. Jr.; Hempelmann, L.H. [Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM (United States)

    1949-04-19

    The number of refractive bodies in human lymphocytes increases in persons chronically exposed to low level doses of ionizing radiation. The observations of the optical properties, the histochemistry, and the method of formation of these bodies are described.

  10. Rsu1 regulates ethanol consumption in Drosophila and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojelade, Shamsideen A; Jia, Tianye; Rodan, Aylin R; Chenyang, Tao; Kadrmas, Julie L; Cattrell, Anna; Ruggeri, Barbara; Charoen, Pimphen; Lemaitre, Hervé; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Bokde, Arun L W; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny A; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lubbe, Steven; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomás; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; O'Reilly, Paul F; Laitinen, Jaana; Veijola, Juha M; Feng, Jianfeng; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Schumann, Gunter; Rothenfluh, Adrian

    2015-07-28

    Alcohol abuse is highly prevalent, but little is understood about the molecular causes. Here, we report that Ras suppressor 1 (Rsu1) affects ethanol consumption in flies and humans. Drosophila lacking Rsu1 show reduced sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation. We show that Rsu1 is required in the adult nervous system for normal sensitivity and that it acts downstream of the integrin cell adhesion molecule and upstream of the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) GTPase to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. In an ethanol preference assay, global loss of Rsu1 causes high naïve preference. In contrast, flies lacking Rsu1 only in the mushroom bodies of the brain show normal naïve preference but then fail to acquire ethanol preference like normal flies. Rsu1 is, thus, required in distinct neurons to modulate naïve and acquired ethanol preference. In humans, we find that polymorphisms in RSU1 are associated with brain activation in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in adolescents and alcohol consumption in both adolescents and adults. Together, these data suggest a conserved role for integrin/Rsu1/Rac1/actin signaling in modulating reward-related phenotypes, including ethanol consumption, across phyla.

  11. Gene–culture coevolution and the nature of human sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintis, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Human characteristics are the product of gene–culture coevolution, which is an evolutionary dynamic involving the interaction of genes and culture over long time periods. Gene–culture coevolution is a special case of niche construction. Gene–culture coevolution is responsible for human other-regarding preferences, a taste for fairness, the capacity to empathize and salience of morality and character virtues. PMID:21320901

  12. The role of natural killer cells in tumor control--effectors and regulators of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Morgan E; Smyth, Mark J

    2005-06-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the primary effector cells of the innate immune system and have a well-established role in tumor rejection in a variety of spontaneous and induced cancer models. NK cell function is regulated by a complex balance of inhibitory and activating signals that allow them to selectively target and kill cells that display an abnormal pattern of cell surface molecules, while leaving normal healthy cells unharmed. In this review we discuss NK cell function, the role of NK cells in cancer therapies, the emerging concept of bi-directional cross-talk between NK cells and dendritic cells, and the implications of these interactions for tumor immunotherapy.

  13. Transcription factors involved in the regulation of natural killer cell development and function: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elia Luevano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells belong to the innate immune system and are key effectors in the immune response against cancer and infection. Recent studies have contributed to the knowledge of events controlling NK cell fate. The use of knockout mice has enabled the discovery of key transcription factors (TFs essential for NK cell development and function. Yet, unwrapping the downstream targets of these TFs and their influence on NK cells remains a challenge. In this review we discuss the latest TFs described to be involved in the regulation of NK cell development and maturation.

  14. Natural polyphenols down-regulate universal stress protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An in-silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vijey Aanandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal stress protein (USP is a novel target to overcome the tuberculosis resistance. Our present study enlightens the possibilities of some natural polyphenols as an antioxidant for USP. The study has shown some molecular simulations of some selected natural antioxidants with USP. We have considered USP (Rv1636 strain for homology modeling and the selected template was taken for the docking study. Curcumin, catechin, reservetrol has shown ARG 136 (1.8Ε hydrogen bonding and two ionic bonding with carboxyl group of curcumin with LEU 130 (3.3Ε and ASN 144 (3.4Ε respectively. INH was taken for the standard molecule to perform molecular simulation. It showed poor binding interaction with the target, that is, −5.18 kcal, and two hydrogen bonding with SER 140 (1.887Ε, ARG 147 (2.064Ε respectively. The study indicates possible new generation curcumin analogue for future therapy to down-regulate USP.

  15. Accounting for natural resources and environmental sustainability: linking ecosystem services to human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen J; Hayes, Sharon E; Yoskowitz, David; Smith, Lisa M; Summers, J Kevin; Russell, Marc; Benson, William H

    2010-03-01

    One of society's greatest challenges is to sustain natural resources while promoting economic growth and quality of life. In the face of this challenge, society must measure the effectiveness of programs established to safeguard the environment. The impetus for demonstrating positive results from government-sponsored research and regulation in the United States comes from Congress (General Accountability Office; GAO) and the Executive Branch (Office of Management and Budget; OMB). The message is: regulatory and research programs must demonstrate outcomes that justify their costs. Although the concept is simple, it is a complex problem to demonstrate that environmental research, policies, and regulations cause measurable changes in environmental quality. Even where changes in environmental quality can be tracked reliably, the connections between government actions and environmental outcomes seldom are direct or straightforward. In this article, we describe emerging efforts (with emphasis on the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA) to frame and measure environmental outcomes in terms of ecosystem services and values-societally and ecologically meaningful metrics for gauging how well we manage environmental resources. As examples of accounting for outcomes and values, we present a novel, low-cost method for determining relative values of multiple ecosystem services, and describe emerging research on indicators of human well-being.

  16. Promoter hypomethylation regulates CD133 expression in human gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kouichi Tabu; Ken Sasai; Taichi Kimura; Lei Wang; Eiko Aoyanagi; Shinji Kohsaka; Mishie Tanino; Hiroshi Nishihara; Shinya Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) have been enriched using antibodies against the cell surface protein CD133;however,the biological relevance and the regulatory mechanism of CD133 expression in human gliomas are not yet understood.In this study,we initially demonstrated that CD133 was overexpressed in high-grade human glioblastomas where CD133-positive cells were focally observed as a micro-cluster.In addition,CD133 transcripts with exon 1A,1B,or 1C were predominantly expressed in glioblastomas.To elucidate the mechanism regulating this aberrant expression of CD133,three proximal promoters (P1,P2,and P3) containing a CpG island were isolated.In U251MG and T98Gglioblastoma cells,the P1 region flanking exon 1A exhibited the highest activity among the three promoters,and this activity was significantly inactivated by in vitro methylation.After treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and/or the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid,the expression level of CD133 mRNA was significantly restored in glioma cells.Importantly,hypomethylation of CpG sites within the P1,P2,and P3 regions was observed by bisulfite sequencing in human glioblastoma tissues with abundant CD133 mRNA.Taken together,our results indicate that DNA hypomethylation is an important determinant of CD133 expression in glioblastomas,and this epigenetic event may be associated with the development of BTICs expressing CD133.

  17. Regulation of Interleukin—6 Production by Cultured Human Thyrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宇; 刘超; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the modulation of interleukin-6(IL-6) generation from human thyroid cells.Methods Thryoid tissues were obtained at surgery from patients with Graves disease.IL-6 in the supernatant of cultured thyrocytes was detected with ultra-sensitive ELISA.mRNA was extracted respectively from primany human cultured thyroidal cells under stimulated and unstimulated conditions,and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RTPCR) technique was used for IL-6 mRNA detection.Results:(1) In the basic conditions,thyroid cells can produce high concentration IL-6.Thyrotropin(TSH,103mU/L),tumor necrosis factorα(TNF-α,10-1U/ml),interleukin-1(IL-1,10 U/ml) and adrenaline(10-5 mol/L) significantly increased Il-6 levels in the supernatant of cultured thyroid cells,whereas dexamethasone(10 mmol/L) markedly suppressed IL-6 release from thryocytes.Nal of 10-4 mol/L exerted no effect on the production of Il-6.(2)Compared with the basal results,at a concentration of 10-103 mmol/L,dexamethasone could gradually suppress IL-6 gene expression on human thryocytes,while TNF-α could obviously stimulate the production of IL-6 mRNA in the range of 10-1-102 U/ml.On the level of 102 U/ml,IL-1 increased the expression of IL-6,but the same effect could not be shown when IL-1 was 10-1 U/ml.Sodium iodine(NaI) could not affect Il-6 gene from the level of 10-8 to 10-4 mol/L.Conclusion IL-6 produced by thyrocytes might be regulated by many factors that modulate thyroid functions in vitro as well as in vivo.

  18. Structural basis of SUFU–GLI interaction in human Hedgehog signalling regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Amy L.; Finta, Csaba; Karlström, Mikael; Jin, Qianren; Schwend, Thomas [Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Hälsovägen 7, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Astorga-Wells, Juan [Karolinska Institutet, Scheeles väg 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Biomotif AB, Enhagsvägen 7, SE-182 12 Danderyd (Sweden); Zubarev, Roman A. [Karolinska Institutet, Scheeles väg 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Del Campo, Mark; Criswell, Angela R. [Rigaku Americas Corporation, 9009 New Trails Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Sanctis, Daniele de [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Jovine, Luca, E-mail: luca.jovine@ki.se; Toftgård, Rune, E-mail: luca.jovine@ki.se [Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Hälsovägen 7, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    Crystal and small-angle X-ray scattering structures of full-length human SUFU alone and in complex with the conserved SYGHL motif from GLI transcription factors show major conformational changes associated with binding and reveal an intrinsically disordered region crucial for pathway activation. Hedgehog signalling plays a fundamental role in the control of metazoan development, cell proliferation and differentiation, as highlighted by the fact that its deregulation is associated with the development of many human tumours. SUFU is an essential intracellular negative regulator of mammalian Hedgehog signalling and acts by binding and modulating the activity of GLI transcription factors. Despite its central importance, little is known about SUFU regulation and the nature of SUFU–GLI interaction. Here, the crystal and small-angle X-ray scattering structures of full-length human SUFU and its complex with the key SYGHL motif conserved in all GLIs are reported. It is demonstrated that GLI binding is associated with major conformational changes in SUFU, including an intrinsically disordered loop that is also crucial for pathway activation. These findings reveal the structure of the SUFU–GLI interface and suggest a mechanism for an essential regulatory step in Hedgehog signalling, offering possibilities for the development of novel pathway modulators and therapeutics.

  19. Pseudouridine profiling reveals regulated mRNA pseudouridylation in yeast and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Thomas M; Rojas-Duran, Maria F; Zinshteyn, Boris; Shin, Hakyung; Bartoli, Kristen M; Gilbert, Wendy V

    2014-11-01

    Post-transcriptional modification of RNA nucleosides occurs in all living organisms. Pseudouridine, the most abundant modified nucleoside in non-coding RNAs, enhances the function of transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA by stabilizing the RNA structure. Messenger RNAs were not known to contain pseudouridine, but artificial pseudouridylation dramatically affects mRNA function--it changes the genetic code by facilitating non-canonical base pairing in the ribosome decoding centre. However, without evidence of naturally occurring mRNA pseudouridylation, its physiological relevance was unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of pseudouridylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human RNAs using Pseudo-seq, a genome-wide, single-nucleotide-resolution method for pseudouridine identification. Pseudo-seq accurately identifies known modification sites as well as many novel sites in non-coding RNAs, and reveals hundreds of pseudouridylated sites in mRNAs. Genetic analysis allowed us to assign most of the new modification sites to one of seven conserved pseudouridine synthases, Pus1-4, 6, 7 and 9. Notably, the majority of pseudouridines in mRNA are regulated in response to environmental signals, such as nutrient deprivation in yeast and serum starvation in human cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the rapid and regulated rewiring of the genetic code through inducible mRNA modifications. Our findings reveal unanticipated roles for pseudouridylation and provide a resource for identifying the targets of pseudouridine synthases implicated in human disease.

  20. Regulating private human suborbital flight at the international and European level: Tendencies and suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    In the context of the FAST20XX project (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport) that started in 2009 under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EU), the authors reexamined the legal status of private human suborbital flight, and researched whether it might be regulated as aviation or as spaceflight. International space law is ambiguous as to accommodating suborbital activities. While some provisions of the UN outer space treaties would seem to exclude them, generally there is not any explicit condition in terms of reaching orbit as a requirement for application. International air law presents equal difficulties in dealing with this activity. The classic definition of "aircraft" as contained in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention does not really encompass the kind of rocket-powered vehicles that are envisaged here. As a result, it is unclear whether the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), or both could be involved in an eventual international regulation of suborbital flight. In the absence of a uniform international regime, each state has the sovereign right to regulate human suborbital flights operating within its airspace. So far, two practical solutions have been realised or proposed, and will be analyzed. On the one hand, the USA granted power for regulation and licensing over private human suborbital flight to the Office of Commercial Space Transportation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA/AST). Subsequent regulations by the FAA have set out a series of requirements for companies that want to operate these flights, enabling a market to develop. On the other side of the Atlantic, both the European Space Agency (ESA) and a group of representatives of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) of the European Union (EU) seem to rather regard this activity as aviation, potentially subject to the regulation and certification competences of EASA

  1. Happiness as a signal of good fit with human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhat indicates a good fit with the nature of an organism? One sign is the continuation of the species. This may involve high birth rates — as Will notes — but not necessarily so. Another sign is physical thriving as apparent in rising longevity and increasing body size. In organisms with

  2. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Christian T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; van der Spek, J.H.; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need

  3. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Chris T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Spek, van der Jaap; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need

  4. Candidate gene analysis of the human natural killer-1 carbohydrate pathway and perineuronal nets in schizophrenia: B3GAT2 is associated with disease risk and cortical surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kähler, Anna K; Djurovic, Srdjan; Rimol, Lars M

    2011-01-01

    The Human Natural Killer-1 carbohydrate (HNK-1) is involved in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity. Extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets, condensed around subsets of neurons and proximal dendrites during brain maturation, regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity....

  5. Defining the nature of human pluripotent stem cell progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michaela Patterson; David N Chan; Iris Ha; Dana Case; Yongyan Cui; Ben Van Handel; Hanna KA Mikkola; William E Lowry

    2012-01-01

    While it is clear that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can differentiate to generate a panoply of various cell types,it is unknown how closely in vitro development mirrors that which occurs in vivo.To determine whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) make equivalent progeny,and whether either makes cells that are analogous to tissue-derived cells,we performed comprehensive transcriptome profiling of purified PSC derivatives and their tissue-derived counterparts.Expression profiling demonstrated that hESCs and hiPSCs make nearly identical progeny for the neural,hepatic,and mesenchymal lineages,and an absence of re-expression from exogenous reprogramming factors in hiPSC progeny.However,when compared to a tissuederived counterpart,the progeny of both hESCs and hiPSCs maintained expression of a subset of genes normally associated with early mammalian development,regardless of the type of cell generated.While pluripotent genes (OCT4,SOX2,REX1,and NANOG) appeared to be silenced immediately upon differentiation from hPSCs,genes normally unique to early embryos (LIN28A,LIN28B,DPPA4,and others) were not fully silenced in hPSC derivatives.These data and evidence from expression patterns in early human fetal tissue (3-16 weeks of development) suggest that the differentiated progeny of hPSCs are reflective of very early human development (< 6 weeks).These findings provide support for the idea that hPSCs can serve as useful in vitro models of early human development,but also raise important issues for disease modeling and the clinical application of hPSC derivatives.

  6. Natural antisense RNAs are involved in the regulation of CD45 expression in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, J; Yin, J; Su, Z

    2015-03-01

    CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells and can initiate signal transduction via the dephosphorylation of tyrosine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encode distinct isoforms, which indicate different functional states of CD45. Among these variants, CD45RO, which contains neither exon 4, 5, or 6, is over-expressed in lymphocytes in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type I diabetes. The CD45 RO serves as a marker of the immune response activity and lymphocyte development. Previous studies have indicated that exon splicing is generally correlated with local hypermethylated DNA and acetylated histone modification, while autoimmune diseases are commonly associated with global hypomethylation and histone deacetylation in lymphocytes. Thus, the question arises of how exons 4, 5, and 6 of CD45RO are excluded under the status of global DNA hypomethylation and histone deacetylation in these autoimmune diseases. On the basis of the analyses of the context sequence of CD45 and its natural antisense RNA in GenBank, we proposed that the long noncoding RNA encoded by the natural antisense gene of CD45 contributes to the expressional regulation of the CD45RO splicing variant via recruitment of DNA methyltransferase and histone modification modulators specific to the sense gene CD45; thus, it is associated with the over-expression of CD45RO and the functional regulation of lymphocytes in the pathogenic development of autoimmune diseases.

  7. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  8. Matched filtering determines human visual search in natural images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2011-01-01

    The structural image similarity index (SSIM), introduced by Wang and Bovik (IEEE Signal Processing Letters 9-3, pp. 81-84, 2002) measures the similarity between images in terms of luminance, contrast en structure. It has successfully been deployed to model human visual perception of image

  9. Human Fertility, Molecular Genetics, and Natural Selection in Modern Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropf, Felix C.; Stulp, Gert; Barban, Nicola; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2015-01-01

    Research on genetic influences on human fertility outcomes such as number of children ever born (NEB) or the age at first childbirth (AFB) has been solely based on twin and family-designs that suffer from problematic assumptions and practical limitations. The current study exploits recent advances

  10. Natural selection on genes that underlie human disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Man, Orna; Herrmann, Leslie; Boyko, Adam R.; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Teshima, Kosuke M.; Przeworski, Molly

    2008-01-01

    What evolutionary forces shape genes that contribute to the risk of human disease? Do similar selective pressures act on alleles that underlie simple vs. complex disorders? [1-3]. Answers to these questions will shed light on the origin of human disorders (e.g., [4]), and help to predict the population frequencies of alleles that contribute to disease risk, with important implications for the efficient design of mapping studies [5-7]. As a first step towards addressing them, we created a hand-curated version of the Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM). We then examined selective pressures on Mendelian disease genes, genes that contribute to complex disease risk and genes known to be essential in mouse, by analyzing patterns of human polymorphism and of divergence between human and rhesus macaque. We find that Mendelian disease genes appear to be under widespread purifying selection, especially when the disease mutations are dominant (rather than recessive). In contrast, the class of genes that influence complex disease risk shows little signs of evolutionary conservation, possibly because this category includes both targets of purifying and positive selection. PMID:18571414

  11. On the uncertain nature of human capital investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The four studies presented here pertain to an often neglected characteristic of educational investments in human capital literature: its unpredictability and how individuals account for and respond to it. The first study elicits, from a sample of Dutch high school students, the level of information

  12. Nanjing:Human Being living in harmony with Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> As early as the beginning of the 20th century, Dr. Sun Yat-sen commented that "Nanjing is a very charming and nice place which boasts of high mountains, deep water and the plateau. These three kinds of endowments bestowed by heaven are incorporated with the city and it is indeed difficult to find such beautiful scenery among big cities in the world." These natural endowments have resulted in an ecologi-

  13. The role of human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate in neuronal plasticity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Jyoji; Takematsu, Hiromu; Oka, Shogo

    2017-10-01

    The human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate, a unique trisaccharide possessing sulfated glucuronic acid in a non-reducing terminus (HSO3-3GlcAß1-3Galß1-4GlcNAc-), is highly expressed in the nervous system and its spatiotemporal expression is strictly regulated. Mice deficient in the gene encoding a key enzyme, GlcAT-P, of the HNK-1 biosynthetic pathway exhibit almost complete disappearance of the HNK-1 epitope in the brain, significant reduction of long-term potentiation, and aberration of spatial learning and memory formation. In addition to its physiological roles in higher brain function, the HNK-1 carbohydrate has attracted considerable attention as an autoantigen associated with peripheral demyelinative neuropathy, which relates to IgM paraproteinemia, because of high immunogenicity. It has been suggested, however, that serum autoantibodies in IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibody-associated neuropathy patients show heterogeneous reactivity to the HNK-1 epitope. We have found that structurally distinct HNK-1 epitopes are expressed in specific proteins in the nervous system. Here, we overview the current knowledge of the involvement of these HNK-1 epitopes in the regulation of neural plasticity and discuss the impact of different HNK-1 antigens of anti-MAG neuropathy patients. We identified the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 and aggrecan as HNK-1 carrier proteins. The HNK-1 epitope on GluA2 and aggrecan regulates neural plasticity in different ways. Furthermore, we found the clinical relationship between reactivity of autoantibodies to the different HNK-1 epitopes and progression of anti-MAG neuropathy. The HNK-1 epitope is indispensable for the acquisition of normal neuronal function and can be a good target for the establishment of diagnostic criteria for anti-MAG neuropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FLAVONOID NATURAL SOURCES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN THE HUMAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids as natural bioactive compounds are present in almost every sort of fruits, vegetables and from them derived products. Flavonols may be found mainly in fruits and vegetables, while flavones are abundant in herbs and spices. Rich natural sources of flavanols are tea, cocoa, grape seeds or apple skin. Flavanones are primarily found in a variety of citrus fruits and anthocyanidins in many coloured berries. Soy is rich in isoflavonoids. Average daily intake of flavonoids is approximately in the range of 150 to 300 mg. It strongly depends on individual, country and culture usages. In west countries main dietary sources of flavonoids consist of tea, wine and fruits, while in east countries there is consumed mainly soy with high isoflavonoid content. Many studies have shown, that intake of fruits and vegetables with high flavonoid content is associated with lowered risk of incidence of some diseases such as cardiovascular or cancer. These findings are attributed to experimentally confirmed biological effects of flavonoids - antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anticancer or cardioprotective. The final effect is however depending on their bioavailability, which is in the case of flavonoids not high, because in the nature dominating flavonoid glycosides can poorly penetrate through lipophilic cell membranes. Final effective molecules are flavonoid metabolites, that more or less retain their biological activities. doi: 10.5219/160

  15. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor B. Mekjavic; Ola Eiken

    2006-01-01

    .... This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation...

  16. Managing the performance risk of conventional waterworks in compliance with the natural organic matter regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the dual impact of both deteriorating water resources and stringent water quality regulations on the performance of conventional waterworks on a nationwide level, a methodology of a risk-based screening analysis is developed and further applied to evaluate the natural organic matter (NOM) regulation in the new standards for drinking water quality. Due to the large number of drinking water sources and conventional waterworks, as well as the lack of detailed field observations in China, such an analysis is wholly based on a validated conceptual model. The performance risk of conventional waterworks in compliance with the new regulation is estimated within the framework of risk assessment through Monte Carlo simulation to account for the uncertainties associated with model parameters, source water quality and operation conditions across different waterworks. A screening analysis is simultaneously performed using a task-based Hornberger-Spear-Young algorithm to identify the critical operation parameters that determine the performance risk, based on which potential strategies to manage the performance risk are proposed and evaluated. The effects of the model parameter uncertainties on the simulation results are also discussed.

  17. Regulation of human genome expression and RNA splicing by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauson, Elaine J; Windle, Brad; Donaldson, Mary M; Caffarel, Maria M; Dornan, Edward S; Coleman, Nicholas; Herzyk, Pawel; Henderson, Scott C; Wang, Xu; Morgan, Iain M

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in human cancer. The E2 protein regulates transcription from and replication of the viral genome; the role of E2 in regulating the host genome has been less well studied. We have expressed HPV16 E2 (E2) stably in U2OS cells; these cells tolerate E2 expression well and gene expression analysis identified 74 genes showing differential expression specific to E2. Analysis of published gene expression data sets during cervical cancer progression identified 20 of the genes as being altered in a similar direction as the E2 specific genes. In addition, E2 altered the splicing of many genes implicated in cancer and cell motility. The E2 expressing cells showed no alteration in cell growth but were altered in cell motility, consistent with the E2 induced altered splicing predicted to affect this cellular function. The results present a model system for investigating E2 regulation of the host genome.

  18. Distancing Students from Nature: Science Camp and the Representation of the Human-Nature Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and…

  19. Regulation of human corneal epithelial mucins by rebamipide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Shinsaku; Itoh, Kuni; Shinohara, Hisashi

    2014-02-01

    Membrane-associated mucins (MAMs) play important roles in barrier function and tear stability, and their expression on the ocular surface is altered in dry eye disease. Rebamipide is a mucin secretagogue that promotes the production of mucin-like glycoproteins in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. However, the expression of MAMs on the corneal epithelia (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16), which is induced by rebamipide, is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of rebamipide on the regulation of MAM expression in HCE cells. MUC16, Ki67 and PCNA expression levels in HCE cells isolated at confluence and at 24 hours after confluence were examined by Western blotting to assess cell proliferation. HCE cells isolated at 24 hours after confluence were cultured in medium supplemented with 1-10 µM rebamipide or 0.3-30 nM of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis of MAMs were performed to evaluate the effect of rebamipide. Western blot analysis of cells treated with an EGF receptor inhibitor (AG1478) or MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) was performed to reveal the relationship between EGF receptor activation and rebamipide-induced MAM expression. HCE cells isolated at 24 hours after confluence had lower cell proliferation activity and increased MUC16 expression compared with cells isolated at confluence. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that rebamipide increased MAM gene expression for 2 hours and protein expression for 24 hours in HCE cells. EGF inhibitor treatment led to reduced levels of all three MAMs that are normally induced by rebamipide, whereas EGF induced the expression of all three MAMs. We suggested that rebamipide increased MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 expression levels through signals involved in EGF receptor activation in the human corneal epithelia. These data suggest that rebamipide may improve subjective symptoms of dry eye disease by upregulating MAM expression.

  20. The Basis of Good Government: Human Nature or Virtues? --Comments on Western Value Theories about Legal Regulation of Public Finance%善政的依据:人性抑或德性?——西方公共财政法律规制的价值标准理论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉杰

    2012-01-01

    在西方法律思想史上,解决公共财政法律规制的价值标准问题的路径主要有两条。其一是以人性为依据的路径。一般而言,这一路径的困难是:我们应该以哪种人性为依据?符合人性事实的标准就一定是正确的吗?对此,人们充满争议。这一缺陷以不同的方式存在于这一路径的不同形态中,包括自由主义、功利主义和罗尔斯的理论等。其二是德性伦理理论的路径,包括亚里士多德所代表的古典理论、斯洛特所代表的基于主体的理论和阿奎那及菲尼斯所代表的基于善的理论。但是亚里士多德、斯洛特和阿奎那确立其价值标准的依据缺乏公共性,而菲尼斯没有对他赖以建立价值标准的共同善作出清楚的界定。%In the western history of law, there are mainly two approaches to the value criteria of legal regula- tion of public finance. The first is based on human nature. The general difficulties of this method include what kind of human nature we should depend on, and whether a standard confirming with the facts of human nature will surely be right. There are controversial answers to these questions. This controversy exists in different forms in the first ap- proach, including liberalism, utilitarianism, Rawles' theory, etc. The second approach is established according to the virtue ethics theories, including the classical theory represented by Aristotle, agent -based theory represented by Slote, and goodness -based theory represented by Aquina and Finnis. But the base on which Aristotle, Slote and Aquina tried to establish the value criteria lacks publiceness, and Finnis failed to clearly define the common goodness which formed the base of his value criteria.

  1. Effects of the Ordering of Natural Selection and Population Regulation Mechanisms on Wright-Fisher Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangyi; Beaumont, Mark; Yu, Feng

    2017-07-05

    We explore the effect of different mechanisms of natural selection on the evolution of populations for one- and two-locus systems. We compare the effect of viability and fecundity selection in the context of the Wright-Fisher model with selection under the assumption of multiplicative fitness. We show that these two modes of natural selection correspond to different orderings of the processes of population regulation and natural selection in the Wright-Fisher model. We find that under the Wright-Fisher model these two different orderings can affect the distribution of trajectories of haplotype frequencies evolving with genetic recombination. However, the difference in the distribution of trajectories is only appreciable when the population is in significant linkage disequilibrium. We find that as linkage disequilibrium decays the trajectories for the two different models rapidly become indistinguishable. We discuss the significance of these findings in terms of biological examples of viability and fecundity selection, and speculate that the effect may be significant when factors such as gene migration maintain a degree of linkage disequilibrium. Copyright © 2017 He et al.

  2. Effects of the Ordering of Natural Selection and Population Regulation Mechanisms on Wright-Fisher Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyi He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effect of different mechanisms of natural selection on the evolution of populations for one- and two-locus systems. We compare the effect of viability and fecundity selection in the context of the Wright-Fisher model with selection under the assumption of multiplicative fitness. We show that these two modes of natural selection correspond to different orderings of the processes of population regulation and natural selection in the Wright-Fisher model. We find that under the Wright-Fisher model these two different orderings can affect the distribution of trajectories of haplotype frequencies evolving with genetic recombination. However, the difference in the distribution of trajectories is only appreciable when the population is in significant linkage disequilibrium. We find that as linkage disequilibrium decays the trajectories for the two different models rapidly become indistinguishable. We discuss the significance of these findings in terms of biological examples of viability and fecundity selection, and speculate that the effect may be significant when factors such as gene migration maintain a degree of linkage disequilibrium.

  3. The Human - Nature Relationship i n t he Context o f Theo - Centric Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems are one of the issues that intensively occupy the agenda of humankind. This fact mainly derives from the ambiguity of the s pan and the content of the issue. The concept of environmental problems can not be confined to th e soil, air and water pollution for the reason that it covers a scope wider than a classical pollution issues. Initially the form of the relations hip between h uman and nature has been relying on the “consumption at the level of content” which stands for a level that is enough to sustain the living. The perception of the nature used to be described with the metaphor of mother while natural environment was defined as the “mother earth”. However subsequent to natural environment definition of the Cartesian philosophy with its approach to the human nature relationship, the core metaphor to describe the natural environment has changed from the metaphor of “mother” to the “slave” which should serve by any means. The human - nature relationship within the context of ethics, both the parties an d their respective statues bear an importance. In terms of ethics of human - nature relationship, it is possible to mention three main approaches. First one is the anthropo - centric approach. Within the scope of historical process, human - nature relationship is addressed according to anthropo - centric ethics comprehension so human has remained at the center of discussion. Following the change of the perception regarding the issue of environment, new approaches have emerged that give emphasis not only on human beings but also others; on li ving and non - living beings with in the eco - system. In principle, this represents a departure from an anthropo - centric ethics to a new ethic approach which fall s into two categories, bio centric and eco - centric. The theo - centric ethics should also be included to these ethics approaches that are shaped within the sphere of positive sciences. The Abrahamic

  4. Identification of differentially regulated genes in human patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Pratik; Bai, Haiqing; Swartz, Michael F; Alfieris, George M; Dean, David A

    2016-07-27

    In order to identify differentially expressed genes that are specific to the ductus arteriosus, 18 candidate genes were evaluated in matched ductus arteriosus and aortic samples from infants with coarctation of the aorta. The cell specificity of the gene's promoters was assessed by performing transient transfection studies in primary cells derived from several patients. Segments of ductus arteriosus and aorta were isolated from infants requiring repair for coarctation of the aorta and used for mRNA quantitation and culturing of cells. Differences in expression were determined by quantitative PCR using the ΔΔCt method. Promoter regions of six of these genes were cloned into luciferase reporter plasmids for transient transfection studies in matched human ductus arteriosus and aorta cells. Transcription factor AP-2b and phospholipase A2 were significantly up-regulated in ductus arteriosus compared to aorta in whole tissues and cultured cells, respectively. In transient transfection experiments, Angiotensin II type 1 receptor and Prostaglandin E receptor 4 promoters consistently gave higher expression in matched ductus arteriosus versus aorta cells from multiple patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that several genes are differentially expressed in ductus arteriosus and that their promoters may be used to drive ductus arteriosus-enriched transgene expression.

  5. Dormancy and activation of human oocytes from primordial and primary follicles: molecular clues to oocyte regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E H; Grøndahl, M L; Grund, S; Hardy, K; Heuck, A; Sunde, L; Franks, S; Andersen, C Y; Villesen, P; Lykke-Hartmann, K

    2017-08-01

    Do specific transcriptome dynamics in human oocytes from primordial and primary follicles identify novel pathways in oocyte activation? The transcriptomic profiles in oocytes from primordial and primary follicles, respectively, revealed several new canonical pathways as putative mediators of oocyte dormancy and activation. Cellular signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT and AKT/mTOR as well as TGF-β and IGF signaling are known to regulate the primordial-to-primary transition in mammalian follicle development. We performed a class comparison study on human oocytes from primordial (n = 436) and primary (n = 182) follicles donated by three women having ovarian tissue cryopreserved before chemotherapy. RNA was extracted from oocytes from primordial and primary follicles isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection, and submitted to the HiSeq Illumina platform. Data mapping, quality control, filtering and expression analysis were performed using Tophat (2.0.4), Cufflinks (2.0.2), BWA (0.6.2) and software R. Modeling of complex biological systems was performed using the IPA® software. Finally, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to explore expression and localization of selected genes and products in human ovarian tissue. We found 223 and 268 genes down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in the oocytes during the human primordial-to-primary follicle transition (P 2). IPA® enrichment analysis revealed known pathways ('mTOR Signaling', 'PI3K/AKT Signaling' and 'PTEN Signaling') as well as enriched canonical pathways not previously associated with human ovarian follicle development such as 'ErB Signaling' and 'NGF Signaling' in the down-regulated category and 'Regulation of eIF4 and P70S6K Signaling' and 'HER-2 Signaling in Breast Cancer' in the up-regulated group. Additionally, immunohistochemistry on human ovarian tissue explored the intraovarian localization of VASA, FOXO1 and eIF4E. http://users-birc.au.dk/biopv/published_data/ernst_2017/. This is a

  6. The Role of Trade Regulations in the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Mukherji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The complex issues involved in the role of trade regulations in sustainable management of natural resources have necessitated intensive research in this area. Approach: Hence this study highlights the fact that while the international community is making efforts to take concrete actions to protect the environment, mitigate the negative impacts of increased trade and promote the positive impacts (for example, by integrating environmental considerations into trade policies and international, regional and bilateral trade agreements, some of the most contentious issues affecting international trade involve environmental regulations that become technical barriers to trade (TBT. Although the WTO has the stated objective of-optimal use of the world's resources, sustainable development and environmental protection-the adjudication role of the WTO in trade disputes over environmental regulations as technical barriers to trade has put it at odds with some environmental groups. Results: Further, as there are no global environmental standards at present, the trade regulations are having a negative role to play in the sustainable management of natural resources. As a special reference regarding carbon trading, it has been observed in this study that most environmentalists see the Kyoto Protocol as the last best hope to counter global warming. But a growing number of civil society critics point out that the Protocol's "flexible" market-based mechanisms allow corporate polluters to evade their emissions reduction obligations by buying up and trading carbon sinks, also known as carbon assets or carbon offsets. Moreover, the Durban Declaration on Carbon Trading states that "Carbon trading will not contribute to protection of the Earth's climate". It further says that "it is a false solution which entrenches and magnifies social inequalities in many ways". Owing to these complex issues, this research in this area was necessitated. Conclusion

  7. Visuomotor control of human adaptive locomotion: Understanding the anticipatory nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eHiguchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To maintain balance during locomotion, the central nervous system (CNS accommodates changes in the constraints of spatial environment (e.g., existence of an obstacle or changes in the surface properties. Locomotion while modifying the basic movement patterns in response to such constraints is referred to as adaptive locomotion. The most powerful means of ensuring balance during adaptive locomotion is to visually perceive the environmental properties at a distance and modify the movement patterns in an anticipatory manner to avoid perturbation altogether. For this reason, visuomotor control of adaptive locomotion is characterized, at least in part, by its anticipatory nature. The purpose of the present article is to review the relevant studies which revealed the anticipatory nature of the visuomotor control of adaptive locomotion. The anticipatory locomotor adjustments for stationary and changeable environment, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of gaze behavior to support the anticipatory locomotor adjustments are described. Such description will clearly show that anticipatory locomotor adjustments are initiated when an object of interest (e.g., a goal or obstacle still exists in far space. This review also show that, as a prerequisite of anticipatory locomotor adjustments, environmental properties are accurately perceived from a distance in relation to individual’s action capabilities.

  8. Bioavailability of natural carotenoids in human skin compared to blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C; Darvin, Maxim E; Vollert, Henning; Lademann, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Skin functions and structure are significantly influenced by nutrients. Antioxidants protect the supportive layer of the skin against any damaging irradiation effects and the action of free radicals. A lack of suitable methods means that the pharmacokinetic properties of systemically applied carotenoids transferred into the skin remain poorly understood. In this study, a natural kale extract or placebo oil were given orally to 22 healthy volunteers for 4 weeks. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using non-invasive resonance Raman spectroscopy on the palm and forehead skin. For the analysis of the blood serum, the standard HPLC method was used. The blood and skin levels of the carotenoids increased significantly during the study but compared to the blood serum values, increases in skin were delayed and depended on the dermal area as well as on the carotenoid. Lycopene, measured as being low in the extract, increases more in the skin compared to the blood indicating that the natural mixture of the extract stabilizes the antioxidative network in the skin. After supplementation had ended, the carotenoids decreased much faster in the blood than in the skin. The delayed decrease in the skin may indicate a peripheral buffer function of the skin for carotenoids.

  9. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  10. Dissolved nutrient exports from natural and human-impacted Neotropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aim Neotropical biomes are highly threatened by land-use changes, but the catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. Here, we aim to compare exports of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from natural and human-impacted catchments in the Neotropics. Location Neotropics....... Methods We measured streamwater nutrient concentrations and exports in 20 south-eastern Brazilian catchments with different land uses (natural Cerrado/semi-deciduous forest, pasture, intensive agriculture and urban areas) and conducted a meta-analysis on nutrient exports from Neotropical catchments, both...... natural and human-impacted. Results Organic forms dominated dissolved nutrient exports in central/south-east Brazil in both natural and human-dominated catchments. Our meta-analysis suggests that there is wide geographic variability in the natural dominance of organic versus inorganic nutrient exports...

  11. Radical Transformation in the Human - Nature Perception: Deep Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous endeavors to date the green thought. As the environmental problems have begun to be apparent in the aftermath of the second world war, the year of 1952, a traumatic incident is noted where more than four thousand people have died d ue to air pollution in London, while in 1970, Rome Club have initiated within the Project of Predicament of Mankind in collaboration with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, in which zero growth thesis put forward in its famed report. Both the for mer and the latter ignited environmental awareness and regarded as the point of origins for the green thought. Regardless of where it begins from, ecological movements have mainly followed the paths of two movements of thought and tried to develop their p aradigms on the basis of these two main thoughts. The environmentalists that named as socialist or Marxist asserts that only through a radical transformation where capitalist way of production is abandoned, the prevention of environmental degradation cou ld be achieved. Whereas the environmentalists who follow the capitalist paradigm believed the protection of environment could be achieved by means of the sustainability in terms of natural resource pool and waste - disposal practices. If we look closely, both of these two movements of thought are anthropocentric. An alternative ecological movement of thought has proposed in 1973 by Norwegian philosopher, Arne Naess, in his work named, “The Shallow and the Deep, Long - Range Ecology Moveme nt: A Summary”. This Deep Ecology approach moves through the commitment to the inner value of the nature aside from mankind and by this way, differs from anthropocentric approaches. Within forty two years, Deep Ecology has led various discussions. The the mes as “ecosophy” which has proposed to define itself and the “bio - regions” conception which put forward to actualize its philosophy could be counted among the reference points of the

  12. 78 FR 2229 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments via the Federal e... comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION..., or an employee-inventor after consultation by the Agency with the Contractor, may request greater...

  13. Regulation of human autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene translation by miR-220b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohito; Noguchi, Yukiko; Shindo, Mieko; Morita, Yoshifumi; Oda, Yoshie; Yoshida, Eiko; Hamada, Hiroko; Harada, Mine; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Nishida, Takahiro; Tominaga, Ryuji; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Akashi, Koichi; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Yuka; Umemura, Tsukuru; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mitsuyama, Masao; Kurisaki, Hironori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2013-11-01

    Although mutations of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), presenting a wide spectrum of many characteristic and non-characteristic clinical features, some patients lack AIRE gene mutations. Therefore, something other than a mutation, such as dysregulation of AIRE gene, may be a causal factor for APECED or its related diseases. However, regulatory mechanisms for AIRE gene expression and/or translation have still remained elusive. We found that IL-2-stimulated CD4(+) T (IL-2T) cells showed a high expression of AIRE gene, but very low AIRE protein production, while Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B (EBV-B) cells express both AIRE gene and AIRE protein. By using microarray analysis, we could identify miR-220b as a possible regulatory mechanism for AIRE gene translation in IL-2T cells. Here we report that miR-220b significantly reduced the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected 293T cells, whereas no alteration of AIRE protein production was observed in the open reading frame of AIRE gene alone transfected cells. In addition, anti-miR-220b reversed the inhibitory function of miR-220b for the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected cells. Moreover, when AIRE gene transfected cells with mutated 3'UTR were transfected with miR-220b, no reduction of AIRE protein production was observed. Taken together, it was concluded that miR-220b inhibited the AIRE gene translation through the 3'UTR region of AIRE gene, indicating that miR-220b could serve as a regulator for human AIRE gene translation. © 2013.

  14. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  15. Partial characterization of natural and recombinant human soluble CD23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K; Turcatti, G; Graber, P; Pochon, S; Regamey, P O; Jansen, K U; Magnenat, E; Aubonney, N; Bonnefoy, J Y

    1992-01-01

    The purification to homogeneity of an active soluble 25 kDa fragment of CD23, produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system, is described. Peptide mapping and analysis by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry permitted partial characterization of the protein. A total of 165 out of 172 residues, including N-terminal and C-terminal regions, were mapped. The positions of the two disulphide bonds in the IgE-binding region were also determined: residue 110 is joined to residue 124, and residue 42 to residue 133. Natural CD23 25 kDa fragment was also analysed and found to possess the same disulphide bond arrangement. These results extend the previously noted sequence similarity with lectins to elements of secondary structure. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1417742

  16. Nature is far more imaginative than human beings!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Is today’s science fiction really tomorrow’s science fact (*)? If you remember the Star Trek TV series, you will have noticed that extra-dimensions are becoming more plausible than you could have imagined when Captain Kirk was leading the Enterprise. Lawrence Krauss, author of "The Physics of Star Trek", visited CERN on 28 August and told us how the LHC inspires him both as a scientist and as a writer.Wearing his cosmologist’s hat, Lawrence Krauss met the CERN audience in the Main Auditorium and gave a colloquium entitled "Cosmology as Science? From Inflation to Eternity". Wearing his other hat of bestselling writer, he told us that he finds the LHC a very inspiring human adventure. "The LHC and its experiments", he says, "represent how science can span and bridge human cultures and interests, focusing for an incredibly intense period on questions which may seem esoteric but in some way will give us insights into our place in the Universe". CERN science has inspired ...

  17. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  18. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  19. Empowering and Assisting Natural Empowering and Assisting Natural Human Mobility: The Simbiosis Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Frizera-Neto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete development of the Simbiosis Smart Walker. The device is equipped with a set of sensor subsystems to acquire user-machine interaction forces and the temporal evolution of user's feet during gait. The authors present an adaptive filtering technique used for the identification and separation of different components found on the human-machine interaction forces. This technique allowed isolating the components related with the navigational commands and developing a Fuzzy logic controller to guide the device. The Smart Walker was clinically validated at the Spinal Cord Injury Hospital of Toledo - Spain, presenting great acceptability by spinal chord injury patients and clinical staff.

  20. Regulation of MYCN expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries I

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification of the MYCN gene in neuroblastoma (NB is associated with a poor prognosis. However, MYCN-amplification does not automatically result in higher expression of MYCN in children with NB. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between MYCN gene expression and prognosis in these children might be explained by the expression of either MYCN-opposite strand (MYCNOS or the shortened MYCN-isoform (ΔMYCN that was recently identified in fetal tissues. Both MYCNOS and ΔMYCN are potential inhibitors of MYCN either at the mRNA or at the protein level. Methods Expression of MYCN, MYCNOS and ΔMYCN was measured in human NB tissues of different stages. Transcript levels were quantified using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (QPCR. In addition, relative expression of these three transcripts was compared to the number of MYCN copies, which was determined by genomic real-time PCR (gQPCR. Results Both ΔMYCN and MYCNOS are expressed in all NBs examined. In NBs with MYCN-amplification, these transcripts are significantly higher expressed. The ratio of MYCN:ΔMYCN expression was identical in all tested NBs. This indicates that ΔMYCN and MYCN are co-regulated, which suggests that ΔMYCN is not a regulator of MYCN in NB. However, the ratio of MYCNOS:MYCN expression is directly correlated with NB disease stage (p = 0.007. In the more advanced NB stages and NBs with MYCN-amplification, relatively more MYCNOS is present as compared to MYCN. Expression of the antisense gene MYCNOS might be relevant to the progression of NB, potentially by directly inhibiting MYCN transcription by transcriptional interference at the DNA level. Conclusion The MYCNOS:MYCN-ratio in NBs is significantly correlated with both MYCN-amplification and NB-stage. Our data indicate that in NB, MYCN expression levels might be influenced by MYCNOS but not by ΔMYCN.

  1. Potential of Natural Products in the Inhibition of Adipogenesis through Regulation of PPARγ Expression and/or Its Transcriptional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Reuss, Laura; Wang, Yu

    2016-09-23

    Obesity is a global health problem characterized as an increase in the mass of adipose tissue. Adipogenesis is one of the key pathways that increases the mass of adipose tissue, by which preadipocytes mature into adipocytes through cell differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the chief regulator of adipogenesis, has been acutely investigated as a molecular target for natural products in the development of anti-obesity treatments. In this review, the regulation of PPARγ expression by natural products through inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), increased expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed. Furthermore, the regulation of PPARγ transcriptional activity associated with natural products through the antagonism of PPARγ and activation of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were discussed. Lastly, regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by natural products, which might regulate both PPARγ expression and PPARγ transcriptional activity, was summarized. Understanding the role natural products play, as well as the mechanisms behind their regulation of PPARγ activity is critical for future research into their therapeutic potential for fighting obesity.

  2. Potential of Natural Products in the Inhibition of Adipogenesis through Regulation of PPARγ Expression and/or Its Transcriptional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Feng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem characterized as an increase in the mass of adipose tissue. Adipogenesis is one of the key pathways that increases the mass of adipose tissue, by which preadipocytes mature into adipocytes through cell differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the chief regulator of adipogenesis, has been acutely investigated as a molecular target for natural products in the development of anti-obesity treatments. In this review, the regulation of PPARγ expression by natural products through inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR, increased expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed. Furthermore, the regulation of PPARγ transcriptional activity associated with natural products through the antagonism of PPARγ and activation of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK were discussed. Lastly, regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK by natural products, which might regulate both PPARγ expression and PPARγ transcriptional activity, was summarized. Understanding the role natural products play, as well as the mechanisms behind their regulation of PPARγ activity is critical for future research into their therapeutic potential for fighting obesity.

  3. Regulation of naturally acquired mucosal immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy Malawian adults and children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Glennie

    Full Text Available Worldwide, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is most common in young children. In adults, disease rates decline following intermittent colonization and the acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. We characterized mucosal and systemic pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in African children and adults who contend with intense rates of colonization, up to 100% and 60% respectively. We find most Malawian children have high pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in tonsil tissue and peripheral blood. In addition, frequent commensalism generates CD25(hi (Tregs which modulate mucosal pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in some children and ≥50% of adults. We propose that immune regulation may prolong pneumococcal colonization and predispose vulnerable individuals to disease.

  4. The Paradox of Freedom: John Dewey on Human Nature, Culture, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Cherilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that John Dewey's view of human nature entails that culture is a necessary but not sufficient condition for freedom. A surprising corollary of this argument is that, if left to run its natural course, culture in fact tends not to enable but rather to preclude freedom. Hence, there are specific cultural practices--habits…

  5. Students' Understanding of Connections between Human Engineered and Natural Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This research draws on developments in educational research where "learning progressions" are emerging as a strategy for synthesizing research on science learning and applying that research to policy and practice, and advances in the natural sciences, where "interdisciplinary research on coupled human and natural systems" has become increasingly…

  6. From Environmental Connectedness to Sustainable Futures: Topophilia and Human Affiliation with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Beery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human affiliation with nonhuman nature is an important dimension of environmental concern and support for pro-environmental attitudes. A significant theory of human connectedness with nature, the Biophilia Hypothesis, suggests that there exists a genetically based inclination for human affiliation with the biological world. Both support and challenge to the Biophilia Hypothesis are abundant in the literature of environmental psychology. One response that both challenges and builds upon the Biophilia Hypothesis is the Topophilia Hypothesis. The Topophilia Hypothesis has extended the ideas of biophilia to incorporate a broader conception of nonhuman nature and a co-evolutionary theory of genetic response and cultural learning. While the Topophilia Hypothesis is a new idea, it is built upon long-standing scholarship from humanistic geography and theories in human evolution. The Topophilia Hypothesis expands previous theory and provides a multidisciplinary consideration of how biological selection and cultural learning may have interacted during human evolution to promote adaptive mechanisms for human affiliation with nonhuman nature via specific place attachment. Support for this possible co-evolutionary foundation for place-based human affiliation with nonhuman nature is explored from multiple vantage points. We raise the question of whether this affiliation may have implications for multifunctional landscape management. Ultimately, we propose that nurturing potential topophilic tendencies may be a useful method to promote sustainable efforts at the local level with implications for the global.

  7. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and potential regulators in normal, benign and malignant human breast tissue.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, James

    2011-01-01

    The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Gene Regulation by the Transcription Factor PPARα between Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Hooiveld, Guido; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies in mice have shown that PPARα is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and the acute phase response. However, little information is available on the role of PPARα in human liver. Here we set out to compare the function of PPARα in mouse and human hepatocytes via analysis of target gene regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary hepatocytes from 6 human and 6 mouse donors were treated with PPARα agonist Wy14643 and gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix GeneChips followed by a systems biology analysis. Baseline PPARα expression was similar in human and mouse hepatocytes. Depending on species and time of exposure, Wy14643 significantly induced the expression of 362–672 genes. Surprisingly minor overlap was observed between the Wy14643-regulated genes from mouse and human, although more substantial overlap was observed at the pathway level. Xenobiotics metabolism and apolipoprotein synthesis were specifically regulated by PPARα in human hepatocytes, whereas glycolysis-gluconeogenesis was regulated specifically in mouse hepatocytes. Most of the genes commonly regulated in mouse and human were involved in lipid metabolism and many represented known PPARα targets, including CPT1A, HMGCS2, FABP1, ACSL1, and ADFP. Several genes were identified that were specifically induced by PPARα in human (MBL2, ALAS1, CYP1A1, TSKU) or mouse (Fbp2, lgals4, Cd36, Ucp2, Pxmp4). Furthermore, several putative novel PPARα targets were identified that were commonly regulated in both species, including CREB3L3, KLF10, KLF11 and MAP3K8. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that PPARα activation has a major impact on gene regulation in human hepatocytes. Importantly, the role of PPARα as master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism is generally well-conserved between mouse and human. Overall, however, PPARα regulates a mostly divergent set of genes in mouse and human hepatocytes. PMID:19710929

  9. Comparative analysis of gene regulation by the transcription factor PPARalpha between mouse and human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rakhshandehroo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in mice have shown that PPARalpha is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and the acute phase response. However, little information is available on the role of PPARalpha in human liver. Here we set out to compare the function of PPARalpha in mouse and human hepatocytes via analysis of target gene regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary hepatocytes from 6 human and 6 mouse donors were treated with PPARalpha agonist Wy14643 and gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix GeneChips followed by a systems biology analysis. Baseline PPARalpha expression was similar in human and mouse hepatocytes. Depending on species and time of exposure, Wy14643 significantly induced the expression of 362-672 genes. Surprisingly minor overlap was observed between the Wy14643-regulated genes from mouse and human, although more substantial overlap was observed at the pathway level. Xenobiotics metabolism and apolipoprotein synthesis were specifically regulated by PPARalpha in human hepatocytes, whereas glycolysis-gluconeogenesis was regulated specifically in mouse hepatocytes. Most of the genes commonly regulated in mouse and human were involved in lipid metabolism and many represented known PPARalpha targets, including CPT1A, HMGCS2, FABP1, ACSL1, and ADFP. Several genes were identified that were specifically induced by PPARalpha in human (MBL2, ALAS1, CYP1A1, TSKU or mouse (Fbp2, lgals4, Cd36, Ucp2, Pxmp4. Furthermore, several putative novel PPARalpha targets were identified that were commonly regulated in both species, including CREB3L3, KLF10, KLF11 and MAP3K8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that PPARalpha activation has a major impact on gene regulation in human hepatocytes. Importantly, the role of PPARalpha as master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism is generally well-conserved between mouse and human. Overall, however, PPARalpha regulates a mostly divergent set of genes in mouse and

  10. On deciphering the book of nature: human communication in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, W B

    1992-10-01

    The tools of contemporary applied mathematics reveal important hidden regularities amidst the ongoing interactive feedback phenomena occurring in interactional or dynamical systems in nature where everything affects everything else. Badalamenti and Langs investigate each therapy session as a continuous sequential emergence of interrelated communicative events (or communicative states) which meet the criteria of a dynamical system. Applying mathematical modeling the authors demonstrate how otherwise hidden regularities occurring between patients and therapists become accessible to us that are unavailable to our unaided powers of observation, intuition, and thought. This is a systems or population investigation of clinical interaction that begins in a qualitative or domain mode, but which opens immediately toward statistical and formal modes of discussion. It can lead to statements of properties and laws that meet the criteria of scientific dialogue and validity. It provides the clinician with guidelines for making interpretations and for assessing their immediate subsequent effect. It is distinguished from the essentialist approach at the foundation of traditional clinical thought which provides no access to such feedback phenomena and their properties. Communicative Psychoanalysts have adopted the systems perspective and are evolving a clinical language and treatment based upon its principles and discoveries.

  11. 人的本质问题之所见%On the Study of Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钻吉

    2012-01-01

    无论西方哲学还是中国哲学,都内蕴着人性的主题,直到今天,人的本质问题仍困扰着人们的思想。关于人的本质。本文区分了中外不同哲学家关于人性的理解,并从人的自然属性与社会属性入手,论证了马克思主义哲学关于人的本质论述的正确性,即“人的本质并不是单个人所固有的抽象物。在其现实性上。它是一切社会关系的总和。”这一界定对于批判“人的本质自私”的思想观点,对于提升自己的人性品格。弘扬社会主义集体主义观具有重要的现实意义。%Whether the western philosophy or Chinese philosophy, they both contain the theme of humart nature, until today, the problem of the human nature has been confusing people. As for human nature, this paper distinguished the understandings of human nature, between Chinese and foreign different philosophers, and also based on natural'and social attributes of human, this paper illustrated the correctness of the Marxist philosophic statements on human nature, namely "Human nature isn't an abstract thing possessed by a single person. In its reality, it's the sum total of all the social relations." This definition is of the important practical significance for criticizing the nature of human "selfish" ideas, improving their own humanity character, and promoting socialist collectivism view.

  12. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichero, Laura, E-mail: lsichero@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Simao Sobrinho, Joao [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Lina Villa, Luisa [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  13. A natural functionally graded biocomposite coating--human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Yin, Zi-Hong; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Carter, Elizabeth A; Liang, Xiu-Weng

    2013-05-01

    Human enamel has been found to be a coating with excellent mechanical performance, and has undergone extensive investigation and discussion. However, most of the reported studies consider the enamel as a homogeneous anisotropic biocomposite. The current study illustrated the graded properties of the biocomposite from its functional load-bearing direction. Within the thickness of the enamel, from the outer surface towards the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ), the elastic modulus (E(x)) and hardness (H(x)) of enamel exist in an exponential relationship with normalized thickness (x) as E(x)=111.64x(0.18) (R(2)=0.94) and H(x)=4.41x(0.16) (R(2)=0.87) GPa, respectively. Moreover, the creep ability of enamel increases towards the EDJ. The graded properties of the biocomposite can be explained by both microstructural and compositional changes along the thickness of the material towards the EDJ. Finite element analysis indicates that the graded properties of enamel have important roles in reducing the enamel-dentin interface stresses and maintaining the integrity of the multilayer tooth structure. The results provide a new angle to understand the excellent mechanical behaviour of the multilayer tooth structure and may inspire the development of new functionally graded materials and coating structures.

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis and the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate associations between common vaginal infections and human papillomavirus (HPV. Study Design. Data from up to 15 visits on 756 HIV-infected women and 380 high-risk HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS were evaluated for associations of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal Candida colonization with prevalent HPV, incident HPV, and clearance of HPV in multivariate analysis. Results. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was associated with increased odds for prevalent (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26 and incident (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.47 HPV and with delayed clearance of infection (aHR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.97. Whereas BV at the preceding or current visit was associated with incident HPV, in an alternate model for the outcome of incident BV, HPV at the current, but not preceding, visit was associated with incident BV. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and successful treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

  15. Confucius' Analysis of the Human Nature of Irrationality and His Quest for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiawei, Xing

    2015-01-01

    This study uses mainly Confucian classic Lunyu to explore Confucius' insightful thinking about humans' strong innate nature of irrationality out of their physical needs. Irrationality causes interpersonal disturbances and chaos, and as such moral education is indispensable. Confucius advocated humanity, the principles of conscientiousness and…

  16. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  17. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m(-3). The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality.

  18. Injecting learning experience into geoethics for human and natural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookall, David

    2016-04-01

    Our early life experience has a strong influence on our actions in later life. Humans today are just starting to re-learn, collectively, how to treat Earth with the respect that it deserves and that is needed for our offspring to inherit a decent home. However, we still have a long way to go to instill in people at large the ethics, knowledge and skills necessary to ensure a healthy journey for humanity on spaceship. The experience of early upbringing, of schooling and of everyday life is probably the only path strong enough to develop in people a strong desire for ethical behaviour towards their environment. The problem is that the measures taken today to ensure the development of ethical behaviours in the population at large are woefully inadequate. At best, western school programmes contain a few lessons devoted to the environment, and even then they usually just pay lip service to the basics of the environment; they rarely aim to instill skills and knowledge in order to understand and care deeply for the environment. My presentation will suggest some practical ways to help communities build ethical frameworks and strategies to guide and generate tools, methods and activities that guide young people (pupils, students, scholars, researchers) to toward more ethical behaviours regarding their environment and their communities. Examples might include: - Developing geoethical dimensions of internships, in all areas; - Designing, testing and running simulation/games+debriefing providing a rich affective-cognitive context for grappling with geoethical problems- eg, FISH BANKS, KEEP COOL. - Pressuring governments to make geoethics, environmental care and climate change understanding central components of (almost) all educational programmes (in, eg, history, language, business, law, medicine, etc). - Subsidizing environmental-care summer schools for families and teachers at all levels. - Etc. One of my actions is founding a academic journal in the area, maybe with the

  19. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Peter [Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Immission Research; Dameris, Martin [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling (Germany). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensive coverage of ozone both in the upper and the lower atmosphere. Essential overview of atmospheric ozone research written by two experienced and acknowledged experts. Numerous qualified references to the scientific literature. Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog. Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change. The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book. Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President. Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and

  20. Prosthetic clone and natural human tooth comparison by speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, Pierre; Corn, Stephane; Fages, Michel; Raynal, Jacques; Cuisinier, Frederic J. G.

    2010-09-01

    New trends in dental prosthodontic interventions tend to preserve the maximum of "body" structure. With the evolution of CAD-CAM techniques, it is now possible to measure "in mouth" the remaining dental tissues. The prosthetic crown is then designed using this shape on which it will be glued on, and also by taking into account the contact surface of the opposite jaw tooth. Several theories discuss on the glue thickness and formulation, but also on the way to evolve to a more biocompatible crown and also new biomechanical concepts. In order to validate these new concepts and materials, and to study the mechanical properties and mechanical integrity of the prosthesis, high resolution optical measurements of the deformations of the glue and the crown are needed. Samples are two intact premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons. The reference sample has no modifications on the tooth while the second sample tooth is shaped to receive a feldspathic ceramic monoblock crown which will be glued. This crown was manufactured with a chairside CAD-CAM system from an intra-oral optical print. The software allows to realize a nearly perfect clone of the reference sample. The necessary space for the glue is also entered with ideal values. This duplication process yields to obtain two samples with identical anatomy for further processing. The glue joint thickness can also be modified if required. The purpose is to compare the behaviour of a natural tooth and its prosthetic clone manufactured with "biomechanical" concepts. Vertical cut samples have been used to deal with planar object observation, and also to look "inside" the tooth. We have developed a complete apparatus enabling the study of the compressive mechanical behaviour of the concerned tooth by speckle interferometry. Because in plane displacements are of great interest for orthodontic measurements1, an optical fiber in-plane sensitive interferometer has been designed. The fibers are wrapped around piezoelectric

  1. Human genetic deficiencies reveal the roles of complement in the inflammatory network: lessons from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappegård, Knut Tore; Christiansen, Dorte; Pharo, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    Complement component C5 is crucial for experimental animal inflammatory tissue damage; however, its involvement in human inflammation is incompletely understood. The responses to gram-negative bacteria were here studied taking advantage of human genetic complement-deficiencies--nature's own...... of complement and CD14. The present study provides important insight into the comprehensive role of complement in human inflammatory responses to gram-negative bacteria....

  2. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively peutral sites across the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui;

    2011-01-01

    throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has......A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries...... and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations...

  3. Impaired Cell Cycle Regulation in a Natural Equine Model of Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pacholewska

    Full Text Available Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO is a common and potentially debilitating lower airway disease in horses, which shares many similarities with human asthma. In susceptible horses RAO exacerbation is caused by environmental allergens and irritants present in hay dust. The objective of this study was the identification of genes and pathways involved in the pathology of RAO by global transcriptome analyses in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. We performed RNA-seq on PBMCs derived from 40 RAO affected and 45 control horses belonging to three cohorts of Warmblood horses: two half-sib families and one group of unrelated horses. PBMCs were stimulated with hay dust extract, lipopolysaccharides, a recombinant parasite antigen, or left unstimulated. The total dataset consisted of 561 individual samples. We detected significant differences in the expression profiles between RAO and control horses. Differential expression (DE was most marked upon stimulation with hay dust extract. An important novel finding was a strong upregulation of CXCL13 together with many genes involved in cell cycle regulation in stimulated samples from RAO affected horses, in addition to changes in the expression of several HIF-1 transcription factor target genes. The RAO condition alters systemic changes observed as differential expression profiles of PBMCs. Those changes also depended on the cohort and stimulation of the samples and were dominated by genes involved in immune cell trafficking, development, and cell cycle regulation. Our findings indicate an important role of CXCL13, likely macrophage or Th17 derived, and the cell cycle regulator CDC20 in the immune response in RAO.

  4. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience. It suggests that when humans, faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability, often appearing in the 'backloop' of the adaptive cycle. The relationships that human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales may be one critical source of resilience in disaster and related contexts. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature, the process of remembering that attraction, and the urge to express it through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience across multiple scales. In making this argument, the paper also represents a novel contribution to further theorizing alternatives to anthropocentric understandings of human-nature relations, and strongly makes the case for humans as part of, not separate from, ecosystems.

  5. Natural and human impacts on ecosystem services in Guanzhong - Tianshui economic region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Z X

    2016-04-01

    Due to the accelerated growth of society, the gaps between the capacity of ecosystems to provide services and human needs are steadily widening. Natural, semi-natural, or managed ecosystems had been able to provide ecosystem services to meet the needs of social development. Four agricultural ecosystem services (net primary production (NPP), carbon sequestration and oxygen production (CSOP), water interception, soil conservation and agriculture production) were quantified in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known models. Based on the ecological services in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region, this study mainly analysed the driving mechanism of the changes from the two aspects of natural drivers and human drivers. Natural drivers (climate, soil, elevation, land cover) had incentive to the ecological services. Human activity was quantified by an integrated human activity index (HAI) based on population density, farmland ratio, and the influence of road networks and residential areas. We found relationships between ecosystem services, human activities and many natural factors, however these varied according to the service studied. Human activities were mostly negatively related to each ecosystem services, while population and residential land ware positively related to agricultural production. Land use change had made a contribution to ecosystem services. Based on the selected ecosystem services and HAI, we provided sustainable ecosystem management suggestions.

  6. Kant on epigenesis, monogenesis and human nature: the biological premises of anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alix A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant's conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species (monogenesis of the human races); and secondly the existence of 'seeds' which may or may not develop depending on the environment (epigenesis of human natural predispositions). I then turn to Kant's account of man's natural predispositions and show that far from being limited to the issue of races, it encompasses unexpected human features such as gender, temperaments and nations. These predispositions, I argue, are means to the realisation of Nature's overall purpose for the human species. This allows me to conclude that man's biological determinism leads to the species' preservation, cultivation and civilisation.

  7. Human History and Environmental Geology: A Match Made in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    I draw on my dual educational background in the geological sciences (PhD) and sociology (BA), with an emphasis on environmental justice, for the inspiration to approach issues in my geology courses that are directly connected to modern policy decisions with the goal of increasing students' self-awareness. I believe that giving students the opportunity for increased understanding of their own beliefs and values with respect to the environment will allow them to be more engaged in discussions and debates about environmental policies at the local, national, and global scales. I designed Environmental Geology of Prince William Forest Park (VA), a one-day Field Studies course offered through Northern Virginia Community College, to motivate students to articulate personal convictions about land use. To provide a social context for discussion of environmental issues, students first gave presentations on the demographics, economics, and methods of land use of the people that used the park over the last 400 years. At locations along Quantico Creek, students presented topics that covered geologic processes at work on the landscape, progressive farming methods promoted by some early Virginians, and agricultural methods to stabilize soil and its nutrients. Finally, at the Cabin Branch Pyrite Mine (active 1889-1920) we discussed laborer work conditions and the environmental impact of tailings, as well as the process and effects of remediation. Students tested pH levels in the creek upstream and downstream of the mine as one concrete way to personally observe the results of recent remediation (since 1994), with neutral pH in both locations indicating success. Students wrapped up the course with written reflections, from their own perspectives with respect to socially and environmentally responsible land use, on the geologic processes and human impacts that shaped the park. Social justice and environmental stewardship are two lenses that allow students to find personal meaning

  8. Relationship between Humans and Nature in Melville’s Moby Dick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余奕汶

    2015-01-01

    Herman Melville,with Moby Dick as his masterpiece,is a famous romantic writer.Moby Dick is a "bright pearl" in the literary treasury of the world.By allegorically depicting the cruel killing of whales by the Captain Ahab and other sailors in his whaling ship,and their tragically being drowned in the sea,the writer reveals that if humans are too selfcentered,we will inevitably be punished by nature.Start with the three states that humans get along with nature in Moby Dick,my thesis aims at exploring the transformations of the relationship between humans and nature as well as the edification that humans may gain from the tragic story.

  9. The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Potential Regulators in Normal, Benign and Malignant Human Breast Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    James Ryan; Curran, Catherine E.; Emer Hennessy; John Newell; Morris, John C.; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro. METHODS: Human breast tissue specimens (malignant n = 75, normal n = 15, fibroadenoma n = 10) were analysed by RQ-PCR targeting NIS, receptors for retinoic acid (RARα, RARβ), oestrogen (ERα), t...

  10. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.

  11. Regulation of human protein S gene (PROS1) transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Cornelia de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the transcriptional regulation of the gene for anticoagulant plasma Protein S, PROS1. Protein S is a cofactor for Protein C in the Protein C anticoagulant pathway. The coagulation cascade is negatively regulated by this pathway through inactivation of activ

  12. Regulation of human protein S gene (PROS1) transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Cornelia de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the transcriptional regulation of the gene for anticoagulant plasma Protein S, PROS1. Protein S is a cofactor for Protein C in the Protein C anticoagulant pathway. The coagulation cascade is negatively regulated by this pathway through inactivation of

  13. Regulation of arm and leg movement during human locomotion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehr, E.P.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Walking can be a very automated process, and it is likely that central pattern generators (CPGs) play a role in the coordination of the limbs. Recent evidence suggests that both the arms and legs are regulated by CPGs and that sensory feedback also regulates the CPG activity and assists in mediating

  14. Humans, elephants, diamonds and gold: patterns of intentional design in Girolamo Cardano's natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglioni, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Distancing himself from both Aristotelian and Epicurean models of natural change, and resisting delusions of anthropocentric grandeur, Cardano advanced a theory of teleology centred on the notion of non-human selfhood. In keeping with Plato, he argued that nature was ruled by the mind, meaning by "mind" a universal paragon of intelligibility instantiated through patterns of purposive action ("noetic" teleology). This allowed Cardano to defend a theory of natural finalism in which life was regarded as a primordial attribute of being, already in evidence in the most elementary forms of nature, whose main categories were ability to feign, self-interest, self-preservation and indefinite persistence.

  15. Natural Killer Cells Differentiate Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Modulate Their Adipogenic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzadeh, Kameron S; Hokugo, Akishige; Jewett, Anahid; Kozlowska, Anna; Segovia, Luis Andres; Zuk, Patricia; Jarrahy, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer cells are thought to represent more than 30 percent of all lymphocytes within the stromal vascular fraction of lipoaspirates. However, their physiologic interaction with adipocytes and their precursors has never been specifically examined. The authors hypothesized that natural killer cells, by means of cytokine secretion, are capable of promoting the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. Human natural killer cells purified from healthy donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with a combination of interleukin-2 and anti-CD16 monoclonal antibody; natural killer cell supernatant was collected. Adipose-derived stem cells isolated from raw human lipoaspirates from healthy patients were treated with growth media, growth media with natural killer cell supernatant, adipogenic media, and adipogenic media with natural killer cells supernatant. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on cells using antibodies against B7H1, CD36, CD44, CD34, CD29, and MHC-1. Adipogenic-related gene expression (PPAR-γ, LPL, GPD-1, and aP2) was assessed. Oil Red O staining was performed as a functional assay of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. Adipose-derived stem cells maintained in growth media with natural killer cell supernatant lost markers of "stemness," including CD44, CD34, and CD29; and expressed markers of differentiation, including B7H1 and MHC-1. Adipose-derived stem cells treated with natural killer cell supernatant accumulated small amounts of lipid after 10 days of natural killer cell supernatant treatment. Adipose-derived stem cells treated with natural killer cell supernatant showed altered expression of adipogenesis-associated genes compared with cells maintained in growth media. Adipose-derived stem cells maintained in adipogenic media with natural killer cell supernatant accumulated less lipid than those cells in adipogenic media alone. The authors demonstrate that, through secreted factors, natural killer cells are capable

  16. The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis.

  17. The regulation of transportation contracts for natural gas: the issue of contractual dirigisme; A regulacao dos contratos de transporte de gas natural: a questao do dirigismo contratual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Lizziane Souza; Siqueira, Mariana; Vasconcellos, Mariana Vannucci [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The old principals that that rules the liberal idea of contract are replaced for a new Theory that allows the State to interfere in the private sector to please the public interest. The Gas Transport Contract has the influence of open access and its public regulation is necessary to provide the most important needs of Brazilian market. After this word about the problem, we realize the meaning of the public intervention on the Transport Contracts to protect the nation's interests and to limit the private power. This paper try to clear the meaning of the contracts regulation to the gas natural market and its influence in a Brazilian interests. (author)

  18. How hunting strengthens social awareness of coupled human-natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nils Peterson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunting has the potential to remind modern societies of their reliance on natural systems. As a material and symbolic practice that motivates both hunters and non-hunters to certain actions relative to nature, hunting enables society to experience itself and nature differently than it could if humans no longer hunted. Although hunting may be anachronistic in modern society, certain dimensions of hunting culture may enable society to re-collect a sense of human integration with nature. In this essay, we develop a critical perspective grounded in neo-Marxist and Durkheimian theory to analyze how hunting may contribute to linking humans and nature by rendering the materiality of food production explicit, and how hunting culture strengthens the symbolic meaning of food in ways that are rooted in its materiality. We trace this potential through the practices of searching, killing, processing, and consuming food obtained via hunting. Along the way, we note how technology, both formal and informal social control, and commoditization may constrain hunting’s potential to highlight linkages between human and natural systems.

  19. CXCR6 marks a novel subset of T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi) natural killer cells residing in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Kerstin A; Robertson, Francis; Hansi, Navjyot; Gill, Upkar; Pallant, Celeste; Christophides, Theodoros; Pallett, Laura J; Peppa, Dimitra; Dunn, Claire; Fusai, Giuseppe; Male, Victoria; Davidson, Brian R; Kennedy, Patrick; Maini, Mala K

    2016-05-23

    Natural killer cells (NK) are highly enriched in the human liver, where they can regulate immunity and immunopathology. We probed them for a liver-resident subset, distinct from conventional bone-marrow-derived NK. CXCR6+ NK were strikingly enriched in healthy and diseased liver compared to blood (p hi)Eomes(lo)(CXCR6-) and T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi)(CXCR6+); the latter was virtually absent in the periphery. The small circulating CXCR6+ subset was predominantly T-bet(hi)Eomes(lo), suggesting its lineage was closer to CXCR6- peripheral than CXCR6+ liver NK. These data reveal a large subset of human liver-resident T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi) NK, distinguished by their surface expression of CXCR6, adapted for hepatic tolerance and inducible anti-viral immunity.

  20. Human skin gene expression: Natural (trans) resveratrol versus five resveratrol analogs for dermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephart, Edwin D; Andrus, Merritt B

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a polyphenolic compound naturally produced by plants. Polyphenolic compounds incorporated into medicinal products are beneficial but, RV is rapidly metabolized with an associated decline in biological activity. This study tested RV as the standard and compared five structurally modified RV analogs: butyrate, isobutyrate, palmitoate, acetate, and diacetate (to improve functionality) at 1% concentration(s) for 24 h in epiderm full thickness cultures by gene array/qPCR mRNA analysis. When silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1, extracellular elements (collagen1A1, 3A1, 4A1; elastin, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1, fibrillin 1 laminin beta1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9), anti-aging and aging genes, inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-1A [IL1A], IL1R2, IL-6 and IL-8), nerve growth factor, and the antioxidants (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, catalase, superoxide dismutase and metallothionein 1H/2H) were evaluated, ranking each from highest-to-lowest for gene expression: butyrate > isobutyrate > diacetate > acetate > palmitoate. This study showed that the butyrate and isobutyrate analogs are more biologically active compared to resveratrol and have potential use in topical applications to improve dermal and other health applications. Impact statement Resveratrol has been reported to have a wide variety of health benefits but its rapid metabolism especially after oral ingestion results in very low bioavailability. Notably, the first human skin gene expression study of resveratrol was not published until 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased stability and biological activity could be obtained by modifying the chemical structure of natural (trans) resveratrol and quantifying human gene expression by qPCR of skin biomarkers that enhance dermal health. Five resveratrol analogs were synthesized that increased their lipophilic index to enhance tissue penetration and augment

  1. Preserving human potential as freedom: a framework for regulating epigenetic harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is a rapidly evolving scientific field of inquiry examining how a wide range of environmental, social, and nutritional exposures can dramatically control how genes are expressed without changing the underlying DNA. Research has demonstrated that epigenetics plays a large role in human development and in disease causation. In a sense, epigenetics blurs the distinction between "nature" and "nurture" as experiences (nurture) become a part of intrinsic biology (nature). Remarkably, some epigenetic modifications are durable across generations, meaning that exposures from our grandparents' generation might affect our health now, even if we have not experienced the same exposures. In the same vein, current exposures could affect the health of not only individuals currently living but also future generations. Given the relative novelty of epigenetics research and the multifactorial nature of human development and disease causation, it is unlikely that conclusive proof can be established showing that particular exposures lead to epigenetic risks that manifest into specific conditions. Using the Capabilities Approach ("CA") developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, this article argues that epigenetic risk is not merely a medical issue, but that it more generally implicates the underlying fairness and justice of our social contract. For instance, how we develop mentally or physically has a tremendous impact upon our inherent capabilities and our set of life options. The CA prompts us to ask questions such as: (1) what impact do particular epigenetic risks have on our ability to exercise free choices; (2) are these risks avoidable; and (3) how are these risks distributed across society? Due to the complex nature of epigenetic risk, tort law is predictably incapable of addressing this harm. Further, while regulatory agencies possess the statutory authority to begin addressing epigenetic harms, currently these agencies are not attuned to measure or to respond to

  2. Gonadal hormone regulation of the emotion circuitry in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Ossewaarde, L.; Backstrom, T.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Gonadal hormones are known to influence the regulation of emotional responses and affective states. Whereas fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol are associated with increased vulnerability for mood disorders, testosterone is mainly associated with social dominance, aggressive, and antisocial b

  3. Regulation of human adenovirus replication by RNA interference

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitenko, N. A.; SPEISEDER T.; Lam, E; Rubtsov, P. M.; TONAEVA KH. D.; S. A. Borzenok; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to...

  4. Reduced influenza viral neutralizing activity of natural human trimers of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Common human polymorphisms of SP-D have been found in many human populations and associated with increased risk of certain infections. We recently reported that the Thr...... human SP-D multimers as well as reduced hemagglutination inhibiting activity against several strains of IAV. Natural SP-D trimers also had different interactions with human neutrophil peptide defensins (HNPs) in viral neutralization assays as compared to multimeric SP-D. CONCLUSION: These studies......-D can be useful for dissecting out different functional properties of the protein....

  5. In search of a human self-regulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, William M; Wagner, Dylan D; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-07-08

    The capacity for self-regulation allows people to control their thoughts, behaviors, emotions, and desires. In spite of this impressive ability, failures of self-regulation are common and contribute to numerous societal problems, from obesity to drug addiction. Such failures frequently occur following exposure to highly tempting cues, during negative moods, or after self-regulatory resources have been depleted. Here we review the available neuroscientific evidence regarding self-regulation and its failures. At its core, self-regulation involves a critical balance between the strength of an impulse and an individual's ability to inhibit the desired behavior. Although neuroimaging and patient studies provide consistent evidence regarding the reward aspects of impulses and desires, the neural mechanisms that underlie the capacity for control have eluded consensus, with various executive control regions implicated in different studies. We outline the necessary properties for a self-regulation control system and suggest that the use of resting-state functional connectivity analyses may be useful for understanding how people regulate their behavior and why they sometimes fail in their attempts.

  6. Preparation and validation of radio iodinated recombinant human IL-10 for the measurement of natural human antibodies against IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten

    2009-01-01

    activity of 75 cpm/pg. Validation of the tracer confirmed preserved antibody epitopes and receptor binding ability. A robust Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) was developed and validated to detect natural human anti-IL-10 antibodies based on the formation of (125)I-labeled IL-10-IgG complexes in solution...

  7. Statistical description of wetland hydrological connectivity to the River Murray in South Australia under both natural and regulated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sean J.; Souter, Nicholas J.; Bean, Nigel G.; Ross, Joshua V.; Thompson, Richard M.; Bjornsson, Kjartan T.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of river regulation on the connectivity of the South Australian River Murray to its floodplain wetlands was examined using unregulated 'natural' and 'regulated' river flow data simulated between the years 1895 to 2009. A sample of 185 wetlands was used to calculate a range of connectivity statistics under both simulation scenarios. These statistics summarised the timing and duration of both connection and disconnection, as well as inundated area. Wetlands ranged from being permanently inundated, connected multiple times per year due to both small fluctuations in river level and the annual flood pulse, to flooded with diminishing frequency depending on the size of the annual flood pulse and their position on the floodplain. Under the natural scenario a wide range of wetland connectivity profiles were recorded whereas under the regulated scenario wetlands tended to be either permanently inundated or infrequently flooded. Under natural conditions wetlands that required higher flow before connecting were less frequently connected and for shorter periods. Under regulated conditions a larger proportion of wetland area was permanently connected than under natural conditions, however the annual flood pulse connected a larger area of wetlands under natural conditions. The information derived from this analysis can be used to design wetland management plans for individual wetlands within a river-wide management regime restoring lost hydrological variability.

  8. DESCARTES’ COMPREHENSION OF HUMAN NATURE IN «DISCOURSE ON THE METHOD»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Malivskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze the text "Discourse on the Method" as one of the first experiences of understanding human’s nature in modern age philosophy. The condition of realization the designated purpose is to solve the following problems: 1 To Define the diversity of Descartes position on the issue of essentiality to the true knowledge of human nature; 2 To find out the manner influence of methodology of understanding the mathematical truth to the way of interpretation of human nature; 3 To clarify the question of Descartes awareness of boundaries rationalist methodology in understanding of human nature. Methodology. As the methodological base is proposed to use the heuristic potential of phenomenology and existentialism, as well as those publications of foreign Descartes’ researchers of recent times, which introduce the new way for understanding of Descartes’ philosophical heritage. Scientific novelty. For the first time ever in the scientific literature Descartes text "Discourse on Method" becomes the object of special attention as a form of deployment the substantial request for the development of the anthropological project. The affinity and heredity of philosophical doctrines of Aristotle and Descartes on the problem of human nature are accented that is the recognition of the key importance of the need for truth in human nature. It is argued that beyond Descartes’ vision there was no limitation of rationalistic methodology during the comprehension of human nature. Conclusions. The implemented analysis confirms the validity of the thesis about text of the "Discourse on Method" by Descartes as a request of substantial unfolding of the anthropological project. The determining influence methodology of comprehension the mathematical truths to the way of interpretation of human nature were shown. The fact of Descartes’ awareness the limitation of methodology of mathematics in the understanding of human nature and

  9. Regulation and antimetastatic functions of liver-associated natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltrout, R H

    2000-04-01

    The liver is a complex organ composed of hepatic parenchymal cells and a variety of non-parenchymal cells that consist of endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, and several subsets of resident lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK), T, and NK1.1+/CD3+ (NK/T) cells. The regulation of these various lymphoid subpopulations and their relative contributions to antiviral, antitumor and pathogenic inflammatory responses in the liver remain topics of much interest. Studies from our laboratory have shown that various immune stimulants and cytokines can augment liver-associated NK activity at least partially through the mobilization of NK cells from the bone marrow to the liver. The mobilization process can be dependent on the induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma and/or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and on very late activation antigen-4/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 interaction. The induction of IFN-gamma by cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12 also rapidly triggers the induction of chemokine genes in parenchymal cells that may contribute to the localization of NK and T cells. Both IL-2 and IL-12 trigger changes in the number and functions of liver-associated leukocyte subsets, and induce antimetastatic effects that are likely mediated through several direct and indirect mechanisms. The overall goal of these studies is to understand the interactions and functions of liver-associated NK1.1+ cells in the context of innate and adaptive immune responses to neoplasia.

  10. Forbearance, Regulation, and Market Power in Natural Gas Storage: The Case of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.; Ware, R.; Wetston, H.

    2007-07-01

    In late 2006 the Ontario Energy Board rendered a landmark decision to forbear from the price regulation of natural gas storage services. This paper examines the key issues and provides some economic analysis of the evidence. The decision followed a proceeding during which evidence was given on whether the market for storage is competitive or is subject to significant market power possessed by dominant and incumbent utility firms in the province. Intervenors in the proceeding were in broad agreement on the use of standard concepts from North American antitrust analysis of merger reviews: identification of the relevant product and geographic markets, analysis of market structure within the relevant market, and assessment of barriers to entry. A critical issue at the hearing was the extent of the geographic market; a broad market encompassing U.S. storage facilities in neighbouring states supports a finding of competition, whereas a narrower geographic market restricted to Ontario makes market power more likely. Since gas storage is only as functional as the pipelines connected to it, evidence was directed at assessing the availability of pipeline capacity in both primary and secondary markets. (auth)

  11. Invariant natural killer T cells in adipose tissue: novel regulators of immune-mediated metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, M; Kalkhoven, E; Boes, M

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) represents a microenvironment where intersection takes place between immune processes and metabolic pathways. A variety of immune cells have been characterized in AT over the past decades, with the most recent addition of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. As members of the T cell family, iNKT cells represent a subset that exhibits both innate and adaptive characteristics and directs ensuing immune responses. In disease conditions, iNKT cells have established roles that include disorders in the autoimmune spectrum in malignancies and infectious diseases. Recent work supports a role for iNKT cells in the maintenance of AT homeostasis through both immune and metabolic pathways. The deficiency of iNKT cells can result in AT metabolic disruptions and insulin resistance. In this review, we summarize recent work on iNKT cells in immune regulation, with an emphasis on AT-resident iNKT cells, and identify the potential mechanisms by which adipocytes can mediate iNKT cell activity.

  12. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance.

  13. Dendritic cells release HLA-B-associated transcript-3 positive exosomes to regulate natural killer function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Rao Simhadri

    Full Text Available NKp30, a natural cytotoxicity receptor expressed on NK cells is critically involved in direct cytotoxicity against various tumor cells and directs both maturation and selective killing of dendritic cells. Recently the intracellular protein BAT3, which is involved in DNA damage induced apoptosis, was identified as a ligand for NKp30. However, the mechanisms underlying the exposure of the intracellular ligand BAT3 to surface NKp30 and its role in NK-DC cross talk remained elusive. Electron microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrate that exosomes released from 293T cells and iDCs express BAT3 on the surface and are recognized by NKp30-Ig. Overexpression and depletion of BAT3 in 293T cells directly correlates with the exosomal expression level and the activation of NK cell-mediated cytokine release. Furthermore, the NKp30-mediated NK/DC cross talk resulting either in iDC killing or maturation was BAT3-dependent. Taken together this puts forward a new model for the activation of NK cells through intracellular signals that are released via exosomes from accessory cells. The manipulation of the exosomal regulation may offer a novel strategy to induce tumor immunity or inhibit autoimmune diseases caused by NK cell-activation.

  14. Cystatin F regulates proteinase activity in IL-2-activated natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Katarina; Konjar, Spela; Watts, Colin; Turk, Boris; Kopitar-Jerala, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Cystatin F is a unique member of the cystatin family of cysteine protease inhibitors, which is synthesized as an inactive dimer and it is activated by N-terminal cleavage in the endolysosomes. It is expressed in the cells of the immune system: myeloid cells and the cells involved in target cell killing: natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Upon activation of the NK cells with interleukin 2 (IL-2), cystatin F was found upregulated and co-localized in cytotoxic granules with cathepsin C (CatC) and CatV. However, cystatin F inhibits the CatC in cells only when its N-terminal part is processed. Although cystatin F could inhibit both CatV and CatC, the IL-2 stimulation of the YT cells resulted in an increased CatV activity, while the CatC activity was unchanged. The incubation of IL-2 activated NK cells with a cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64d increased the cystatin F dimer formation. Our results suggest that cystatin F not only inhibits CatV, but it is processed by the CatV in order to inhibit the CatC activity in cytotoxic granules. The regulation of the CatC activity in the cytotoxic granules of the NK cells by the cystatin F could be important for the processing and activation of granule-associated serine proteases - granzymes.

  15. Adipose Natural Killer Cells Regulate Adipose Tissue Macrophages to Promote Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Pae, Munkyong; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Eberlé, Delphine; Shimada, Takeshi; Kamei, Nozomu; Park, Hee-Sook; Sasorith, Souphatta; Woo, Ju Rang; You, Jia; Mosher, William; Brady, Hugh J M; Shoelson, Steven E; Lee, Jongsoon

    2016-04-12

    Obesity-induced inflammation mediated by immune cells in adipose tissue appears to participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We show that natural killer (NK) cells in adipose tissue play an important role. High-fat diet (HFD) increases NK cell numbers and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably TNFα, in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, fat depots. When NK cells were depleted either with neutralizing antibodies or genetic ablation in E4bp4(+/-) mice, obesity-induced insulin resistance improved in parallel with decreases in both adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) numbers, and ATM and adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, expansion of NK cells following IL-15 administration or reconstitution of NK cells into E4bp4(-/-) mice increased both ATM numbers and adipose tissue inflammation and exacerbated HFD-induced insulin resistance. These results indicate that adipose NK cells control ATMs as an upstream regulator potentially by producing proinflammatory mediators, including TNFα, and thereby contribute to the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  16. The nature of human sperm head vacuoles: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitrelle, Florence; Guthauser, Bruno; Alter, Laura; Bailly, Marc; Wainer, Robert; Vialard, François; Albert, Martine; Selva, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) involves the use of differential interference contrast microscopy (also called Nomarski contrast) at high magnification (at least 6300x) to improve the observation of live human spermatozoa. In fact, this technique evidences sperm head vacuoles that are not necessarily seen at lower magnifications - particularly if the vacuoles are small (i.e. occupying nature. In an attempt to clarify this debate, we performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed database was searched from 2001 onwards with the terms "MSOME", "human sperm vacuoles", "high-magnification, sperm". Out of 180 search results, 21 relevant English-language publications on the nature of human sperm head vacuoles were finally selected and reviewed. Our review of the literature prompted us to conclude that sperm-head vacuoles are nuclear in nature and are related to chromatin condensation failure and (in some cases) sperm DNA damage.

  17. 75 FR 21508 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... maintenance, and other activities involving live vertebrate animals conducted under contract (see Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy), Rev. 1986, Repr. 1996... Compliance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,...

  18. Where humans meet machines innovative solutions for knotty natural-language problems

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Where Humans Meet Machines: Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problems brings humans and machines closer together by showing how linguistic complexities that confound the speech systems of today can be handled effectively by sophisticated natural-language technology. Some of the most vexing natural-language problems that are addressed in this book entail   recognizing and processing idiomatic expressions, understanding metaphors, matching an anaphor correctly with its antecedent, performing word-sense disambiguation, and handling out-of-vocabulary words and phrases. This fourteen-chapter anthology consists of contributions from industry scientists and from academicians working at major universities in North America and Europe. They include researchers who have played a central role in DARPA-funded programs and developers who craft real-world solutions for corporations. These contributing authors analyze the role of natural language technology in the global marketplace; they explore the need f...

  19. Cosmology at the Crossroads of the Natural and Human Sciences: is demarcation possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Nesteruk, Alexei V

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of demarcation between the dimensions of natural and the human sciences in contemporary cosmology. In spite of a common presumption that cosmology is a natural science, the specificity of its alleged subject matter, that is the universe as a whole, makes cosmology fundamentally different from other natural sciences. The reason is that in cosmology the subject of cosmological research and its "object" are in a certain sense inseparable. Any study of the universe involves two opposite perspectives which can be described as "a-cosmic" and "cosmic", egocentric and non-egocentric. Cosmology involves two languages, namely that of physical causality (pertaining to the natural sciences) and that of intentionality (pertaining to the human sciences). On the one hand the universe can be seen as a product of discursive reason, that is as an abstract "physical" entity unfolding in space and time. On the other hand the universe can be experienced through our participation in, or communion wi...

  20. NCR1 Expression Identifies Canine Natural Killer Cell Subsets with Phenotypic Similarity to Human Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ann Foltz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Canines spontaneously develop many cancers similar to humans - including osteosarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma - offering the opportunity to study immune therapies in a genetically heterogeneous and immunocompetent environment. However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. To this end, we generated a novel antibody to canine NCR1 (NKp46, the putative species-wide marker of NK cells, enabling purification of NK cells for further characterization. We demonstrate that CD3-/NKp46+ cells in healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing canines have phenotypic similarity to human CD3-/NKp46+ NK cells, expressing mRNA for CD16 and the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30, NKp44, and NKp80. Functionally, we demonstrate with the calcein release assay that canine CD3-/NKp46+ cells kill canine tumor cell lines without prior sensitization and secrete IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, and GM-CSF as measured by Luminex. Like human NK cells, CD3-/NKp46+ cells expand rapidly on feeder cells expressing 4-1BBL and membrane-bound IL-21 (median= 20,283-fold in 21 days. Further, we identify a minor Null population (CD3-/CD21-/CD14-/NKp46- with reduced cytotoxicity against osteosarcoma cells, but similar cytokine secretion as CD3-/NKp46+ cells. Null cells in canines and humans have reduced expression of NKG2D, NKp44, and CD16 compared to NKp46+ NK cells, and can be induced to express NKp46 with further expansion on feeder cells. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized canine NK cells, including an NKp46- subset of canine and human NK cells, using a novel anti-canine NKp46 antibody, and report robust ex vivo expansion of canine NK cells sufficient for adoptive immunotherapy.

  1. Natural radionuclides in the human body; Natuerliche Radionuklide im menschlichen Koerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdept.

    2017-08-01

    Natural radionuclides in the human body produce worldwide a medium annual radiation exposure of 0.31 mSv. 0.17 mSv are due to potassium-40 (K-40) per year, 0.12 mSv per year are due to radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay series, less than 0.02 mSv due to cosmogenic radionuclides. Natural radioactivity is therefore the largest exposure source, anthropogenic exposure is comparatively marginal.

  2. Continuous representation of human portraits and natural scenery in human ventral temporal cortex:evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖壮伟; 林冲宇; 罗小景; 黄芳梅; 庄伟端; 李俊雄; 翁旭初; 吴仁华

    2004-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool for tracking human brain activity in vivo. This technique is mainly based on blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) contrast. In the present study, we employed this newly developed technique to characterize the neural representations of human portraits and natural sceneries in the human brain.Methods Nine subjects were scanned with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner using gradient-recalled echo and echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) pulse sequence while they were visually presented with 3 types of white-black photographs: natural scenery, human portraits, and scrambled nonsense pictures. Multiple linear regression was used to identify brain regions responding preferentially to each type of stimulus and common regions for both human portraits and natural scenery. The relative contributions of each type of stimulus to activation in these regions were examined using linear combinations of a general linear test.Results Multiple linear regression analysis revealed two distinct but adjacent regions in both sides of the ventral temporal cortex. The medial region preferentially responded to natural scenery, whereas the lateral one preferentially responded to the human portraits. The general linear test further revealed a distribution gradient such that a change from portraits to scenes shifted areas of activation from lateral to medial.Conclusions The boundary between portrait-associated and scenery-associated areas is not as clear as previously demonstrated. The representations of portraits and scenes in ventral temporal cortex appear to be continuous and overlap.

  3. Decreased natural killer cell activity is associated with atherosclerosis in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2001-01-01

    Well-preserved natural killer cell (NK) activity has been associated with successful aging. The aim of the present study was to perform detailed analyses of NK cell function and to investigate the clinical significance of the NK cell number and function in relationship to health in a large cohort...... of elderly humans. It was tested if the potential of natural cytotoxicity in the blood (evaluated as an index including cytotoxicity per NK cell and the number of circulating NK cells) was preserved in 174 81-yearold humans versus 91 young controls and if NK cell mediated immunity was associated with age...

  4. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, N A; Speiseder, T; Lam, E; Rubtsov, P M; Tonaeva, Kh D; Borzenok, S A; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy.

  5. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  6. Phosphorylation of threonine 333 regulates trafficking of the human sst5 somatostatin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Aline; Mann, Anika; Kliewer, Andrea; Nagel, Falko; Strigli, Anne; Märtens, Jan Carlo; Pöll, Florian; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The frequent overexpression of the somatostatin receptors sst2 and sst5 in neuroendocrine tumors provides the molecular basis for therapeutic application of novel multireceptor somatostatin analogs. Although the phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal region of the sst2 receptor has been studied in detail, little is known about the agonist-induced regulation of the human sst5 receptor. Here, we have generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for the carboxyl-terminal threonines 333 (T333) and 347 (T347), which enabled us to selectively detect either the T333-phosphorylated or the T347-phosphorylated form of sst5. We show that agonist-mediated phosphorylation occurs at T333, whereas T347 is constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of agonist. We further demonstrate that the multireceptor somatostatin analog pasireotide and the sst5-selective ligand L-817,818 but not octreotide or KE108 were able to promote a detectable T333 phosphorylation. Interestingly, BIM-23268 was the only sst5 agonist that was able to stimulate T333 phosphorylation to the same extent as natural somatostatin. Agonist-induced T333 phosphorylation was dose-dependent and selectively mediated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Similar to that observed for the sst2 receptor, phosphorylation of sst5 occurred within seconds. However, unlike that seen for the sst2 receptor, dephosphorylation and recycling of sst5 were rapidly completed within minutes. We also identify protein phosphatase 1γ as G protein-coupled receptor phosphatase for the sst5 receptor. Together, we provide direct evidence for agonist-selective phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal T333. In addition, we identify G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation and protein phosphatase 1γ-mediated dephosphorylation of T333 as key regulators of rapid internalization and recycling of the human sst5 receptor.

  7. Candidate tumour suppressor Fau regulates apoptosis in human cells: an essential role for Bcl-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Mark R; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Williams, Gwyn T

    2011-09-01

    FAU, which encodes a ubiquitin-like protein (termed FUBI) with ribosomal protein S30 as a carboxy-terminal extension, has recently been identified as a pro-apoptotic regulatory gene. This activity may be mediated by Bcl-G (a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family) which can be covalently modified by FUBI. FAU gene expression has been shown to be down-regulated in human breast, prostate and ovarian tumours, and this down-regulation is strongly associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. We demonstrate here that ectopic FAU expression increases basal apoptosis in human T-cell lines and 293T/17 cells, whereas it has only a transient stimulatory effect on ultraviolet-C (UVC)-induced apoptosis. Conversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of FAU gene expression has no effect on basal apoptosis, but attenuates UV-induced apoptosis. Importantly, prior knockdown of Bcl-G expression ablates the stimulation of basal apoptosis by FAU, consistent with an essential downstream role for Bcl-G, itself a candidate tumour suppressor, in mediating the apoptosis regulatory role of FAU. In 293T/17 cells, Bcl-G knockdown also attenuates UV-induced apoptosis, so that Bcl-G may constitute a common factor in the pathways by which both FAU and UV-irradiation induce apoptosis. UV irradiation increases Bcl-G mRNA levels, providing an explanation for the transient nature of the effect of ectopic FAU expression on UV-induced apoptosis. Since failure of apoptosis is fundamental to the development of many cancers, the pro-apoptotic activity of the Fau/Bcl-G pathway offers an attractive explanation for the putative tumour suppressor role of FAU.

  8. Candida albicans up-regulates the Fas-L expression in liver Natural Killer and Natural Killer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, María Sol; Figueredo, Carlos Mauricio; Rodríguez-Galán, María Cecilia; Icely, Paula Alejandra; Cejas, Hugo; Cano, Roxana; Correa, Silvia Graciela; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena

    2015-11-01

    After Candida albicans arrival to the liver, the local production of proinflammatory cytokines and the expanded intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHL) can be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. Herein we explored the balance between protective inflammatory reaction and liver damage, focusing our study on the contribution of TNF-α and Fas-Fas-L pathways in the hepatocellular apoptosis associated to C. albicans infection. A robust tissue reaction and a progressive increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in infected animals. Blocking the biological activity of TNF-α did not modify the number of apoptotic cells observed in C. albicans infected animals. Fas-L molecule was up regulated on purified hepatic mononuclear cells and its expression progressed with the infection. In the IHL compartment, the absolute number of Fas-L+ NK and NKT cells increased on days 1 and 3 of the infection. C. albicans was also able to up regulate Fas-L expression in normal liver NK and NKT cells after in vitro contact. The innate receptor TLR2 was involved in this phenomenon. In the interplay between host factors and evasion strategies exploited by pathogens, the mechanism supported here could represent an additional way that allows this fungus to circumvent protective immune responses in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells - Searching for molecular regulators of tolerogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina eSchinnerling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dendritic cells (DCs to initiate and modulate antigen-specific immune responses has made them attractive targets for immunotherapy. Since DC research in humans is limited by the scarcity of DC populations in the blood circulation, most of our knowledge about DC biology and function has been obtained in vitro from monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs, which can be readily generated in sufficient numbers and are able to differentiate into distinct functional subsets depending on the nature of stimulus. In particular, moDCs with tolerogenic properties (tolDCs possess great therapeutic potential for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Several protocols have been developed to generate tolDCs in vitro, able to reinstruct auto-reactive T cells and to promote regulatory cells. While ligands and soluble mediators, by which DCs shape immune responses, have been vastly studied, the intracellular pathways and transcriptional regulators that govern tolDC differentiation and function are poorly understood. Whole-genome microarrays and proteomics provide useful strategies to dissect the complex molecular processes that promote tolerogenicity. Only few attempts have been made to understand tolDC biology through a global view on ‘omics’ profiles. So far, the identification of a common regulator of tolerogenicity has been hampered by the fact that each protocol, used for tolDC generation, targets distinct signaling pathways. Here we review the progress in understanding the transcriptional regulation of moDC differentiation, with a special focus on tolDCs, and highlight candidate molecules that might be associated with DC tolerogenicity.

  10. Bottlenecks in the Transferability of Antibiotic Resistance from Natural Ecosystems to Human Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, José L.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that resistance genes acquired by human pathogens through horizontal gene transfer originated in environmental, non-pathogenic bacteria. As a consequence, there is increasing concern on the roles that natural, non-clinical ecosystems, may play in the evolution of resistance. Recent studies have shown that the variability of determinants that can provide antibiotic resistance on their expression in a heterologous host is much larger than what is actually found in human...

  11. Laws and regulations associated with ownership of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... the human tissue, subject to informed consent and the provisions and restrictions of the ... genetic exploitation and cultural intrusion. Therefore, while ... together to perform a specific function as a single unit.[6]. A totipotent cell ...

  12. Glucagon-to-insulin ratio is pivotal for splanchnic regulation of FGF-21 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Secher, Niels Henry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a liver-derived metabolic regulator induced by energy deprivation. However, its regulation in humans is incompletely understood. We addressed the origin and regulation of FGF-21 secretion in humans. METHODS: By determination of arterial......-to-venous differences over the liver and the leg during exercise, we evaluated the organ-specific secretion of FGF-21 in humans. By four different infusion models manipulating circulating glucagon and insulin, we addressed the interaction of these hormones on FGF-21 secretion in humans. RESULTS: We demonstrate...... that the splanchnic circulation secretes FGF-21 at rest and that it is rapidly enhanced during exercise. In contrast, the leg does not contribute to the systemic levels of FGF-21. To unravel the mechanisms underlying the regulation of exercise-induced hepatic release of FGF-21, we manipulated circulating glucagon...

  13. Muscle metaboreflex and autonomic regulation of heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Adlan, Ahmed M; Shantsila, Alena

    2013-01-01

    We elucidated the autonomic mechanisms whereby heart rate (HR) is regulated by the muscle metaboreflex. Eight male participants (22 ± 3 years) performed three exercise protocols: (1) enhanced metaboreflex activation with partial flow restriction (bi-lateral thigh cuff inflation) during leg cycling...

  14. Baseflow mean transit times in natural and human-altered catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the ecosystem since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water chemistry, temperature, and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and food production worldwide. This study will evaluate baseflow mean transit times (MTTs) in five natural (i.e. pristine forest) and human-altered (i.e. agricultural, urban, and mining) catchments in eastern Washington and northern Idaho during 2011-2013. Drainage area ranges from small (6.35 km2) to meso scale (342 km2) and mean annual precipitation varies from 670 mm to 1,313 mm. MTTs were evaluated by applying d18O input precipitation and output stream waters to a lumped parameter model (FlowPC 3.2) using four main theoretical distribution models: piston flow, exponential, dispersion, and piston-exponential. Precipitation samples (N=307) were collected on weekly to biweekly basis and stream samples (N=690) were collected weekly using automated samplers. Precipitation showed a strong seasonal periodicity with a sine-wave modeled amplitude of 3.03‰ and a mean annual average of d18O= -15.13‰. Mean annual stream d18O ranged from -14.87‰ to -15.80‰ across the study catchments. Our modeling results will show information for examining solute transport and water availability under current and future land use practices and climate variability within a variety of watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest that share similar underlying geology and climate attributes.

  15. From GWAS to Function: Transcriptional regulation of pigmentation genes in humans Transcriptional regulation of pigmentation genes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser (Mijke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractHuman pigmentation is one of the most explicit visual traits, which therefore has been subject of many research studies. With the emergence of large-scale genetic association studies like GWASs, numerous SNPs have been associated with a phenotype of interest, such as human eye, hair

  16. Kinase Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0009 TITLE: PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Cleveland CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center...so designated by other documentation. Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0009 5c

  17. Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0008 TITLE: Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Jan 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...Investigator [PI], Scripps) and John Cleveland (Collaborating/Partnering PI, Moffitt Cancer Center) seek to validate 40S ribosome assembly as a therapeutic

  18. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Carolyn J.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic c...

  19. Research and Application of Human Capital Strategic Classification Tool: Human Capital Classification Matrix Based on Biological Natural Attribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of weak human capital structure strategic classification management in China, we analyze that enterprises around the world face increasingly difficult for human capital management. In order to provide strategically sound answers, the HR managers need the critical information provided by the right technology processing and analytical tools. In this study, there are different types and levels of human capital in formal organization management, which is not the same contribution to a formal organization. An important guarantee for sustained and healthy development of the formal or informal organization is lower human capital risk. To resist this risk is primarily dependent on human capital hedge force and appreciation force in value, which is largely dependent on the strategic value of the performance of senior managers. Based on the analysis of high-level managers perspective, we also discuss the value and configuration of principles and methods to be followed in human capital strategic classification based on Boston Consulting Group (BCG matrix and build Human Capital Classification (HCC matrix based on biological natural attribute to effectively realize human capital structure strategic classification.

  20. Human-aided and natural dispersal drive gene flow across the range of an invasive mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Kim A; Jenkins, David G; Hoffman, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Human-aided transport is responsible for many contemporary species introductions, yet the contribution of human-aided transport to dispersal within non-native regions is less clear. Understanding dispersal dynamics for invasive species can streamline mitigation efforts by targeting routes that contribute disproportionally to spread. Because of its limited natural dispersal ability, rapid spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been attributed to human-aided transport, but until now, the relative roles of human-aided and natural movement have not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we use landscape genetics and information-theoretic model selection to evaluate 52 models representing 9240 pairwise dispersal paths among sites across the US range for Ae. albopictus and show that recent gene flow reflects a combination of natural and human-aided dispersal. Highways and water availability facilitate dispersal at a broad spatial scale, but gene flow is hindered by forests at the current distributional limit (range edge) and by agriculture among sites within the mosquito's native climatic niche (range core). Our results show that highways are important to genetic structure between range-edge and range-core pairs, suggesting a role for human-aided mosquito transport to the range edge. In contrast, natural dispersal is dominant at smaller spatial scales, reflecting a shifting dominance to natural movement two decades after introduction. These conclusions highlight the importance of (i) early intervention for species introductions, particularly those with readily dispersed dormant stages and short generation times, and (ii) strict monitoring of commercial shipments for transported immature stages of Ae. albopictus, particularly towards the northern edge of the US range.

  1. Human Nature and the Origin of Crime%人性与犯罪起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锡海

    2012-01-01

    人性与犯罪在起源上具有同步性。人性在起源的复杂过程中为犯罪的发生创造了条件。这包括制造工具的产生、思维的产生和人类社会的形成。犯罪之所以能伴随着人性的起源而发生,根本原因在于人性的异化。犯罪起源于非规范行为,非规范行为根源于三大差异,即人性的差异。我国在犯罪起源上的传统观点认为犯罪起源于私有制,这并非马克思主义的观点。实际上恩格斯在《家庭、私有制和国家的起源》中,早已用大量材料证明了犯罪是起源于原始社会的。%Human nature and crime are originated simultaneously. The complex process for the origin of human nature also created conditions for crime to come into being, complete with the appearance of manufacturing tools, thoughts and human society. The appearance of crime accompanied by human nature was originated in the alienation of human nature. Crime is originated in abnormal act and the latter is owing to the difference of human nature. Traditionally the origin of crime is believed to be originated in the private property, which is against Marxist philosophy. Actually Angels held that crime was originated in the primary society with plenty of proofs in his work "The Origin of Family,Private Property and the State".

  2. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of pH in skeletal muscle is the sum of mechanisms involved in maintaining intracellular pH within the normal range. Aspects of pH regulation in human skeletal muscle have been studied with various techniques from analysis of membrane proteins, microdialysis, and the nuclear magnetic...

  3. MicroRNA-138 regulates osteogenic differentiation of human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Tilde; Taipaleenmäki, H.; Stenvang, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell (hMSC) differentiation into osteogenic lineage is important for the development of anabolic therapies for treatment of osteoporosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that act as key regulators...

  4. Serglycin determines secretory granule repertoire and regulates natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Vivien R; Brennan, Amelia J; Ellis, Sarah; Danne, Jill; Thia, Kevin; Jenkins, Misty R; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Pejler, Gunnar; Johnstone, Ricky W; Andrews, Daniel M; Trapani, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The anionic proteoglycan serglycin is a major constituent of secretory granules in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)/natural killer (NK) cells, and is proposed to promote the safe storage of the mostly cationic granule toxins, granzymes and perforin. Despite the extensive defects of mast cell function reported in serglycin gene-disrupted mice, no comprehensive study of physiologically relevant CTL/NK cell populations has been reported. We show that the cytotoxicity of serglycin-deficient CTL and NK cells is severely compromised but can be partly compensated in both cell types when they become activated. Reduced intracellular granzyme B levels were noted, particularly in CD27(+) CD11b(+) mature NK cells, whereas serglycin(-/-) TCR-transgenic (OTI) CD8 T cells also had reduced perforin stores. Culture supernatants from serglycin(-/-) OTI T cells and interleukin-2-activated NK contained increased granzyme B, linking reduced storage with heightened export. By contrast, granzyme A was not significantly reduced in cells lacking serglycin, indicating differentially regulated trafficking and/or storage for the two granzymes. A quantitative analysis of different granule classes by transmission electronmicroscopy showed a selective loss of dense-core granules in serglycin(-/-) CD8(+) CTLs, although other granule types were maintained quantitatively. The findings of the present study show that serglycin plays a critical role in the maturation of dense-core cytotoxic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes and the trafficking and storage of perforin and granzyme B, whereas granzyme A is unaffected. The skewed retention of cytotoxic effector molecules markedly reduces CTL/NK cell cytotoxicity, although this is partly compensated for as a result of activating the cells by physiological means.

  5. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with emphasis on NORM disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Regulation of radioactive material can occur at the Federal, State, and sometimes local level. In addition to regulations at the federal and state level, there are guidelines and standards that do not carry the weight of law, yet are often referenced. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorically regulates NORM at this time. However, many of the existing regulations and guidelines for licensed radioactive material can be applied by states and other regulatory agencies to NORM. The primary regulations covering radioactive materials and exposures were promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) or 1954, as amended. NRC licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear materials to protect public health and safety and the environment. NRC makes rules and sets standards for licensees and inspects the activities of licensees to insure that they do not violate safety rules. OSHA regulations for worker protection from exposures to radioactivity are contained in 29CFR1910.96. These standards are designed to protect workers from exposure to radiation in programs other than those regulated by OSHA. The Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act, with implementing regulations found in 40CFR192 were promulgated by the EPA for cleanup of uranium mill tailings. These standards are often used by states and other agencies in regulating cleanup of NORM. EPA is currently considering regulation of NORM on NRC and DOE facilities under 40CFR195.

  6. The Long Noncoding RNA SPRIGHTLY Regulates Cell Proliferation in Primary Human Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Mazar, Joseph; Lee, Bongyong; Sawada, Junko; Li, Jian-Liang; Shelley, John; Govindarajan, Subramaniam; Towler, Dwight; Mattick, John S; Komatsu, Masanobu; Dinger, Marcel E; Perera, Ranjan J

    2016-04-01

    The long noncoding RNA SPRIGHTLY (formerly SPRY4-IT1), which lies within the intronic region of the SPRY4 gene, is up-regulated in human melanoma cells compared to melanocytes. SPRIGHTLY regulates a number of cancer hallmarks, including proliferation, motility, and apoptosis. To better understand its oncogenic role, SPRIGHTLY was stably transfected into human melanocytes, which resulted in increased cellular proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and development of a multinucleated dendritic-like phenotype. RNA sequencing and mass spectrometric analysis of SPRIGHTLY-expressing cells revealed changes in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, chromosome organization, regulation of DNA damage responses, and cell cycle. The proliferation marker Ki67, minichromosome maintenance genes 2-5, antiapoptotic gene X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 7 were all up-regulated in SPRIGHTLY-expressing melanocytes, whereas the proapoptotic tumor suppressor gene DPPIV/CD26 was down-regulated, followed by an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting an increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Because down-regulation of DPPIV is known to be associated with malignant transformation in melanocytes, SPRIGHTLY-mediated DPPIV down-regulation may play an important role in melanoma pathobiology. Together, these findings provide important insights into how SPRIGHTLY regulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation in primary human melanocytes.

  7. Lysis of pig endothelium by IL-2 activated human natural killer cells is inhibited by swine and human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itescu, S; Artrip, J H; Kwiatkowski, P A; Wang, S F; Minanov, O P; Morgenthau, A S; Michler, R E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously described a form of xenograft rejection, mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, occurring in pig-to-primate organ transplants beyond the period of antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection. In this study, two distinct NK activation pathways were identified as mechanisms of pig aortic endotheliual cell (PAEC) lysis by human NK cells. Using an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, a progressive increase in human NK lysis of PAEC was observed following incubation with human IgG at increasing serum titer. In the absence of IgG, a second mechanism of PAEC lysis by human NK cells was observed following activation with IL-2. IL-2 activation of human NK cells increased lysis of PAEC by over 3-fold compared with ADCC. These results indicate that IL-2 activation of human NK cells induces significantly higher levels of lytic activity than does conventional ADCC involving IgG and FcRIII. We next investigated the role of MHC class I molecules in the regulation of NK lysis following IL-2 activation. PAEC expression of SLA class I molecules was increased by up to 75% by treatment with human TNFa. Following treatment with TNFa at 1 u/ml, IL-2 activated human NK lysis of PAEC was inhibited at every effector:target (E:T) ratio tested. Maximal effect occurred at an E:T ratio of 10:1, with TNFa inhibiting specific lysis by 59% (p < 0.01). Incubation with an anti-SLA class I Mab, but not IgG isotype control, abrogated the protective effects of TNFa on NK lysis of PAEC, suggesting direct inhibitory effects of SLA class I molecules on human NK function. To investigate whether human MHC class I molecules might have similar effects on human NK lysis of PAEC, further experiments were performed using a soluble peptide derived from the alpha-helical region of HLA-B7. Incubation with the HLA-B7 derived peptide significantly reduced the IL-2 activated NK lytic activity against PAEC in a dose-dependent fashion. Maximal effect occurred at a concentration of 10 mg

  8. Adiponectin Signaling Regulates Lipid Production in Human Sebocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Ra; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Phil; Seo, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seong-Jin; Im, Myung

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in metabolic function, inflammation and multiple biological activities in various tissues. However, evidence for adiponectin signaling in sebaceous glands is lacking, and its role remains to be clarified. This study investigated the role of adiponectin in lipid production in sebaceous glands in an experimental study of human sebocytes. We demonstrated that human sebaceous glands in vivo and sebocytes in vitro express adiponectin receptor and that adiponectin increased cell proliferation. Moreover, based on a lipogenesis study using Oil Red O, Nile red staining and thin layer chromatography, adiponectin strongly upregulated lipid production in sebocytes. In three-dimensional culture of sebocytes, lipid synthesis was markedly enhanced in sebocytes treated with adiponectin. This study suggested that adiponectin plays a significant role in human sebaceous gland biology. Adiponectin signaling is a promising target in the clinical management of barrier disorders in which sebum production is decreased, such as in atopic dermatitis and aged skin.

  9. Adiponectin Signaling Regulates Lipid Production in Human Sebocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Ra; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Phil; Seo, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seong-Jin; Im, Myung

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in metabolic function, inflammation and multiple biological activities in various tissues. However, evidence for adiponectin signaling in sebaceous glands is lacking, and its role remains to be clarified. This study investigated the role of adiponectin in lipid production in sebaceous glands in an experimental study of human sebocytes. We demonstrated that human sebaceous glands in vivo and sebocytes in vitro express adiponectin receptor and that adiponectin increased cell proliferation. Moreover, based on a lipogenesis study using Oil Red O, Nile red staining and thin layer chromatography, adiponectin strongly upregulated lipid production in sebocytes. In three-dimensional culture of sebocytes, lipid synthesis was markedly enhanced in sebocytes treated with adiponectin. This study suggested that adiponectin plays a significant role in human sebaceous gland biology. Adiponectin signaling is a promising target in the clinical management of barrier disorders in which sebum production is decreased, such as in atopic dermatitis and aged skin. PMID:28081218

  10. Genome mining unveils widespread natural product biosynthetic capacity in human oral microbe Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Hao, Tingting; Xie, Zhoujie; Horsman, Geoff P.; Chen, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Anti-SMASH analysis identified one nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster, seven polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters and 136 hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters. In addition, 211 ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) clusters and 615 bacteriocin precursors were identified by a combined analysis using BAGEL and anti-SMASH. S. mutans harbors a rich and diverse natural product genetic capacity, which underscores the importance of probing the human microbiome and revisiting species that have traditionally been overlooked as “poor” sources of natural products. PMID:27869143

  11. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending the existing model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, we evaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling for socio-demographic and economic factors, medical...

  12. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  13. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  14. Guides to Sustainable Connections? Exploring Human-Nature Relationships among Wilderness Travel Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, Bryan S. R.; Haberer, Alexa; Legault, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores and critically interprets the role wilderness travel may play in fostering environmental sustainability. The paper draws upon two qualitative studies that sought to understand human-nature relationships as experienced by different groups of wilderness travel leaders in Canada. According to leaders involved in the studies,…

  15. School Principals' Assumptions about Human Nature: Implications for Leadership in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…

  16. Teachers' Perspectives on the Human-Nature Relationship: Implications for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Antonio; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2013-01-01

    This study based on a theoretical framework of three main environmental perspectives in the human-nature relationship (anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism), aimed to identify their incidence in teachers involved with environmental projects when confronted with diverse environmental issues. 60 teachers drawn from four school cycles in…

  17. Human-Level Natural Language Understanding: False Progress and Real Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignoli, Perrin G.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) focuses on the study of how utterances composed of human-level languages can be understood and generated. Typically, there are considered to be three intertwined levels of structure that interact to create meaning in language: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Not only is a large amount of…

  18. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  19. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  20. A Bending Willow Tree: A Japanese (Morita Therapy) Model of Human Nature and Client Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, F. Ishu

    2003-01-01

    Japanese Morita therapy is discussed to highlight its culturally and theoretically unique perspectives on human nature and client change. Key features of this theory are: theory of the nervous trait; multiple-dimensional model of causes and treatment of nervous neurosis; theory of mental attachment; reframing anxiety into constructive desires; and…

  1. Relationship between humanity and plant natural resources – in the context of food and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture, the domestication, culture, and management of plants and animals, has led to profound social changes in human evolution and development; it can be considered as the basis for civilization. Roughly 12,000 years ago agriculture appeared independently in several parts of the world. A natur...

  2. Carotenoids located in human lymphocyte subpopulations and Natural Killer cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the

  3. The Nature of Geography and Its Perspectives in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander B.; Hare, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    AP Human Geography students need to develop an understanding of what it means to examine the world around them from a geographic perspective. Focusing attention on geography's concern with spatial relationships, place characteristics, and geographic context helps student appreciate the nature of the discipline and the insights it offers. These…

  4. Naturally occurring products of proglucagon 111-160 in the porcine and human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, T; Thim, L; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the glucagon gene is expressed in the mammalian intestine. Here it codes for "glicentin" (proglucagon 1-69) and a glucagon-like peptide, proglucagon 78-107, recently isolated from porcine intestine. We studied the fate of the remaining COOH-terminal part of progl...... that this is the structure of the naturally occurring human peptide....

  5. A Reconciliation of the Freudian and Humanistic/Transpersonal Views of Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Joseph H.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a resolution to the apparent conflict between the Freudian and humanistic/transpersonal views of human nature. Presents a model which allows for the fulfillment of Freud's desire to account for both the life and death instincts as manifestations of a tendency to restore an earlier state of things. (LLL)

  6. The Nature of Credit Constraints and Human Capital. NBER Working Paper No. 13912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance J.; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the nature and impact of credit constraints in the market for human capital. We derive endogenous constraints from the design of government student loan programs and from the limited repayment incentives in private lending markets. These constraints imply cross-sectional patterns for schooling, ability, and family income that…

  7. Out of Nature: Why Drugs from Plants Matter to the Future of Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Gremillion

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Out of Nature: Why Drugs from Plants Matter to the Future of Humanity. Kara Rogers. 2012. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Pp. 216. $19.95 (paper. ISBN 978-0-8165-2969-8.

  8. West Nile virus-infected human dendritic cells fail to fully activate invariant natural killer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovats, S; Turner, S; Simmons, A; Powe, T; Chakravarty, E; Alberola-Ila, J

    2016-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a mosquito-borne zoonosis with increasing prevalence in the United States. WNV infection begins in the skin, and the virus replicates initially in keratinocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). In the skin and cutaneous lymph nodes, infected DCs are likely to interact with invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs). Bidirectional interactions between DCs and iNKTs amplify the innate immune response to viral infections, thus controlling viral load and regulating adaptive immunity. iNKTs are stimulated by CD1d-bound lipid antigens or activated indirectly by inflammatory cytokines. We exposed human monocyte-derived DCs to WNV Kunjin and determined their ability to activate isolated blood iNKTs. DCs became infected as judged by synthesis of viral mRNA and Envelope and NS-1 proteins, but did not undergo significant apoptosis. Infected DCs up-regulated the co-stimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40, but showed decreased expression of CD1d. WNV infection induced DC secretion of type I interferon (IFN), but no or minimal interleukin (IL)-12, IL-23, IL-18 or IL-10. Unexpectedly, we found that the WNV-infected DCs stimulated human iNKTs to up-regulate CD69 and produce low amounts of IL-10, but not proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Both CD1d and IFNAR blockade partially abrogated this iNKT response, suggesting involvement of a T cell receptor (TCR)-CD1d interaction and type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) signalling. Thus, WNV infection interferes with DC-iNKT interactions by preventing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. iNKTs may be a source of IL-10 observed in human flavivirus infections and initiate an anti-inflammatory innate response that limits adaptive immunity and immune pathology upon WNV infection. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Nature-Culture Constructs in Science Learning: Human/Non-Human Agency and Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The field of science education has struggled to create robust, meaningful forms of education that effectively engage students from historically non-dominant communities and women. This paper argues that a primary issue underlying this on-going struggle pivots on constructions of nature-culture relations. We take up structuration theory (Giddens,…

  10. Nature-Culture Constructs in Science Learning: Human/Non-Human Agency and Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The field of science education has struggled to create robust, meaningful forms of education that effectively engage students from historically non-dominant communities and women. This paper argues that a primary issue underlying this on-going struggle pivots on constructions of nature-culture relations. We take up structuration theory (Giddens,…

  11. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... capacity on Alaskan natural gas transportation projects. Both Denali--The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC and Trans...

  12. 75 FR 6370 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop... Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being held at the Commission's headquarters in... commitments for the acquisition of capacity on Alaska natural gas transportation projects. TransCanada Alaska...

  13. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  14. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklas, M.P. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Lefevre, H.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the {open_quotes}foreseeable future{close_quotes} is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an {open_quotes}explorationist perspective{close_quotes} of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository.

  15. The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratman, Gregory N; Hamilton, J Paul; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-02-01

    Scholars spanning a variety of disciplines have studied the ways in which contact with natural environments may impact human well-being. We review the effects of such nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health, synthesizing work from environmental psychology, urban planning, the medical literature, and landscape aesthetics. We provide an overview of the prevailing explanatory theories of these effects, the ways in which exposure to nature has been considered, and the role that individuals' preferences for nature may play in the impact of the environment on psychological functioning. Drawing from the highly productive but disparate programs of research in this area, we conclude by proposing a system of categorization for different types of nature experience. We also outline key questions for future work, including further inquiry into which elements of the natural environment may have impacts on cognitive function and mental health; what the most effective type, duration, and frequency of contact may be; and what the possible neural mechanisms are that could be responsible for the documented effects. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. The worth of land use: a GIS-emergy evaluation of natural and human-made capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellino, Salvatore; Buonocore, Elvira; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-02-15

    Natural systems make their natural capital and ecosystem services available to human economy. A careful analysis of the interplay between natural and human-made capital is needed to prevent natural capital being overexploited for present economic benefits, affecting lifestyles and wellbeing of future generations. In this study, the emergy synthesis is used to evaluate the natural and the human-made capital of Campania region (southern Italy) by accounting for the environmental support directly and indirectly provided by nature to resource generation. Furthermore, geographic information system (GIS) models are integrated with the emergy accounting procedure to generate maps of the spatial patterns of both natural and human-made capital distribution. Regional storages of natural and human-made capital are identified and evaluated in emergy units (seJ). The human-made capital of the Campania region (6.29E+24seJ) results to be about 11 times higher than the natural capital (5.69E+23seJ) due to the past and present exploitation of the natural resources needed to generate it over time. Moreover, by overlaying the total natural capital map and the total human-made capital map with a map of the protected areas within the region, only the 19% of the regional natural capital appears to be concentrated within protected areas, while most of it (81%) is concentrated outside. These findings suggest that the conservation of natural resources is also necessary outside protected areas by means of suitable policies, directives and investments. The human-made capital is mainly concentrated (88%) inside non-protected areas and interacts with the local natural capital. A management of the interactions between the two categories of wealth is crucial to prevent that the growth of human-made storages degrades the natural ecosystems and the environment. The proposed emergy-GIS framework reveals to be a useful tool for environmental planning and resource management aimed to conserve and

  17. Comparative Analysis of Gene Regulation by the Transcription Factor PPARa between Mouse and Human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhshandehroo, M.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Studies in mice have shown that PPARa is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and the acute phase response. However, little information is available on the role of PPARa in human liver. Here we set out to compare the function of PPARa in mouse and human hepatocytes via ana

  18. Interleukin-6 receptor expression in contracting human skeletal muscle: regulating role of IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Pernille; Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    . Therefore, we investigated IL-6 receptor regulation in response to exercise and IL-6 infusion in humans. Furthermore, using IL-6-deficient mice, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the IL-6 receptor response to exercise. Human skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained in relation to: 3 h of bicycle exercise...

  19. Reduced influenza viral neutralizing activity of natural human trimers of surfactant protein D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorensen Grith L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV infection. Common human polymorphisms of SP-D have been found in many human populations and associated with increased risk of certain infections. We recently reported that the Thr/Thr 11 form of SP-D is associated with low serum levels and assembles predominantly as trimers as opposed to the more common multimeric forms of SP-D. Methods Preliminary experiments were done to establish the effects of different monoclonal antibodies against SP-D on ability of SP-D to bind to or neutralize the virus. We then purified natural human trimeric and multimeric forms of SP-D from amniotic fluid and tested ability of these preparations to bind to IAV, to inhibit infectivity and hemagglutination activity of IAV in vitro. Results In initial experiments mAbs directed against different areas on the CRD of SP-D were found to have differing effects on antiviral activity. Using an mAb that did not interfere with antiviral activity of SP-D, we confirm that natural SP-D trimers had reduced ability to bind to IAV. In addition, the trimers had reduced ability to neutralize IAV as compared to natural human SP-D multimers as well as reduced hemagglutination inhibiting activity against several strains of IAV. Natural SP-D trimers also had different interactions with human neutrophil peptide defensins (HNPs in viral neutralization assays as compared to multimeric SP-D. Conclusion These studies indicate that a common human polymorphic form of SP-D may modulate host defense against IAV and give impetus to clinical studies correlating this genotype with risk for IAV infection in susceptible groups. We also show that mAbs directed against different areas on the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D can be useful for dissecting out different functional properties of the protein.

  20. Androgen-Dependent Regulation of Human MUC1 Mucin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mitchell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MUC1 mucin is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to determine whether androgen receptor. (20AR activation regulates expression of MUC1. The following breast and prostatic cell lines were phenotyped and grouped according to AR and MUC1protein expression: 1 AR+MUCi + [DAR17+19. (20AR transfectants of DU-145, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-453, and T47D]; 2 AR-MUCi+ [DZeoi. (20AR- vector control, DU-145, BT20, MDA-MB231, and MCF7]; 3 AIR +MUCi -. (20LNCaP and LNCaP-r. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay in the presence of synthetic androgen R1881, 0.1 pM to 1 µM. Cell surface MUC1expression was determined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of oestradiol, medroxy progesterone acetate or R1881, with and without 4 hydroxy-flutamide. (204-OH, a nonsteroidal AR antagonist. The functional significance of MUC1expression was investigated with a cell-cell aggregation assay. Only AR+ MUC1 + cell lines showed a significant increase in MUC1expression with AR activation. (20P. (20range =.01 to .0001, reversed in the presence of 4-OHF. Cell proliferation was unaffected. Increased expression of MUC1was associated with a significant. (20P. (20range =.002 to .001 reduction in cell-cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of androgen-dependent regulation of MUC1mucin. This is also functionally associated with decreased cell-cell adhesion, a recognised feature of progressive malignancy. These findings have important implications for physiological and pathological processes.

  1. Heregulin, a new regulator of telomere length in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A; Rubio, Miguel A; Campisi, Judith; Lupu, Ruth

    2015-11-24

    The growth factor heregulin (HRG) promotes breast cancer (BC) tumorigenesis and metastasis and differentially modulates BC cell responses to DNA-damaging agents via its dual extracellular and nuclear localization. Given the central role of telomere dysfunction to drive carcinogenesis and to alter the chemotherapeutic profile of transformed cells, we hypothesized that an unanticipated nuclear function of HRG might be to regulate telomere length. Engineered overexpression of the HRGβ2 isoform in non-aggressive, HRG-negative MCF-7 BC cells resulted in a significant shortening of telomeres (up to 1.3 kb) as measured by Southern blotting of telomere terminal restriction fragments. Conversely, antisense-mediated suppression of HRGβ2 in highly aggressive, HRG-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells increased telomere length up to 3.0 kb. HRGβ2 overexpression promoted a marked upregulation of telomere-binding protein 2 (TRF2) protein expression, whereas its knockdown profoundly decreased TRF2 expression. Double staining of endogenous HRGβ2 with telomere-specific peptide nucleic acid probe/fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA/FISH) revealed the partial localization of HRG at the chromosome ends. Moreover, a predominantly nucleoplasmic staining pattern of endogenous HRGβ2 appeared to co-localize with TRF2 and, concomitantly with RAP1, a telomere regulator that specifically interacts with TRF2. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of HRG decreased the expression of TRF2 and RAP1, decreased their presence at chromosome ends, and coincidentally resulted in the formation of longer telomeres. This study uncovers a new function for HRGβ2 in controlling telomere length, in part due to its ability to regulate and interact with the telomere-associated proteins TRF2 and RAP1.

  2. let-7 miRNAs Can Act through Notch to Regulate Human Gliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Patterson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that neural differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells generates cells that are developmentally immature. Here, we show that the let-7 plays a functional role in the developmental decision making of human neural progenitors, controlling whether these cells make neurons or glia. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies on both tissue and pluripotent derived cells, our data show that let-7 specifically regulates decision making in this context by regulation of a key chromatin-associated protein, HMGA2. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the let-7/HMGA2 circuit acts on HES5, a NOTCH effector and well-established node that regulates fate decisions in the nervous system. These data link the let-7 circuit to NOTCH signaling and suggest that this interaction serves to regulate human developmental progression.

  3. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  4. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  5. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  6. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  7. Regulation of Metabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth

    sensitivity in type I muscle fibers possibly reflects a superior effect of insulin on metabolic signaling compared to type II muscle fibers. This was investigated in the present thesis by examining muscle biopsies from lean and obese healthy subjects as well as patients with type 2 diabetes. From these muscle...... enzymes. Skeletal muscle consists of thousands of muscle fibers. These fibers can roughly be classified into type I and type II muscle fibers. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the effect of insulin and exercise on human muscle fiber type specific metabolic signaling. The importance...... of human type I muscle fibers is illustrated by the finding of a positive correlation between the relative distribution of type I fibers in the muscle and whole-body insulin sensitivity. This suggests, that type I muscle fibers are more insulin sensitive than type II muscle fibers. Improved insulin...

  8. Natural and genetically engineered viral agents for oncolysis and gene therapy of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Joseph G; Horvath, Joseph C

    2008-12-01

    Based on personal acquaintances and experience dating back to the early 1950s, the senior author reviews the history of viral therapy of cancer. He points out the difficulties encountered in the treatment of human cancers, as opposed by the highly successful viral therapy of experimentally maintained tumors in laboratory animals, especially that of ascites carcinomas in mice. A detailed account of viral therapy of human tumors with naturally oncolytic viruses follows, emphasizing the first clinical trials with viral oncolysates. The discrepancy between the high success rates, culminating in cures, in the treatment of tumors of laboratory animals, and the moderate results, such as stabilizations of disease, partial responses, very rare complete remissions, and frequent relapses with virally treated human tumors is recognized. The preclinical laboratory testing against established human tumor cell lines that were maintained in tissue cultures for decades, and against human tumors extricated from their natural habitat and grown in xenografts, may not yield valid results predictive of the viral therapy applied against human tumors growing in their natural environment, the human host. Since the recent discovery of the oncosuppressive efficacy of bacteriophages, the colon could be regarded as the battlefield, where incipient tumor cells and bacteriophages vie for dominance. The inner environment of the colon will be the teaching ground providing new knowledge on the value of the anti-tumor efficacy of phage-induced innate anti-tumor immune reactions. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses are reviewed next. The molecular biology of viral oncolysis is explained in details. Elaborate efforts are presented to elucidate how gene product proteins of oncolytic viruses switch off the oncogenic cascades of cancer cells. The facts strongly support the conclusion that viral therapy of human cancers will remain in the front lines of modern cancer therapeutics. It may be a

  9. Genome-wide studies highlight indirect links between human replication origins and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Jean-Charles; Meisch, Françoise; Hassan-Zadeh, Vahideh; Luyten, Isabelle; Guillet, Claire; Duret, Laurent; Quesneville, Hadi; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle

    2008-10-14

    To get insights into the regulation of replication initiation, we systematically mapped replication origins along 1% of the human genome in HeLa cells. We identified 283 origins, 10 times more than previously known. Origin density is strongly correlated with genomic landscapes, with clusters of closely spaced origins in GC-rich regions and no origins in large GC-poor regions. Origin sequences are evolutionarily conserved, and half of them map within or near CpG islands. Most of the origins overlap transcriptional regulatory elements, providing further evidence of a connection with gene regulation. Moreover, we identify c-JUN and c-FOS as important regulators of origin selection. Half of the identified replication initiation sites do not have an open chromatin configuration, showing the absence of a direct link with gene regulation. Replication timing analyses coupled with our origin mapping suggest that a relatively strict origin-timing program regulates the replication of the human genome.

  10. APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis in human cerebral cortex neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Moore; Evans, Lewis D.B.; Therese Andersson; Erik Portelius; James Smith; Tatyana B. Dias; Nathalie Saurat; Amelia McGlade; Peter Kirwan; Kaj Blennow; John Hardy; Henrik Zetterberg; Frederick J. Livesey

    2015-01-01

    This is the final version. It was first published by Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124715003599. Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, a...

  11. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  12. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Dho, So Hee; Ju, Sung-Kyu; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-10-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism changes during cellular senescence. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) catalyzes the reversible reduction of oxaloacetate to malate at the expense of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Here, we show that MDH1 plays a critical role in the cellular senescence of human fibroblasts. We observed that the activity of MDH1 was reduced in old human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) [population doublings (PD) 56], suggesting a link between decreased MDH1 protein levels and aging. Knockdown of MDH1 in young HDFs (PD 20) and the IMR90 human fibroblast cell line resulted in the appearance of significant cellular senescence features, including senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, flattened and enlarged morphology, increased population doubling time, and elevated p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1) protein levels. Cytosolic NAD/NADH ratios were decreased in old HDFs to the same extent as in MDH1 knockdown HDFs, suggesting that cytosolic NAD depletion is related to cellular senescence. We found that AMP-activated protein kinase, a sensor of cellular energy, was activated in MDH1 knockdown cells. We also found that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase, a controller of cellular senescence, was decreased in MDH1 knockdown cells. These results indicate that the decrease in MDH1 and subsequent reduction in NAD/NADH ratio, which causes SIRT1 inhibition, is a likely carbohydrate metabolism-controlled cellular senescence mechanism.

  13. SETD7 Regulates the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Julio; Morera, Cristina; Sesé, Borja; Boue, Stephanie; Bonet-Costa, Carles; Martí, Merce; Roque, Alicia; Jordan, Albert; Barrero, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    The successful use of specialized cells in regenerative medicine requires an optimization in the differentiation protocols that are currently used. Understanding the molecular events that take place during the differentiation of human pluripotent cells is essential for the improvement of these protocols and the generation of high quality differentiated cells. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation we identify the methyltransferase SETD7 as highly induced during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and differentially expressed between induced pluripotent cells and somatic cells. Knock-down of SETD7 causes differentiation defects in human embryonic stem cell including delay in both the silencing of pluripotency-related genes and the induction of differentiation genes. We show that SETD7 methylates linker histone H1 in vitro causing conformational changes in H1. These effects correlate with a decrease in the recruitment of H1 to the pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation in the SETD7 knock down that might affect the proper silencing of these genes during differentiation.

  14. Fisetin Induces Apoptosis Through p53-Mediated Up-Regulation of DR5 Expression in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Jin; Nam, Ju-Ock; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-08-02

    Fisetin is a natural compound found in fruits and vegetables such as strawberries, apples, cucumbers, and onions. Since fisetin can elicit anti-cancer effects, including anti-proliferation and anti-migration, we investigated whether fisetin induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki) cells. Fisetin markedly induced sub-G1 population and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which is a marker of apoptosis, and increased caspase activation. We found that pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) inhibited fisetin-induced apoptosis. In addition, fisetin induced death receptor 5 (DR5) expression at the transcriptional level, and down-regulation of DR5 by siRNA blocked fisetin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, fisetin induced p53 protein expression through up-regulation of protein stability, whereas down-regulation of p53 by siRNA markedly inhibited fisetin-induced DR5 expression. In contrast, fisetin induced up-regulation of CHOP expression and reactive oxygen species production, which had no effect on fisetin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that fisetin induced apoptosis through p53 mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression at the transcriptional level.

  15. Fisetin Induces Apoptosis Through p53-Mediated Up-Regulation of DR5 Expression in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-jin Min

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin is a natural compound found in fruits and vegetables such as strawberries, apples, cucumbers, and onions. Since fisetin can elicit anti-cancer effects, including anti-proliferation and anti-migration, we investigated whether fisetin induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki cells. Fisetin markedly induced sub-G1 population and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, which is a marker of apoptosis, and increased caspase activation. We found that pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk inhibited fisetin-induced apoptosis. In addition, fisetin induced death receptor 5 (DR5 expression at the transcriptional level, and down-regulation of DR5 by siRNA blocked fisetin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, fisetin induced p53 protein expression through up-regulation of protein stability, whereas down-regulation of p53 by siRNA markedly inhibited fisetin-induced DR5 expression. In contrast, fisetin induced up-regulation of CHOP expression and reactive oxygen species production, which had no effect on fisetin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that fisetin induced apoptosis through p53 mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression at the transcriptional level.

  16. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  17. KANK1 inhibits cell growth by inducing apoptosis though regulating CXXC5 in human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhibin; Shen, Yingjia; Chen, Kenny H.; Mittal, Suresh K.; Yang, Jer-Yen; Zhang, GuangJun

    2017-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are a type of rare sarcomas with a poor prognosis due to its highly invasive nature and limited treatment options. Currently there is no targeted-cancer therapy for this type of malignancy. Thus, it is important to identify more cancer driver genes that may serve as targets of cancer therapy. Through comparative oncogenomics, we have found that KANK1 was a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) for human MPNSTs. Although KANK1 is known as a cytoskeleton regulator, its tumorigenic function in MPNSTs remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that restoration of KANK1 in human MPNST cells inhibits cell growth both in human cell culture and xenograft mice by increasing apoptosis. Consistently, knockdown of KANK1 in neurofibroma cells promoted cell growth. Using RNA-seq analysis, we identified CXXC5 and other apoptosis-related genes, and demonstrated that CXXC5 is regulated by KANK1. Knockdown of CXXC5 was found to diminish KANK1-induced apoptosis in MPNST cells. Thus, KANK1 inhibits MPNST cell growth though CXXC5 mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that KANK1 may function as a tumor suppressor in human MPNSTs, and thus it may be useful for targeted therapy. PMID:28067315

  18. The nature of student teachers’ regulation of learning in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Maaike D.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Verloop, Nico; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Background. Self-regulated learning (SRL) has mainly been conceptualized to involve student learning within academic settings. In teacher education, where learning from theory and practice is combined, student teachers also need to regulate their learning. Hence, there is an urgent need to extend SR

  19. Paucity of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells in human neuromyelitis optica lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, Samira; Bridges, Leslie R; Verkman, A S; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2012-12-19

    Neuromyelitis optica is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Most patients with neuromyelitis optica have circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the astrocytic water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which are pathogenic. Anti-AQP4 IgG-mediated complement-dependent astrocyte toxicity is a key mechanism of central nervous system damage in neuromyelitis optica, but the role of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether natural killer and cytotoxic T cells play a role in human neuromyelitis optica lesions. We immunostained four actively demyelinating lesions, obtained from patients with anti-AQP4 IgG positive neuromyelitis optica, for Granzyme B and Perforin. The inflammatory cells were perivascular neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, with only occasional Granzyme B+ or Perforin+ cells. Greater than 95% of inflamed vessels in each lesion had no surrounding Granzyme B+ or Perforin+ cells. Granzyme B+ or Perforin+ cells were abundant in human spleen (positive control). Although natural killer cells produce central nervous system damage in mice injected with anti-AQP4 IgG, our findings here indicate that natural killer-mediated and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity are probably not involved in central nervous system damage in human neuromyelitis optica.

  20. Paucity of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells in human neuromyelitis optica lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, Samira; Bridges, Leslie R.; Verkman, A. S.; Papadopoulos, Marios C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Most patients with neuromyelitis optica have circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the astrocytic water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which are pathogenic. Anti-AQP4 IgG-mediated complement-dependent astrocyte toxicity is a key mechanism of central nervous system damage in neuromyelitis optica, but the role of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether natural killer and cytotoxic T cells play a role in human neuromyelitis optica lesions. We immunostained four actively demyelinating lesions, obtained from patients with anti-AQP4 IgG positive neuromyelitis optica, for Granzyme B and Perforin. The inflammatory cells were perivascular neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, with only occasional Granzyme B+ or Perforin + cells. Greater than 95% of inflamed vessels in each lesion had no surrounding Granzyme B+ or Perforin + cells. Granzyme B+ or Perforin+ cells were abundant in human spleen (positive control). Although natural killer cells produce central nervous system damage in mice injected with anti-AQP4 IgG, our findings here indicate that natural killer-mediated and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity are probably not involved in central nervous system damage in human neuromyelitis optica. PMID:23108041

  1. Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling: The Role of Uterine Natural Killer Cells and Extravillous Trophoblasts in Normal and High-Risk Human Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Daniel R; Yockell-Lelièvre, Julien; Gruslin, Andrée

    2015-07-01

    The process of uterine spiral artery remodeling in the first trimester of human pregnancy is an essential part of establishing adequate blood perfusion of the placenta that will allow optimal nutrient/waste exchange to meet fetal demands during later development. Key regulators of spiral artery remodeling are the uterine natural killer cells and the invasive extravillous trophoblasts. The functions of these cells as well as regulation of their activation states and temporal regulation of their localization within the uterine tissue are beginning to be known. In this review, we discuss the roles of these two cell lineages in arterial remodeling events, their interaction/influence on one another and the outcomes of altered temporal, and spatial regulation of these cells in pregnancy complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Relation between natural bacterial colonization and adhesion to human buccal epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maianskiĭ, A N; Vorob'eva, O N; Malysheva, E F; Malyshev, Iu V

    1987-02-01

    As the results of the quantitative study of Streptococcus salivarius adhering to buccal epithelial cells, three levels of their natural colonization were established: low (less than 20 bacteria per epithelial cell), medium (20-50 bacteria), and high (more than 50 bacteria). The characteristics of natural colonization by S. salivarius inversely correlated with the resistance of epithelial cells to the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the process of interaction with P. aeruginosa highly adhesive strain, S. salivarius, naturally colonizing the cells of the buccal epithelium, decreased in number 2-10 times up to complete desorption. These results may be regarded as the manifestation of one of the mechanisms regulating the microecological balance in the system of mucous membranes.

  3. New regulations, combustion, environment: responses for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction Commerciale

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French regulations concerning low- to medium-power combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on natural gas fired boilers, are discussed: lower pollutant emission limits are set for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes. The decree gives new regulations concerning plant location, combustion control systems, plant monitoring and maintenance, and air pollution control measures such as chimney stack height and emission limits. The French national gas utility promotes environmental high performance boilers

  4. MicroRNA-143 Regulates Human Osteosarcoma Metastasis by Regulating Matrix Metalloprotease-13 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Sugimoto, Yui; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Kobayashi,Eisuke; Yamada, Tesshi; Kawai, Akira; Inoue, Toshiaki; Ito, Hisao; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary metastases are the main cause of death in patients with osteosarcoma, however, the molecular mechanisms of metastasis are not well understood. To detect lung metastasis-related microRNA (miRNA) in human osteosarcoma, we compared parental (HOS) and its subclone (143B) human osteosarcoma cell lines showing lung metastasis in a mouse model. miR-143 was the most downregulated miRNA (P < 0.01), and transfection of miR-143 into 143B significantly decreased its invasiveness, but not cell p...

  5. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K;

    1994-01-01

    lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1......MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  6. Identification of G1-regulated genes in normally cycling human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroun J Beyrouthy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining synchronous cell populations is essential for cell-cycle studies. Methods such as serum withdrawal or use of drugs which block cells at specific points in the cell cycle alter cellular events upon re-entry into the cell cycle. Regulatory events occurring in early G1 phase of a new cell cycle could have been overlooked. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We used a robotic mitotic shake-off apparatus to select cells in late mitosis for genome-wide gene expression studies. Two separate microarray experiments were conducted, one which involved isolation of RNA hourly for several hours from synchronous cell populations, and one experiment which examined gene activity every 15 minutes from late telophase of mitosis into G1 phase. To verify synchrony of the cell populations under study, we utilized methods including BrdU uptake, FACS, and microarray analyses of histone gene activity. We also examined stress response gene activity. Our analysis enabled identification of 200 early G1-regulated genes, many of which currently have unknown functions. We also confirmed the expression of a set of genes candidates (fos, atf3 and tceb by qPCR to further validate the newly identified genes. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Genome-scale expression analyses of the first two hours of G1 in naturally cycling cells enabled the discovery of a unique set of G1-regulated genes, many of which currently have unknown functions, in cells progressing normally through the cell division cycle. This group of genes may contain future targets for drug development and treatment of human disease.

  7. Endocannabinoid Regulation in Human Endometrium Across the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchie, Jessica G.; Savaris, Ricardo F.; Martin, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    Humans produce endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), a group of molecules that activate the same receptors as tetrahydrocannabinol. Endocannabinoids play important roles in reproduction in multiple species, but data in human endometrium are limited. Because endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) often act within tissues as paracrine factors, their effects can be modulated by changes in expression of locally produced synthetic and degradative/oxidative enzymes. The objective of this study was to localize and quantify expression of these key synthetic and degradative/oxidative enzymes for AEA and 2-AG in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. Key synthetic enzymes include N-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD), diacylglycerol-lipase a (DAGL-α, and DAGL-β. Key degradative enzymes include fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL); cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is an oxidative enzyme. Endometrial samples were collected in 49 regularly cycling, normal women. Protein localization and expression were achieved by immunohistochemistry and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. No significant cycle-dependent mRNA expression was observed except that of COX2 (P = .002), which demonstrated maximum expression in the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase, NAPE-PLD protein had increased expression in luminal (P = .001), stromal (P = .007), and glandular (P = .04) epithelia, while FAAH had increased glandular (P = .009) and luminal (P = .01) expression. Increased expression in glandular epithelia was identified for MAGL (P = .03). The COX2 had increased luminal expression during the early secretory phase (P < .0001). In conclusion, maximal expression of degradatory/oxidative enzymes in the secretory phase may foster decreased endocannabinoid tone during implantation. PMID:24819878

  8. Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerhall, C M; Laike, T; Küller, M; Marcheschi, E; Boydston, C; Taylor, R P

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.

  9. Mineralization of Hydroxyapatite Regulated by Recombinant Human-like Collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We reported recombinant human-like type I collagen inducing growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro in the form of self-assembly of nano-fibrils of mineralized collagen resembling extracellular matrix, which obey the same rules, but is superior to the collagen derived from animal tissues because the latter may carry diseases of animals and cause immunological reactions. The mineralized collagen fibrils aligned parallel to each other to form mineralized collagen fibers. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals grew on the surface of these collagen fibrils with the c-axis of nanocrystals of HA orienting along the longitudinal axis of the fibrils.

  10. Darwinism and ethology. The role of natural selection in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervet, J; Soleilhavoup, M

    1997-11-01

    The role of behaviour in biological evolution is examined within the context of Darwinism. All Darwinian models are based on the distinction of two mechanisms: one that permits faithful transmission of a feature from one generation to another, and another that differentially regulates the degree of this transmission. Behaviour plays a minimal role as an agent of transmission in the greater part of the animal kingdom; by contrast, the forms it may assume strongly influence the mechanisms of selection regulating the different rates of transmission. We consider the decisive feature of the human species to be the existence of a phenotypical system of cultural coding characterized by precision and reliability which are the distinctive feature of genetic coding in animals. We examine the consequences for the application of the Darwinian model to human history.

  11. RNA sequencing analysis of human podocytes reveals glucocorticoid regulated gene networks targeting non-immune pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lulu; Hindmarch, Charles C. T.; Rogers, Mark; Campbell, Colin; Waterfall, Christy; Coghill, Jane; Mathieson, Peter W.; Welsh, Gavin I.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or ‘podocytes’, the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells. The upregulated genes are of functional relevance to cytoskeleton-related processes, whereas the downregulated genes mostly encode pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We observed a tendency for dexamethasone-upregulated genes to be downregulated in MCN patients. Integrative analysis revealed gene networks composed of critical signaling pathways that are likely targeted by dexamethasone in podocytes. PMID:27774996

  12. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

    2012-08-21

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters.

  13. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Borić, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  14. A cultural neuroscience approach to the biosocial nature of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg; Vogeley, Kai; Wexler, Bruce E; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience (CN) is an interdisciplinary field that investigates the relationship between culture (e.g., value and belief systems and practices shared by groups) and human brain functions. In this review we describe the origin, aims, and methods of CN as well as its conceptual framework and major findings. We also clarify several misunderstandings of CN research. Finally, we discuss the implications of CN findings for understanding human brain function in sociocultural contexts and novel questions that future CN research should address. By doing so, we hope to provide a clear picture of the CN approach to the human brain and culture and to elucidate the intrinsically biosocial nature of the functional organization of the human brain.

  15. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  16. The open-access era. [Regulations on natural gas pipeline access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. (Stone and Webster Management Consultants Inc., New York, NY (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the effects on the natural gas transportation industry that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's recent proposed rulemaking will have. The topics of the article include take-or-pay pricing, the changing role of the pipeline in the natural gas market, unbundling of the services a pipeline provides, and achieving the fullest possible use of the pipeline network.

  17. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, T.P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  18. Commercial Human Spaceflight: Self-Regulation is the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, the US private spaceflight industry welcomed a law (i.e. the Commercial Space Launch Amendment Act (CSLAA)) postponing until December 23, 2012 or until an accident occurs, the ability by the FAA to issue safety standards and regulations except for aspects of public safety. The Congress later extended the original deadline nearly three years to October 1, 2015.It goes without saying that while government regulations are postponed a commercial spaceflight company has in any case all interest to build a safe vehicles according to the state-of-art. No doubt that their engineers will routinely apply well established technical standards for developing or procuring subsystems and equipment, like pressurized tanks, batteries or pyro valves. They will also at certain points take decisions about redundancy levels when defining, for example, the on-board computers architecture, or the landing system. There will be trade-offs to be made considering cost and mass constraints and acceptable risk thresholds defined. Some key safety decisions will be taken at technical level, other will be necessarily deferred to the company management due to potential impact on the overall project cost and schedule.Therefore the on-going debate is not truly about making or not a commercial space system safe (for those on-board), but about who should bear, at this initial stage of industry development, responsibility to ensure that best practices are known and consistently applied. Responsibility which traditionally belongs to government agencies but that the CSLAA "de facto" delegates to each manufacturer.This paper tries to demonstrate that the traditional model of government establishing detailed safety regulations and certifying compliance is no longer valid for the development of highly advanced systems, and that the current trend is instead for relevant industrial community as a whole to take the lead in developing detailed safety standards and policies and verifying their

  19. Regulations of evapotranspiration and ecosystem productivity from biophysical and human drivers in drylands Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Ouyang, Z.; John, R.; Henebry, G. M.; Xie, Y.; de Beurs, K.; Fan, Y.; Shao, C.; Qi, J.; Wu, J.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of coupled human and environmental systems (CHES) has been a dominant framework in the past decade for understanding the cohesive connections between natural and human systems. Here we focus on how socio-ecological services may be regulated by the regional and local water cycles and by ecosystem production in the drylands of Northern Asia (>40 degree N), which includes Inner Mongolia of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Total precipitation and evapotranspiration are used as the primary drivers to explain ecosystem production (e.g., GPP) and indicators of social function and structure (e.g., GDP, population) using the data collected from 1980 through 2010 of these seven areas. We hypothesize that the changes in the regional and local water cycles in these contrasting regions and socioeconomic settings significantly affect CHES functioning. Institutional changes, including shifts in policy, can play a much stronger role than those caused by the physical changes in determining the relationships between water cycle and CHES functioning. The complex connections among the biophysical and socioeconomic variables are analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) at country and regional scales. The highest water use efficiency (GPP:PET=0.57) was found for Uzbekistan, which also had the highest GDP:GPP (0.66) among the seven areas. In contrast, Mongolia exhibited the lowest values during the study period despite its very high GPP:Population value (45.8). The low population in Mongolia appeared responsible for its rank within the dryland region. Regional institutional changes with global ramifications, such as the collapse of Soviet Union and China joining the World Trade Organization, appears to have affected the CHES of the study areas.

  20. Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    2004-11-22

    A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, to reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared.