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Sample records for regulates glut4 expression

  1. Lack of cyclical fluctuations of endometrial GLUT4 expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Evidence for direct regulation of GLUT4 by steroid hormones

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    Peng Cui

    2015-12-01

    We conclude that P4 can induce changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression during the menstrual cycle and that abnormal hormonal conditions such as PCOS disrupt normal patterns of GLUT4 expression in endometrial cells.

  2. Schisandra polysaccharide increased glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4.

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    Jin, Dun; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Wei-Wei; Mao, Guang-Hua; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wang, Xin-Tong; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, a polysaccharide was extracted from Schisandra Chinensis (Trucz.) Baill and found with anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of the low weight molecular polysaccharide (SCPP11) purified from crude Schisandra polysaccharide and illustrate the underlying mechanism in buffalo rat liver cells. The insulin resistance model of BRL cells was established by incubating with insulin solution for 24h. The effects of SCPP11 on regulating related protein and mRNA expression in an insulin and AMPK signal pathway were investigated by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. SCPP11 showed no cytotoxicity to BRL cells and could improve the glucose consumption in BRL cells. SCPP11 increased the protein expression of Akt, p-AMPK and GLUT-4 in BRL cells. Moreover, SCPP11 could enhance the mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPKα and PPAR-γ in BRL cells at the same time. In conclusion, SCPP11 possessed effects in improving glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4 which might occur via insulin and AMPK signal pathway and could be a potential functional food to prevent and mitigate the insulin resistance condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of rainbow trout glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 during in vitro muscle cell differentiation and regulation by insulin and IGF-I.

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    Díaz, Mònica; Vraskou, Yoryia; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Planas, Josep V

    2009-03-01

    Insulin is an important factor for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, enhancing glucose uptake in its target tissues in a process that has been conserved between fish and mammals. In fish skeletal muscle cells, like in mammals, insulin promotes GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and, consequently, glucose uptake, but its role regulating the expression of glucose transporters in vitro has not been demonstrated to date. Thus, we investigated the expression of GLUT4 and GLUT1 throughout skeletal muscle cell differentiation and their regulation by insulin and IGF-I using a primary culture of trout muscle cells. GLUT4 expression gradually increased during the muscle cell differentiation process, whereas GLUT1 expression remained fairly constant. Insulin and IGF-I similarly increased the mRNA levels of GLUT4 in myoblasts and myotubes. On the other hand, IGF-I appeared to be more potent than insulin in stimulating GLUT1 expression, particularly at the myoblast stage. Therefore, this work provides the first demonstration in nonmammalian vertebrates that insulin and IGF-I may act directly on trout muscle cells to regulate the expression of GLUT4 and GLUT1.

  4. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

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    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane......, GLUT4 was more abundantly expressed in slow as compared to fast fibres at the same fibre diameter (p GLUT4 expression increased with increasing fibre radius independently of fibre type (p GLUT4 density at the surface of slow fibres of both diabetic and obese was reduced...... compared to control subjects at the same diameter (p GLUT4 expression (p

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

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    Yokokawa, Takumi [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Koji [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Honda, Hiroki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, Saitama (Japan); Iemitsu, Motoyuki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Hayashi, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA.

  6. Metformin augments the levels of molecules that regulate the expression of the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 in the endometria of hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients.

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    Carvajal, Rodrigo; Rosas, Carlos; Kohan, Karla; Gabler, Fernando; Vantman, David; Romero, Carmen; Vega, Margarita

    2013-08-01

    Does treatment with the insulin sensitizer metformin modify the levels and activation of proteins related to the expression of the insulin-dependent glucose transporter (GLUT4), such as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), in endometria from hyperinsulinemic hyperandrogenemic polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS h-Ins) patients? In PCOS h-Ins patients, metformin increases endometrial levels of GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels by normalizing the quantity and activation of molecules that regulate GLUT4 expression to healthy values. These changes could improve endometrial metabolic function. PCOS is an endocrine-metabolic disorders closely associated with insulin resistance. In particular, the insulin signaling pathway is impaired in endometria from these patients and the concentration of GLUT4, as well as the molecules involved in its translocation to the cell surface, is decreased. However, there are limited data about the mechanisms that regulate the GLUT4 expression in the endometria and the effect of metformin on them. This is a case-control study in the setting of a research unit, approved by the Ethical Committees of our institution. The groups whose endometria were studied were PCOS h-Ins (n = 8); PCOS patients with hyperandrogenemia hyperinsulinemia taking only metformin for at least 3 months (PCOS-MTF, n = 8) and healthy fertile women at the time of hysterectomy because of benign pathology as controls (CE, n = 8). Steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured and glucose and insulin levels were evaluated during an oral glucose tolerance test. Protein levels for αAMPK (catalytic subunit of AMPK), phosphorylated (p)-AMPKαThr(172) (activating phosphorylation site), MEF2A, p-MEF2AThr312 (activating phosphorylation site) and GLUT4 were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, GLUT4 gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. We found significantly lower levels of MEF2A and p-MEF2

  7. Mechanisms regulating GLUT4 transcription in skeletal muscle cells are highly conserved across vertebrates.

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    Rubén Marín-Juez

    Full Text Available The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 plays a key role in glucose uptake in insulin target tissues. This transporter has been extensively studied in many species in terms of its function, expression and cellular traffic and complex mechanisms are involved in its regulation at many different levels. However, studies investigating the transcription of the GLUT4 gene and its regulation are scarce. In this study, we have identified the GLUT4 gene in a teleost fish, the Fugu (Takifugu rubripes, and have cloned and characterized a functional promoter of this gene for the first time in a non-mammalian vertebrate. In silico analysis of the Fugu GLUT4 promoter identified potential binding sites for transcription factors such as SP1, C/EBP, MEF2, KLF, SREBP-1c and GC-boxes, as well as a CpG island, but failed to identify a TATA box. In vitro analysis revealed three transcription start sites, with the main residing 307 bp upstream of the ATG codon. Deletion analysis determined that the core promoter was located between nucleotides -132/+94. By transfecting a variety of 5´deletion constructs into L6 muscle cells we have determined that Fugu GLUT4 promoter transcription is regulated by insulin, PG-J2, a PPARγ agonist, and electrical pulse stimulation. Furthermore, our results suggest the implication of motifs such as PPARγ/RXR and HIF-1α in the regulation of Fugu GLUT4 promoter activity by PPARγ and contractile activity, respectively. These data suggest that the characteristics and regulation of the GLUT4 promoter have been remarkably conserved during the evolution from fish to mammals, further evidencing the important role of GLUT4 in metabolic regulation in vertebrates.

  8. Mechanisms Regulating GLUT4 Transcription in Skeletal Muscle Cells Are Highly Conserved across Vertebrates

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    Marín-Juez, Rubén; Diaz, Mónica; Morata, Jordi; Planas, Josep V.

    2013-01-01

    The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in glucose uptake in insulin target tissues. This transporter has been extensively studied in many species in terms of its function, expression and cellular traffic and complex mechanisms are involved in its regulation at many different levels. However, studies investigating the transcription of the GLUT4 gene and its regulation are scarce. In this study, we have identified the GLUT4 gene in a teleost fish, the Fugu (Takifugu rubripes), and have cloned and characterized a functional promoter of this gene for the first time in a non-mammalian vertebrate. In silico analysis of the Fugu GLUT4 promoter identified potential binding sites for transcription factors such as SP1, C/EBP, MEF2, KLF, SREBP-1c and GC-boxes, as well as a CpG island, but failed to identify a TATA box. In vitro analysis revealed three transcription start sites, with the main residing 307 bp upstream of the ATG codon. Deletion analysis determined that the core promoter was located between nucleotides -132/+94. By transfecting a variety of 5´deletion constructs into L6 muscle cells we have determined that Fugu GLUT4 promoter transcription is regulated by insulin, PG-J2, a PPARγ agonist, and electrical pulse stimulation. Furthermore, our results suggest the implication of motifs such as PPARγ/RXR and HIF-1α in the regulation of Fugu GLUT4 promoter activity by PPARγ and contractile activity, respectively. These data suggest that the characteristics and regulation of the GLUT4 promoter have been remarkably conserved during the evolution from fish to mammals, further evidencing the important role of GLUT4 in metabolic regulation in vertebrates. PMID:24260440

  9. Super-resolution microscopy reveals the insulin-resistance-regulated reorganization of GLUT4 on plasma membranes.

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    Gao, Lan; Chen, Junling; Gao, Jing; Wang, Hongda; Xiong, Wenyong

    2017-01-15

    GLUT4 (also known as SLC2A4) is essential for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, which play central roles in whole-body glucose metabolism. Here, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to investigate the characteristics of plasma-membrane-fused GLUT4 at the single-molecule level, we have demonstrated that insulin and insulin resistance regulate the spatial organization of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Stimulation with insulin shifted the balance of GLUT4 on the plasma membrane toward a more dispersed configuration. In contrast, insulin resistance induced a more clustered distribution of GLUT4 and increased the mean number of molecules per cluster. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the F 5 QQI motif and lipid rafts mediate the maintenance of GLUT4 clusters on the plasma membrane. Mutation of F 5 QQI (F 5 QQA-GLUT4) induced a more clustered distribution of GLUT4; moreover, destruction of lipid rafts in adipocytes expressing F 5 QQA-GLUT4 dramatically decreased the percentage of large clusters and the mean number of molecules per cluster. In conclusion, our data clarify the effects of insulin stimulation or insulin resistance on GLUT4 reorganization on the plasma membrane and reveal new pathogenic mechanisms of insulin resistance. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and musclin expression

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    J. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin.

  11. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (pGLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  12. Leptin Reduces the Expression and Increases the Phosphorylation of the Negative Regulators of GLUT4 Traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in Muscle of ob/ob Mice

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    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Lancha, Andoni; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    Leptin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Our goal was to determine whether proteins controlling GLUT4 traffic are altered by leptin deficiency and in vivo leptin administration in skeletal muscle of wild type and ob/ob mice. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided in three groups: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Microarray analysis revealed that 1,546 and 1,127 genes were regulated by leptin deficiency and leptin treatment, respectively. Among these, we identified 24 genes involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport in ob/ob mice. TBC1 domain family, member 1 (Tbc1d1), a negative regulator of GLUT4 translocation, was up-regulated (P = 0.001) in ob/ob mice as compared to wild types. Importantly, leptin treatment reduced the transcript levels of Tbc1d1 (P<0.001) and Tbc1d4 (P = 0.004) in the leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to pair-fed ob/ob animals. In addition, phosphorylation levels of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 were enhanced in leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.015 and P = 0.023, respectively) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.036 and P = 0.034, respectively) mice. Despite similar GLUT4 protein expression in wild type and ob/ob groups a different immunolocalization of this protein was evidenced in muscle sections. Leptin treatment increased GLUT4 immunoreactivity in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus sections of leptin-treated ob/ob mice. Moreover, GLUT4 protein detected in immunoprecipitates from TBC1D4 was reduced by leptin replacement compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.013) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.037) mice. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the intracellular GLUT4 transport in skeletal muscle of ob/ob animals by reducing the expression and activity of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4. PMID:22253718

  13. Leptin reduces the expression and increases the phosphorylation of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in muscle of ob/ob mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Sáinz

    Full Text Available Leptin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Our goal was to determine whether proteins controlling GLUT4 traffic are altered by leptin deficiency and in vivo leptin administration in skeletal muscle of wild type and ob/ob mice. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided in three groups: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Microarray analysis revealed that 1,546 and 1,127 genes were regulated by leptin deficiency and leptin treatment, respectively. Among these, we identified 24 genes involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport in ob/ob mice. TBC1 domain family, member 1 (Tbc1d1, a negative regulator of GLUT4 translocation, was up-regulated (P = 0.001 in ob/ob mice as compared to wild types. Importantly, leptin treatment reduced the transcript levels of Tbc1d1 (P<0.001 and Tbc1d4 (P = 0.004 in the leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to pair-fed ob/ob animals. In addition, phosphorylation levels of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 were enhanced in leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.015 and P = 0.023, respectively and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.036 and P = 0.034, respectively mice. Despite similar GLUT4 protein expression in wild type and ob/ob groups a different immunolocalization of this protein was evidenced in muscle sections. Leptin treatment increased GLUT4 immunoreactivity in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus sections of leptin-treated ob/ob mice. Moreover, GLUT4 protein detected in immunoprecipitates from TBC1D4 was reduced by leptin replacement compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.013 and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.037 mice. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the intracellular GLUT4 transport in skeletal muscle of ob/ob animals by reducing the expression and activity of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4.

  14. Regulation of GLUT4 activity in myotubes by 3-O-methyl-d-glucose.

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    Shamni, Ofer; Cohen, Guy; Gruzman, Arie; Zaid, Hilal; Klip, Amira; Cerasi, Erol; Sasson, Shlomo

    2017-10-01

    The rate of glucose influx to skeletal muscles is determined primarily by the number of functional units of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the myotube plasma membrane. The abundance of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane is tightly regulated by insulin or contractile activity, which employ distinct pathways to translocate GLUT4-rich vesicles from intracellular compartments. Various studies have indicated that GLUT4 intrinsic activity is also regulated by conformational changes and/or interactions with membrane components and intracellular proteins in the vicinity of the plasma membrane. Here we show that the non-metabolizable glucose analog 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (MeGlc) augmented the rate of hexose transport into myotubes by increasing GLUT4 intrinsic activity without altering the content of the transporter in the plasma membrane. This effect was not a consequence of ATP depletion or hyperosmolar stress and did not involve Akt/PKB or AMPK signal transduction pathways. MeGlc reduced the inhibitory potency (increased Ki) of indinavir, a selective inhibitor of GLUT4, in a dose-dependent manner. Kinetic analyses indicate that MeGlc induced changes in GLUT4 or GLUT4 complexes within the plasma membrane, which enhanced the hexose transport activity and reduced the potency of indinavir inhibition. Finally, we present a simple kinetic analysis for screening and discovering low molecular weight compounds that augment GLUT4 activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GLUT4 Expression in Adipocytes Regulates De Novo Lipogenesis and Levels of a Novel Class of Lipids With Antidiabetic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

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    Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M; Saghatelian, Alan; Kahn, Barbara B

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) regulates systemic insulin sensitivity through multiple mechanisms, and alterations in de novo lipogenesis appear to contribute. Mice overexpressing GLUT4 in adipocytes (AG4OX) have elevated AT lipogenesis and enhanced glucose tolerance despite being obese and having elevated circulating fatty acids. Lipidomic analysis of AT identified a structurally unique class of lipids, branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy-fatty acids (FAHFAs), which were elevated in AT and serum of AG4OX mice. Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most upregulated FAHFA families in AG4OX mice. Eight PAHSA isomers are present in mouse and human tissues. PAHSA levels are reduced in insulin resistant people, and levels correlate highly with insulin sensitivity. PAHSAs have beneficial metabolic effects. Treatment of obese mice with PAHSAs lowers glycemia and improves glucose tolerance while stimulating glucagon-like peptide 1 and insulin secretion. PAHSAs also reduce inflammatory cytokine production from immune cells and ameliorate adipose inflammation in obesity. PAHSA isomer concentrations are altered in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a tissue- and isomer-specific manner. The mechanisms most likely involve changes in PAHSA biosynthesis, degradation, and secretion. The discovery of PAHSAs reveals the existence of previously unknown endogenous lipids and biochemical pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation, two fundamental physiological processes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Direct evidence of fiber type-dependent GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle

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    Gaster, M; Poulsen, P; Handberg, A

    2000-01-01

    GLUT-4 expression in individual fibers of human skeletal muscles in younger and older adults was studied. Furthermore, the dependency of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on fiber type distribution was investigated. Fiber type distribution was determined in cryosections of muscle biopsies from 8...... younger (29 yr) and 8 older (64 yr) healthy subjects, and estimates of GLUT-4 expression in individual fibers were obtained by combining immunohistochemistry and stereology. GLUT-4 was more abundantly expressed in slow compared with fast muscle fibers in both younger (P ...) subjects. A 25% reduction of GLUT-4 density in fast fibers (P GLUT-4 density in slow fibers were demonstrated in older compared with younger subjects. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rates measured by hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp were not correlated with the fraction...

  17. PGC-1α integrates glucose metabolism and angiogenesis in multiple myeloma cells by regulating VEGF and GLUT-4.

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    Cao, Dedong; Zhou, Hao; Zhao, Jikai; Jin, Lu; Yu, Wen; Yan, Han; Hu, Yu; Guo, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key coactivator in the regulation of gene transcriptional activity in normal tissues. However, it is not clear whether it is involved in the angiogenesis and metabolism of multiple myeloma (MM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α in MM. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit PGC-1α expression in RPMI-8226 cells. An endothelial cell migration assay was performed using transwell chambers and the expression of PGC-1α, estrogen-related receptor-α (ERR-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) was tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of PGC-1α, ERR-α and GLUT-4 was assayed by western blot analysis. Lastly, RPMI-8226 cell proliferation was evaluated using CCK-8 assay. VEGF and GLUT-4 mRNA levels were decreased in cells treated with siRNA targeting PGC-1α, as was the level of GLUT-4 protein. Endothelial cell migration was significantly reduced when these cells were cultured with culture medium from RPMI-8226 cells treated with siPGC-1α. The proliferation rates at 24 and 48 h were suppressed by PGC-1α inhibition. Our results showed that inhibition of PGC-1α suppresses cell proliferation probably by downregulation of VEGF and GLUT-4. The present study suggests that PGC-1α integrates angiogenesis and glucose metabolism in myeloma through regulation of VEGF and GLUT-4.

  18. Insulin and dexamethasone induce GLUT4 gene expression in foetal brown adipocytes: synergistic effect through CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha.

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    Hernandez, Rosario; Teruel, Teresa; Lorenzo, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of foetal brown adipocytes in primary culture with either dexamethasone or insulin, at physiological concentrations, for 24 h up-regulates the expression of the GLUT4 gene, producing a synergistic effect on mRNA accumulation (20-fold increase), in the amount of protein in the total membrane fraction (8-fold increase) and in the transactivation of a full-promoter GLUT4 -chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene ( CAT ) construct (7-fold increase). However, GLUT1 expression remains essen...

  19. GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT8 are the dominant GLUT transcripts expressed in the murine left ventricle.

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    Aerni-Flessner, Lauren; Abi-Jaoude, Melissa; Koenig, Amanda; Payne, Maria; Hruz, Paul W

    2012-06-08

    The heart derives energy from a wide variety of substrates including fatty acids, carbohydrates, ketones, and amino acids. The healthy heart generates up to 30% of its ATP from glucose. Under conditions of cardiac injury or stress, the heart relies even more heavily on glucose as a source of fuel. Glucose is transported into the heart by members of the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). While research examining the transport of glucose into the heart has primarily focused on the roles of the classical glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, little is known about the functions of more newly identified GLUT isoforms in the myocardium. In this study the presence and relative RNA message abundance of each of the known GLUT isoforms was determined in left ventricular tissue from two commonly used inbred laboratory mouse strains (C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ) by quantitative real time PCR. Relative message abundance was also determined in GLUT4 null mice and in murine models of dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT8 were found to be the most abundant GLUT transcripts in the normal heart, while GLUT3, GLUT10, and GLUT12 are present at relatively lower levels. Assessment of relative GLUT expression in left ventricular myocardium from mice with dilated cardiomyopathy revealed increased expression of GLUT1 with reduced levels of GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12. Compensatory increase in the expression of GLUT12 was observed in genetically altered mice lacking GLUT4. Glucose transporter expression varies significantly among murine models of cardiac dysfunction and involves several of the class III GLUT isoforms. Understanding how these more newly identified GLUT isoforms contribute to regulating myocardial glucose transport will enhance our comprehension of the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the heart.

  20. Expression study of GLUT4 translocation-related genes in a porcine pre-diabetic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thea; Fredholm, Merete; Cirera Salicio, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    a large pig population. Transcriptional levels of seven genes involved in the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation pathway were studied by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in diabetes relevant tissues (pancreas, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney). Three of the genes, TBC (Tre-2......, BUB2, CDC16) 1 Domain Family Member 4 (TBC1D4), insulin receptor and GLUT4 showed altered expression in some of the tissues. The expression pattern observed is in agreement with what has previously been reported in pre-diabetic humans confirming the pre-diabetic status of our pigs. Moreover, a novel...

  1. Intervention of rosiglitazone on myocardium Glut-4 mRNA expression during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardio-pulmonary bypass in dogs.

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    Liu, Bin; Liang, Guiyou; Xu, Gang; Liu, Daxin; Cai, Qingyong; Gao, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    During cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induces heart glucose metabolism impairment. Our previous research showed that the decreased glucose utilization is due to decreased glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) expression and translocation to myocyte surface membranes. This study further examined whether rosiglitazone, a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, could intervene glucose metabolism by regulating Glut-4 mRNA during I/R in dogs. Cardiac ischemia was induced by cardiopulmonary bypass for 30 or 120 min. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at pre-bypass (control), aortic cross-clamp off (I/R) at 15, 45, and 75 min. The left ventricle biopsies were taken for the expression of Glut-4 mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. In dogs receiving 120 min ischemia, coronary arterial, venous glucose concentrations, plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistant index (IRI) were increased, but the expression of Glut-4 mRNA was decreased obviously at 15 min of reperfusion, and recovered gradually. On the other hand, these changes were relatively mild in dogs treated with rosiglitazone in cardioplegic solution and expression of Glut-4 mRNA was increased remarkably. It is concluded that the decrease in total amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression could be one of the important molecular mechanisms, which causes the myocardium insulin resistance. The longer the ischemia period, the decrease in amount of Glut-4 mRNA was more dramatic. Adding rosiglitazone into the cardioplegic solution during I/R can increase the amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression, mitigate the myocardium insulin resistance and improve the myocardium I/R injury during CPB.

  2. Insulin stimulated-glucose transporter Glut 4 is expressed in the retina.

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    Gustavo Sánchez-Chávez

    Full Text Available The vertebrate retina is a very metabolically active tissue whose energy demands are normally met through the uptake of glucose and oxygen. Glucose metabolism in this tissue relies upon adequate glucose delivery from the systemic circulation. Therefore, glucose transport depends on the expression of glucose transporters. Here, we show retinal expression of the Glut 4 glucose transporter in frog and rat retinas. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies showed Glut 4 expression in the three nuclear layers of the retina: the photoreceptor, inner nuclear and ganglionar cell layers. In the rat retina immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa. ¹⁴C-glucose accumulation by isolated rat retinas was significantly enhanced by physiological concentrations of insulin, an effect blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3K, a key enzyme in the insulin-signaling pathway in other tissues. Also, we observed an increase in ³H-cytochalasin binding sites in the presence of insulin, suggesting an increase in transporter recruitment at the cell surface. Besides, insulin induced phosphorylation of Akt, an effect also blocked by PI3K inhibition. Expression of Glut 4 was not modified in retinas of a type 1 diabetic rat model. To our knowledge, our results provide the first evidence of Glut4 expression in the retina, suggesting it as an insulin- responsive tissue.

  3. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, Joshua; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kairupan, Bernabas Harold Ralph; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural substance that may be useful for treating diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effects of RA on glucose homeostasis and insulin regulation in rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes or high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Glucose homeostasis was determined using oral glucose tolerance tests and postprandial glucose tests, and insulin activity was evaluated using insulin tolerance tests and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Additionally, the protein expression levels of PEPCK and GLUT4 were determined using Western blot analysis. RA administration exerted a marked hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats and enhanced glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed diabetic rats. These effects of RA were dose-dependent. Meanwhile, RA administration reversed the STZ- and HFD-induced increase in PEPCK expression in the liver and the STZ- and HFD-induced decrease in GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. RA reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates insulin sensitivity by decreasing PEPCK expression and increasing GLUT4 expression.

  4. Peripheral insulin resistance in ILK-depleted mice by reduction of GLUT4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem-Vaquero, Marco; Griera, Mercedes; García-Jerez, Andrea; Luengo, Alicia; Álvarez, Julia; Rubio, José A; Calleros, Laura; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; De Frutos, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    The development of insulin resistance is characterized by the impairment of glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Extracellular matrix changes are induced when the metabolic dysregulation is sustained. The present work was devoted to analyze the possible link between the extracellular-to-intracellular mediator integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and the peripheral tissue modification that leads to glucose homeostasis impairment. Mice with general depletion of ILK in adulthood (cKD-ILK) maintained in a chow diet exhibited increased glycemia and insulinemia concurrently with a reduction of the expression and membrane presence of GLUT4 in the insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues compared with their wild-type littermates (WT). Tolerance tests and insulin sensitivity indexes confirmed the insulin resistance in cKD-ILK, suggesting a similar stage to prediabetes in humans. Under randomly fed conditions, no differences between cKD-ILK and WT were observed in the expression of insulin receptor (IR-B) and its substrate IRS-1 expressions. The IR-B isoform phosphorylated at tyrosines 1150/1151 was increased, but the AKT phosphorylation in serine 473 was reduced in cKD-ILK tissues. Similarly, ILK-blocked myotubes reduced their GLUT4 promoter activity and GLUT4 expression levels. On the other hand, the glucose uptake capacity in response to exogenous insulin was impaired when ILK was blocked in vivo and in vitro, although IR/IRS/AKT phosphorylation states were increased but not different between groups. We conclude that ILK depletion modifies the transcription of GLUT4, which results in reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, suggesting ILK as a molecular target and a prognostic biomarker of insulin resistance. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. EsGLUT4 and CHHBP are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in the crustacean Eriocheir sinensis

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    Ran Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs, members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH is a multifunctional neurohormone found only in arthropods, and one of its roles is to regulate glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies CHH regulation and whether GLUT4 is involved in its regulation in crustaceans remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a full-length GLUT4 cDNA sequence (defined herein as EsGLUT4 from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analyzed its tissue distribution and cellular localization. By the ForteBio Octet system, two large hydrophilic regions within EsGLUT4 were found to interact with the CHH binding protein (CHHBP, an E. sinensis flotillin-like protein. Interestingly, live-cell imaging indicated that EsGLUT4 and CHHBP responded simultaneously upon stimulation by CHH, resulting in glucose release. In contrast to insulin-dependent GLUT4, however, EsGLUT4 and CHHBP were present within cytoplasmic vesicles, both translocating to the plasma membrane upon CHH stimulation. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence for the involvement of EsGLUT4 and CHHBP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in crustacean carbohydrate metabolism.

  6. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtuwene J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Joshua Runtuwene,1,2 Kai-Chun Cheng,1 Akihiro Asakawa,1 Haruka Amitani,1 Marie Amitani,1 Akinori Morinaga,1 Yoshiyuki Takimoto,3 Bernabas Harold Ralph Kairupan,2 Akio Inui1 1Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan; 2Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia; 3Department of Biomedical Ethics, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Background: Rosmarinic acid (RA is a natural substance that may be useful for treating diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effects of RA on glucose homeostasis and insulin regulation in rats with streptozocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetes or high-fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes.Methods: Glucose homeostasis was determined using oral glucose tolerance tests and postprandial glucose tests, and insulin activity was evaluated using insulin tolerance tests and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Additionally, the protein expression levels of PEPCK and GLUT4 were determined using Western blot analysis.Results: RA administration exerted a marked hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats and enhanced glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed diabetic rats. These effects of RA were dose-dependent. Meanwhile, RA administration reversed the STZ- and HFD-induced increase in PEPCK expression in the liver and the STZ- and HFD-induced decrease in GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle.Conclusion: RA reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates insulin sensitivity by decreasing PEPCK expression and increasing GLUT4 expression. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, STZ, HFD, HOMA-IR, PEPCK, GLUT4

  7. p38MAPK Signaling Enhances Glycolysis Through the Up-Regulation of the Glucose Transporter GLUT-4 in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Wen, Dacheng; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Xudong; Liu, Tianzhou; Zhu, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that p38MAPK is involved in gastric cancer, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. q-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to explore the expression of PP2A and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues. Activated p38MAPK in the gastric cancer cell line MKN45 using activator, then q-PCR, glucose uptake assay and colony formation assay were performed to determine whether p38MAPK promotes gastric cancer through the enhancement of glycolysis. After transfection of p38MAPK dominant negative mutation (p38DN) into MKN45 cells or MKN45 cells treated with an inhibitor of p38MAPK, Western blot was performed to detect the expression of GLUT-4. The knock down of MEF2α in MKN45 cells by siRNA was followed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay to investigate the underlying mechanism of the role of p38MAPK in the promotion of gastric cancer. Finally, q-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine GLUT-4 expression in gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues. We found that p38MAPK activation significantly increases GLUT-4 expression and promotes glucose uptake and cell growth in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of p38MAPK abrogates the up-regulation of GLUT-4. MEF2α knockdown abolishes p38MAPK-mediated GLUT-4 up-regulation. PP2A, an inhibitor of p38MAPK, is down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues, which might contribute to the activation of p38MAPK. Our data indicate that the abnormal activation of p38MAPK promotes glycolysis within gastric cancer cells through the upregulation of GLUT-4 in a MEF2a-dependent manner.

  8. Rac1 governs exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Laurent, Ida; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    % in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wildtype littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 m......KO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. PGC-1{alpha} is required for AICAR induced expression of GLUT4 and mitochondrial proteins in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2010-01-01

    GLUT4, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)I and cytochrome (cyt) c protein expression ~10-40% relative to saline in white muscles of the WT mice, but not of the PGC-1alpha KO mice. In line, GLUT4 and cyt c mRNA content increased 30-60% 4h after a single AICAR injection relative to saline only in WT mice. One...

  10. Oleanolic Acid Attenuates Insulin Resistance via NF-κB to Regulate the IRS1-GLUT4 Pathway in HepG2 Cells

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    Ming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to elucidate the mechanisms of oleanolic acid (OA on insulin resistance (IR in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were induced with FFA as the insulin resistance model and were treated with OA. Then the glucose content and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were analyzed. Moreover, protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in cells treated with OA were measured by Western blot analysis. Additionally, IRS1 protein expression exposed to OA was detected after using pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC.Our results revealed that OA decreased the glucose content in HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, OA reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and upregulated IRS1 and GLUT4 protein expression. Furthermore, OA also reduced NF-κB protein expression in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. After blocking NF-κB, the expression of IRS1 protein had no obvious changes when treated with OA. OA attenuated insulin resistance and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Meanwhile, OA decreased NF-κB protein expression and upregulated IRS1 and GLUT4 protein expression. Therefore, regulating the IRS1-GLUT4 pathway via NF-κB was the underlying mechanism of OA on insulin resistance.

  11. The beneficial effects of exercise in rodents are preserved after detraining: a phenomenon unrelated to GLUT4 expression

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    De Angelis Kátia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although exercise training has well-known cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits, low compliance with exercise training programs is a fact, and the harmful effects of physical detraining regarding these adaptations usually go unnoticed. We investigated the effects of exercise detraining on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY. Methods Studied animals were randomized into sedentary, trained (treadmill running/5 days a week, 60 min/day for 10 weeks, 1 week of detraining, and 2 weeks of detraining. Blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (kITT, and GLUT4 (Western blot in heart, gastrocnemius and white fat tissue were measured. Results Exercise training reduced blood pressure (19%, improved insulin sensitivity (24%, and increased GLUT4 in the heart (+34%; gastrocnemius (+36% and fat (+22% in SHR. In WKY no change in either blood pressure or insulin sensitivity were observed, but there was an increase in GLUT4 in the heart (+25%, gastrocnemius (+45% and fat (+36% induced by training. Both periods of detraining did not induce any change in neither blood pressure nor insulin sensitivity in SHR and WKY. One-week detraining reduced GLUT4 in SHR (heart: -28%; fat: -23% and WKY (heart: -19%; fat: -22%; GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius was reduced after a 2-week detraining (SHR: -35%; WKY: -25%. There was a positive correlation between GLUT4 (gastrocnemius and the maximal velocity in the exercise test (r = 0.60, p = 0.004. Conclusions The study findings show that in detraining, despite reversion of the enhanced GLUT4 expression, cardiorespiratory and metabolic beneficial effects of exercise are preserved.

  12. GLUT4 and UBC9 protein expression is reduced in muscle from type 2 diabetic patients with severe insulin resistance.

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    Ulla Kampmann

    Full Text Available Subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus demand large insulin doses to maintain euglycemia. These patients are characterized by severe skeletal muscle insulin resistance and the underlying pathology remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine protein expression of the principal glucose transporter, GLUT4, and associated proteins in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients characterized by severe insulin resistance.Seven type 2 diabetic patients with severe insulin resistance (mean insulin dose 195 IU/day were compared with seven age matched type 2 diabetic patients who did not require insulin treatment, and with an age matched healthy control group. Protein expression of GLUT4 and associated proteins was assessed in muscle and fat biopsies using standard western blotting techniques.GLUT4 protein expression was significantly reduced by ∼30 pct in skeletal muscle tissue from severely insulin resistant type 2 diabetic subjects, compared with both healthy controls and type 2 diabetic subjects that did not require insulin treatment. In fat tissue, GLUT4 protein expression was reduced in both diabetic groups. In skeletal muscle, the reduced GLUT4 expression in severe insulin resistance was associated with decreased ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9 expression while expression of GLUT1, TBC1D1 and AS160 was not significantly different among type 2 diabetic patients and matched controls.Type 2 diabetic patients with severe insulin resistance have reduced expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle compared to patients treated with oral antidiabetic drugs alone. GLUT4 protein levels may therefore play a role in the pathology behind type 2 diabetes mellitus among subgroups of patients, and this may explain the heterogeneous response to insulin treatment. This new finding contributes to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms for the development of extreme insulin resistance.

  13. Role of insulin on exercise-induced GLUT-4 protein expression and glycogen supercompensation in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Hyonson; Lee, Man-Cheong; Castle, Arthur L; Ivy, John L

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of insulin on skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein expression and glycogen storage after postexercise carbohydrate supplementation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: sedentary control (Con), Con with streptozocin (Stz/C), immediately postexercise (Ex0), Ex0 with Stz (Stz/Ex0), 5-h postexercise (Ex5), and Ex5 with Stz (Stz/Ex5). Rats were exercised by swimming (2 bouts of 3 h) and carbohydrate supplemented immediately after each exercise session by glucose intubation (1 ml of a 50% wt/vol). Stz was administered 72-h before exercise, which resulted in hyperglycemia and elimination of the insulin response to the carbohydrate supplement. GLUT-4 protein of Ex0 rats was 30% above Con in fast-twitch (FT) red and 21% above Con in FT white muscle. In Ex5, GLUT-4 protein was 52% above Con in FT red and 47% above Con in FT white muscle. Muscle glycogen in FT red and white muscle was also increased above Con in Ex5 rats. Neither GLUT-4 protein nor muscle glycogen was increased above Con in Stz/Ex0 or Stz/Ex5 rats. GLUT-4 mRNA in FT red muscle of Ex0 rats was 61% above Con but only 33% above Con in Ex5 rats. GLUT-4 mRNA in FT red muscle of Stz/C and Stz/Ex0 rats was similar but significantly elevated in Ex5/Stz rats. These results suggest that insulin is essential for the increase in GLUT-4 protein expression following postexercise carbohydrate supplementation.

  14. Methanolic extract of Momordica cymbalaria enhances glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in vitro by up-regulating PPAR-γ and GLUT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the methanolic fruit extract of Momordica cymbalaria (MFMC) on PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma) and GLUT-4 (Glucose transporter-4) with respect to glucose transport. Various concentrations of MFMC ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg·mL(-1) were evaluated for glucose uptake activity in vitro using L6 myotubes, rosiglitazone was used as a reference standard. The MFMC showed significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake at the tested concentrations, further, the glucose uptake activity of MFMC (500 μg·mL(-1)) was comparable with rosigilitazone. Furthermore, MFMC has shown up-regulation of GLUT-4 and PPARγ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. In addition, the MFMC when incubated along with cycloheximide (CHX), which is a protein synthesis inhibitor, has shown complete blockade of glucose uptake. This indicates that new protein synthesis is required for increased GLUT-4 translocation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MFMC is enhancing the glucose uptake significantly and dose dependently through the enhanced expression of PPARγ and GLUT-4 in vitro. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of intensive insulin therapy on the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression in skeletal muscle in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P H; Vestergaard, H; Lund, S

    1993-01-01

    Studies in normal man and rodents have demonstrated that the expression of the dominant glucose transporter in skeletal muscle, GLUT4, is regulated by insulin at supraphysiological circulating levels. The present study was designed to determine whether intensified insulin replacement therapy for 24...... h given to patients with Type 1 diabetes in poor metabolic control was associated with an adaptive regulation of GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels in vastus lateralis muscle. Nine Type 1 diabetic patients with a mean HbA1c of 10.3% were included in the protocol. After intensified treatment with soluble...... of the plasma glucose concentration for at least 15 h no significant alterations occurred in the amount of GLUT4 protein (0.138 +/- 0.056, poor control vs 0.113 +/- 0.026 arb. units, improved control, p = 0.16) or GLUT4 mRNA (96432 +/- 44985, poor control vs 81395 +/- 25461 arb. units, improved control, p = 0...

  16. Potential role of Rab4 in the regulation of subcellular localization of Glut4 in adipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cormont, M; Bortoluzzi, M N; Gautier, N; Mari, M; van Obberghen, E; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y

    1996-01-01

    A role for Rab4 in the translocation of the glucose transporter Glut4 induced by insulin has been recently proposed. To study more directly the role of this small GTPase, freshly isolated adipocytes were transiently transfected with the cDNAs of both an epitope-tagged Glut4-myc and Rab4, a system

  17. GLUT4 expression in human muscle fibres is not correlated with intracellular triglyceride (TG) content. Is TG a maker or a marker of insulin resistance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Ottosen, P D; Vach, W

    2003-01-01

    We have recently reported a progressive decline in the expression of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from control subjects through obese non-diabetics to obese type 2 diabetic subjects, indicating that the reduced GLUT4 in slow twitch fibres could be secondary to obesity. In this study we...... investigate the association of GLUT4 expression with the intracellular triglyceride (TG) content in the same muscle fibres and with plasma lipid parameters. We used histochemistry and stereology to study the relationship between TG content and GLUT4 expression in muscle fibres from obese, obese type 2...... densities in slow and fast fibres did not correlate with the corresponding GLUT4 density in the same fibres in our study groups (p>0.05). Plasma TG and FFA did not correlate with GLUT4 expression in slow or fast fibres (p>0.05). In conclusion, TG content was increased in diabetic slow fibres with a reduced...

  18. Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Erik A; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is an important fuel for contracting muscle, and normal glucose metabolism is vital for health. Glucose enters the muscle cell via facilitated diffusion through the GLUT4 glucose transporter which translocates from intracellular storage depots to the plasma membrane and T-tubules upon muscle contraction. Here we discuss the current understanding of how exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake is regulated. We briefly discuss the role of glucose supply and metabolism and concentrate on GLUT4 translocation and the molecular signaling that sets this in motion during muscle contractions. Contraction-induced molecular signaling is complex and involves a variety of signaling molecules including AMPK, Ca(2+), and NOS in the proximal part of the signaling cascade as well as GTPases, Rab, and SNARE proteins and cytoskeletal components in the distal part. While acute regulation of muscle glucose uptake relies on GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake also depends on muscle GLUT4 expression which is increased following exercise. AMPK and CaMKII are key signaling kinases that appear to regulate GLUT4 expression via the HDAC4/5-MEF2 axis and MEF2-GEF interactions resulting in nuclear export of HDAC4/5 in turn leading to histone hyperacetylation on the GLUT4 promoter and increased GLUT4 transcription. Exercise training is the most potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression, an effect that may partly contribute to improved insulin action and glucose disposal and enhanced muscle glycogen storage following exercise training in health and disease.

  19. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  20. The GLUT4 Glucose Transporter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shaohui; Czech, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    ... protein that mediates this uptake is one isoform (Gene name, SLC2A4; protein name: GLUT4) of a family of sugar transporter proteins containing 12-transmembrane domains ( Figure 1 ). The GLUT4 glucose transporter is thus a major mediator of glucose removal from the circulation and a key regulator of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Here, we discus...

  1. Grp1 plays a key role in linking insulin signaling to glut4 recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Malaby, Andrew W.; Famulok, Michael; Sabe, Hisataka; Lambright, David G.; Hsu, Victor W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The glucose transporter type 4 (glut4) is critical for metabolic homeostasis. Insulin regulates glut4 by modulating its expression on the cell surface. This regulation is achieved mainly by targeting the endocytic recycling of glut4. We identify Grp1 (general receptor for 3-phosphoinositides 1) as a GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) for ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) that promotes glut4 vesicle formation. Grp1 also promotes the later steps of glut4 recycling through ARF6. Insulin signaling regulates Grp1 through phosphorylation by Akt. We also find that mutations which mimic constitutive phosphorylation of Grp1 can bypass upstream insulin signaling to induce glut4 recycling. Thus, we have uncovered a major mechanism by which insulin regulates glut4 recycling. Our findings also reveal the complexity by which a single small GTPase in vesicular transport can coordinate its multiple steps to accomplish a round of transport. PMID:22609160

  2. Distinct Akt phosphorylation states are required for insulin regulated Glut4 and Glut1-mediated glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Muheeb; Abdullah, Nazish; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Altorki, Nasser K; McGraw, Timothy E

    2017-06-07

    Insulin, downstream of Akt activation, promotes glucose uptake into fat and muscle cells to lower postprandial blood glucose, an enforced change in cellular metabolism to maintain glucose homeostasis. This effect is mediated by the Glut4 glucose transporter. Growth factors also enhance glucose uptake to fuel an anabolic metabolism required for tissue growth and repair. This activity is predominantly mediated by the Glut1. Akt is activated by phosphorylation of its kinase and hydrophobic motif (HM) domains. We show that insulin-stimulated Glut4-mediated glucose uptake requires PDPK1 phosphorylation of the kinase domain but not mTORC2 phosphorylation of the HM domain. Nonetheless, an intact HM domain is required for Glut4-mediated glucose uptake. Whereas, Glut1-mediated glucose uptake also requires mTORC2 phosphorylation of the HM domain, demonstrating both phosphorylation-dependent and independent roles of the HM domain in regulating glucose uptake. Thus, mTORC2 links Akt to the distinct physiologic programs related to Glut4 and Glut1-mediated glucose uptake.

  3. Anti-Diabetic Activities of Jiaotaiwan in db/db Mice by Augmentation of AMPK Protein Activity and Upregulation of GLUT4 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiaotaiwan (JTW, which is composed of Coptis chinensis (CC and cinnamon (CIN, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effects and mechanism of JTW in db/db mice. Results showed that JTW significantly decreased the level of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance better than CC or CIN alone. JTW also effectively protected the pancreatic islet shape, augmented the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the liver, and increased the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle and white fat. AMPK and GLUT4 contributed to glucose metabolism regulation and had an essential function in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the mechanisms of JTW may be related to suppressing gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK in the liver and affecting glucose uptake in surrounding tissues through the upregulation of GLUT4 protein expression. These findings provided a new insight into the antidiabetic clinical applications of JTW and demonstrated the potential of JTW as a new drug candidate for DM treatment.

  4. Rac1 governs exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Lykke; Nielsen, Ida L; Kleinert, Maximilian; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Ploug, Thorkil; Schjerling, Peter; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A

    2016-09-01

    Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. The GTPase Rac1 can be activated by muscle contraction and has been found to be necessary for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, although its role in exercise-stimulated glucose uptake is unknown. We show that Rac1 regulates the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle during exercise. We find that Rac1 knockout mice display significantly reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle during exercise. Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signalling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood, although the GTPase Rac1 is a candidate molecule. The present study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise-induced uptake of radiolabelled 2-deoxyglucose at 65% of maximum running capacity was blocked in soleus muscle and decreased by 80% and 60% in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wild-type littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 mKO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  5. Myostatin alters glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese shorthorn cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Sato, K; Yamaguchi, T; Miyake, M; Watanabe, H; Nagasawa, Y; Kitagawa, E; Terada, S; Urakawa, M; Rose, M T; McMahon, C D; Watanabe, K; Ohwada, S; Gotoh, T; Aso, H

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether myostatin alters glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Plasma concentrations of glucose were lower in DM cattle than in NM cattle (P DM cattle than in NM cattle (P DM cattle did not differ with respect to skeletal muscle expression of GLUT1 and myocyte enhancer factor-2c (MEF2c), a transcription factor of GLUT4. In differentiated myoblasts, the expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and MEF2c mRNAs was greater in DM cattle than in NM cattle (P DM cattle relative to that of NM cattle (P DM myoblasts (P DM cattle to produce muscle relative to the NM cattle may be due to their greater sensitivity to insulin and greater use of glucose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene gun bombardment-mediated expression and translocation of EGFP-tagged GLUT4 in skeletal muscle fibres in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Reynet, Christine; Schjerling, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cellular protein trafficking has been studied to date only in vitro or with techniques that are invasive and have a low time resolution. To establish a gentle method for analysis of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) trafficking in vivo in fully differentiated rat skeletal muscle fibres we combined......-old rats and peaked around 1 week after transfection. The gene gun was used subsequently with a plasmid coding for EGFP linked to the C-terminus of GLUT4 (GLUT4-EGFP). Rats were anaesthetised 5 days after transfection and insulin given i.v. with or without accompanying electrical hindleg muscle stimulation....... After stimulation, the hindlegs were fixed by perfusion. GLUT4-EGFP-positive FDB fibres were isolated and analysed by confocal microscopy. The intracellular distribution of GLUT4-EGFP under basal conditions as well as after translocation to the plasma membrane in response to insulin, contractions...

  7. Expression of the major insulin regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle of noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients and healthy subjects before and after insulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P H; Lund, S; Vestergaard, H

    1993-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study we have examined the regulatory effect of insulin in vivo on the major insulin regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in vastus lateralis muscle from 12 noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and 8 healthy control subjects. Insulin-stimulated glucose...... in the NIDDM patients. The GLUT4 protein per DNA of muscle obtained in the basal state correlated positively with the in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate in the control group (r = 0.82, P ... protein content in skeletal muscle after 4 h of insulin infusion did not correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in any of the groups. In conclusion, 4 h of insulin infusion causing supraphysiological serum insulin levels modulates the expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle from healthy subjects...

  8. The GLUT4 Code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larance, Mark; Ramm, Georg; James, David E

    2008-01-01

    .... Glucose transport is accomplished by a shift in the distribution of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in the presence of insulin...

  9. Multiple signalling pathways redundantly control glucose transporter GLUT4 gene transcription in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgia, Marta; Elbenhardt Jensen, Thomas; Cusinato, Marzia

    2009-01-01

    Increased GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle is an important benefit of regular exercise, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent-kinase II (CaMKII), calcineurin and AMPK pathways have been implicated in GLUT4 gene regulation based...... on pharmacological evidence. Here, we have used a more specific genetic approach to establish the relative role of the three pathways in fast and slow muscles. Plasmids coding for protein inhibitors of CaMKII or calcineurin were co-transfected in vivo with a GLUT4 enhancer-reporter construct either in normal mice...... or in mice expressing a dominant negative AMPK mutant. GLUT4 reporter activity was not inhibited in the slow soleus muscle by blocking either CaMKII or calcineurin alone, but was inhibited by blocking both pathways. GLUT4 reporter activity was likewise unchanged in the soleus of dnAMPK mice...

  10. Effect of denervation or unweighting on GLUT-4 protein in rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.; James, David E.; Holloszy, John O.

    1991-01-01

    The study is intended to test the hypothesis that the decreased capacity for glucose transport in the denervated rat soleus and the increased capacity for glucose transport in the unweighted rat soleus are related to changes in the expression of the regulatable glucose transporter protein in skeletal muscle (GLUT-4). Results obtained indicate that altered GLUT-4 expression may be a major contributor to the changes in insulin-stimulated glucose transport that are observed with denervation and unweighting. It is concluded that muscle activity is an important factor in the regulation of the GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle.

  11. Insulin and Contraction-induced GLUT4 Traffic in Muscle: Insights from a Novel Imaging Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritzen, Hans P.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and contraction-mediated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) trafficking have different kinetics in mature skeletal muscle. Intravital imaging indicates that insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking differs between t-tubules and sarcolemma. In contrast, contraction-induced GLUT4 trafficking does not differ between membrane surfaces. This distinction is likely due to differences in the underlying signaling pathways regulating GLUT4 vesicle depletion, GLUT4 membrane fusion and GLUT4 re-internaliz...

  12. Impact of pre-gestational and gestational diabetes mellitus on the expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pyzlak, Michał; Abdalla, Nabil; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    Various studies in placental tissue suggest that diabetes mellitus alters the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins, with insulin therapy being a possible modulatory factor. The aim of the present study was quantitative evaluation of the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GLUT-9) in the placenta of women in both, uncomplicated and diabetic pregnancy. Additionally, the effect of insulin therapy on the expression of selected glucose transporter isoforms was analyzed. Term placental samples were obtained from healthy control (n = 25) and diabetic pregnancies, including diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG1) (n = 16), insulin-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG2) (n = 6), and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) (n = 6). Computer-assisted quantitative morphometry of stained placental sections was performed to determine the expression of selected glucose transporter proteins. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 in insulin-dependent diabetic women (GDMG2 + PGDM) as compared to both, control and GDMG1 groups (p GLUT-1 expression was observed only in placental specimens from patients with PGDM (p GLUT expression were found between GDMG1 patients and healthy controls. The results of the study confirmed the presence of GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 proteins in the trophoblast from both, uncomplicated and diabetic pregnancies. In addition, insulin therapy may increase placental expression of GLUT-4 and GLUT-9, and partially GLUT-1, in women with GDMG2/PGDM.

  13. The SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9 is a regulator of GLUT4 turnover and targeting to the insulin-responsive storage compartment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Bin; Omata, Waka; Kojima, Itaru; Shibata, Hiroshi

    2007-08-01

    The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) conjugating enzyme Ubc9 has been shown to upregulate GLUT4 in L6 myoblast cells, although the mechanism of action has remained undefined. Here we investigated the physiological significance of Ubc9 in GLUT4 turnover and subcellular targeting by adenovirus vector-mediated overexpression and by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing of Ubc9 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overexpression of Ubc9 resulted in an inhibition of GLUT4 degradation and promoted its targeting to the unique insulin-responsive GLUT4 storage compartment (GSC), leading to an increase in GLUT4 amount and insulin-responsive glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overexpression of Ubc9 also antagonized GLUT4 downregulation and its selective loss in GSC induced by long-term insulin stimulation. By contrast, siRNA-mediated depletion of Ubc9 accelerated GLUT4 degradation and decreased the amount of the transporter, concurrent with its selective loss in GSC, which resulted in attenuated insulin-responsive glucose transport. Intriguingly, overexpression of the catalytically inactive mutant Ubc9-C93A produced effects indistinguishable from those with wild-type Ubc9, suggesting that Ubc9 regulates GLUT4 turnover and targeting to GSC by a mechanism independent of its catalytic activity. Thus, Ubc9 is a pivotal regulator of the insulin sensitivity of glucose transport in adipocytes.

  14. Ca²⁺ signals promote GLUT4 exocytosis and reduce its endocytosis in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhu, X; Ishikura, S; Zhang, D; Gao, J; Sun, Y; Contreras-Ferrat, A; Foley, K P; Lavandero, S; Yao, Z; Bilan, P J; Klip, A; Niu, W

    2014-07-15

    Elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but how Ca(2+) affects intracellular traffic of GLUT4 is unknown. In tissue, changes in Ca(2+) leading to contraction preclude analysis of the impact of individual, Ca(2+)-derived signals. In L6 muscle cells stably expressing GLUT4myc, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin raised cytosolic Ca(2+) and caused a gain in cell surface GLUT4myc. Extra- and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators (EGTA, BAPTA-AM) reversed this response. Ionomycin activated calcium calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), AMPK, and PKCs, but not Akt. Silencing CaMKIIδ or AMPKα1/α2 partly reduced the ionomycin-induced gain in surface GLUT4myc, as did peptidic or small molecule inhibitors of CaMKII (CN21) and AMPK (Compound C). Compared with the conventional isoenzyme PKC inhibitor Gö6976, the conventional plus novel PKC inhibitor Gö6983 lowered the ionomycin-induced gain in cell surface GLUT4myc. Ionomycin stimulated GLUT4myc exocytosis and inhibited its endocytosis in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CaMKIIδ or AMPKα1/α2 partly reversed ionomycin-induced GLUT4myc exocytosis but did not prevent its reduced endocytosis. Compared with Gö6976, Gö6983 markedly reversed the slowing of GLUT4myc endocytosis triggered by ionomycin. In summary, rapid Ca(2+) influx into muscle cells accelerates GLUT4myc exocytosis while slowing GLUT4myc endocytosis. CaMKIIδ and AMPK stimulate GLUT4myc exocytosis, whereas novel PKCs reduce endocytosis. These results identify how Ca(2+)-activated signals selectively regulate GLUT4 exocytosis and endocytosis in muscle cells. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Exploring the whereabouts of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle (review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Ralston, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The glucose transporter GLUT4 is expressed in muscle, fat cells, brain and kidney. In contrast to other glucose transporters, GLUT4 in unstimulated cells is mostly intracellular. Stimuli such as insulin and muscle contractions then cause the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Questions...... related to GLUT4 storage compartments, trafficking to the surface membrane, and nature of the intracellular pools, have kept many groups busy for the past 20 years. Yet, one of the main questions in the field remains the universality of GLUT4 features. Can one extrapolate work done on fat cells to muscle...... or brain? Or vice-versa? Can one use cultures to predict GLUT4 behaviour in fully differentiated tissues? This review summarizes the authors' knowledge of GLUT4 biology in skeletal muscle, which is the predominant tissue for glucose homeostasis. The results are compared to those obtained with the fat cell...

  16. Expression of Akt and GLUT-4 in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with excessive weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4 and protein kinase B (Akt on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM by determining their expressions in adipose tissues from women with GDM, excessive weight gain pregnant women, and normal pregnant women. Methods Adipose tissues were obtained by biopsy during cesarean section from 15 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance while their body mass index (BMI increased in about 4kg/m2 (NGT1 group, and 15 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance with BMI increased by 8kg/m2 (NGT2 group, and 15 cases of GDM (GDM group. Adipose tissue were divided into two sections and incubated in the culture medium with or without insulin (1×10-7 mol/L for 30 minutes. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINS levels were determined with glucose oxidase and radioimmunoassay. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin secretions index (HOMA-IS were calculated from the data. Phosphorylation of Akt (P-Akt and GLUT-4 levels of cultured adipose tissue were examined by Western blotting. Results The FBG levels were similar in 3 groups. FINS, HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS were significantly different among the 3 groups (P0.05 in basal state. Compared with the basal state, however, the phosphorylation of Akt increased significantly in NGT1 group (P0.05 after insulin stimulation. The expression of GLUT-4 was significantly lower in GDM group and NGT2 group than in NGT1 group (P<0.05 in basal state. The expression of GLUT-4 increased much more in NGT1 group than in NGT2 group or GDM group (P<0.05 after insulin stimulation. Conclusion The excessive weight gain and normal glucose tolerance pregnant women almost share a similar expression with GDM women in the insulin signaling and glucose transporter proteins, Akt and GLUT-4, and their abnormal expression and function might play an important role in insulin resistance and GDM

  17. The comparison of GLUT-4 and nNOS expression in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with BPH/LUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunctemur, Alper; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Dursun, Murat; Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver; Ozer, Kutan; Ozbek, Emin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in diabetic and non-diabetic patients who underwent TUR-P or transvesical prostatectomy with the diagnosis of BPH. Thirty diabetic patients with an average age of 58 and 30 non-diabetic patients with that of 56 were included in the study. T-PSA, IPSS, Q max value and prostate volume were compared between the two groups. The stromal and glandular staining scores of GLUT-4 and nNOS expression were compared. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, IPSS, Qmax and PSA. Patients with diabetes had larger prostate volumes (p = 0.02). Mean GLUT-4 glandular total scores in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were 3.36 ± 1.21 and 2.1 ± 1.39, respectively, whereas stromal total scores were 3.63 ± 1.12 and 2.46 ± 1.33, and they were both statistically significant (p = 0.028 and p = 0.032, respectively). Glandular total nNOS scores in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were 4.53 ± 1.0 and 2.80 ± 1.12, while stromal total scores were 1.76 ± 1,0 and 2.30 ± 1.08 and they were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.037, respectively). GLUT-4 expression was found higher in prostatic tissue of the patients with diabetes mellitus. The expression value of nNOS was higher in the glandular area in diabetic patients, while stromal area expression score was higher in non-diabetic patients. Although our findings indicate important results, carefully designed further studies are needed to better comprehend the role of GLUT-4 and NOS pathways in BPH/LUTS pathophysiology.

  18. Reduced Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate obese mice is recovered after atorvastatin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Poletto, Ana Cl?udia; David-Silva, Aline; Yamamoto, Aline Pedro de Melo; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Furuya, Daniela Tomie

    2015-01-01

    Background Decreased expression of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, encoded by the solute carrier 2A4 (Slc2a4) gene, is involved in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Local tissue inflammation, by nuclear factor-?B (NF?B)-mediated pathway, has been related to Slc2a4 repression; a mechanism that could be modulated by statins. Using a model of obesity with insulin resistance, this study investigated whether (1) inflammatory markers and Slc2a4 expression are altered; (2) atorvastatin has bene...

  19. High basal cell surface levels of fish GLUT4 are related to reduced sensitivity of insulin-induced translocation toward GGA and AS160 inhibition in adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Capilla, Encarnación; Díaz, Mònica; Hou, June Chunqiu; Planas, Josep V; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Glucose entry into cells is mediated by a family of facilitative transporter proteins (GLUTs). In mammals, GLUT4 is expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues and is responsible for the postprandial uptake of glucose. In fish, GLUT4 also mediates insulin-regulated glucose entry into cells but differs from mammalian GLUT4 in its affinity for glucose and in protein motifs known to be important for the traffic of GLUT4. In this study, we have characterized the intracellular and plasma membrane (PM) ...

  20. α-Mangostin Improves Glucose Uptake and Inhibits Adipocytes Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via PPARγ, GLUT4, and Leptin Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been often associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity is also accompanied by significant differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the activity of α-mangostin, a major xanthone component isolated from the stem bark of G. malaccensis, on glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells focusing on PPARγ, GLUT4, and leptin expressions. α-Mangostin was found to inhibit cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation. Cells treated with 50 μM of α-mangostin reduced intracellular fat accumulation dose-dependently up to 44.4% relative to MDI-treated cells. Analyses of 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake activity showed that α-mangostin significantly improved the glucose uptake (P<0.05 with highest activity found at 25 μM. In addition, α-mangostin increased the amount of free fatty acids (FFA released. The highest glycerol release level was observed at 50 μM of α-mangostin. qRT-PCR analysis showed reduced lipid accumulation via inhibition of PPARγ gene expression. Induction of glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by α-mangostin were accompanied by increasing mRNA expression of GLUT4 and leptin. These evidences propose that α-mangostin might be possible candidate for the effective management of obesity in future.

  1. Cinnamic acid, from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, regulates glucose transport via activation of GLUT4 on L6 myotubes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Baddireddi Subhadra; Sujatha, Sundaresan; Anand, Singaravelu; Sangeetha, Kadapakkam Nandhabalan; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Katiyar, Chandrakanth; Kanaujia, Anil; Duggar, Rajeev; Singh, Yogendra; Srinivas, Konasubrahmanya; Bansal, Vinay; Sarin, Simi; Tandon, Ruchi; Sharma, Suchitra; Singh, Suchita

    2009-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (Family: Lauraceae) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant used traditionally for the treatment of a number of diseases, including diabetes. The hypoglycemic effect of this plant has been established in vivo. However, the effects of cinnamic acid, isolated from C. cassia, on the insulin signaling cascade in an in vitro model have not been elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of cinnamic acid on glucose transport by L6 myotubes. The mechanism of action of cinnamic acid was determined using specific targets in the insulin signaling pathway, including protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and the glucose transporter GLUT4. After differentiation of myoblast to myotubes, the cells were serum deprived for 5 h and then treated with 1 ng/mL cinnamic acid and 50 μmol/L rosiglitazone for 18 h and 100 nmol/L insulin for 20 min for gene expression studies. Expression of GLUT4 mRNA was increased following treatment of L6 myotubes with 1 ng/mL cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid inhibited PTP1B activity (by 96.5%), but had no significant effect on PI3-K activity. On the basis of the results of the present study, we postulate that cinnamic acid isolated from the hydro-alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum cassia activates glucose transport by a PI3-K-independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of action requires further analysis.

  2. The CHC22 clathrin-GLUT4 transport pathway contributes to skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Hoshino

    Full Text Available Mobilization of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular storage vesicles provides a mechanism for insulin-responsive glucose import into skeletal muscle. In humans, clathrin isoform CHC22 participates in formation of the GLUT4 storage compartment in skeletal muscle and fat. CHC22 function is limited to retrograde endosomal sorting and is restricted in its tissue expression and species distribution compared to the conserved CHC17 isoform that mediates endocytosis and several other membrane traffic pathways. Previously, we noted that CHC22 was expressed at elevated levels in regenerating rat muscle. Here we investigate whether the GLUT4 pathway in which CHC22 participates could play a role in muscle regeneration in humans and we test this possibility using CHC22-transgenic mice, which do not normally express CHC22. We observed that GLUT4 expression is elevated in parallel with that of CHC22 in regenerating skeletal muscle fibers from patients with inflammatory and other myopathies. Regenerating human myofibers displayed concurrent increases in expression of VAMP2, another regulator of GLUT4 transport. Regenerating fibers from wild-type mouse skeletal muscle injected with cardiotoxin also showed increased levels of GLUT4 and VAMP2. We previously demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing CHC22 in their muscle over-sequester GLUT4 and VAMP2 and have defective GLUT4 trafficking leading to diabetic symptoms. In this study, we find that muscle regeneration rates in CHC22 mice were delayed compared to wild-type mice, and myoblasts isolated from these mice did not proliferate in response to glucose. Additionally, CHC22-expressing mouse muscle displayed a fiber type switch from oxidative to glycolytic, similar to that observed in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations implicate the pathway for GLUT4 transport in regeneration of both human and mouse skeletal muscle, and demonstrate a role for this pathway in maintenance of muscle fiber

  3. Simvastatin induces insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes by suppressing insulin signaling, GLUT4 expression and GSK-3β phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; Kokkola, Tarja

    2016-11-11

    Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent data indicates that simvastatin increases the risk of new-onset diabetes by impairing both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, systematic evaluation of mechanistic pathways is lacking. We aimed to explore the effects of simvastatin on glucose uptake and underlying mechanisms using L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. We performed our experiments at basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, at normal (5.5 mM) and high (16.7 mM) glucose. We showed that simvastatin inhibited glucose uptake at all conditions. We also found out that pravastatin, another widely used statin with different physicochemical properties, did not inhibit glucose uptake. The effect of simvastatin was reversed with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not with farnesyl pyrophosphate, implying that reduced protein geranylgeranylation has a role in simvastatin-induced insulin resistance. Simvastatin also decreased phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and downregulated GLUT4. In conclusion, our data indicate that simvastatin decreased both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through inhibiting the critical steps in IR/IRS-1/AKT signaling cascade, and by hindering GLUT4 function and normal regulation of glycogen synthesis, contributing to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-diabetic effect of black ginseng extract by augmentation of AMPK protein activity and upregulation of GLUT2 and GLUT4 expression in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Shon, Mi-Yae; Kong, Ryong; Seo, Yun-Soo; Zhou, Tian; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Yeong-Soo; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2017-06-29

    Black ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), three to nine times-steamed and dried ginseng, has biological and pharmacological activities. In this study, the anti-diabetic effects of the black ginseng ethanol extract (GBG05-FF) in typical type 2 diabetic model db/db mice were investigated. The effect of GBG05-FF in Type 2 diabetic mice was investigated by their blood analysis, biological mechanism analysis, and histological analysis. The mice group treated with GBG05-FF showed decreased fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance compared to that of the nontreated GBG05-FF group. In the blood analysis, GBG05-FF decreased main plasma parameter such as HbA1c, triglyceride, and total-cholesterol levels related to diabetes and improved the expression of genes and protein related to glucose homeostasis and glucose uptake in the liver and muscle. The histological analysis result shows that GBG05-FF decreased lipid accumulation in the liver and damage in the muscle. Moreover, GBG05-FF increased the phosphorylation of the AMPK in the liver and upregulated the expression of GLUT2 in liver and GLUT4 in muscle. Therefore, the mechanisms of GBG05-FF may be related to suppressing gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK in the liver and affecting glucose uptake in surrounding tissues via the upregulation of GLUT2 and GLUT4 expression. These findings provided a new insight into the anti-diabetic clinical applications of GBG05-FF and it might play an important role in the development of promising functional foods and drugs from the viewpoint of the chemical composition and biological activities.

  5. Changes in FAT/CD36, UCP2, UCP3 and GLUT4 gene expression during lipid infusion in rat skeletal and heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettor, R; Fabris, R; Serra, R; Lombardi, A M; Tonello, C; Granzotto, M; Marzolo, M O; Carruba, M O; Ricquier, D; Federspil, G; Nisoli, E

    2002-06-01

    It has been reported that an increased availability of free fatty acids (NEFA) not only interferes with glucose utilization in insulin-dependent tissues, but may also result in an uncoupling effect of heart metabolism. We aimed therefore to investigate the effect of an increased availability of NEFA on gene expression of proteins involved in transmembrane fatty acid (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transport and of the uncoupling proteins UCP2 and 3 at the heart and skeletal muscle level. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed after 24 h Intralipid(R) plus heparin or saline infusion in lean Zucker rats. Skeletal and heart muscle glucose utilization was calculated by 2-deoxy-[1-(3)H]-D-glucose technique. Quantification of FAT/CD36, GLUT4, UCP2 and UCP3 mRNAs was obtained by Northern blot analysis or RT-PCR. In Intralipid(R) plus heparin infused animals a significant decrease in insulin-mediated glucose uptake was observed both in the heart (22.62+/-2.04 vs 10.37+/-2.33 ng/mg/min; Pmuscle (13.46+/-1.53 vs 6.84+/-2.58 ng/mg/min; Pmuscle tissue (+117.4+/-16.3%, Pmuscle (291.5+/-24.7 and 146.9+/-12.7%). As a result of the increased availability of NEFA, FAT/CD36 gene expression increases in skeletal muscle, but not at the heart level. The augmented lipid fuel supply is responsible for the depression of insulin-mediated glucose transport and for the increase of UCP2 and 3 gene expression in both skeletal and heart muscle.

  6. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Rab4 effector Rabip4 plays a role in the endocytotic trafficking of Glut 4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mari, Muriel; Monzo, Pascale; Kaddai, Vincent; Keslair, Frédérique; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Cormont, Mireille

    2006-01-01

    Insulin regulates glucose uptake in the adipocytes by modulating Glut 4 localization, a traffic pathway involving the endocytic small GTPases Rab4, Rab5, and RabThe expression of the Rab4 effector Rabip4 leads to a 30...

  8. Analysis of correlations between the placental expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 and selected maternal and fetal parameters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pyzlak, Michał; Abdalla, Nabil; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-16

    The aim of the study was to analyze the correlations between the expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 in human term placenta and selected maternal and fetal parameters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM). Placental samples were obtained from healthy control (n = 25) and diabetic pregnancies, including diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG1) (n = 16), insulin-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG2) (n = 6), and pregestational DM (PGDM) (n = 6). Computer-assisted quantitative morphometry of stained placental sections was performed to determine the expression of selected glucose transporter proteins. For the purposes of correlation analysis, the following parameters were selected: type of diabetes, gestational age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, third trimester glycated hemoglobin concentration, placental weight, fetal birth weight (FBW) as well as ultrasonographic indicators of fetal adiposity, including subscapular (SSFM), abdominal (AFM), and midthigh (MTFM) fat mass measurements. In the PGDM group, the analysis demonstrated positive correlations between the placental expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 and FBW, AFM, and SSFM measurements (p GLUT-4 expression, FBW and SSFM were observed (p GLUTs expression (p GLUT-1 expression (p GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 may be involved in the intensification of the fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by GDM/PGDM.

  9. Glut4 Palmitoylation at Cys223 Plays a Critical Role in Glut4 Membrane Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Wenying; Sun, Yingmin; Du, Keyong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we identified Glut4 as a palmitoylated protein in adipocytes. To understand the role of Glut4 palmitoylation in Glut4 membrane trafficking, a process that is essential for maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis, we have characterized Glut4 palmitoylation. We found that Glut4 is palmitoylated at Cys223 and Glut4 palmitoylation at Cys223 is essential for insulin dependent Glut4 membrane translocation as substitution of Cys223 with a serine residue in Glut4 (C223S Glut4) diminis...

  10. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates 50-80% of whole body glucose uptake, but its relation to the frequent glucose intolerance in patients with liver cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Thirty patients and seven healthy controls underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance...... test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance...... with the control subjects it correlated closely with measures of glucose tolerance (R(2)=0.45; p=0.003). GLUT4 mRNA of the patients with cirrhosis was reduced to 56% of control value (95% ci: 27-86%; p=0.015) and was inversely related to the level of basal hyper-insulinemia (R(2)=0.39; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates 50-80% of whole body glucose uptake, but its relation to the frequent glucose intolerance in patients with liver cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Thirty patients and seven healthy controls underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance...... test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance...... with the control subjects it correlated closely with measures of glucose tolerance (R(2)=0.45; p=0.003). GLUT4 mRNA of the cirrhosis patients was reduced to 56% of control value (95% ci: 27-86%; p=0.015) and was inversely related to the level of basal hyper-insulinemia (R(2)=0.39; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS...

  12. CaMK activation during exercise is required for histone hyperacetylation and MEF2A binding at the MEF2 site on the Glut4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; Kohn, Tertius A; Chetty, Ashley K; Ojuka, Edward O

    2008-09-01

    The role of CaMK II in regulating GLUT4 expression in response to intermittent exercise was investigated. Wistar rats completed 5 x 17-min bouts of swimming after receiving 5 mg/kg KN93 (a CaMK II inhibitor), KN92 (an analog of KN93 that does not inhibit CaMK II), or an equivalent volume of vehicle. Triceps muscles that were harvested at 0, 6, or 18 h postexercise were assayed for 1) CaMK II phosphorylation by Western blot, 2) acetylation of histone H3 at the Glut4 MEF2 site by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, 3) bound MEF2A at the Glut4 MEF2 cis-element by ChIP, and 4) GLUT4 expression by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared with controls, exercise caused a twofold increase in CaMK II phosphorylation. Immunohistochemical stains indicated increased CaMK II phosphorylation in nuclear and perinuclear regions of the muscle fiber. Acetylation of histone H3 in the region surrounding the MEF2 binding site on the Glut4 gene and the amount of MEF2A that bind to the site increased approximately twofold postexercise. GLUT4 mRNA and protein increased approximately 2.2- and 1.8-fold, respectively, after exercise. The exercise-induced increases in CaMK II phosphorylation, histone H3 acetylation, MEF2A binding, and GLUT4 expression were attenuated or abolished when KN93 was administered to rats prior to exercise. KN92 did not affect the increases in pCaMK II and GLUT4. These data support the hypothesis that CaMK II activation by exercise increases GLUT4 expression via increased accessibility of MEF2A to its cis-element on the gene.

  13. Modulation of GLUT4 expression by oral administration of Mg(2+) to control sugar levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaimani, Haniah; Soltani, Nepton; MaleKzadeh, Kianoosh; Sohrabipour, Shahla; Zhang, Nina; Nasri, Sema; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    It has been previously shown that oral magnesium administration decreases the levels of glucose in the plasma. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of GLUT4 on plasma glucose levels by orally administering magnesium sulfate to diabetic rats. Animals were distributed among 4 groups (n = 10 rats per group): one group served as the non-diabetic control, while the other groups had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection). The diabetic rats were either given insulin by i.p. injection (2.5 U·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)), or magnesium sulfate in their drinking water (10 g·L(-1)). After 8 weeks of treatment, we conducted an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), measured blood glucose and plasma magnesium levels, and performed in-vitro and in-vivo insulin level measurements by radioimmunoassay. Gastrocnemius (leg) muscles were isolated for the measurement of GLU4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Administration of magnesium sulfate improved IPGTT and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. However, the insulin levels were not changed in either of the in-vitro or in-vivo studies. The expression of GLU4 mRNA increased 23% and 10% in diabetic magnesium-treated and insulin-treated groups, respectively. Our findings suggest that magnesium lowers blood glucose levels via increased GLU4 mRNA expression, independent to insulin secretion.

  14. Comparison of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT4 and SGLT1 mRNA Expression in the Salivary Glands and Six Other Organs of Control, Streptozotocin-Induced and Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Jurysta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The expression and localization of several distinct glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT4, and SGLT1 was recently characterized in the parotid gland of normal rats by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The major aims of the present study was to compare the mRNA expression of these glucose transporters in both the parotid gland and submaxillary gland of control rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and hereditarily diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in the parotid and submaxillary salivary glands and, for purpose of comparison, also in the heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and pancreas from control animals and either streptozotocin-treated or Goto-Kakizaki rats. Results: The expression of GLUT4, but not GLUT1 or SGLT1, mRNA was decreased in the diabetic rats. The results also allow comparing both the mRNA expression level of the four glucose transporters in salivary glands and six other organs, and the diabetes-induced changes in such an expression in distinct locations. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of the insulin-dependent GLUT4 transporter was the sole to be significantly decreased in the salivary glands of diabetic animals. The possible consequence of such a decrease in terms of the control of salivary glucose concentration requires further investigation.

  15. Role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor in Akt2-mediated plasma membrane translocation of GLUT4 in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Naoto; Nihata, Yuma; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Aiba, Atsu; Satoh, Takaya

    2014-11-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 plays a key role in insulin-promoted glucose uptake mediated by the GLUT4 glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt2 is critically involved in insulin-dependent Rac1 activation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation and GLUT4 translocation in mouse skeletal muscle and cultured myocytes. Constitutively activated FLJ00068 induced GLUT4 translocation in a Rac1-dependent and Akt2-independent manner in L6 myocytes. On the other hand, knockdown of FLJ00068 significantly reduced constitutively activated Akt2-triggered GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, Rac1 activation and GLUT4 translocation induced by constitutively activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase were inhibited by knockdown of FLJ00068. In mouse gastrocnemius muscle, constitutively activated FLJ00068 actually induced GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma. GLUT4 translocation by constitutively activated FLJ00068 was totally abolished in rac1 knockout mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, we were successful in detecting the activation of Rac1 following the expression of constitutively activated FLJ00068 in gastrocnemius muscle by immunofluorescence microscopy using an activation-specific probe. Collectively, these results strongly support the notion that FLJ00068 regulates Rac1 downstream of Akt2, leading to the stimulation of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deletion of Rab GAP AS160 modifies glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and impairs glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansey, Melissa N.; Walker, Natalie N.; Hargett, Stefan R.; Stevens, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Tight control of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes is crucial to glucose homeostasis and is mediated by regulating glucose transporter GLUT4 subcellular distribution. In cultured cells, Rab GAP AS160 controls GLUT4 intracellular retention and release to the cell surface and consequently regulates glucose uptake into cells. To determine AS160 function in GLUT4 trafficking in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and investigate its role in glucose homeostasis, we characterized AS160 knockout (AS160−/−) mice. We observed increased and normal basal glucose uptake in isolated AS160−/− adipocytes and soleus, respectively, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was impaired and GLUT4 expression decreased in both. No such abnormalities were found in isolated AS160−/− extensor digitorum longus muscles. In plasma membranes isolated from AS160−/− adipose tissue and gastrocnemius/quadriceps, relative GLUT4 levels were increased under basal conditions and remained the same after insulin treatment. Concomitantly, relative levels of cell surface-exposed GLUT4, determined with a glucose transporter photoaffinity label, were increased in AS160−/− adipocytes and normal in AS160−/− soleus under basal conditions. Insulin augmented cell surface-exposed GLUT4 in both. These observations suggest that AS160 is essential for GLUT4 intracellular retention and regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles in which it is normally expressed. In vivo studies revealed impaired insulin tolerance in the presence of normal (male) and impaired (female) glucose tolerance. Concurrently, insulin-elicited increases in glucose disposal were abolished in all AS160−/− skeletal muscles and liver but not in AS160−/− adipose tissues. This suggests AS160 as a target for differential manipulation of glucose homeostasis. PMID:23011063

  17. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Chiu, Tim; Foley, Kevin P.; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Antonescu, Costin N.; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira

    2012-01-01

    GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an actin-based motor protein that associates with membranes and actin filaments, is required for insulin-induced vesicle tethering in muscle cells. Myo1c was found to associate with both mobile and tethered GLUT4 vesicles and to be required for vesicle capture in the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) zone beneath the plasma membrane. Myo1c knockdown or overexpression of an actin binding–deficient Myo1c mutant abolished insulin-induced vesicle immobilization, increased GLUT4 vesicle velocity in the TIRF zone, and prevented their externalization. Conversely, Myo1c overexpression immobilized GLUT4 vesicles in the TIRF zone and promoted insulin-induced GLUT4 exposure to the extracellular milieu. Myo1c also contributed to insulin-dependent actin filament remodeling. Thus we propose that interaction of vesicular Myo1c with cortical actin filaments is required for insulin-mediated tethering of GLUT4 vesicles and for efficient GLUT4 surface delivery in muscle cells. PMID:22918957

  18. Observing GLUT4 Translocation in Live L6 Cells Using Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 plays a key role in maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Tracking GLUT4 in space and time can provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation. Organic dyes and fluorescent proteins were used in previous studies for investigating the traffic of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Because of their relative weak fluorescent signal against strong cellular autofluorescence background and their fast photobleaching rate, most studies only focused on particular segments of GLUT4 traffic. In this study, we have developed a new method for observing the translocation of GLUT4 targeted with photostable and bright quantum dots (QDs in live L6 cells. QDs were targeted to GLUT4myc specifically and internalized with GLUT4myc through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Compared with traditional fluorescence dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs with high brightness and extremely photostability are suitable for long-term single particle tracking, so individual GLUT4-QD complex can be easily detected and tracked for long periods of time. This newly described method will be a powerful tool for observing the translocation of GLUT4 in live L6 cells.

  19. The efficient intracellular sequestration of the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT-4) is conferred by the NH2 terminus

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    GLUT-4 is the major facilitative glucose transporter isoform in tissues that exhibit insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Insulin regulates glucose transport by the rapid translocation of GLUT-4 from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. A critical feature of this process is the efficient exclusion of GLUT-4 from the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin. To identify the amino acid domains of GLUT-4 which confer intracellular sequestration, we analyzed the subcellular dist...

  20. Erythritol reduces small intestinal glucose absorption, increases muscle glucose uptake, improves glucose metabolic enzymes activities and increases expression of Glut-4 and IRS-1 in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Mopuri, Ramgopal; Nagiah, Savania; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-08-02

    Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of a single oral dose of erythritol (1 g/kg bw) on intestinal glucose absorption, gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose increase, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, liver and muscle glycogen contents and mRNA and protein expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in normal and type 2 diabetic animals. Experiment 1 revealed that erythritol dose dependently enhanced muscle glucose ex vivo. Experiment 2 demonstrated that erythritol feeding delayed gastric emptying and reduced small intestinal glucose absorption as well as postprandial blood glucose rise, especially in diabetic animals. Experiment 3 showed that erythritol feeding improved glucose tolerance, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, glycogen storage and also modulated expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in diabetic animals. Data suggest that erythritol may exert anti-hyperglycemic effects not only via reducing small intestinal glucose absorption, but also by increasing muscle glucose uptake, improving glucose metabolic enzymes activity and modulating muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hence, erythritol may be a useful dietary supplement for managing hyperglycemia, particularly for T2D.

  1. [6]-Gingerol, from Zingiber officinale, potentiates GLP-1 mediated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway in pancreatic β-cells and increases RAB8/RAB10-regulated membrane presentation of GLUT4 transporters in skeletal muscle to improve hyperglycemia in Leprdb/db type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Mehdi Bin; Mohsin, Md Nurul Absar Bin; Razu, Bodiul Alam; Hossain, Mohammad Tashnim; Mahzabeen, Sinayat; Unnoor, Naziat; Muna, Ishrat Aklima; Akhter, Farjana; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Hannan, J M A

    2017-08-09

    [6]-Gingerol, a major component of Zingiber officinale, was previously reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Endocrine signaling is involved in insulin secretion and is perturbed in db/db Type-2 diabetic mice. [6]-Gingerol was reported to restore the disrupted endocrine signaling in rodents. In this current study on Leprdb/db diabetic mice, we investigated the involvement of endocrine pathway in the insulin secretagogue activity of [6]-Gingerol and the mechanism(s) through which [6]-Gingerol ameliorates hyperglycemia. Leprdb/db type 2 diabetic mice were orally administered a daily dose of [6]-Gingerol (200 mg/kg) for 28 days. We measured the plasma levels of different endocrine hormones in fasting and fed conditions. GLP-1 levels were modulated using pharmacological approaches, and cAMP/PKA pathway for insulin secretion was assessed by qRT-PCR and ELISA in isolated pancreatic islets. Total skeletal muscle and its membrane fractions were used to measure glycogen synthase 1 level and Glut4 expression and protein levels. 4-weeks treatment of [6]-Gingerol dramatically increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance. Plasma GLP-1 was found to be significantly elevated in the treated mice. Pharmacological intervention of GLP-1 levels regulated the effect of [6]-Gingerol on insulin secretion. Mechanistically, [6]-Gingerol treatment upregulated and activated cAMP, PKA, and CREB in the pancreatic islets, which are critical components of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion pathway. [6]-Gingerol upregulated both Rab27a GTPase and its effector protein Slp4-a expression in isolated islets, which regulates the exocytosis of insulin-containing dense-core granules. [6]-Gingerol treatment improved skeletal glycogen storage by increased glycogen synthase 1 activity. Additionally, GLUT4 transporters were highly abundant in the membrane of the skeletal myocytes, which could be explained by the increased expression of Rab8 and Rab10

  2. Fluoromicroscopic detection of myc-tagged GLUT4 on the cell surface. Co-localization of the translocated GLUT4 with rearranged actin by insulin treatment in CHO cells and L6 myotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Asahi, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Hideki; Lihong, Wang; Ebina, Yousuke

    1999-01-01

    We earlier developed a novel method to detect translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) directly, quantitatively and simply using c-MYC epitope-tagged GLUT4 (GLUT4myc) (Kanai F, Nishioka Y, Hayashi H, Kamohara S, Todaka M, Ebina Y:J Biol Chem 268:14523-14526, 1993). We further developed the method to visualize GLUT4myc on the cell surfac by fluorescence microscope using a highly sensitive immunochemical detection system in tissue culture cells stably expressing GLUT4myc. The translo...

  3. Mapping Insulin/GLUT4 Circuitry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowland, Alexander F; Fazakerley, Daniel J; James, David E

    2011-01-01

    .... This is accomplished via activation of the phosphatidylinositol‐3‐kinase/Akt signalling pathway and subsequent translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular storage vesicles to the plasma membrane...

  4. Novel Roles for the Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter-4 in Hippocampally Dependent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be invo...

  5. Exercise, GLUT4, and Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is an important fuel for contracting muscle, and normal glucose metabolism is vital for health. Glucose enters the muscle cell via facilitated diffusion through the GLUT4 glucose transporter which translocates from intracellular storage depots to the plasma membrane and T-tubules upon...... muscle contraction. Here we discuss the current understanding of how exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake is regulated. We briefly discuss the role of glucose supply and metabolism and concentrate on GLUT4 translocation and the molecular signaling that sets this in motion during muscle contractions....... Contraction-induced molecular signaling is complex and involves a variety of signaling molecules including AMPK, Ca(2+), and NOS in the proximal part of the signaling cascade as well as GTPases, Rab, and SNARE proteins and cytoskeletal components in the distal part. While acute regulation of muscle glucose...

  6. Clustering of GLUT4, TUG, and RUVBL2 protein levels correlate with myosin heavy chain isoform pattern in skeletal muscles, but AS160 and TBC1D1 levels do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena, Carlos M; Mackrell, James G; Bogan, Jonathan S; Kanzaki, Makoto; Cartee, Gregory D

    2011-10-01

    Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue. To further elucidate this heterogeneity, we probed relationships between myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition and abundance of GLUT4 and four other proteins that are established or putative GLUT4 regulators [Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc 16-domain member 1 (TBC1D1), Tethering protein containing an UBX-domain for GLUT4 (TUG), and RuvB-like protein two (RUVBL2)] in 12 skeletal muscles or muscle regions from Wistar rats [adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius (mixed, red, and white), plantaris, soleus, tibialis anterior (red and white), tensor fasciae latae, and white vastus lateralis]. Key results were 1) significant differences found among the muscles (range of muscle expression values) for GLUT4 (2.5-fold), TUG (1.7-fold), RUVBL2 (2.0-fold), and TBC1D1 (2.7-fold), but not AS160; 2) significant positive correlations for pairs of proteins: GLUT4 vs. TUG (R = 0.699), GLUT4 vs. RUVBL2 (R = 0.613), TUG vs. RUVBL2 (R = 0.564), AS160 vs. TBC1D1 (R = 0.293), and AS160 vs. TUG (R = 0.246); 3) significant positive correlations for %MHC-I: GLUT4 (R = 0.460), TUG (R = 0.538), and RUVBL2 (R = 0.511); 4) significant positive correlations for %MHC-IIa: GLUT4 (R = 0.293) and RUVBL2 (R = 0.204); 5) significant negative correlations for %MHC-IIb vs. GLUT4 (R = -0.642), TUG (R = -0.626), and RUVBL2 (R = -0.692); and 6) neither AS160 nor TBC1D1 significantly correlated with MHC isoforms. In 12 rat muscles, GLUT4 abundance tracked with TUG and RUVBL2 and correlated with MHC isoform expression, but was unrelated to AS160 or TBC1D1. Our working hypothesis is that some of the mechanisms that regulate GLUT4 abundance in rat skeletal muscle also influence TUG and RUVBL2 abundance.

  7. FIP2 and Rip11 specify Rab11a-mediated cellular distribution of GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 in H9c2-hIR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Robert W; Luiken, Joost J F P; Eckel, Jürgen

    2007-11-09

    Rab11a has been shown to be involved in different vesicle trafficking processes. To further define the functional role of Rab11a in vesicle movement we knocked down gene expression of Rab11a and two of its effectors, Rip11 and FIP2, in H9c2-hIR cells and measured the cell surface abundance of GLUT4myc and FAT/CD36. We observed that by knocking down Rab11a, both GLUT4myc and FAT/CD36 abundance at the plasma membrane were substantially increased. In the case of GLUT4myc, the in vitro knockdown of FIP2 also increased the cell surface abundance of GLUT4myc. Knockdown of both FIP2 and Rip11 increase the abundance of FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Stimulated translocation of GLUT4myc and FAT/CD36 is not altered after gene knockdown of Rab11a. These data therefore show that (i) Rab11a regulates cell surface abundance of both GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 and that (ii) both Rab11a-dependent processes are differently regulated by Rab11a effector proteins.

  8. Rac1 signalling towards GLUT4/glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Tim T; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Sylow, Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Small Rho family GTPases are important regulators of cellular traffic. Emerging evidence now implicates Rac1 and Rac-dependent actin reorganisation in insulin-induced recruitment of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface of muscle cells and mature skeletal muscle. This review summarises...... the current thinking on the regulation of Rac1 by insulin, the role of Rac-dependent cortical actin remodelling in GLUT4 traffic, and the impact of Rac1 towards insulin resistance in skeletal muscle....

  9. Exercise-induced transcription of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT 4) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Zheng, Donghai; Jones, Jared P; Olson, Ann Louise; Dohm, G Lynis

    2002-03-29

    We studied the effects of exercise on GLUT4 gene transcription in several lines of transgenic mice expressing the chloramphenicol acyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, driven by various lengths of the human GLUT4 promoter (2400, 1600, 895, and 730 bp). In all transgenic lines examined, endogenous GLUT4 mRNA increased in response to exercise (19-90%, P < 0.05). Exercise increased CAT mRNA (51-83%, P < 0.05) in mice when the transgene was driven by at least 895 bp of the promoter but showed no effect in mice in which the transgene was driven by only 730 bp. These results suggest that the exercise-induced increase in the transcriptional activity of the human GLUT4 gene is mediated, at least in part, by element(s) within -895 bp of the promoter. These observations reveal a striking similarity to the time course and regional promoter requirements of AMPK-induced GLUT4 gene expression, providing further evidence that AMPK may be mediating the effects of exercise on GLUT4 expression. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  10. Loss of HIF-1α impairs GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hidemitsu; Makino, Yuichi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Isoe, Tsubasa; Takeda, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Jun; Fujita, Yukihiro; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Haneda, Masakazu

    2014-05-01

    Defects in glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle cause diseases linked to metabolic disturbance such as type 2 diabetes. The molecular mechanism determining glucose disposal in the skeletal muscle in response to cellular stimuli including insulin, however, remains largely unknown. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor operating in the cellular adaptive response to hypoxic conditions. Recent studies have uncovered pleiotropic actions of HIF-1α in the homeostatic response to various cellular stimuli, including insulin under normoxic conditions. Thus we hypothesized HIF-1α is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism stimulated by insulin in the skeletal muscle. To this end, we generated C2C12 myocytes in which HIF-1α is knocked down by short-hairpin RNA and examined the intracellular signaling cascade and glucose uptake subsequent to insulin stimulation. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression in the skeletal muscle cells resulted in abrogation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake associated with impaired mobilization of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Such defect seemed to be caused by reduced phosphorylation of the protein kinase B substrate of 160 kDa (AS160). AS160 phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation by AMP-activated protein kinase activation were abrogated as well. In addition, expression of the constitutively active mutant of HIF-1α (CA-HIF-1α) or upregulation of endogenous HIF-1α in C2C12 cells shows AS160 phosphorylation comparable to the insulin-stimulated level even in the absence of insulin. Accordingly GLUT4 translocation was increased in the cells expressing CA-HIF1α. Taken together, HIF-1α is a determinant for GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle cells thus as a possible target to alleviate impaired glucose metabolism in, e.g., type 2 diabetes.

  11. Early alterations in soleus GLUT-4, glucose transport, and glycogen in voluntary running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Halseth, Amy E.

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) by juvenile female rats was used as a noninterventional model of soleus muscle functional overload to study the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity by the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 isoform) protein level and glycogen concentration. Soleus total protein content was significantly greater (+18%;P greater than 0.05) than in age-matched controls after 1 wk of WR, and this hypertrophic response continued in weeks 2-4 (+24-32%). GLUT-4 protein was 39% greater than in controls in 1-wk WR soleus, and this adaptation was accompanied by a similar increase in in vitro insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity(+29%). After 2 and 4 wk of WR, however, insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity had returned to control levels, despite a continued elevation (+25-28%) of GLUT-4 protein. At these two time points, glycogen concentration was significantly enhanced in WR soleus (+21-42%), which coincided with significant reductions in glycogen synthase activity ratios (-23 to-41%). These results indicate that, in this model of soleus muscle functional overload, the GLUT-4 protein level may initially regulate insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in the absence of changes in other modifying factors. However,this regulation of glucose transport activity by GLUT-4 protein may be subsequently overridden by elevated glycogen concentration.

  12. Chloroquine Increases Glucose Uptake via Enhancing GLUT4 Translocation and Fusion with the Plasma Membrane in L6 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chloroquine can induce an increase in the cellular uptake of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Methods: In this study, translocation of GLUT4 and intracellular Ca2+ changes were simultaneously observed by confocal microscope in L6 cells stably over-expressing IRAP-mOrange. The GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane (PM was traced using HA-GLUT4-GFP. Glucose uptake was measured using a cell-based glucose uptake assay. GLUT4 protein was detected by Western blotting and mRNA level was detected by RT-PCR. Results: We found that chloroquine induced significant increases in glucose uptake, glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane (GTPM, GLUT4 fusion with the PM, and intracellular Ca2+ in L6 muscle cells. Chloroquine-induced increases of GTPM and intracellular Ca2+ were inhibited by Gallein (Gβγ inhibitor and U73122 (PLC inhibitor. However, 2-APB (IP3R blocker only blocked the increase in intracellular Ca2+ but did not inhibit GTPM increase. These results indicate that chloroquine, via the Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R pathway, induces elevation of Ca2+, and this Ca2+ increase does not play a role in chloroqui-ne-evoked GTPM increase. However, GLUT4 fusion with the PM and glucose uptake were significantly inhibited with BAPTA-AM. This suggests that Ca2+ enhances GLUT4 fusion with the PM resulting in glucose uptake increase. Conclusion: Our data indicate that chloroquine via Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R induces Ca2+ elevation, which in turn promotes GLUT4 fusion with the PM. Moreover, chloroquine can enhance GLUT4 trafficking to the PM. These mechanisms eventually result in glucose uptake increase in control and insulin-resistant L6 cells. These findings suggest that chloroquine might be a potential drug for improving insulin tolerance in diabetic patients.

  13. Aerobic training prior to myocardial infarction increases cardiac GLUT4 and partially preserves heart function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Maximiliano Isoppo; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Peres, Thiago Rodrigues; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-03-01

    We assessed cardiac function (echocardiographic) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression (Western blot) in response to 10 weeks of aerobic training (treadmill) prior to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by ligation of the left coronary artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were allocated to sedentary+sham, sedentary+AMI, training+sham, and training+AMI. Aerobic training prior to AMI partially preserves heart function. AMI and/or aerobic training increased GLUT4 expression. However, those animals trained prior to AMI showed a greater increase in GLUT4 in cardiomyocytes.

  14. Rab10 and myosin-Va mediate insulin-stimulated GLUT4 storage vesicle translocation in adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jinzhong; Deng, Yongqiang; Jiang, Li; Song, Eli; Wu, Xufeng S.; Hammer, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Rab proteins are important regulators of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane (PM), but the precise steps in GLUT4 trafficking modulated by particular Rab proteins remain unclear. Here, we systematically investigate the involvement of Rab proteins in GLUT4 trafficking, focusing on Rab proteins directly mediating GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) delivery to the PM. Using dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and an insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP)-pHluorin fusion assay, we demonstrated that Rab10 directly facilitated GSV translocation to and docking at the PM. Rab14 mediated GLUT4 delivery to the PM via endosomal compartments containing transferrin receptor (TfR), whereas Rab4A, Rab4B, and Rab8A recycled GLUT4 through the endosomal system. Myosin-Va associated with GSVs by interacting with Rab10, positioning peripherally recruited GSVs for ultimate fusion. Thus, multiple Rab proteins regulate the trafficking of GLUT4, with Rab10 coordinating with myosin-Va to mediate the final steps of insulin-stimulated GSV translocation to the PM. PMID:22908308

  15. The GLUT4 density in slow fibres is not increased in athletes. How does training increase the GLUT4 pool originating from slow fibres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydr......The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy......-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (38%) activities in muscle biopsy samples of the vastus lateralis. GLUT4 densities in slow- and fast-twitch fibres were measured by the use of a newly developed, sensitive method combining immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and no effect of training was found. GLUT4 density was higher in slow......-twitch fibres compared to fast-twitch fibres (PGLUT4 density was identical in slow- and fast-twitch fibres. Slow-twitch fibre diameters were 10% larger in the athletes (P

  16. Insulin stimulates translocation of human GLUT4 to the membrane in fat bodies of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivat, Georgeta; Lizunov, Vladimir A; Li, Caroline R; Stenkula, Karin G; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in 'diabetic' flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to monitor insulin

  17. Insulin stimulates translocation of human GLUT4 to the membrane in fat bodies of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Crivat

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in 'diabetic' flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4, the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM. We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to

  18. Kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle fibers from living mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans Peter M. Mortensen; Galbo, Henrik; Toyoda, Taro

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is an important strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is due in part to an increase in glucose transport that occurs in the working skeletal muscles. Glucose transport is regulated by GLUT4 translocation in muscle, but the molecular machinery mediating this process is poorly...... understood. The purpose of this study was to 1) use a novel imaging system to elucidate the kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and 2) determine the function of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 (AMPKalpha2) in this process....

  19. Triiodothyronine acutely stimulates glucose transport into L6 muscle cells without increasing surface GLUT4, GLUT1, or GLUT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Silvania Silva; Tamrakar, Akhilesh K; Goulart-Silva, Francemilson; Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Klip, Amira; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) act genomically to stimulate glucose transport by elevating glucose transporter (Slc2a) expression and glucose utilization by cells. However, nongenomic effects of THs are now emerging. Here, we assess how triiodothyronine (T(3)) acutely affects glucose transport and the content of GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT3 at the surface of muscle cells, and possible interactions between T(3) and insulin action. Differentiated L6 myotubes transfected with myc-tagged Slc2a4 (L6-GLUT4myc) or Slc2a1 (L6-GLUT1myc) and wild-type L6 myotubes were studied in the following conditions: control, hypothyroid (Tx), Tx plus T(3), Tx plus insulin, and Tx plus insulin and T(3). Glucose uptake and GLUT4 content at the cell surface decreased in the Tx group relative to controls. T(3) treatment for 30 minutes increased glucose transport into L6-GLUT4myc cells without altering surface GLUT4 content, which increased only thereafter. The total amount of GLUT4 protein remained unchanged among the groups studied. The surface GLUT1 content of L6-GLUT1myc cells also remained unaltered after T(3) treatment; however, in these cells glucose transport was not stimulated by T(3). In wild-type L6 cells, although T(3) treatment increased the total amount of GLUT3, it did not change the surface GLUT3 content. Moreover, within 30 minutes, T(3) stimulation of glucose uptake was additive to that of insulin in L6-GLUT4myc cells. As expected, insulin elevated surface GLUT4 content and glucose uptake. However, interestingly, surface GLUT4 content remained unchanged or even dropped with T(3) plus insulin. These data reveal that T(3) rapidly increases glucose uptake in L6-GLUT4myc cells, which, at least for 30 minutes, did not depend on an increment in GLUT4 at the cell surface yet potentiates insulin action. We propose that this rapid T(3) effect involves activation of GLUT4 transporters at the cell surface, but cannot discount the involvement of an unknown GLUT.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of GLUT4: substrate-free and substrate-induced dynamics and ATP-mediated glucose transport inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Suma; Sheena, Aswathy; Poulose, Ninu; Anilkumar, Gopalakrishnapillai

    2010-12-03

    Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is an insulin facilitated glucose transporter that plays an important role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. GLUT4 is sequestered into intracellular vesicles in unstimulated cells and translocated to the plasma membrane by various stimuli. Understanding the structural details of GLUT4 will provide insights into the mechanism of glucose transport and its regulation. To date, a crystal structure for GLUT4 is not available. However, earlier work from our laboratory proposed a well validated homology model for GLUT4 based on the experimental data available on GLUT1 and the crystal structure data obtained from the glycerol 3-phosphate transporter. In the present study, the dynamic behavior of GLUT4 in a membrane environment was analyzed using three forms of GLUT4 (apo, substrate and ATP-substrate bound states). Apo form simulation analysis revealed an extracellular open conformation of GLUT4 in the membrane favoring easy exofacial binding of substrate. Simulation studies with the substrate bound form proposed a stable state of GLUT4 with glucose, which can be a substrate-occluded state of the transporter. Principal component analysis suggested a clockwise movement for the domains in the apo form, whereas ATP substrate-bound form induced an anti-clockwise rotation. Simulation studies suggested distinct conformational changes for the GLUT4 domains in the ATP substrate-bound form and favor a constricted behavior for the transport channel. Various inter-domain hydrogen bonds and switching of a salt-bridge network from E345-R350-E409 to E345-R169-E409 contributed to this ATP-mediated channel constriction favoring substrate occlusion and prevention of its release into cytoplasm. These data are consistent with the biochemical studies, suggesting an inhibitory role for ATP in GLUT-mediated glucose transport. In the absence of a crystal structure for any glucose transporter, this study provides mechanistic details of the conformational

  1. Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richter, Erik A; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    .... Glucose enters the muscle cell via facilitated diffusion through the GLUT4 glucose transporter which translocates from intracellular storage depots to the plasma membrane and T-tubules upon muscle contraction...

  2. Sulfonylurea therapy improves glucose disposal without changing skeletal muscle GLUT4 levels in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Weinreb, J E; Rosen, A S

    1995-01-01

    A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus, longitu......A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus......, longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether changes in GLUT4 expression in muscle of NIDDM subjects could be responsible for changes in glucose disposal. The question is timely because recent studies in transgenic mice show that increasing GLUT4 expression can increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... in vivo and in vitro. Here we use a longitudinal design to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of therapy with the sulfonylurea gliclazide on glycemic control, glucose tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and GLUT4 expression in muscle of 10 obese NIDDM subjects. Subjects were on a weight...

  3. Acetylation of TUG protein promotes the accumulation of GLUT4 glucose transporters in an insulin-responsive intracellular compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belman, Jonathan P; Bian, Rachel R; Habtemichael, Estifanos N; Li, Don T; Jurczak, Michael J; Alcázar-Román, Abel; McNally, Leah J; Shulman, Gerald I; Bogan, Jonathan S

    2015-02-13

    Insulin causes the exocytic translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to stimulate glucose uptake in fat and muscle. Previous results support a model in which TUG traps GLUT4 in intracellular, insulin-responsive vesicles termed GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Insulin triggers TUG cleavage to release the GSVs; GLUT4 then recycles through endosomes during ongoing insulin exposure. The TUG C terminus binds a GSV anchoring site comprising Golgin-160 and possibly other proteins. Here, we report that the TUG C terminus is acetylated. The TUG C-terminal peptide bound the Golgin-160-associated protein, ACBD3 (acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing 3), and acetylation reduced binding of TUG to ACBD3 but not to Golgin-160. Mutation of the acetylated residues impaired insulin-responsive GLUT4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACBD3 overexpression enhanced the translocation of GSV cargos, GLUT4 and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), and ACBD3 was required for intracellular retention of these cargos in unstimulated cells. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, bound TUG and deacetylated the TUG peptide. SIRT2 overexpression reduced TUG acetylation and redistributed GLUT4 and IRAP to the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mutation of the acetylated residues in TUG abrogated these effects. In mice, SIRT2 deletion increased TUG acetylation and proteolytic processing. During glucose tolerance tests, glucose disposal was enhanced in SIRT2 knock-out mice, compared with wild type controls, without any effect on insulin concentrations. Together, these data support a model in which TUG acetylation modulates its interaction with Golgi matrix proteins and is regulated by SIRT2. Moreover, acetylation of TUG enhances its function to trap GSVs within unstimulated cells and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Adaptive responses of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in fast-twitch muscle of voluntary running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Halseth, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein, hexokinase, and citrate synthase (proteins involved in oxidative energy production from blood glucose catabolism) increase in response to chronically elevated neuromuscular activity. It is currently unclear whether these proteins increase in a coordinated manner in response to this stimulus. Therefore, voluntary wheel running (WR) was used to chronically overload the fast-twitch rat plantaris muscle and the myocardium, and the early time courses of adaptative responses of GLUT-4 protein and the activities of hexokinase and citrate synthase were characterized and compared. Plantaris hexokinase activity increased 51% after just 1 wk of WR, whereas GLUT-4 and citrate synthase were increased by 51 and 40%, respectively, only after 2 wk of WR. All three variables remained comparably elevated (+50-64%) through 4 wk of WR. Despite the overload of the myocardium with this protocol, no substantial elevations in these variables were observed. These findings are consistent with a coordinated upregulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in the fast-twitch plantaris, but not in the myocardium, in response to this increased neuromuscular activity. Regulation of hexokinase in fast-twitch muscle appears to be uncoupled from regulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase, as increases in the former are detectable well before increases in the latter.

  5. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleman Kadan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation.

  6. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  7. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takuya; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kitawaki, Jo; Katsuyama, Masato; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.

  8. Glucose transporters and in vivo glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscle: fasting, insulin stimulation and immunoisolation studies of GLUT1 and GLUT4.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraegen, E. W.; Sowden, J A; Halstead, M B; Clark, P W; Rodnick, K J; Chisholm, D. J.; James, D E

    1993-01-01

    Our aim was to study glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in relation to in vivo glucose uptake in rat cardiac and skeletal muscle. The levels of both transporters were of a similar order of magnitude in whole muscle tissue (GLUT1/GLUT4 ratio varied from 0.1 to 0.6), suggesting that both may have an important physiological role in regulating muscle glucose metabolism. GLUT4 correlated very strongly (r2 = 0.97) with maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (Rg' max., estimated using the gluco...

  9. A serum factor induces insulin-independent translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface which is maintained in insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Berenguer

    Full Text Available In response to insulin, glucose transporter GLUT4 translocates from intracellular compartments towards the plasma membrane where it enhances cellular glucose uptake. Here, we show that sera from various species contain a factor that dose-dependently induces GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, human adipocytes, myoblasts and myotubes. Notably, the effect of this factor on GLUT4 is fully maintained in insulin-resistant cells. Our studies demonstrate that the serum-induced increase in cell surface GLUT4 levels is not due to inhibition of its internalization and is not mediated by insulin, PDGF, IGF-1, or HGF. Similarly to insulin, serum also augments cell surface levels of GLUT1 and TfR. Remarkably, the acute effect of serum on GLUT4 is largely additive to that of insulin, while it also sensitizes the cells to insulin. In accordance with these findings, serum does not appear to activate the same repertoire of downstream signaling molecules that are implicated in insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that in addition to insulin, at least one other biological proteinaceous factor exists that contributes to GLUT4 regulation and still functions in insulin resistance. The challenge now is to identify this factor.

  10. Impaired Translocation of GLUT4 Results in Insulin Resistance of Atrophic Soleus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats. PMID:25713812

  11. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  12. Impaired Translocation of GLUT4 Results in Insulin Resistance of Atrophic Soleus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Tao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  13. Impaired translocation of GLUT4 results in insulin resistance of atrophic soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  14. Baicalin against obesity and insulin resistance through activation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Dan; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-06-15

    Obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite great advances in medicine, people still keep exploring novel and effective drugs for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to survey if baicalin might ameliorate obesity-induced insulin resistance and to explore its signal mechanisms in skeletal muscles of mice. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were given 50 mg/kg baicalin intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 21 days, and C2C12 myotubes were treated with 100, 200, 400 μM baicalin for 12 h in this study. Then insulin resistance indexes and insulin signal protein levels in skeletal muscles were examined. We discovered that administration of baicalin decreased food intake, body weight, HOMA-IR and NT-PGC-1α levels, but enhanced GLUT4, PGC-1α, pP38MAPK, pAKT and pAS160 contents, as well as GLUT4 mRNA, PGC-1α mRNA, PPARγ mRNA, GLUT1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscles of obese mice and myotubes of C2C12 cells, and reversed high fat diet-induced glucose and insulin intolerance, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the mice. These results suggest that baicalin is a powerful and promising agent for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance via Akt/AS160/GLUT4 and P38MAPK/PGC1α/GLUT4 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 27-Hydroxycholesterol impairs neuronal glucose uptake through an IRAP/GLUT4 system dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Muhammad-Al-Mustafa; Mateos, Laura; Maioli, Silvia; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Ali, Zeina; Lodeiro, Maria; Westman, Eric; Leitersdorf, Eran; Gulyás, Balázs; Olof-Wahlund, Lars; Winblad, Bengt; Savitcheva, Irina; Björkhem, Ingemar; Cedazo-Mínguez, Angel

    2017-03-06

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with cognitively deteriorated states. Here, we show that excess 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH), a cholesterol metabolite passing from the circulation into the brain, reduced in vivo brain glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression, and spatial memory. Furthermore, patients exhibiting higher 27-OH levels had reduced 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. This interplay between 27-OH and glucose uptake revealed the engagement of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). 27-OH increased the levels and activity of IRAP, countered the IRAP antagonist angiotensin IV (AngIV)-mediated glucose uptake, and enhanced the levels of the AngIV-degrading enzyme aminopeptidase N (AP-N). These effects were mediated by liver X receptors. Our results reveal a molecular link between cholesterol, brain glucose, and the brain renin-angiotensin system, all of which are affected in some neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, reducing 27-OH levels or inhibiting AP-N maybe a useful strategy in the prevention of the altered glucose metabolism and memory decline in these disorders. © 2017 Ismail et al.

  16. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p GLUT 4 expression in soleus muscle from...... the same rats were confirmed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, and the results were significantly correlated with the results obtained from quantitative immunoblotting (rho = 0.70, p GLUT 4 in fa/fa rats could contribute to the well-established insulin...

  17. Exercise-induced GLUT4 transcription via inactivation of HDAC4/5 in mouse skeletal muscle in an AMPKα2-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanmei; Wang, Tianyi; Liu, Sujuan; Yuan, Hairui; Li, Huige; Fu, Li

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism induces various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regular exercise improved glucose uptake and enhanced glucose oxidation by increasing GLUT4 transcription in skeletal muscle. However, the regulatory mechanisms of GLUT4 transcription in response to exercise are poorly understood. AMPK is a sensor of exercise and upstream kinase of class II HDACs that act as transcriptional repressors. We used 6-week treadmill exercise or one single-bout exercise wild type or AMPKα2 -/- C57BL/6J mice to explore how HDACs regulate GLUT4 transcription and the underlying molecular mechanisms mediated by AMPK in the physiologic process of exercise. We demonstrate that regular physical exercise significantly enhanced GLUT4 transcription by inactivating HDAC4/5 in skeletal muscle by ChIP experiment. HDAC4 coordinately regulated with HDAC5 represses transcriptional activity of GLUT4 promoter in C2C12 myotubes by Luciferase assay. If either HDAC4 or HDAC5 is silenced via RNAi technology, the functional compensation by the other will occur. In addition, a single-bout of exercise decreased HDAC4/5 activity in skeletal muscle of wild type but not in AMPKα2 -/- mice, suggesting an AMPKα2-dependent manner. Those findings provide new insight into the mechanisms responsible for AMPKα2-dependent regulation of GLUT4 transcription after exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTP-alpha) but not PTP-kappa inhibits translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, L N; Chen, H; Li, Y

    1999-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) are likely to play important roles in insulin action. We recently demonstrated that the nontransmembrane PTPase PTP1B can act as a negative modulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. We now examine the role of PTP-alpha and PTP-kappa (two...... transmembrane PTPases) in this metabolic action of insulin. Rat adipose cells were transfected with either PTP-alpha or PTP-kappa and effects of these PTPases on the translocation of a cotransfected epitope-tagged GLUT4 were studied. Cells overexpressing wild-type PTP-alpha had significantly lower levels...... of cell surface GLUT4 in response to insulin and a threefold decrease in insulin sensitivity when compared with control cells expressing only tagged GLUT4. Co-overexpression of PTP-alpha and PTP1B did not have additive effects, suggesting that these PTPases share common substrates. Cells overexpressing...

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of GLUT4: substrate-free and substrate-induced dynamics and ATP-mediated glucose transport inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is an insulin facilitated glucose transporter that plays an important role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. GLUT4 is sequestered into intracellular vesicles in unstimulated cells and translocated to the plasma membrane by various stimuli. Understanding the structural details of GLUT4 will provide insights into the mechanism of glucose transport and its regulation. To date, a crystal structure for GLUT4 is not available. However, earlier work from our laboratory proposed a well validated homology model for GLUT4 based on the experimental data available on GLUT1 and the crystal structure data obtained from the glycerol 3-phosphate transporter. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the dynamic behavior of GLUT4 in a membrane environment was analyzed using three forms of GLUT4 (apo, substrate and ATP-substrate bound states. Apo form simulation analysis revealed an extracellular open conformation of GLUT4 in the membrane favoring easy exofacial binding of substrate. Simulation studies with the substrate bound form proposed a stable state of GLUT4 with glucose, which can be a substrate-occluded state of the transporter. Principal component analysis suggested a clockwise movement for the domains in the apo form, whereas ATP substrate-bound form induced an anti-clockwise rotation. Simulation studies suggested distinct conformational changes for the GLUT4 domains in the ATP substrate-bound form and favor a constricted behavior for the transport channel. Various inter-domain hydrogen bonds and switching of a salt-bridge network from E345-R350-E409 to E345-R169-E409 contributed to this ATP-mediated channel constriction favoring substrate occlusion and prevention of its release into cytoplasm. These data are consistent with the biochemical studies, suggesting an inhibitory role for ATP in GLUT-mediated glucose transport. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the absence of a crystal structure for any

  20. Arp2/3- and cofilin-coordinated actin dynamics is required for insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation to the surface of muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tim Ting; Patel, Nish; Shaw, Alisa E; Bamburg, James R; Klip, Amira

    2010-10-15

    GLUT4 vesicles are actively recruited to the muscle cell surface upon insulin stimulation. Key to this process is Rac-dependent reorganization of filamentous actin beneath the plasma membrane, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Using L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stably expressing myc-tagged GLUT4, we found that Arp2/3, acting downstream of Rac GTPase, is responsible for the cortical actin polymerization evoked by insulin. siRNA-mediated silencing of either Arp3 or p34 subunits of the Arp2/3 complex abrogated actin remodeling and impaired GLUT4 translocation. Insulin also led to dephosphorylation of the actin-severing protein cofilin on Ser-3, mediated by the phosphatase slingshot. Cofilin dephosphorylation was prevented by strategies depolymerizing remodeled actin (latrunculin B or p34 silencing), suggesting that accumulation of polymerized actin drives severing to enact a dynamic actin cycling. Cofilin knockdown via siRNA caused overwhelming actin polymerization that subsequently inhibited GLUT4 translocation. This inhibition was relieved by reexpressing Xenopus wild-type cofilin-GFP but not the S3E-cofilin-GFP mutant that emulates permanent phosphorylation. Transferrin recycling was not affected by depleting Arp2/3 or cofilin. These results suggest that cofilin dephosphorylation is required for GLUT4 translocation. We propose that Arp2/3 and cofilin coordinate a dynamic cycle of actin branching and severing at the cell cortex, essential for insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells.

  1. GLUT4 content decreases along with insulin resistance and high levels of inflammatory markers in rats with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leguisamo Natalia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, which is closely related to GLUT4 content in insulin-sensitive tissues. Thus, we evaluated the GLUT4 expression, insulin resistance and inflammation, characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, in an experimental model. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive neonate rats (18/group were treated with monosodium glutamate (MetS during 9 days, and compared with Wistar-Kyoto (C and saline-treated SHR (H. Blood pressure (BP and lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, TNF-α and adiponectin were evaluated. GLUT4 protein was analysed in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius. Studies were performed at 3 (3-mo, 6 (6-mo and 9 (9-mo months of age. Results MetS rats were more insulin resistant (pvs H, but adiponectin was lower in MetS at 9 months (MetS: 32 ± 2, H: 42 ± 2, C: 45 ± 2 pg/mL; p Conclusions MSG-treated SHR presented all metabolic syndrome characteristics, as well as reduced GLUT4 content, which must play a key role in the impaired glycemic homeostasis of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Signal transduction meets vesicle traffic: the software and hardware of GLUT4 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klip, Amira; Sun, Yi; Chiu, Tim Ting; Foley, Kevin P

    2014-05-15

    Skeletal muscle is the major tissue disposing of dietary glucose, a function regulated by insulin-elicited signals that impart mobilization of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. This phenomenon, also central to adipocyte biology, has been the subject of intense and productive research for decades. We focus on muscle cell studies scrutinizing insulin signals and vesicle traffic in a spatiotemporal manner. Using the analogy of an integrated circuit to approach the intersection between signal transduction and vesicle mobilization, we identify signaling relays ("software") that engage structural/mechanical elements ("hardware") to enact the rapid mobilization and incorporation of GLUT4 into the cell surface. We emphasize how insulin signal transduction switches from tyrosine through lipid and serine phosphorylation down to activation of small G proteins of the Rab and Rho families, describe key negative regulation step of Rab GTPases through the GTPase-activating protein activity of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), and focus on the mechanical effectors engaged by Rabs 8A and 10 (the molecular motor myosin Va), and the Rho GTPase Rac1 (actin filament branching and severing through Arp2/3 and cofilin). Finally, we illustrate how actin filaments interact with myosin 1c and α-Actinin4 to promote vesicle tethering as preamble to fusion with the membrane. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Glut4 Is Sorted from a Rab10 GTPase-independent Constitutive Recycling Pathway into a Highly Insulin-responsive Rab10 GTPase-dependent Sequestration Pathway after Adipocyte Differentiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul Duffield; Habtemichael, Estifanos N.; Romenskaia, Irina; Mastick, Cynthia Corley; Coster, Adelle C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The RabGAP AS160/TBC1D4 controls exocytosis of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter Glut4 in adipocytes. Glut4 is internalized and recycled through a highly regulated secretory pathway in these cells. Glut4 also cycles through a slow constitutive endosomal pathway distinct from the fast transferrin (Tf) receptor recycling pathway. This slow constitutive pathway is the only Glut4 cycling pathway in undifferentiated fibroblasts. The α2-macroglobulin receptor LRP1 cycles with Glut4 and the Tf receptor through all three exocytic pathways. To further characterize these pathways, the effects of knockdown of AS160 substrates on the trafficking kinetics of Glut4, LRP1, and the Tf receptor were measured in adipocytes and fibroblasts. Rab10 knockdown decreased cell surface Glut4 in insulin-stimulated adipocytes by 65%, but not in basal adipocytes or in fibroblasts. This decrease was due primarily to a 62% decrease in the rate constant of Glut4 exocytosis (kex), although Rab10 knockdown also caused a 1.4-fold increase in the rate constant of Glut4 endocytosis (ken). Rab10 knockdown in adipocytes also decreased cell surface LRP1 by 30% by decreasing kex 30–40%. There was no effect on LRP1 trafficking in fibroblasts or on Tf receptor trafficking in either cell type. These data confirm that Rab10 is an AS160 substrate that limits exocytosis through the highly insulin-responsive specialized secretory pathway in adipocytes. They further show that the slow constitutive endosomal (fibroblast) recycling pathway is Rab10-independent. Thus, Rab10 is a marker for the specialized pathway in adipocytes. Interestingly, mathematical modeling shows that Glut4 traffics predominantly through the specialized Rab10-dependent pathway both before and after insulin stimulation. PMID:26527681

  4. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  5. Myosin IIA participates in docking of Glut4 storage vesicles with the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Le Thi Kim, E-mail: ngocanh@nutr.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Hosaka, Toshio [Department of Public Health and Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima (Japan); Harada, Nagakatsu; Jambaldorj, Bayasgalan; Fukunaga, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuka [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Teshigawara, Kiyoshi [Clinical Research Center for Diabetes, Tokushima University Hospital, 2-50-1 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Sakai, Tohru [Department of Public Health and Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima (Japan); Nakaya, Yutaka [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Funaki, Makoto, E-mail: m-funaki@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Clinical Research Center for Diabetes, Tokushima University Hospital, 2-50-1 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    In adipocytes and myocytes, insulin stimulation translocates glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) storage vesicles (GSVs) from their intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane (PM) where they dock with the PM. Then, Glut4 is inserted into the PM and initiates glucose uptake into these cells. Previous studies using chemical inhibitors demonstrated that myosin II participates in fusion of GSVs and the PM and increase in the intrinsic activity of Glut4. In this study, the effect of myosin IIA on GSV trafficking was examined by knocking down myosin IIA expression. Myosin IIA knockdown decreased both glucose uptake and exposures of myc-tagged Glut4 to the cell surface in insulin-stimulated cells, but did not affect insulin signal transduction. Interestingly, myosin IIA knockdown failed to decrease insulin-dependent trafficking of Glut4 to the PM. Moreover, in myosin IIA knockdown cells, insulin-stimulated binding of GSV SNARE protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) to PM SNARE protein, syntaxin 4 was inhibited. These data suggest that myosin IIA plays a role in insulin-stimulated docking of GSVs to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through SNARE complex formation.

  6. Fiber type effects on contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 abundance in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena, Carlos M; Arias, Edward B; Sharma, Naveen; Bogan, Jonathan S; Cartee, Gregory D

    2015-02-01

    To fully understand skeletal muscle at the cellular level, it is essential to evaluate single muscle fibers. Accordingly, the major goals of this study were to determine if there are fiber type-related differences in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle for: 1) contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and/or 2) the abundance of GLUT4 and other metabolically relevant proteins. Paired epitrochlearis muscles isolated from Wistar rats were either electrically stimulated to contract (E-Stim) or remained resting (No E-Stim). Single fibers isolated from muscles incubated with 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose (2-DG) were used to determine fiber type [myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform protein expression], 2-DG uptake, and abundance of metabolically relevant proteins, including the GLUT4 glucose transporter. E-Stim, relative to No E-Stim, fibers had greater (P glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Photoactivation of GLUT4 translocation promotes glucose uptake via PI3-K/Akt2 signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Dysfunction of PI-3K/Akt signaling was involved in insulin resistance. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is a key factor for glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues, which is closely regulated by PI-3K/Akt signaling in response to insulin treatment. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI has been shown to regulate various physiological processes and induce the synthesis or release of multiple molecules such as growth factors, which (especially red and near infrared light is mainly through the activation of mitochondrial respiratory chain and the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether LPLI could promote glucose uptake through activation of PI-3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling in 3T3L-1 adipocytes. In this study, we investigated how LPLI promoted glucose uptake through activation of PI-3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling pathway. Here, we showed that GLUT4 was localized to the Golgi apparatus and translocated from cytoplasm to cytomembrane upon LPLI treatment in 3T3L-1 adipocytes, which enhanced glucose uptake. Moreover, we found that glucose uptake was mediated by the PI3-K/Akt2 signaling, but not Akt1 upon LPLI treatment with Akt isoforms gene silence and PI3-K/Akt inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that PI3-K/Akt2/GLUT4 signaling act as the key regulators for improvement of glucose uptake under LPLI treatment in 3T3L-1 adipocytes. More importantly, our findings suggest that activation of PI3-K/Akt2/GLUT4 signaling by LPLI may provide guidance in practical applications for promotion of glucose uptake in insulin-resistant adipose tissue.

  8. Genetic variants in promoters and coding regions of the muscle glycogen synthase and the insulin-responsive GLUT4 genes in NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørbaek, C; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Hubricht, P

    1994-01-01

    regions and regions of importance for translation, as well as coding sequences of the two genes, were studied using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. The genetic analyses were performed in subgroups of 52 Caucasian NIDDM patients and 25 age-matched healthy......To examine the hypothesis that variants in the regulatory or coding regions of the glycogen synthase (GS) and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) genes contribute to insulin-resistant glucose processing of muscle from non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, promoter......'-untranslated region, and the coding region of the GLUT4 gene showed four polymorphisms, all single nucleotide substitutions, positioned at -581, 1, 30, and 582. None of the three changes in the regulatory region of the gene had any major influence on expression of the GLUT4 gene in muscle. The variant at 582...

  9. Subcellular trafficking of the substrate transporters GLUT4 and CD36 in cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, L.K.M.; Schwenk, R.W.; Ouwens, D.M.; Diamant, M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Luiken, J.J.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes use glucose as well as fatty acids for ATP production. These substrates are transported into the cell by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36. Besides being located at the sarcolemma, GLUT4 and CD36 are stored in intracellular compartments. Raised plasma

  10. Exercise and CaMK activation both increase the binding of MEF2A to the Glut4 promoter in skeletal muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; Collins, Malcolm; Grobler, Liesl A; Magee, Carrie J; Ojuka, Edward O

    2007-02-01

    In vitro binding assays have indicated that the exercise-induced increase in muscle GLUT4 is preceded by increased binding of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) to its cis-element on the Glut4 promoter. Because in vivo binding conditions are often not adequately recreated in vitro, we measured the amount of MEF2A that was bound to the Glut4 promoter in rat triceps after an acute swimming exercise in vivo, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Bound MEF2A was undetectable in nonexercised controls or at 24 h postexercise but was significantly elevated approximately 6 h postexercise. Interestingly, the increase in bound MEF2A was preceded by an increase in autonomous activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II in the same muscle. To determine if CaMK signaling mediates MEF2A/DNA associations in vivo, we performed ChIP assays on C(2)C(12) myotubes expressing constitutively active (CA) or dominant negative (DN) CaMK IV proteins. We found that approximately 75% more MEF2A was bound to the Glut4 promoter in CA compared with DN CaMK IV-expressing cells. GLUT4 protein increased approximately 70% 24 h after exercise but was unchanged by overexpression of CA CaMK IV in myotubes. These results confirm that exercise increases the binding of MEF2A to the Glut4 promoter in vivo and provides evidence that CaMK signaling is involved in this interaction.

  11. Novel Roles for the Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter-4 in Hippocampally Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C

    2016-11-23

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes. Here, we show that, in male rats, hippocampal GluT4 translocates to the plasma membrane after memory training and that acute, selective intrahippocampal inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose transport impaired memory acquisition, but not memory retrieval. Other studies have shown that prolonged systemic GluT4 blockade causes insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, we found that prolonged hippocampal blockade of glucose transport through GluT4-upregulated markers of hippocampal insulin signaling prevented task-associated depletion of hippocampal glucose and enhanced both working and short-term memory while also impairing long-term memory. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of hippocampal AMPA GluR1 subunits and the neuronal GluT3, but decreased expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, consistent with impaired ability to form long-term memories. Our findings are the first to show the cognitive impact of brain GluT4 modulation. They identify GluT4 as a key regulator of hippocampal memory processing and also suggest differential regulation of GluT4 in the hippocampus from that in peripheral tissues. The role of insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) in the brain is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that GluT4 is a critical component of hippocampal memory processes. Memory training increased hippocampal GluT4 translocation and memory acquisition was impaired by GluT4 blockade. Unexpectedly, whereas long

  12. Effects of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signalling and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Chinnaiyan, Mayilvanan; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    Di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure. The present study was delineated to decipher the direct effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes, the rat skeletal muscle model. For this study we have exposed cells with 50 and 100μM DEHP and MEHP for 24h followed by insulin stimulation for 20min. GLUT4 level in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions were analysed by western blot analysis and found to be significantly decreased. Further, DEHP and MEHP treatment significantly altered the insulin signalling molecules and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation (Rab8A (Ras related proteins in skeletal muscle), insulin - regulated amino peptidase (IRAP), synaptosomal - associated protein 23 (SNAP23), Syntaxin4, Munc18c) from cytosol to plasma membrane. Impaired GLUT4 in the plasma membrane resulted in decreased 14 C-deoxy glucose uptake. 14 C-glucose oxidation and glycogen content were also significantly decreased in treated groups. In essence, the present study is first of its kind to show the direct adverse effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes. Further, MEHP is found to be more effective than DEHP as a result of its differential structure and physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vimentin binds IRAP and is involved in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yohko [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Hosaka, Toshio, E-mail: hosaka@nutr.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Public Health and Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Iwata, Takeo [Department of Medical Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Le, Chung T.K.; Jambaldorj, Bayasgalan; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Sakaue, Hiroshi [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Sakai, Tohru [Department of Public Health and Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko [Department of Medical Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Nakaya, Yutaka [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Vimentin is shown to bind to the N-terminus of insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP), a major cargo protein of GLUT4 vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. {yields} GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by insulin is decreased in vimentin-depleted adipocytes. {yields} An interaction between vimentin and IRAP functions to sequester GLUT4 vesicles to the peri-nuclear region of the cell. -- Abstract: Insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP) and GLUT4 are two major cargo proteins of GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) that are translocated from a postendosomal storage compartment to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin. The cytoplasmic region of IRAP is reportedly involved in retention of GSVs. In this study, vimentin was identified using the cytoplasmic domain of IRAP as bait. The validity of this interaction was confirmed by pull-down assays and immunoprecipitation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, it was shown that GLUT4 translocation to the PM by insulin was decreased in vimentin-depleted adipocytes, presumably due to dispersing GSVs away from the cytoskeleton. These findings suggest that the IRAP binding protein, vimentin, plays an important role in retention of GSVs.

  14. GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle studied with a cell-free assay: involvement of phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, S; Nielsen, J N; Bourgoin, S; Klip, A; Franco, M; Richter, E A

    2001-09-01

    GLUT-4-containing membranes immunoprecipitated from insulin-stimulated rat skeletal muscle produce the phospholipase D (PLD) product phosphatidic acid. In vitro stimulation of PLD in crude membrane with ammonium sulfate (5 mM) resulted in transfer of GLUT-4 (3.0-fold vs. control) as well as transferrin receptor proteins from large to small membrane structures. The in vitro GLUT-4 transfer could be blocked by neomycin (a PLD inhibitor), and neomycin also reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in intact incubated soleus muscles. Furthermore, protein kinase B(beta) (PKB(beta)) was found to associate with the GLUT-4 protein and was transferred to small vesicles in response to ammonium sulfate in vitro. Finally, addition of cytosolic proteins, prepared from basal skeletal muscle, and GTP nucleotides to an enriched GLUT-4 membrane fraction resulted in in vitro transfer of GLUT-4 to small membranes (6.8-fold vs. unstimulated control). The cytosol and nucleotide-induced GLUT-4 transfer could be blocked by neomycin and N-ethylmaleimide. In conclusion, we have developed a cell-free assay that demonstrates in vitro GLUT-4 transfer. This transfer may suggest release of GLUT-4-containing vesicles from donor GLUT-4 membranes involving PLD activity and binding of PKB(beta) to GLUT-4.

  15. Large GLUT4 vesicles are stationary while locally and reversibly depleted during transient insulin stimulation of skeletal muscle of living mice: imaging analysis of GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein vesicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Galbo, Henrik; Brandauer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle by GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments to sarcolemma and t-tubules. We studied in living animals the recruitment of GLUT4 vesicles in more detail than previously done and, for the first time, analyzed the steady......-state recycling and subsequent re-internalization of GLUT4 on an insulin bolus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A confocal imaging technique was used in GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein-transfected superficial muscle fibers in living mice. RESULTS: During the first 30 min of insulin stimulation, very few...... superficially or deeply located GLUT4 storage vesicles (>1 microm) moved in toto. Rather, big vesicles were stationary in their original position at sarcolemma or t-tubules and were locally depleted of GLUT4 by budding off of smaller vesicles. Photobleaching experiments revealed that during initial...

  16. Palmitic acid interferes with energy metabolism balance by adversely switching the SIRT1-CD36-fatty acid pathway to the PKC zeta-GLUT4-glucose pathway in cardiomyoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, V Vijaya; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic regulation is inextricably linked with cardiac function. Fatty acid metabolism is a significant mechanism for creating energy for the heart. However, cardiomyocytes are able to switch the fatty acids or glucose, depending on different situations, such as ischemia or anoxia. Lipotoxicity in obesity causes impairments in energy metabolism and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. We utilized the treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells palmitic acid (PA) as a model for hyperlipidemia to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in these processes. Our results show PA induces time- and dose-dependent lipotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Moreover, PA enhances cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and reduces glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) pathway protein levels following a short period of treatment, but cells switch from CD36 back to the GLUT4 pathway after during long-term exposure to PA. As sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) play important roles in CD36 and GLUT4 translocation, we used the SIRT1 activator resveratrol and si-PKCζ to identify the switches in metabolism. Although PA reduced CD36 and increased GLUT4 metabolic pathway proteins, when we pretreated cells with resveratrol to activate SIRT1 or transfected si-PKCζ, both were able to significantly increase CD36 metabolic pathway proteins and reduce GLUT4 pathway proteins. High-fat diets affect energy metabolism pathways in both normal and aging rats and involve switching the energy source from the CD36 pathway to GLUT4. In conclusion, PA and high-fat diets cause lipotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and adversely switch the energy source from the CD36 pathway to the GLUT4 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic caffeine intake reverses age-induced insulin resistance in the rat: effect on skeletal muscle Glut4 transporters and AMPK activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Maria P; Ribeiro, Maria J; Sacramento, Joana F; Conde, Sílvia V

    2013-10-01

    The role of caffeine consumption on insulin action is still under debate. The hypothesis that chronic caffeine intake reverses aging-induced insulin resistance in the rat was tested in this work. The mechanism by which caffeine restores insulin sensitivity was also investigated. Six groups of rats were used: 3 months old (3 M), 3 months old caffeine-treated (3MCaf), 12 months old (12 M), 12 months old caffeine-treated (12MCaf), 24 months old (24 M), and 24 months old caffeine-treated (24MCaf). Caffeine was administered in drinking water (1 g/l) during 15 days. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by means of the insulin tolerance test. Blood pressure, body weight, visceral and total fat, fasting glycemia and insulinemia, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), cortisol, nitric oxide, and catecholamines were monitored. Skeletal muscle Glut4 and 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression and activity were also assessed. Aged rats exhibited diminished insulin sensitivity accompanied by hyperinsulinemia and normoglycemia, increased visceral and total fat, decreased TAC and plasma catecholamines, and also decreased skeletal muscle Glut4 and AMPK protein expression. Chronic caffeine intake restored insulin sensitivity and regularized circulating insulin and NEFA in both aging models. Caffeine neither modified skeletal muscle AMPK expression nor activity in aged rats; however, it decreased visceral and total fat in 12 M rats and it restored skeletal muscle Glut4 expression to control values in 24 M rats. We concluded that chronic caffeine intake reverses aging-induced insulin resistance in rats by decreasing NEFA production and also by increasing Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle.

  18. Effects of contraction on localization of GLUT4 and v-SNARE isoforms in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Jeppesen, Jacob; Kiens, Bente

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, contractions increase glucose uptake due to a translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular storage sites to the surface membrane. Vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) are believed to play an important role in docking and fusion of the GLUT4 transporters...... at the surface membrane. However, knowledge about which VAMP isoforms in fact co-localize with GLUT4 vesicles in mature skeletal muscle and whether they translocate during muscle contractions is incomplete. The aim of the present study was to further identify VAMP isoforms which are associated with GLUT4...... vesicles and examine which VAMP isoforms translocate to surface membranes in skeletal muscles undergoing contractions. VAMP2, VAMP3, VAMP5 and VAMP7 were enriched in immuno-precipitated GLUT4 vesicles. In response to 20 min of in situ contractions, there was a redistribution of GLUT4 (+64 +/- 13...

  19. CELL BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Practical application of the basic aspects of GLUT4 membrane trafficking and insulin signaling on issues related to animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B

    2017-05-01

    Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro. Insulin did not stimulate glucose or acetate incorporation into fatty acids, nor did it increase concentrations of glycolytic intermediates in bovine adipose tissue incubated with exogenous glucose. Specific binding of [I] iodoinsulin and insulin degradation in bovine isolated adipocytes was low to non-detectable. These early studies indicated that insulin-dependent receptor-mediated signaling was less important in bovine adipose tissue than in adipose tissues of humans, swine, or laboratory species. More recent research demonstrated that glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) expression in muscle and adipose tissue declines markedly after birth in calves, indicating the development of insulin resistance as cattle transition from suckling to functional ruminants. Insulin resistance is important in dairy cattle, causing ketosis and fatty liver. Consistent with this, subcutaneous adipose tissue expression decreases 50% following parturition in dairy cattle, although expression of genes associated with insulin responsiveness (, , and ) is up-regulated by 21 d postpartum. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of insulin resistance in beef and dairy cattle would increase animal health and thereby improve productivity.

  20. Comparison of GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 mRNA and the subcellular distribution of their proteins in normal human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Gustafson, W. C.; Thompson, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Basal, "insulin-independent" glucose uptake into skeletal muscle is provided by glucose transporters positioned at the plasma membrane. The relative amount of the three glucose transporters expressed in muscle has not been previously quantified. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) methods, we found in normal human muscle that GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 mRNA were expressed at 90 +/- 10, 46 +/- 4, and 156 +/- 12 copies/ng RNA, respectively. Muscle was fractionated by DNase digestion and differential sedimentation into membrane fractions enriched in plasma membranes (PM) or low-density microsomes (LDM). GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins were distributed 57% to 67% in LDM, whereas GLUT3 protein was at least 88% in the PM-enriched fractions. These data suggest that basal glucose uptake into resting human muscle could be provided in part by each of these three isoforms.

  1. Decreased muscle GLUT-4 and contraction-induced glucose transport after eccentric contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Asp, Svend; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Eccentric exercise causes muscle damage and decreased muscle glycogen and glucose transporter isoform (GLUT-4) protein content. We investigated whether the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle glucose transport and muscle performance is affected by prior eccentric contractions. The calf...... contractions. EC rats had a significantly lower total GLUT-4 protein content in the white gastrocnemius (GW) muscle (55%) and red gastrocnemius (GR) muscle (34%) compared with muscle from the CT, ST, and CC rats. In contrast, GLUT-1 protein content was approximately twofold higher in the GW muscle in EC rats...... than in CT rats. In the GW and GR muscle, prior eccentric exercise decreased contraction-induced stimulation of glucose transport compared with CT, ST, and CC rats despite no difference in tension development and oxygen uptake among the groups. There was no change in total GLUT-4 content and glucose...

  2. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...... were obtained from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 7 days after the marathon, as were venous blood samples. Muscle GLUT-4 content was unaltered over the experimental period. Muscle glycogen concentration was 758 +/- 53 mmol/kg dry weight before......-race levels 7 days after the race. We conclude that the total GLUT-4 protein content is unaltered in the lateral gastrocnemius after a competitive marathon and that the slow recovery of muscle glycogen after the race apparently involves factors other than changes in the total content of this protein....

  3. Insulin stimulation of glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle: increase in cell surface GLUT4 as assessed by photolabelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C. M.; Cushman, S W

    1994-01-01

    We have used a photoaffinity label to quantify cell surface GLUT4 glucose transporters in isolated rat soleus muscles. In this system, insulin stimulated an 8.6-fold increase in 3-O-methylglucose glucose transport, while photolabelled GLUT4 increased 8-fold. These results demonstrate that the insulin-stimulated increase in glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle can be accounted for by an increase in surface-accessible GLUT4 content.

  4. Caffeine induces hyperacetylation of histones at the MEF2 site on the Glut4 promoter and increases MEF2A binding to the site via a CaMK-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwevho, Emmanuel; Kohn, Tertius A; Lang, Dirk; Nyatia, Edward; Smith, James; Ojuka, Edward O

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to explore the mechanism by which caffeine increases GLUT4 expression in C(2)C(12) myotubes. Myoblasts were differentiated in DMEM containing 2% horse serum for 13 days and the resultant myotubes exposed to 10 mM caffeine in the presence or absence of 25 microM KN93 or 10 mM dantrolene for 2 h. After the treatment, cells were kept in serum-free medium and harvested between 0 and 6 h later, depending on the assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that caffeine treatment caused hyperacetylation of histone H3 at the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) site on the Glut4 promoter (P CaMK II), attenuated all the above caffeine-induced changes. These data indicate that caffeine increases GLUT4 expression by acetylating the MEF2 site to increase MEF2A binding via a mechanism that involves CaMK II.

  5. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Acaudina molpadioides improves hyperglycemia via activation of PKB/GLUT4 signaling in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Shi, Di; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yuming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the improvement of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (CHS) from the cucumber Acaudina molpadioides on hyperglycemia in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice. CHS, rosiglitazone (RSG), and their combinations were supplemented to high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD)-fed C57BL/6J mice for 19 weeks. The results showed that CHS treatment remarkably decreased blood glucose level and insulin resistance. The glucose metabolism-related genes expressions at the transcriptional level were apparently increased in skeletal muscle. Although the total protein expressions of IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, PKB and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle were not affected, insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, Tyr612-IRS-1, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB, and Thr308-PKB were significantly increased by CHS supplement. Additionally, combination of CHS and RSG produced synergistic effects on anti-hyperglycemia. These results indicate that CHS can alleviate hyperglycemia via activation of the PKB/GLUT4 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice.

  6. Angiotensin II inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and Akt activation through tyrosine nitration-dependent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Csibi

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II plays a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes by inhibiting insulin's metabolic and potentiating its trophic effects. Whereas the precise mechanisms involved remain ill-defined, they appear to be associated with and dependent upon increased oxidative stress. We found Ang II to block insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes in an NO- and O(2(*--dependent fashion suggesting the involvement of peroxynitrite. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of Ang II to induce tyrosine nitration of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and of protein kinase B/Akt (Akt. Tyrosine nitration of ERK1/2 was required for their phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr and their subsequent activation, whereas it completely inhibited Akt phosphorylation on Ser(473 and Thr(308 as well as its activity. The inhibitory effect of nitration on Akt activity was confirmed by the ability of SIN-1 to completely block GSK3alpha phosphorylation in vitro. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and NAD(PHoxidase and scavenging of free radicals with myricetin restored insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in the presence of Ang II. Similar restoration was obtained by inhibiting the ERK activating kinase MEK, indicating that these kinases regulate Akt activation. We found a conserved nitration site of ERK1/2 to be located in their kinase domain on Tyr(156/139, close to their active site Asp(166/149, in agreement with a permissive function of nitration for their activation. Taken together, our data show that Ang II inhibits insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in this skeletal muscle model through at least two pathways: first through the transient activation of ERK1/2 which inhibit IRS-1/2 and second through a direct inhibitory nitration of Akt. These observations indicate that not only oxidative but also nitrative stress play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. They underline the role of protein

  7. GLUT4 and glycogen synthase are key players in bed rest-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    than before bed rest. This bed rest-induced insulin resistance occurred together with reduced muscle GLUT4, hexokinase II, protein kinase B/Akt1, and Akt2 protein level, and a tendency for reduced 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. The ability of insulin to phosphorylate Akt and activate...

  8. Demonstration of a visual cell-based assay for screening GLUT4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    pGreen Lantern mycGLUT4eGFP construct was a generous gift from Dr M P Czech, University of Massachusetts Medical. School, Worcester, MA, USA. CHO cells overexpressing wild-type IR (CHO-HIRc) were kindly donated by Dr. M. Bernier, National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, MD,. USA. F-12, FBS and lipofectAMINE ...

  9. Interactions of PPAR α and GLUT4 in DOCA/salt-induced renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    resistance and reduce capacity for glucose uptake in muscles. The present study was designed to evaluate the interactions of PPARα and GLUT4 in a model of hypertensive renal injury by studying deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension in wild-type (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice. PPARα WT ...

  10. The In Vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa Is Mediated through Activation of the AMPK Pathway and Increased Muscle Glut4 Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Benhaddou-Andaloussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of N. sativa seed ethanol extract (NSE was assessed in Meriones shawi after development of diabetes. Meriones shawi were divided randomly into four groups: normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with NSE (2 g eq plant/kg or with metformin (300 mg/kg positive control, both administered by daily intragastric gavage for 4 weeks. Glycaemia and body weight were evaluated weekly. At study's end, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT was performed to estimate insulin sensitivity. Upon sacrifice, plasma lipid profile, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were assessed. ACC phosphorylation and Glut4 protein content were determined in liver and skeletal muscle. NSE animals showed a progressive normalization of glycaemia, albeit slower than that of metformin controls. Moreover, NSE increased insulinemia and HDL-cholesterol, compared to diabetic controls. Leptin and adiponectin were unchanged. NSE treatment decreased OGTT and tended to decrease liver and muscle triglyceride content. NSE stimulated muscle and liver ACC phosphorylation and increased muscle Glut4. These results confirm NSE's previously reported hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activity. More significantly, our data demonstrate that in vivo treatment with NSE exerts an insulin-sensitizing action by enhancing ACC phosphorylation, a major component of the insulin-independent AMPK signaling pathway, and by enhancing muscle Glut4 expression.

  11. Effect of vanadate on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity in skeletal muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Youn, J; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Maximally effective concentrations of vanadate (a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) increase glucose transport in muscle less than maximal insulin stimulation. This might be due to vanadate-induced decreased intrinsic activity of GLUT4 accompanying GLUT4 translocation. Thus, the effect...... of vanadate (NaVO3) on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity (V(max) = intrinsic activity x [GLUT4 protein]) was studied in muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles. Giant vesicles (average diameter 7.6 microns) were produced by collagenase treatment of rat skeletal muscle. The vesicles were incubated......-induced decrease in glucose uptake was not due to a decrease in number of vesicles. To further verify the apparent vanadate-induced decrease in GLUT4 intrinsic activity, the kinetics of glucose transport were also examined. In the presence of 10 mmol l-1 vanadate the V(max) and K(m) were decreased (P

  12. [Three-dimensional motion analysis for GLUT4 vesicles in TIRF microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Ping; Li, Jie-Yue; Xu, Ying-Ke; Xu, Ke-Di; Zheng, Xiao-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, GLUT4 vesicles are observed in real-time under TIRF microscopy and a new three-dimensional single particle tracking algorithm according to the unique features of TIRF is put forward. Firstly a fluorescence correction procedure was processed to solve the problem of fluorescence bleaching over time and mobile vesicles were segmented by an adaptive background subtraction method. Kalman filtering was then introduced to track the granules so as to reduce the searching range and to avoid the disturbance of background noise and false targets. In the experiments the algorithm was applied in analyzing the long-distance movement of GLUT4 vesicles. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has achieved robust tracking of the vesicles in the imaging plane and has effectively calculated the position in the direction orthogonal to the imaging plane.

  13. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S.; Worthington, Philip L.; Shepherd, Sam O.; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increases in insulin‐mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4‐containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans‐Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes. PMID:25052490

  14. Non-invasive assessment of animal exercise stress: real-time PCR of GLUT4, COX2, SOD1 and HSP70 in avalanche military dog saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverio, S; Guelfi, G; Barbato, O; Di Mari, W; Egidi, M G; Santoro, M M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase mRNA expression of a growing number of genes. The aim of this study was to assess if mRNA expression of the metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4), COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) and HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) in saliva changes following acute exercise stress in dogs. For this purpose, 12 avalanche dogs of the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza were monitored during simulation of a search for a buried person in an artificial avalanche area. Rectal temperature (RT) and saliva samples were collected the day before the trial (T0), immediately after the descent from a helicopter at the onset of a simulated avalanche search and rescue operation (T1), after the discovery of the buried person (T2) and 2 h later (T3). Expressions of GLUT4, SOD1, COX2 and HSP70 were measured by real-time PCR. The simulated avalanche search and rescue operation was shown to exert a significant effect on RT, as well as on the expression of all metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes investigated, which peaked at T2. The observed expression patterns indicate an acute exercise stress-induced upregulation, as confirmed by the reductions in expression at T3. Moreover, our findings indicate that saliva is useful for assessing metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes without the need for restraint, which could affect working dog performance.

  15. GLUT-4 content in plasma membrane of muscle from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H

    1993-01-01

    The abundance of GLUT-4 protein in both total crude membrane and plasma membrane fractions of vastus lateralis muscle from 13 obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and 14 healthy subjects were examined in the fasting state and after supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia....... In the basal state the immunoreactive mass of GLUT-4 protein both in the crude membrane preparation and in the plasma membrane fraction was similar in NIDDM patients and control subjects. Moreover, in vivo insulin exposure neither for 30 min nor for 4 h had any impact on the content of GLUT-4 protein in plasma...... membranes. With the use of the same methodology, antibody, and achieving the same degree of plasma membrane purification and recovery, we found, however, that intraperitoneal administration of insulin to 7-wk-old rats within 30 min increased the content of GLUT-4 protein more than twofold (P

  16. Glucosamine induces insulin resistance in vivo by affecting GLUT 4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Implications for glucose toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baron, A D; Zhu, J S; Zhu, J H; Weldon, H; Maianu, L; Garvey, W T

    1995-01-01

    Glucosamine (Glmn), a product of glucose metabolism via the hexosamine pathway, causes insulin resistance in isolated adipocytes by impairing insulin-induced GLUT 4 glucose transporter translocation to the plasma membrane...

  17. GLUT-4 content in plasma membrane of muscle from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H

    1993-01-01

    .01) in the plasma membrane from red gastrocnemius and soleus muscle. In conclusion, when the subcellular fractionation method was applied to human muscle biopsies taken in the basal state, no difference could be found in the plasma membrane content of immunoreactive GLUT-4 protein between NIDDM patients and normal......The abundance of GLUT-4 protein in both total crude membrane and plasma membrane fractions of vastus lateralis muscle from 13 obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and 14 healthy subjects were examined in the fasting state and after supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia....... In the basal state the immunoreactive mass of GLUT-4 protein both in the crude membrane preparation and in the plasma membrane fraction was similar in NIDDM patients and control subjects. Moreover, in vivo insulin exposure neither for 30 min nor for 4 h had any impact on the content of GLUT-4 protein in plasma...

  18. GLUT4 in cultured skeletal myotubes is segregated from the transferrin receptor and stored in vesicles associated with TGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    There is little consensus on the nature of the storage compartment of the glucose transporter GLUT4, in non-stimulated cells of muscle and fat. More specifically, it is not known whether GLUT4 is localized to unique, specialized intracellular storage vesicles, or to vesicles that are part...... of the constitutive endosomal-lysosomal pathway. To address this question, we have investigated the localization of the endogenous GLUT4 in non-stimulated skeletal myotubes from the cell line C2, by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We have used a panel of antibodies to markers of the Golgi complex...... (alpha mannosidase II and giantin), of the trans-Golgi network (TGN38), of lysosomes (lgp110), and of early and late endosomes (transferrin receptor and mannose-6-phosphate receptor, respectively), to define the position of their subcellular compartments. By immunofluorescence, GLUT4 appears concentrated...

  19. Distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in skeletal muscles of rats (Rattus norvegicus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cows (Bos taurus), adult goats, goat kids (Capra hircus), and camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duehlmeier, R; Sammet, K; Widdel, A; von Engelhardt, W; Wernery, U; Kinne, J; Sallmann, H-P

    2007-02-01

    Earlier studies demonstrated that forestomach herbivores are less insulin sensitive than monogastric omnivores. The present study was carried out to determine if different distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 may contribute to these different insulin sensitivities. Western blotting was used to measure GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein contents in oxidative (masseter, diaphragm) and glycolytic (longissimus lumborum, semitendinosus) skeletal muscle membranes of monogastric omnivores (rats and pigs), and of forestomach herbivores (cows, adult goats, goat kids, and camels). Muscles were characterized biochemically. Comparing red and white muscles, the isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity was 1.5-15-times higher in oxidative muscles of all species, whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was 1.4-4.4-times higher in glycolytic muscles except in adult goats. GLUT4 levels were 1.5-6.3-times higher in oxidative muscles. GLUT1 levels were 2.2-8.3-times higher in glycolytic muscles in forestomach herbivores but not in monogastric animals. We conclude that GLUT1 may be the predominant glucose transporter in glycolytic muscles of ruminating animals. The GLUT1 distribution patterns were identical in adult and pre-ruminant goats, indicating that GLUT1 expression among these muscles is determined genetically. The high blood glucose levels of camels cited in literature may be due to an "NIDDM-like" impaired GLUT4 activity in skeletal muscle.

  20. Adenovirus Protein E4-ORF1 Activation of PI3 Kinase Reveals Differential Regulation of Downstream Effector Pathways in Adipocytes

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    Natasha Chaudhary

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K regulates metabolism, including the translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor. Adenoviral protein E4-ORF1 stimulates cellular glucose metabolism by mimicking growth-factor activation of PI3K. We have used E4-ORF1 as a tool to dissect PI3K-mediated signaling in adipocytes. E4-ORF1 activation of PI3K in adipocytes recapitulates insulin regulation of FoxO1 but not regulation of Glut4. This uncoupling of PI3K effects occurs despite E4-ORF1 activating PI3K and downstream signaling to levels achieved by insulin. Although E4-ORF1 does not fully recapitulate insulin’s effects on Glut4, it enhances insulin-stimulated insertion of Glut4-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane independent of Rab10, a key regulator of Glut4 trafficking. E4-ORF1 also stimulates plasma membrane translocation of ubiquitously expressed Glut1 glucose transporter, an effect that is likely essential for E4-ORF1 to promote an anabolic metabolism in a broad range of cell types.

  1. Effects of space flight on GLUT-4 content in rat plantaris muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, I.; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Nagaoka, Shunji; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    The effects of 14 days of space flight on the glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were studied in the plantaris muscle of growing 9-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly separated into five groups: pre-flight vivarium ground controls (PF-VC) sacrificed approximately 2 h after launch; flight groups sacrificed either approximately 5 h (F-R0) or 9 days (F-R9) after the return from space; and synchronous ground controls (SC-R0 and SC-R9) sacrificed at the same time as the respective flight groups. The flight groups F-R0 and F-R9 were exposed to micro-gravity for 14 days in the Spacelab module located in the cargo bay of the shuttle transport system - 58 of the manned Space Shuttle for the NASA mission named ''Spacelab Life Sciences 2''. Body weight and plantaris weight of SC-R0 and F-R0 were significantly higher than those of PF-VC. Neither body weight nor plantaris muscle weight in either group had changed 9 days after the return from space. As a result, body weight and plantaris muscle weight did not differ between the flight and synchronous control groups at any of the time points investigated. The GLUT-4 content (cpm/µg membrane protein) in the plantaris muscle did not show any significant change in response to 14 days of space flight or 9 days after return. Similarly, citrate synthase activity did not change during the course of the space flight or the recovery period. These results suggest that 14 days of space flight does not affect muscle mass or GLUT-4 content of the fast-twitch plantaris muscle in the rat.

  2. Irbesartan enhances GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Akiyama, Yuko; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Katoh, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Funatsuki, Kenzo; Yanagimoto, Toru; Notoya, Mitsuru; Asakura, Kenji; Shinosaki, Toshihiro; Hanasaki, Kohji

    2010-12-15

    Irbesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker has been reported to alleviate metabolic disorder in animal studies and human clinical trials. Although this effect may be related to the ability of irbesartan to serve as a partial agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, the target tissues on which irbesartan acts remain poorly defined. As muscle glucose transport plays a major role in maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis, we investigated the effect of irbesartan on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In C2C12 myotubes, 24-h treatment with irbesartan significantly promoted both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts, irbesartan caused a significant increase in glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in a concentration-dependent manner. Valsartan, another angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker had no effect on either glucose uptake or GLUT4 translocation, implying that these actions on glucose transport are independent of angiotensin II receptor blockade. Moreover, irbesartan exerted these effects in an additive manner with insulin, but not with acute treatment for 3 h, suggesting that they may require the synthesis of new proteins. Finally, in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rat, irbesartan (50 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks) significantly ameliorated insulin resistance without increasing weight gain. We conclude that irbesartan has a direct action, which can be additive to insulin, of promoting glucose transport in skeletal muscle. This may be beneficial for ameliorating obesity-related glucose homeostasis derangement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice

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    Michael Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU and/or lactation (L period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Methods: Female wild type (WT mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. Results: All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. Conclusions: These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life.

  4. Stereospermum tetragonam as an antidiabetic agent by activating PPARγ and GLUT4

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    Bino Kingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study evaluates the anti-diabetic activity of S. tetragonam LC-MSMS experiments showed the presence of two novel molecules C1 and C2, which were further taken for in silico study against PPARγ. Cell culture studies with A431 cells in the presence of crude aqueous extract showed the elevated level of PPARγ and GLUT4 and also confirmed using in silico studies. Thus, the present study proves the mecode of action of S. tetragonam as an antidiabetic drug.

  5. Insulin resistance selectively alters cell-surface glucose transporters but not their total protein expression in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, A P; Burns, T A; Mudge, M C; Belknap, J K; Lacombe, V A

    2011-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been widely recognized in humans, and more recently in horses, but its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. The translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface is the limiting step for glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues. Although the downstream signaling pathways regulating GLUT translocation are not well defined, AS160 recently has emerged as a potential key component. In addition, the role of GLUT12, one of the most recently identified insulin-sensitive GLUTs, during IR is unknown. We hypothesized that cell-surface GLUT will be decreased in muscle by an AS160-dependent pathway in horses with IR. Insulin-sensitive (IS) or IR mares (n = 5/group). Muscle biopsies were performed in mares classified as IS or IR based on results of an insulin-modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. By an exofacial bis-mannose photolabeled method, we specifically quantified active cell-surface GLUT4 and GLUT12 transporters. Total GLUT4 and GLUT12 and AS160 protein expression were measured by Western blots. IR decreased basal cell-surface GLUT4 expression (P= .027), but not GLUT12, by an AS160-independent pathway, without affecting total GLUT4 and GLUT12 content. Cell-surface GLUT4 was not further enhanced by insulin stimulation in either group. IR induced defects in the skeletal muscle glucose transport pathway by decreasing active cell-surface GLUT4. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Differential translocation of the fatty acid transporter, FAT/CD36, and the glucose transporter, GLUT4, coordinates changes in cardiac substrate metabolism during ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Lisa C; Pates, Katharine M; Atherton, Helen J; Cole, Mark A; Ball, Daniel R; Evans, Rhys D; Glatz, Jan F; Luiken, Joost J; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran

    2013-09-01

    Fatty acid and glucose transporters translocate between the sarcolemma and intracellular compartments to regulate substrate metabolism acutely. We hypothesised that during ischemia fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) would translocate away from the sarcolemma to limit fatty acid uptake when fatty acid oxidation is inhibited. Wistar rat hearts were perfused during preischemia, low-flow ischemia, and reperfusion, using (3)H-substrates for measurement of metabolic rates, followed by metabolomic analysis and subcellular fractionation. During ischemia, there was a 32% decrease in sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 accompanied by a 95% decrease in fatty acid oxidation rates, with no change in intramyocardial lipids. Concomitantly, the sarcolemmal content of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, increased by 90% during ischemia, associated with an 86% increase in glycolytic rates, 45% decrease in glycogen content, and a 3-fold increase in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase. Following reperfusion, decreased sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 persisted, but fatty acid oxidation rates returned to preischemic levels, resulting in a 35% decrease in myocardial triglyceride content. Elevated sarcolemmal GLUT4 persisted during reperfusion; in contrast, glycolytic rates decreased to 30% of preischemic rates, accompanied by a 5-fold increase in intracellular citrate levels and restoration of glycogen content. During ischemia, FAT/CD36 moved away from the sarcolemma as GLUT4 moved toward the sarcolemma, associated with a shift from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis, while intramyocardial lipid accumulation was prevented. This relocation was maintained during reperfusion, which was associated with replenishing glycogen stores as a priority, occurring at the expense of glycolysis and mediated by an increase in citrate levels.

  7. Epigenetic Regulation of Glucose Transporters in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    O' Byrne, Kenneth J.; Baird, Anne-Marie; Kilmartin, Lisa; Leonard, Jennifer; Sacevich, Calen; Gray, Steven G., E-mail: sgray@stjames.ie [Department of Clinical Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Research Group, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2011-03-25

    Due to their inherently hypoxic environment, cancer cells often resort to glycolysis, or the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to form ATP to provide for their energy needs, known as the Warburg effect. At the same time, overexpression of the insulin receptor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with an increased risk of metastasis and decreased survival. The uptake of glucose into cells is carried out via glucose transporters or GLUTs. Of these, GLUT-4 is essential for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Following treatment with the epigenetic targeting agents histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 expression were found to be induced in NSCLC cell lines, with minimal responses in transformed normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Similar results for GLUT-4 were observed in cells derived from liver, muscle, kidney and pre-adipocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoter for GLUT-4 indicates that it may also be regulated by several chromatin binding factors or complexes including CTCF, SP1 and SMYD3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that the promoter for GLUT-4 is dynamically remodeled in response to HDACi. Overall, these results may have value within the clinical setting as (a) it may be possible to use this to enhance fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging sensitivity; (b) it may be possible to target NSCLC through the use of HDACi and insulin mediated uptake of the metabolic targeting drugs such as 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG); or (c) enhance or sensitize NSCLC to chemotherapy.

  8. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  9. Glucose availability controls adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes via up-regulation of nicotinamide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert M; Griesel, Beth A; Gurley, Jami M; Szweda, Luke I; Olson, Ann Louise

    2017-11-10

    Expansion of adipose tissue in response to a positive energy balance underlies obesity and occurs through both hypertrophy of existing cells and increased differentiation of adipocyte precursors (hyperplasia). To better understand the nutrient signals that promote adipocyte differentiation, we investigated the role of glucose availability in regulating adipocyte differentiation and maturation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were grown and differentiated in medium containing a standard differentiation hormone mixture and either 4 or 25 mm glucose. Adipocyte maturation at day 9 post-differentiation was determined by key adipocyte markers, including glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and adiponectin expression and Oil Red O staining of neutral lipids. We found that adipocyte differentiation and maturation required a pulse of 25 mm glucose only during the first 3 days of differentiation. Importantly, fatty acids were unable to substitute for the 25 mm glucose pulse during this period. The 25 mm glucose pulse increased adiponectin and GLUT4 expression and accumulation of neutral lipids via distinct mechanisms. Adiponectin expression and other early markers of differentiation required an increase in the intracellular pool of total NAD/P. In contrast, GLUT4 protein expression was only partially restored by increased NAD/P levels. Furthermore, GLUT4 mRNA expression was mediated by glucose-dependent activation of GLUT4 gene transcription through the cis-acting GLUT4-liver X receptor element (LXRE) promoter element. In summary, this study supports the conclusion that high glucose promotes adipocyte differentiation via distinct metabolic pathways and independently of fatty acids. This may partly explain the mechanism underlying adipocyte hyperplasia that occurs much later than adipocyte hypertrophy in the development of obesity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Suppression of Very Early Stage Of Adipogenesis by Baicalein, a Plant-Derived Flavonoid through Reduced Akt-C/EBPα-GLUT4 Signaling-Mediated Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Nakao

    Full Text Available Baicalein has been used as a Chinese medicine, and is an abundant plant flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables. Here, we examined the effects of baicalein in adipogenesis and investigated its molecular mechanism in adipocytes. Baicalein lowered the intracellular lipid accumulation and decreased the transcription levels of the adipocyte-specific genes in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 was reduced, causing down-regulation of the intracellular lipid accumulation. These reductions were also observed even when baicalein was added in only early stage of adipogenesis (0-2 days of 6-day-adipogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that baicalein decreased the binding level of C/EBPα protein to the promoter region of the GLUT4 gene. Phosphorylation of Akt at 1 h after the initiation of adipogenesis was inhibited by the treatment with baicalein. Inhibition during only the first 1.5 h after the initiation of adipogenesis by baicalein or an Akt inhibitor was enough to decrease the lipid contents in the cells undergoing adipocyte differentiation for 6 days. These results indicate that baicalein decreased the intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulation of glucose uptake via repression of Akt-C/EBPα-GLUT4 signaling in the very early stage of adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  11. Alterations in adipocyte glucose transporter GLUT4 and circulating adiponectin and visfatin in rat adjuvant induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcovicová, Jana; Stofková, Andrea; Skurlová, Martina; Baculíková, Miroslava; Zórad, Stefan; Stancíková, Mária

    2010-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis in humans brings about impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Since adipose tissue plays a role in glucose homeostasis, we evaluated the size of adipocytes, the amount of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in adipocyte plasma membranes, and circulating insulin, glucose, and adipokines affecting glucose metabolism, resistin, adiponectin and visfatin during experimental adjuvant arthritis (AA) in male Lewis rats. AA was induced by a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvans. Adipocyte diameter was assessed microscopically, GLUT4 was measured by Western blotting. Plasma insulin, adiponectin, visfatin were quantitated by RIA, and resistin by ELISA. Arthritic rats showed cachexia, reduced adipocyte size, and downregulated membrane GLUT4 (4065 +/- 962 vs. 9911 +/- 680 arb. units of optic density, p reduction of adipocyte size, and paradoxically also in downregulation of GLUT4 in adipocyte membranes. This is supposed to be functionally related to the reduced adiponectin levels. The upregulated visfatin in rat arthritis is a novel finding, and it confirms its role in autoimmunity across the species.

  12. Whey protein hydrolysate increases translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane independent of insulin in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Priscila Neder; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Moura, Carolina Soares; Batista, Thiago Martins; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have the recognized capacity to increase glycogen stores. The objective of this study was to verify if consuming WP and WPH could also increase the concentration of the glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in the plasma membrane (PM) of the muscle cells of sedentary and exercised animals. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 8 per group), were treated and fed with experimental diets for 9 days as follows: a) control casein (CAS); b) WP; c) WPH; d) CAS exercised; e) WP exercised; and f) WPH exercised. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed, muscle GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, p85, Akt and phosphorylated Akt were analyzed by western blotting, and the glycogen, blood amino acids, insulin levels and biochemical health indicators were analyzed using standard methods. Consumption of WPH significantly increased the concentrations of GLUT-4 in the PM and glycogen, whereas the GLUT-1 and insulin levels and the health indicators showed no alterations. The physical exercise associated with consumption of WPH had favorable effects on glucose transport into muscle. These results should encourage new studies dealing with the potential of both WP and WPH for the treatment or prevention of type II diabetes, a disease in which there is reduced translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane.

  13. Whey protein hydrolysate increases translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane independent of insulin in wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Neder Morato

    Full Text Available Whey protein (WP and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH have the recognized capacity to increase glycogen stores. The objective of this study was to verify if consuming WP and WPH could also increase the concentration of the glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in the plasma membrane (PM of the muscle cells of sedentary and exercised animals. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 8 per group, were treated and fed with experimental diets for 9 days as follows: a control casein (CAS; b WP; c WPH; d CAS exercised; e WP exercised; and f WPH exercised. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed, muscle GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, p85, Akt and phosphorylated Akt were analyzed by western blotting, and the glycogen, blood amino acids, insulin levels and biochemical health indicators were analyzed using standard methods. Consumption of WPH significantly increased the concentrations of GLUT-4 in the PM and glycogen, whereas the GLUT-1 and insulin levels and the health indicators showed no alterations. The physical exercise associated with consumption of WPH had favorable effects on glucose transport into muscle. These results should encourage new studies dealing with the potential of both WP and WPH for the treatment or prevention of type II diabetes, a disease in which there is reduced translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane.

  14. GLUT4 Is Not Necessary for Overload-Induced Glucose Uptake or Hypertrophic Growth in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Shawna L; Schmidt, Denise L; Kahn, Barbara B; Witczak, Carol A

    2017-06-01

    GLUT4 is necessary for acute insulin- and contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but its role in chronic muscle loading (overload)-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether GLUT4 is required for overload-induced glucose uptake. Overload was induced in mouse plantaris muscle by unilateral synergist ablation. After 5 days, muscle weights and ex vivo [3H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake were assessed. Overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and hypertrophic growth were not impaired in muscle-specific GLUT4 knockout mice, demonstrating that GLUT4 is not necessary for these processes. To assess which transporters mediate overload-induced glucose uptake, chemical inhibitors were used. The facilitative GLUT inhibitor cytochalasin B, but not the sodium-dependent glucose cotransport inhibitor phloridzin, prevented overload-induced uptake demonstrating that GLUTs mediate this effect. To assess which GLUT, hexose competition experiments were performed. Overload-induced [3H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake was not inhibited by d-fructose, demonstrating that the fructose-transporting GLUT2, GLUT5, GLUT8, and GLUT12 do not mediate this effect. To assess additional GLUTs, immunoblots were performed. Overload increased GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and GLUT10 protein levels twofold to fivefold. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GLUT4 is not necessary for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake or hypertrophic growth and suggest that GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and/or GLUT10 mediate overload-induced glucose uptake. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. GLUT4 is reduced in slow muscle fibers of type 2 diabetic patients: is insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes a slow, type 1 fiber disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Staehr, P; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying muscle insulin resistance, the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on GLUT4 immunoreactivity in slow and fast skeletal muscle fibers was studied. Through a newly developed, very sensitive method using immunohistochemistry combined...... with morphometry, GLUT4 density was found to be significantly higher in slow compared with fast fibers in biopsy specimens from lean and obese subjects. In contrast, in type 2 diabetic subjects, GLUT4 density was significantly lower in slow compared with fast fibers. GLUT4 density in slow fibers from diabetic...... patients was reduced by 9% compared with the weight-matched obese subjects and by 18% compared with the lean control group. The slow-fiber fraction was reduced to 86% in the obese subjects and to 75% in the diabetic subjects compared with the control group. Estimated GLUT4 contribution from slow fibers...

  16. Short-Term Hypoxia Reverses Ox-LDL-Induced CD36 and GLUT4 Switching Metabolic Pathways in H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Baskaran, Rathinasamy; Wen, Su-Ying; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-11-01

    High levels of circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL, plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) are associated with type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. In the heart, the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been proposed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. We obtain cholesterol from animals and animal-derived foods such as milk, eggs, and cheese. In previous studies, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was shown to be important for our health. High levels of LDL cholesterol lead to atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of heart attack and ischemic stroke. In this study, we utilized Ox-LDL-treated H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells as a simulated hyperlipidemia model. CD36 metabolism pathway proteins (phospho-Akt, SIRT1, PGC1α, PPARα, CPT1β, and CD36) increased at low doses of Ox-LDL. However, high doses (150 and 200 mg/dL) of Ox-LDL reduced the levels of these proteins. Interestingly, expression of GLUT4 metabolism pathway proteins (phospho-PKCζ) were reduced at low doses, while the expression of phospho-AMPK, phospho-PI3K, phospho-PKCζ, GLUT4, and PDH proteins increased at high doses. Ox-LDL acute treatment induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes as evidenced by apoptotic nuclei apparition, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. In our results, Ox-LDL induced lipotoxicity in cardiomyocytes, and subsequent exposure to short-term hypoxia or reversed the Ox-LDL-induced metabolic imbalance. The same result was obtained with the pharmacological activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol and si-PKCζ. The mechanism of metabolic switching during Ox-LDL lipotoxicity seems to be mediated by SIRT1 and PKC ζ. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3785-3795, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Extracts of pomelo peels prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in c57bl/6 mice through activating the PPARα and GLUT4 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Ding

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in both developed and developing countries. The present study investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of different pomelo varieties on obese C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat (HF diet. DESIGN: The peels of four pomelo varieties were extracted with ethanol and the total phenols and flavonoids content of these extracts were measured. For the animal experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a Chow diet or a HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% (w/w different pomelo peel extracts for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every other day. At the end of the treatment, the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin (INS tolerance test, serum lipid profile and insulin levels, and liver lipid contents were analyzed. The gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. RESULT: The present study showed that the Citrus grandis liangpinyou (LP and beibeiyou (BB extracts were more potent in anti-metabolic disorder effects than the duanshiyou (DS and wubuyou (WB extracts. Both LP and BB extracts blocked the body weight gain, lowered fasting blood glucose, serum TC, liver lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and lowered serum insulin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Compared with the HF group, LP and BB peel extracts increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes, such as FAS, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, and GLUT4 in the liver and white adipocyte tissue (WAT. CONCLUSION: We found that that pomelo peel extracts could prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice through the activation of the PPARα and GLUT4 signaling. Our results indicate that pomelo peels could be used as a dietary therapy and the potential source of drug for metabolic disorders.

  18. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

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    Nigel Beaton

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans.

  19. Effect of Resveratrol Supplementation on the SNARE Proteins Expression in Adipose Tissue of Stroptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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    Azam Rezaei Farimani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose uptake by muscles and fat cells is carried out by the GLUT4 system. Isoforms of the SNAP23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 play an important role in regulating GLUT-4 trafficking and fusion in adipocytes. The changes of SNARE proteins levels and thus impaired GLUT-4 displacement can be one of the etiological causes of type 2 diabetes. Due to changes in the expression of these proteins in diabetes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the natural compound resveratrol with anti-diabetic properties on impaired expression of SNARE proteins in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were used in this study. Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering a single dose of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. The expression of SNAP-23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 proteins were assessed using real-time qRT-PCR. Also, some biochemical parameters were examined, including fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and insulin resistance. Results: The results of this study showed that, resveratrol supplementation increased blood insulin level, reduced the fasting blood glucose, and improved the insulin resistance. In addition, resveratrol supplementation increased the expression of SNAP-23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 proteins that involved in GLUT-4 transport in adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Conclusion: Final results showed that SNARE proteins expression is significantly reduced in diabetic rats and treatment with resveratrol supplementation is associated with the increased expression of these proteins.

  20. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: Association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R. [Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Blachon, Stephanie [Hybrigenics Services SAS, 3-5 Impasse Reille, 75014 Paris (France); Lienhard, Gustav E., E-mail: gustav.e.lienhard@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation. - Highlights: • Insulin stimulates the fusion of vesicles containing GLUT4 with the plasma membrane. • This requires vesicular Rab10-GTP and the exocyst plasma membrane tethering complex. • We find that Rab10-GTP associates with the Exoc6 subunit of the exocyst. • We find that knockdown of Exoc6 inhibits fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the membrane. • The interaction of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6 potentially links signaling to exocytosis.

  1. Anti-diabetic potential of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and its effect on the glucose transport gene (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4) in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqha, Waleed M; Khan, Mohsin; Salam, Nasir; Azzi, Arezki; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad

    2015-10-21

    Catharanthus roseus is an important Ayurvedic medication in traditional medicine. It is potentially used in countries like India, South Africa, China and Malaysia for the healing of diabetes mellitus. Although, the molecular mechanisms behind this effect are yet to be exclusively explored. Due to the great antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of c. roseus, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of ethanolic extract of c. roseus might add to glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver. STZ-induced diabetic rats treated by ethanolic extract of c. roseus 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; and one group treated with Metformin (100 mg/kg). After final administration of treatment of 4 weeks, blood samples were collected under fasting conditions, and the body weights (BWs) were measured. Total RNA from liver was extracted with the Qiagen RNEasy Micro kit (GERMANY) as described in the manufacturer's instructions. First-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized at 40 °C by priming with oligo-dT12-18 (Invitrogen, USA) and using Super ScriptII reverse transcriptase according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer (Invitrogen, USA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications for GLUT-4 (gene ID: 25139) were conducted using Light-Cycler 480 (Roche, USA) with the SyBr® I nucleic acid stain (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Polymerase chain reaction products of β-actin primer gene were used as an internal standard. The proposed study was framed to look at the antidiabetic efficacy of ethanolic extract of c. roseus and an expression of GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 gene in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats. The doses were administered orally at a rate of 100 and 200 mg/kg and detrain the glucose transport system in liver for 4 weeks. The observed results showed a good positive correlation between intracellular calcium and insulin

  2. Single point mutations result in the miss-sorting of Glut4 to a novel membrane compartment associated with stress granule proteins.

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    XiaoMei Song

    Full Text Available Insulin increases cellular glucose uptake and metabolism in the postprandial state by acutely stimulating the translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter from intracellular membrane compartments to the cell surface in muscle and fat cells. The intracellular targeting of Glut4 is dictated by specific structural motifs within cytoplasmic domains of the transporter. We demonstrate that two leucine residues at the extreme C-terminus of Glut4 are critical components of a motif (IRM, insulin responsive motif involved in the sorting of the transporter to insulin responsive vesicles in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Light microscopy, immunogold electron microscopy, subcellular fractionation, and sedimentation analysis indicate that mutations in the IRM cause the aberrant targeting of Glut4 to large dispersed membrane vesicles that are not insulin responsive. Proteomic characterization of rapidly and slowly sedimenting membrane vesicles (RSVs and SSVs that were highly enriched by immunoadsorption for either wild-type Glut4 or an IRM mutant revealed that the major vesicle fraction containing the mutant transporter (IRM-RSVs possessed a relatively small and highly distinct protein population that was enriched for proteins associated with stress granules. We suggest that the IRM is critical for an early step in the sorting of Glut4 to insulin-responsive subcellular membrane compartments and that IRM mutants are miss-targeted to relatively large, amorphous membrane vesicles that may be involved in a degradation pathway for miss-targeted or miss-folded proteins or represent a transitional membrane compartment that Glut4 traverses en route to insulin responsive storage compartments.

  3. Role of vitamin D on the expression of glucose transporters in L6 myotubes

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    Bubblu Tamilselvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of glucose transporters is a major characteristic of diabetes. Vitamin D has evolved widespread interest in the pathogenesis and prevention of diabetes. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin D in the overall regulation of muscle cell glucose transporter expression. L6 cells were exposed to type 1 and type 2 diabetic conditions and the effect of calcitriol (1,25, dihydroxy cholicalciferol on the expression of glucose transporters was studied by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. There was a significant decrease in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1, GLUT4, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and IR expression in type 1 and 2 diabetic model compared to control group. Treatment of myoblasts with 10-7 M calcitriol for 24 h showed a significant increase in GLUT1, GLUT4, VDR, and insulin receptor (IR expression. The results indicate a potential antidiabetic function of vitamin D on GLUT1, GLUT4, VDR, and IR by improving receptor gene expression suggesting a role for vitamin D in regulation of expression of the glucose transporters in muscle cells.

  4. MicroRNA-223 Expression Is Upregulated in Insulin Resistant Human Adipose Tissue

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    Tung-Yueh Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and influence many cellular functions including glucose and lipid metabolism. We previously reported that adipose tissue (AT from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or controls with insulin resistance (IR revealed a differentially expressed microRNA (miRNA profile, including upregulated miR-93 in PCOS patients and in non-PCOS women with IR. Overexpressed miR-93 directly inhibited glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4 expression, thereby influencing glucose metabolism. We have now studied the role of miR-223, which is also abnormally expressed in the AT of IR subjects. Our data indicates that miR-223 is significantly overexpressed in the AT of IR women, regardless of whether they had PCOS or not. miR-223 expression in AT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Unlike what is reported in cardiomyocytes, overexpression of miR-223 in human differentiated adipocytes was associated with a reduction in GLUT4 protein content and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In addition, our data suggests miR-223 regulates GLUT4 expression by direct binding to its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR. In conclusion, in AT miR-223 is an IR-related miRNA that may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of IR-related disorders.

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of Glucose Transporters in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Steven G. Gray

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherently hypoxic environment, cancer cells often resort to glycolysis, or the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to form ATP to provide for their energy needs, known as the Warburg effect. At the same time, overexpression of the insulin receptor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is associated with an increased risk of metastasis and decreased survival. The uptake of glucose into cells is carried out via glucose transporters or GLUTs. Of these, GLUT-4 is essential for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Following treatment with the epigenetic targeting agents histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 expression were found to be induced in NSCLC cell lines, with minimal responses in transformed normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs. Similar results for GLUT-4 were observed in cells derived from liver, muscle, kidney and pre-adipocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoter for GLUT-4 indicates that it may also be regulated by several chromatin binding factors or complexes including CTCF, SP1 and SMYD3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that the promoter for GLUT-4 is dynamically remodeled in response to HDACi. Overall, these results may have value within the clinical setting as (a it may be possible to use this to enhance fluorodeoxyglucose (18F positron emission tomography (FDG-PET imaging sensitivity; (b it may be possible to target NSCLC through the use of HDACi and insulin mediated uptake of the metabolic targeting drugs such as 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG; or (c enhance or sensitize NSCLC to chemotherapy.

  6. Glycogen storage and muscle glucose transporters (GLUT-4) of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernando R; Rezende, Enrico L; Malisch, Jessica L; Lee, Sun K; Rivas, Donato A; Kelly, Scott A; Lytle, Christian; Yaspelkis, Ben B; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    To examine the evolution of endurance-exercise behaviour, we have selectively bred four replicate lines of laboratory mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running (;high runner' or HR lines), while also maintaining four non-selected control (C) lines. By generation 16, HR mice ran approximately 2.7-fold more than C mice, mainly by running faster (especially in females), a differential maintained through subsequent generations, suggesting an evolutionary limit of unknown origin. We hypothesized that HR mice would have higher glycogen levels before nightly running, show greater depletion of those depots during their more intense wheel running, and have increased glycogen synthase activity and GLUT-4 protein in skeletal muscle. We sampled females from generation 35 at three times (photophase 07:00 h-19:00 h) during days 5-6 of wheel access, as in the routine selection protocol: Group 1, day 5, 16:00 h-17:30 h, wheels blocked from 13:00 h; Group 2, day 6, 02:00 h-03:30 h (immediately after peak running); and Group 3, day 6, 07:00 h-08:30 h. An additional Group 4, sampled 16:00 h-17:30 h, never had wheels. HR individuals with the mini-muscle phenotype (50% reduced hindlimb muscle mass) were distinguished for statistical analyses comparing C, HR normal, and HR mini. HR mini ran more than HR normal, and at higher speeds, which might explain why they have been favored by the selective-breeding protocol. Plasma glucose was higher in Group 1 than in Group 4, indicating a training effect (phenotypic plasticity). Without wheels, no differences in gastrocnemius GLUT-4 were observed. After 5 days with wheels, all mice showed elevated GLUT-4, but HR normal and mini were 2.5-fold higher than C. At all times and irrespective of wheel access, HR mini showed approximately three-fold higher [glycogen] in gastrocnemius and altered glycogen synthase activity. HR mini also showed elevated glycogen in soleus when sampled during peak running. All mice showed some glycogen

  7. Nongenomic regulation of gene expression.

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    Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in epigenetic regulation and chromatin biology for a better understanding of gene regulation related to human disease. Alterations to chromatin influence genomic function, including gene transcription. At its most simple level, this involves DNA methylation and posttranscriptional histone modifications. However, recent developments in biochemical and molecular techniques have revealed that transcriptional regulation is far more complex, involving combinations of histone modifications and discriminating transcription factor binding, and long-range chromatin loops with enhancers, to generate a multifaceted code. Here, we describe the most recent advances, culminating in the example of genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin monoallelic expression that utilizes the majority of these mechanisms to attain one active and one repressed allele. It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms work in unison to maintain tight control of gene expression and genome function. With the wealth of knowledge gained from recent molecular studies, future goals should focus on the application of this information in deciphering their role in developmental diseases.

  8. Effect of denervation on the expression of two glucose transporter isoforms in rat hindlimb muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Block, N E; Menick, D R; Robinson, K A; Buse, M G

    1991-01-01

    Denervation rapidly (within 24 h) induces insulin resistance of several insulin-responsive pathways in skeletal muscle, including glucose transport; resistance is usually maximal by 3 d. We examined the effect of denervation on the expression of two glucose transporter isoforms (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4) in rat hindlimb muscle; GLUT-4 is the predominant species in muscle. 1 d postdenervation, GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 mRNA and protein concentrations were unchanged. 3 and 7 d postdenervation, GLUT-4 mRNA and...

  9. Adrenergic receptor stimulation attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting GLUT4 translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.; Tack, C.J.J.; Olthaar, A.J.; Smits, P.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Bosch, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Therefore, we studied the effects of catecholamines on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the

  10. Impairment of insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 signaling is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction and aggravates I/R injury in STZ-diabetic Rats

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    Deng Jen-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we established systemic in-vivo evidence from molecular to organism level to explain how diabetes can aggravate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury and revealed the role of insulin signaling (with specific focus on Akt/GLUT4 signaling molecules. The myocardial I/R injury was induced by the left main coronary artery occlusion for 1 hr and then 3 hr reperfusion in control, streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulinopenic diabetes, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in heart rate, and a prolonged isovolumic relaxation (tau which lead to decrease in cardiac output (CO without changing total peripheral resistance (TPR. The phosphorylated Akt and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4 protein levels were dramatically reduced in both I/R and non-I/R diabetic rat hearts. Insulin treatment in diabetes showed improvement of contractile function as well as partially increased Akt phosphorylation and GLUT 4 protein levels. In the animals subjected to I/R, the mortality rates were 25%, 65%, and 33% in the control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic group respectively. The I/R-induced arrhythmias and myocardial infarction did not differ significantly between the control and the diabetic groups. Consistent with its anti-hyperglycemic effects, insulin significantly reduced I/R-induced arrhythmias but had no effect on I/R-induced infarctions. Diabetic rat with I/R exhibited the worse hemodynamic outcome, which included systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. Insulin treatment only partially improved diastolic functions and elevated P-Akt and GLUT 4 protein levels. Our results indicate that cardiac contractile dysfunction caused by a defect in insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 may be a major reason for the high mortality rate in I/R injured diabetic rats.

  11. GLUT4 defects in adipose tissue are early signs of metabolic alterations in Alms1GT/GT, a mouse model for obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaretto, Francesca; Milan, Gabriella; Collin, Gayle B; Marshall, Jan D; Stasi, Fabio; Maffei, Pietro; Vettor, Roberto; Naggert, Jürgen K

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2) and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state.

  12. GLUT4 defects in adipose tissue are early signs of metabolic alterations in Alms1GT/GT, a mouse model for obesity and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Favaretto

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2 and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state.

  13. Case-control analysis of SNPs in GLUT4, RBP4 and STRA6: association of SNPs in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population.

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    Anup Kumar Nair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inverse relationship between GLUT4 and RBP4 expression is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of RBP4 were shown to cause insulin resistance in muscles and liver. Identification of STRA6 as a cell surface receptor for RBP4 provides further link in this axis and hence we analyzed SNPs in these three genes for association with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Selected SNPs in the three genes were analyzed in a total of 2002 individuals belonging to Dravidian ethnicity, South India, by Tetra Primer ARMS PCR or RFLP PCR. Allele frequencies and genotype distribution were calculated in cases and controls and were analyzed for association by Chi-squared test and Logistic regression. Haplotype analysis was carried out for each gene by including all the markers in a single block. We observed a significant association of three SNPs, rs974456, rs736118, and rs4886578 in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, OR 0.79[0.69-0.91], P = 0.003, OR 0.81[0.71-0.93], and P = 0.001, OR 0.74[0.62-0.89] respectively. None of the SNPs in RBP4 and GLUT4 showed any association with type 2 diabetes. Haplotype analysis revealed that two common haplotypes H1 (111, P = 0.001, OR 1.23[1.08-1.40] and H2 (222, P = 0.002 OR 0.73[0.59-0.89] in STRA6, H6 (2121, P = 0.006, OR 1.69[1.51-2.48] in RBP4 and H4 (2121, P = 0.01 OR 1.41[1.07-1.85] in GLUT4 were associated with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: SNPs in STRA6, gene coding the cell surface receptor for RBP4, were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes and further genetic and functional studies are required to understand and ascertain its role in the manifestation of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Automatically Identifying Fusion Events between GLUT4 Storage Vesicles and the Plasma Membrane in TIRF Microscopy Image Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Xu, Yingke; Feng, Zhouyan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the dynamic behavior about membrane-bound secretory vesicles has proven to be important in biological research. This paper proposes a novel approach to automatically identify the elusive fusion events between VAMP2-pHluorin labeled GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) and the plasma membrane. The differentiation is implemented to detect the initiation of fusion events by modified forward subtraction of consecutive frames in the TIRFM image sequence. Spatially connected pixels in difference images brighter than a specified adaptive threshold are grouped into a distinct fusion spot. The vesicles are located at the intensity-weighted centroid of their fusion spots. To reveal the true in vivo nature of a fusion event, 2D Gaussian fitting for the fusion spot is used to derive the intensity-weighted centroid and the spot size during the fusion process. The fusion event and its termination can be determined according to the change of spot size. The method is evaluated on real experiment data with ground truth annotated by expert cell biologists. The evaluation results show that it can achieve relatively high accuracy comparing favorably to the manual analysis, yet at a small fraction of time.

  15. Automatically Identifying Fusion Events between GLUT4 Storage Vesicles and the Plasma Membrane in TIRF Microscopy Image Sequences

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    Jian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the dynamic behavior about membrane-bound secretory vesicles has proven to be important in biological research. This paper proposes a novel approach to automatically identify the elusive fusion events between VAMP2-pHluorin labeled GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs and the plasma membrane. The differentiation is implemented to detect the initiation of fusion events by modified forward subtraction of consecutive frames in the TIRFM image sequence. Spatially connected pixels in difference images brighter than a specified adaptive threshold are grouped into a distinct fusion spot. The vesicles are located at the intensity-weighted centroid of their fusion spots. To reveal the true in vivo nature of a fusion event, 2D Gaussian fitting for the fusion spot is used to derive the intensity-weighted centroid and the spot size during the fusion process. The fusion event and its termination can be determined according to the change of spot size. The method is evaluated on real experiment data with ground truth annotated by expert cell biologists. The evaluation results show that it can achieve relatively high accuracy comparing favorably to the manual analysis, yet at a small fraction of time.

  16. Increased Expression of the Tail-Anchored Membrane Protein SLMAP in Adipose Tissue from Type 2 Tally Ho Diabetic Mice

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    Xiaoliang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tail-anchored membrane protein, sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP is encoded to a single gene that maps to the chromosome 3p14 region and has also been reported in certain diabetic populations. Our previous studies with db/db mice shown that a deregulation of SLMAP expression plays an important role in type 2 diabetes. Male Tally Ho mice were bred to present with either normoglycemia (NG or hyperglycemia (HG. Abdominal adipose tissue from male Tally Ho mice of the HG group was found to have a significantly lower expression of the membrane associated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4 and higher expression of SLMAP compared to tissue from NG mice. There were 3 isoforms expressed in the abdominal adipose tissue, but only 45?kDa isoform of SLMAP was associated with the GLUT-4 revealed by immunoprecipitation data. Knock down studies using SLMAP siRNA with adipocytes resulted in a significant reduction in SLMAP and a decrease in glucose uptake. Thus, SLMAP may be an important regulator of glucose uptake or involved in GLUT-4 fusion/translocation into the plasma membrane of mouse abdominal adipose tissue and changes in SLMAP expression are linked to hyperglycemia and diabetes.

  17. GLUT11, but not GLUT8 or GLUT12, is expressed in human skeletal muscle in a fibre type-specific pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Schürmann, A

    2004-01-01

    Nine novel sugar transporter-like proteins have been discovered in the past 5 years. The mRNA for three of these, the glucose transporters (GLUT) GLUT8, GLUT11 and GLUT12, have been detected in human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we examined the pattern of expression and localization...... of the GLUT isoforms 8, 11 and 12 in human skeletal muscle using an immunohistochemical approach. Biopsies of human skeletal muscle from sedentary or trained healthy adults, from fetal muscle (24 weeks of gestation), from obese type-2 diabetic subjects, and from patients suffering from polymyositis...... investigated muscle fibres, the pattern of expression of GLUT11 differs from that of GLUT4, suggesting a specialized function for GLUT11 with a regulation independent from that of GLUT4. Obesity, type-2 diabetes, training, conditions of de- and reinnervation (ALS) and regeneration (polymyositis) failed...

  18. Lycium chinense Improves Post-Menopausal Obesity via Regulation of PPAR-γ and Estrogen Receptor-α/β Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun-Jung; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-01

    The fruit of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) is used as a functional food and a medicinal herb for treating many specific health concerns. Weight gain induced by estrogen deficiency is a problem for post-menopausal women around the globe. The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of L. chinense (LC) on post-menopausal obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce post-menopausal obesity. LC extract (1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was orally administrated for 6 weeks with continuous HFD feeding. Ovarian adipose tissues and uterus were weighed. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were analyzed. The expressions of adipocyte-specific factors and estrogen receptors (ERs) were investigated. Additionally, lipid accumulation was confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased body weight due to post-menopausal obesity was ameliorated about 14.7% and 17.76% by treatment of 1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg LC, respectively. LC treatment reduced both of serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels. Adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty liver were ameliorated in LC-treated groups. In LC-treated adipocyte cells, lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited. The expression of perilipin in adipose tissues was decreased by LC. In addition, expression of PPAR-[Formula: see text] protein was down-regulated in adipose tissues and differentiated adipocytes, while GLUT4 expression was increased in adipose tissues by LC treatment. Moreover, LC treatment up-regulated the expressions of ER-[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] accompanied with increased uterine weight. These results showed the ameliorative effects of LC on overweight after menopause. Post-menopausal obesity may be improved by LC treatment.

  19. 3-O-Acyl-epicatechins Increase Glucose Uptake Activity and GLUT4 Translocation through Activation of PI3K Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Cells

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    Manabu Ueda-Wakagi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea catechins promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated whether the addition of an acyl group to the C-3 position of catechins to generate 3-O-acyl-catechins promoted glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. 3-O-Myristoyl-(−-epicatechin (EC-C14 and 3-O-palmitoyl-(−-epicatechin (EC-C16 promoted glucose uptake and translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT 4 in the cells. The effect of 3-O-acyl-(−-epicatechins was stronger than that of (−-epicatechin (EC, whereas neither 3-O-myristoyl-(+-catechin (C-C14 nor 3-O-palmitoyl-(+catechin (C-C16 promoted glucose uptake or GLUT4 translocation as well as (+-catechin (C. We further investigated an affinity of catechins and 3-O-acyl-catechins to the lipid bilayer membrane by using surface plasma resonance analysis. Maximum binding amounts of EC-C16 and C-C16 to the lipid bilayer clearly increased compared with that of (−-EC and (+-C, respectively. We also examined the mechanism of GLUT4 translocation and found EC-C14 and EC-C16 induced the phosphorylation of PI3K, but did not affect phosphorylation of Akt or IR. In conclusion, the addition of an acyl group to the C-3 position of (−-EC increases its affinity for the lipid bilayer membrane and promotes GLUT4 translocation through PI3K-dependent pathways in L6 myotubes.

  20. The cholesterol-lowering agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin promotes glucose uptake via GLUT4 in adult muscle fibers and reduces insulin resistance in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Georgiev, Tihomir; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hidalgo, Jorge; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-02-15

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adult skeletal muscle by promoting the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the transverse tubule (T-tubule) membranes, which have particularly high cholesterol levels. We investigated whether T-tubule cholesterol content affects insulin-induced glucose transport. Feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk increased by 30% the T-tubule cholesterol content of triad-enriched vesicular fractions from muscle tissue compared with triads from control mice. Additionally, isolated muscle fibers (flexor digitorum brevis) from HFD-fed mice showed a 40% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rates compared with fibers from control mice. In HFD-fed mice, four subcutaneous injections of MβCD, an agent reported to extract membrane cholesterol, improved their defective glucose tolerance test and normalized their high fasting glucose levels. The preincubation of isolated muscle fibers with relatively low concentrations of MβCD increased both basal and insulin-induced glucose uptake in fibers from controls or HFD-fed mice and decreased Akt phosphorylation without altering AMPK-mediated signaling. In fibers from HFD-fed mice, MβCD improved insulin sensitivity even after Akt or CaMK II inhibition and increased membrane GLUT4 content. Indinavir, a GLUT4 antagonist, prevented the stimulatory effects of MβCD on glucose uptake. Addition of MβCD elicited ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium signals in isolated fibers, which were essential for glucose uptake. Our findings suggest that T-tubule cholesterol content exerts a critical regulatory role on insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport and that partial cholesterol removal from muscle fibers may represent a useful strategy to counteract insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. SIK2 regulates CRTCs, HDAC4 and glucose uptake in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Emma; Säll, Johanna; Gormand, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    phosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 2 (CRTC2) and -3, and class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Furthermore, CRTC2, CRTC3, HDAC4 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) interacted with SIK2, and the binding of CRTCs and PP2A to wild-type, but not Ser358Ala SIK2, was reduced by c...... regulation in human adipocytes, strengthening the physiological relevance of our findings. Collectively, we demonstrate that SIK2 acts directly on CRTC2, CRTC3 and HDAC4, and that cAMP/PKA reduces the interaction of SIK2 with CRTCs and PP2A. Downstream, SIK2 promotes GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake......AMP-elevation. Silencing of SIK2 resulted in reduced GLUT4 protein levels, whereas cells treated with CRTC2 or HDAC4 siRNA displayed increased GLUT4. Over-expression or pharmacological inhibition of SIK2 resulted in increased and decreased glucose uptake, respectively. We also describe a SIK2/CRTC2/HDAC4 pathway and its...

  2. Effect of Bisphenol-A (BPA) on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Environmental estrogens bind to estrogen receptors, mimic estrogenic actions, and have adverse effects on human health like Bisphenol - A (BPA) which is used as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate plastics (PC) and epoxy resins which are used in variety of canned foods. Skeletal muscle plays an essential role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat. Rats were divided into four groups - Group I: Control (vehicle-corn oil treated), Group II, III and IV were administered with BPA (10, 100 and 400mg/kg b.wt/day, respectively) through oral gavage. Fasting blood glucose level of BPA treated groups showed a significant increase, oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were also impaired in these animals. BPA significantly decreased the protein levels of insulin signalling molecules like IR, IRS-1, Akt, AS160 and its phosphorylated forms and blunts GLUT4 translocation by altering the levels of v- and t- SNARE proteins that assist the translocation process, thereby decreasing glucose uptake and oxidation in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that BPA has detrimental effects on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle and thus impairs glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dietary glycemic index on substrate transporter gene expression in human skeletal muscle after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-S; Liao, S-F; Liu, K-L; Liu, H-Y; Wu, C-L; Huang, C-Y; Mallikarjuna, K; Smith, R W; Kuo, C-H

    2009-12-01

    Skeletal muscle plays important role in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. In skeletal muscle, uptakes of glucose and fatty acid from circulation are facilitated by transmembrane substrate transporters GLUT4 and FAT/CD36, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary glycemic index (GI) on GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 gene expressions in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of exercise. Eight male subjects completed a 60-min cycling exercise at 75% maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and were immediately fed an isocaloric meal containing either high-GI (HGI) or low-GI (LGI) diets, with similar proportions of carbohydrate, fat and protein in a crossover design. Muscle samples from deep vastus lateralis were taken by needle biopsy immediately after exercise and 3 h after exercise. After exercise, the HGI diet produced significantly greater glucose and insulin responses compared with the LGI diet, as indicated by the greater area under the curves. Both diets resulted in rapid reductions in plasma fatty acid and glycerol below fasting level. GLUT4 mRNA was downregulated by both HGI and LGI diets to a comparable extent, whereas GLUT4 protein levels were not changed during this short period. FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein levels were substantially decreased with the HGI diet below baseline, but not with the LGI diet. This study found a significant dietary GI effect on post-exercise FAT/CD36 gene expression in human skeletal muscle. This result implicates that the differences in dietary GI are sufficient to alter fat metabolism.

  4. Regulation of glucose transport by thyroid hormone in rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Tian, Ye; Guo, Meng; Liu, Juan; Heng, Dai; Zhu, Baochang; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in regulating ovarian development. However, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Evidence suggests that glucose is essential for ovarian development, and its uptake is mediated by several glucose transporter proteins (Glut). We have investigated the effects of TH on Glut in rat ovary. Immature rats were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil or L-thyroxine to induce hypothyroidism (hypo) or hyperthyroidism (hyper), respectively. Ovarian weights significantly decreased in both treated groups compared with the control group, although the body weights were not markedly altered. Glut1 expression significantly decreased without further changes being detected in the other Glut isforms in the hypo group and was accompanied by minimal change in mRNA content. The expression of Glut1 decreased in the hyper group. In contrast, L-thyroxine significantly increased Glut4 mRNA level and protein content but had little effect on Glut2 and Glut3 expression. Serum glucose concentrations in the hyper group were dramatically reduced compared with those in the control group. However, the serum glucose levels in the hypo group were not significantly changed. In addition, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) increased ovarian weights in both the hypo and hyper groups compared with those in the rats without eCG injection. Glut2-4 protein content was significantly increased by eCG in hyper rats. Only the Glut4 mRNA content was significantly increased by eCG in the hyper group. Although the mRNA levels were not significantly changed by eCG in the hypo group, the protein level of Glut4 was markedly up-regulated. Serum glucose levels were not significantly altered by eCG in the two groups. Thus, dysfunction of the thyroid gland changes Glut expression in rat ovary and ovarian growth, both of which are also regulated by gonadotropin.

  5. A single bout of exercise increases the expression of glucose but not fatty acid transporters in skeletal muscle of IL-6 KO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszuk, B; Bialuk, I; Górski, J; Zajączkiewicz, M; Winnicka, M M; Chabowski, A

    2012-08-01

    IL-6 is a biologically active cytokine released during exercise by contracting skeletal muscles. It appears to be highly involved in the regulation of muscles energy substrate utilization. Whether an ablation of IL-6 (IL-6 KO) in mice subjected to a single bout of exercise affects lipid and/or glucose metabolism is currently unknown. In the present study we examined fatty acid (FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP-1, FATP-4) as well as glucose (GLUT-1, GLUT-4) transporters expression in IL-6 KO mice. In addition, intramuscular glycogen and lipid content was also evaluated. The expression of all fatty acid transporters (FAT/CD36: +25 %; FATP-1: +31 %; FABPpm: +12.7 %; FATP-4: +7.2 %) was increased in muscles from IL-6 KO mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Accordingly intramuscular lipid content was also increased in these muscles (FFA: +38 %; DAG: +36 % and TAG: +160 %). Interestingly, IL-6 deficiency had only minor effect on glucose transporters expression (GLUT-1: -4 %, and GLUT-4: -5.1 %), with no apparent difference in muscular glycogen content. A single bout of exercise increased the glucose transporters (GLUT-1: +8 %; GLUT-4: +15 %) as well as FA transporters (FAT/CD36: +13 %; FABPpm: +4.5 %; FATP: +2.5 %, FATP-4: +10 %) expression but only in WT skeletal muscles. In muscles from IL-6 KO mice exercise induced changes only in glucose (GLUT-1: +20 %; GLUT-4: +35 %) but not in the content of FA transporters. Concomitantly, IL-6 KO mice displayed shorter time toward exhaustion with more pronounced reductions in intramuscular lipid and glycogen content. We may speculate, that IL-6 deficiency provokes more pronounced glucose utilization over lipid oxidation during a single bout of exhausting exercise.

  6. Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating protein OsARP in rice induced by submergence, salt and drought stresses. Md Imtiaz Uddin, Maki Kihara, Lina Yin, Mst Farida Perveen, Kiyoshi Tanaka ...

  7. Metformin attenuates hepatic insulin resistance in type-2 diabetic rats through PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling independent to bicuculline-sensitive GABAAreceptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2017-12-01

    Metformin attenuates type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced hepatic dysfunction and altered PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling in experimental studies. However, its effect on bicuculline-sensitive gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)-A receptor (GABA A R)-mediated calcium-dependent PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling in liver challenged to T2DM has not been established. The effectiveness of metformin on bicuculline-sensitive GABA A R-mediated hepatic insulin signalling was carried out in presence or absence of bicuculline (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in experimental T2DM rats. The whole experimental design was divided into three independent sets of experiments. Each set comprised seven groups of six male rats each. T2DM was induced in the animals by administering streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p.) at a time lag of 15 min except control group rats in three experiments. Metformin and/or bicuculline or wortmannin were administered once daily for one week from seventh day of streptozotocin injection in all the experimental sets. Metformin attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia in glucose (40%) and insulin (50%) tolerance tests in rats. Metformin also attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia (40%), hyperinsulinaemia (30%), insulin resistance (50%) and β-cell dysfunction (300%) in the animals. Metformin did not attenuate T2DM-induced decrease in rat hepatic intracellular calcium. Further, metformin mitigated T2DM-induced decrease in hepatic phosphorylated Akt and GLUT-4 translocation in the animals. The anti-diabetic activity of metformin was abolished by wortmannin but not with bicuculline co-administration in T2DM animals. These results suggest that metformin ameliorated T2DM-induced hepatic insulin resistance through bicuculline-sensitive GABA A receptor-independent PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling pathway in animals.

  8. Insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 expression in the skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linked immunosorbent assay. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), and expression of insulin receptor (INSR) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle. Results: The ...

  9. Regulation of gene expression by retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, P M; Eichmüller, S B; Schmidt, J; Bazhin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A serves as substrate for the biosynthesis of several derivates (retinoids) which are important for cell growth and cell differentiation as well as for vision. Retinoic acid is the major physiologically active form of vitamin A regulating the expression of different genes. At present, hundreds of genes are known to be regulated by retinoic acid. This regulation is very complex and is, in turn, regulated on many levels. To date, two families of retinoid nuclear receptors have been identified: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors, which are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. In order to regulate gene expression, all-trans retinal needs to be oxidized to retinoic acid. All-trans retinal, in turn, can be produced during oxidation of all-trans retinol or in a retinol-independent metabolic pathway through cleavage of β-carotene with all-trans retinal as an intermediate metabolite. Recently it has been shown that not only retinoic acid is an active form of vitamin A, but also that all-trans retinal can play an important role in gene regulation. In this review we comprehensively summarize recent literature on regulation of gene expression by retinoids, biochemistry of retinoid receptors, and molecular mechanisms of retinoid-mediated effects on gene regulation.

  10. The t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 but not v-SNARE VAMP2 are indispensable to tether GLUT4 vesicles at the plasma membrane in adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Takayuki [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Tamori, Yoshikazu, E-mail: tamori@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kanda, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Mari; Tateya, Sanshiro; Nishino, Naonobu [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kasuga, Masato [Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    SNARE proteins (VAMP2, syntaxin4, and SNAP23) have been thought to play a key role in GLUT4 trafficking by mediating the tethering, docking and subsequent fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane. The precise functions of these proteins have remained elusive, however. We have now shown that depletion of the vesicle SNARE (v-SNARE) VAMP2 by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane but did not affect tethering of the vesicles to the membrane. In contrast, depletion of the target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) syntaxin4 or SNAP23 resulted in impairment of GLUT4 vesicle tethering to the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 are indispensable for the tethering of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane, whereas the v-SNARE VAMP2 is not required for this step but is essential for the subsequent fusion event.

  11. Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Imtiaz Uddin

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... We examined the expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating protein OsARP in a submergence tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar FR13A. In the public databases, this protein was designated as putative Os02g0465900 protein. The cDNA containing the full-length sequence of OsARP.

  12. Glucose transporter expression in an avian nectarivore: the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Welch

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter (GLUT proteins play a key role in the transport of monosaccharides across cellular membranes, and thus, blood sugar regulation and tissue metabolism. Patterns of GLUT expression, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4, have been well characterized in mammals. However, relatively little is known about patterns of GLUT expression in birds with existing data limited to the granivorous or herbivorous chicken, duck and sparrow. The smallest avian taxa, hummingbirds, exhibit some of the highest fasted and fed blood glucose levels and display an unusual ability to switch rapidly and completely between endogenous fat and exogenous sugar to fuel energetically expensive hovering flight. Despite this, nothing is known about the GLUT transporters that enable observed rapid rates of carbohydrate flux. We examined GLUT (GLUT1, 2, 3, & 4 expression in pectoralis, leg muscle, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and brain from both zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris. mRNA expression of all four transporters was probed using reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR. In addition, GLUT1 and 4 protein expression were assayed by western blot and immunostaining. Patterns of RNA and protein expression of GLUT1-3 in both species agree closely with published reports from other birds and mammals. As in other birds, and unlike in mammals, we did not detect GLUT4. A lack of GLUT4 correlates with hyperglycemia and an uncoupling of exercise intensity and relative oxidation of carbohydrates in hummingbirds. The function of GLUTs present in hummingbird muscle tissue (e.g. GLUT1 and 3 remain undescribed. Thus, further work is necessary to determine if high capillary density, and thus surface area across which cellular-mediated transport of sugars into active tissues (e.g. muscle occurs, rather than taxon-specific differences in GLUT density or kinetics, can account for observed rapid rates of sugar flux into these

  13. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  14. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Wang, Zhong Q; Zhang, Xian H; Baldor, Linda C; Russell, James C

    2002-06-01

    Human studies suggest that chromium picolinate (CrPic) decreases insulin levels and improves glucose disposal in obese and type 2 diabetic populations. To evaluate whether CrPic may aid in treatment of the insulin resistance syndrome, we assessed its effects in JCR:LA-corpulent rats, a model of this syndrome. Male lean and obese hyperinsulinemic rats were randomly assigned to receive oral CrPic [80 microg/(kg. d); n = 5 or 6, respectively) in water or to control conditions (water, n = 5). After 3 mo, a 120-min intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a 30-min insulin tolerance test were performed. Obese rats administered CrPic had significantly lower fasting insulin levels (1848 +/- 102 vs. 2688 +/- 234 pmol/L; P < 0.001; mean +/- SEM) and significantly improved glucose disappearance (P < 0.001) compared with obese controls. Glucose and insulin areas under the curve for IPGTT were significantly less for obese CrPic-treated rats than in obese controls (P < 0.001). Obese CrPic-treated rats had lower plasma total cholesterol (3.57 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.11 +/- 0.47 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and higher HDL cholesterol levels (1.92 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.36 mmol/L, P < 0.01) than obese controls. CrPic did not alter plasma glucose or cholesterol levels in lean rats. Total skeletal muscle glucose transporter (Glut)-4 did not differ among groups; however, CrPic significantly enhanced membrane-associated Glut-4 in obese rats after insulin stimulation. Thus, CrPic supplementation enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance, and improves lipids in male obese hyperinsulinemic JCR:LA-corpulent rats.

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF Binding Protein-2, Independently of IGF-1, Induces GLUT-4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruhalem Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 is the predominant IGF binding protein produced during adipogenesis and is known to increase the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU in myotubes. We investigated the IGFBP-2-induced changes in basal and insulin-stimulated GU in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. We further determined the role of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in mediating the IGFBP-2 and the impact of IGFBP-2 on the IGF-1-induced GU. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with IGFBP-2 in the presence and absence of insulin and IGF-1. Insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-2 induced a dose-dependent increase in GU. IGFBP-2 increased the insulin-induced GU after long-term incubation. The IGFBP-2-induced impact on GU was neither affected by insulin or IGF-1 receptor blockage nor by insulin receptor knockdown. IGFBP-2 significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, AMPK, TBC1D1, and PKCζ/λ and induced GLUT-4 translocation. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and AMPK significantly reduced IGFBP-2-stimulated GU. In conclusion, IGFBP-2 stimulates GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of PI3K/Akt, AMPK/TBC1D1, and PI3K/PKCζ/λ/GLUT-4 signaling. The stimulatory effect of IGFBP-2 on GU is independent of its binding to IGF-1 and is possibly not mediated through the insulin or IGF-1 receptor. This study highlights the potential role of IGFBP-2 in glucose metabolism.

  16. Regulation of gene expression in human tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault Joanne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics.

  17. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug perturbations of human cells lead to complex responses upon target binding. One of the known mechanisms is a (positive or negative) feedback loop that adjusts the expression level of the respective target protein. To quantify this mechanism systems-wide in an unbiased way, drug...... further newly identified drug-induced differential regulation of Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, Endoplasmin, DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha and Calmodulin 1. The feedback regulation in these and other targets is likely to be relevant for the success or failure of the molecular intervention....

  18. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, stimulate GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Fujinami, Aya; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Amano, Akiko; Ishigami, Akihito; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Sawada, Morio; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG) are major components of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (5:1) extract of the yellow-colored stem juice of Angelica keiskei. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG have been reported to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism by which 4HD and XAG increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both 4HD and XAG increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG also stimulated the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which acts upstream of AMPK, was also increased by 4HD and XAG treatment. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LKB1 attenuated 4HD- and XAG-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that 4HD and XAG can increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of methane genes and genome expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John N. Reeve

    2009-09-09

    At the start of this project, it was known that methanogens were Archaeabacteria (now Archaea) and were therefore predicted to have gene expression and regulatory systems different from Bacteria, but few of the molecular biology details were established. The goals were then to establish the structures and organizations of genes in methanogens, and to develop the genetic technologies needed to investigate and dissect methanogen gene expression and regulation in vivo. By cloning and sequencing, we established the gene and operon structures of all of the “methane” genes that encode the enzymes that catalyze methane biosynthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This work identified unique sequences in the methane gene that we designated mcrA, that encodes the largest subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, that could be used to identify methanogen DNA and establish methanogen phylogenetic relationships. McrA sequences are now the accepted standard and used extensively as hybridization probes to identify and quantify methanogens in environmental research. With the methane genes in hand, we used northern blot and then later whole-genome microarray hybridization analyses to establish how growth phase and substrate availability regulated methane gene expression in Methanobacterium thermautotrophicus ΔH (now Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus). Isoenzymes or pairs of functionally equivalent enzymes catalyze several steps in the hydrogen-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. We established that hydrogen availability determine which of these pairs of methane genes is expressed and therefore which of the alternative enzymes is employed to catalyze methane biosynthesis under different environmental conditions. As were unable to establish a reliable genetic system for M. thermautotrophicus, we developed in vitro transcription as an alternative system to investigate methanogen gene expression and regulation. This led to the discovery that an archaeal protein

  1. Methylation regulates HEY1 expression in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Andrew J; Guda, Maheedhara R; Asuthkar, Swapna; Labak, Collin M; Purvis, Ian J; Lu, Yining; Jain, Neha; Bach, Sarah E; Prasad, Durbaka V R; Velpula, Kiran K

    2017-07-04

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most lethal and difficult-to-treat cancers of the central nervous system. The poor prognosis in GBM patients is due in part to its resistance to available treatments, which calls for identifying novel molecular therapeutic targets. In this study, we identified a mediator of Notch signaling, HEY1, whose methylation status contributes to the pathogenesis of GBM. Datamining studies, immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis showed that HEY1 is highly expressed in GBM patient specimens. Since methylation status of HEY1 may control its expression, we conducted bisulphite sequencing on patient samples and found that the HEY1 promoter region was hypermethylated in normal brain when compared to GBM specimens. Treatment on 4910 and 5310 xenograft cell lines with sodium butyrate (NaB) significantly decreased HEY1 expression with a concomitant increase in DNMT1 expression, confirming that promoter methylation may regulate HEY1 expression in GBM. NaB treatment also induced apoptosis of GBM cells as measured by flow cytometric analysis. Further, silencing of HEY1 reduced invasion, migration and proliferation in 4910 and 5310 cells. Furthermore, immunoblot and q-PCR analysis showed the existence of a potential positive regulatory loop between HEY1 and p53. Additionally, transcription factor interaction array with HEY1 recombinant protein predicted a correlation with p53 and provided various bonafide targets of HEY1. Collectively, these studies suggest HEY1 may be an important predictive marker for GBM and potential target for future GBM therapy.

  2. Evolutionary roots of arginase expression and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Maria Dzik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two main types of macrophage functions are known: classical (M1, producing nitric oxide, NO, and M2, in which arginase activity is primarily expressed. Ornithine, the product of arginase, is a substrate for synthesis of polyamines and collagen, important for growth and ontogeny of animals. M2 macrophages, expressing high level of mitochondrial arginase, have been implicated in promoting cell division and deposition of collagen during ontogeny and wound repair. Arginase expression is the default mode of tissue macrophages, but can also be amplified by signals, such as IL4/13 or TGF-β that accelerates wound healing and tissue repair. In worms, the induction of collagen gene is coupled with induction of immune response genes, both depending on the same TGF-β-like pathway. This suggests that the main function of M2 heal type macrophages is originally connected with the TGF-β superfamily of proteins, which are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis. Excretory-secretory products of metazoan parasites are able to induce M2 type of macrophage responses promoting wound healing without participation of Th2 cytokines IL4/IL13. The expression of arginase in lower animals can be induced by the presence of parasite antigens and TGF-β signals leading to collagen synthesis. This also means that the main proteins, which, in primitive metazoans, are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis are produced by innate immunity. The signaling function of NO is known already from the sponge stage of animal evolution. The cytotoxic role of NO molecule appeared later, as documented in immunity of marine mollusks and some insects. This implies that the M2-wound healing promoting function predates the defensive role of NO, a characteristic of M1 macrophages. Understanding when and how the M1 and M2 activities came to be in animals is useful for understanding how macrophage immunity, and immune

  3. Glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2000-01-01

    amplification (TSA) technique to detect the localization of glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. We found expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 in developing human muscle fibers showing a distinct expression pattern. 1) GLUT-1 is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells during gestation......, but its expression is markedly reduced around birth and is further reduced to undetectable levels within the first year of life; 2) GLUT-3 protein expression appears at 18 wk of gestation and disappears after birth; and 3) GLUT-4 protein is diffusely expressed in muscle cells throughout gestation, whereas...

  4. TDP-43, an ALS linked protein, regulates fat deposition and glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy R Stallings

    Full Text Available The identification of proteins which determine fat and lean body mass composition is critical to better understanding and treating human obesity. TDP-43 is a well-conserved RNA-binding protein known to regulate alternative splicing and recently implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While TDP-43 knockout mice show early embryonic lethality, post-natal conditional knockout mice show weight loss, fat depletion, and rapid death, suggesting an important role for TDP-43 in regulating energy metabolism. Here we report, that over-expression of TDP-43 in transgenic mice can result in a phenotype characterized by increased fat deposition and adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, TDP-43 over-expression in skeletal muscle results in increased steady state levels of Tbc1d1, a RAB-GTPase activating protein involved in Glucose 4 transporter (Glut4 translocation. Skeletal muscle fibers isolated from TDP-43 transgenic mice show altered Glut4 translocation in response to insulin and impaired insulin mediated glucose uptake. These results indicate that levels of TDP-43 regulate body fat composition and glucose homeostasis in vivo.

  5. LICORN: learning cooperative regulation networks from gene expression data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elati, Mohamed; Neuvial, Pierre; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Barillot, Emmanuel; Radvanyi, François; Rouveirol, Céline

    2007-01-01

    .... The goal is to identify, for each gene expressed in a particular cellular context, the regulators affecting its transcription, and the co-ordination of several regulators in specific types of regulation...

  6. Regulation of Hepatic Paraoxonase-1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Fuhrman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a member of the paraoxonases family (PON1, PON2, and PON3. PON1 is synthesized and secreted by the liver, and in circulation it is associated with HDL. PON1 has antioxidative properties, which are associated with the enzyme’s capability to decrease oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesions and to attenuate atherosclerosis development. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that low PON1 activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of PON1 activity or PON1 gene expression could constitute a useful approach for preventing atherosclerosis. A primary determinant of serum PON1 levels is the availability of the enzyme for release by the liver, the principal site of PON1 production. Together with the enzyme secretion rate, enzymatic turnover, and protein stability, the level of PON1 gene expression is a major determinant of PON1 status. This paper summarizes recent progress in understanding the regulation of PON1 expression in hepatocytes.

  7. A Single Bout of Exercise Increases the Expression of Glucose but not Fatty Acid Transporters in Skeletal Muscle of IL-6 KO Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Łukaszuk, B.; Bialuk, I.; Górski, J.; Zajączkiewicz, M.; Winnicka, M. M.; Chabowski, A

    2012-01-01

    IL-6 is a biologically active cytokine released during exercise by contracting skeletal muscles. It appears to be highly involved in the regulation of muscles energy substrate utilization. Whether an ablation of IL-6 (IL-6 KO) in mice subjected to a single bout of exercise affects lipid and/or glucose metabolism is currently unknown. In the present study we examined fatty acid (FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP-1, FATP-4) as well as glucose (GLUT-1, GLUT-4) transporters expression in IL-6 KO mice. In ad...

  8. The Fto Gene Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Pre-Adipocytes in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Jingying; Lu, Lunjie; Xu, Jiaying; Qin, Liqiang

    2016-02-19

    The highly regulated differentiation and proliferation of pre-adipocytes play a key role in the initiation of obesity. Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a novel gene strongly associated with the risk of obesity. A deficiency of FTO may cause growth retardation in addition to fat mass and adipocyte size reduction in vivo. To investigate the potential role of Fto gene on the proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes, we generated Fto-knockdown and overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Using numerous proliferation assays our results suggest that Fto knockdown leads to suppression of proliferation, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, less cellular ATP, and decreased and smaller intracellular lipid droplets compared with controls (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that Fto knockdown can significantly suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression and inhibit Akt phosphorylation. By contrast, overexpression of Fto had the opposing effect on proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP generation, in vitro differentiation, Akt phosphorylation, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Moreover, we demonstrated that Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, could inhibit phospho-Akt in Fto overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that Fto regulates the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via multiple mechanisms, including PPARγ and PI3K/Akt signaling.

  9. The Fto Gene Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Pre-Adipocytes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly regulated differentiation and proliferation of pre-adipocytes play a key role in the initiation of obesity. Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO is a novel gene strongly associated with the risk of obesity. A deficiency of FTO may cause growth retardation in addition to fat mass and adipocyte size reduction in vivo. To investigate the potential role of Fto gene on the proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes, we generated Fto-knockdown and overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Using numerous proliferation assays our results suggest that Fto knockdown leads to suppression of proliferation, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, less cellular ATP, and decreased and smaller intracellular lipid droplets compared with controls (p < 0.05. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Fto knockdown can significantly suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 expression and inhibit Akt phosphorylation. By contrast, overexpression of Fto had the opposing effect on proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP generation, in vitro differentiation, Akt phosphorylation, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Moreover, we demonstrated that Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor, could inhibit phospho-Akt in Fto overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that Fto regulates the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via multiple mechanisms, including PPARγ and PI3K/Akt signaling.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of enhanced [18F] fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) uptake in isochemically injured myocardium: the role of glucose transporter and hexokinase expression. Final technical report for period August 1, 1993--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosius, F.C. III

    1999-08-01

    We determined that there were no regional differences in GLUT1 or GLUT4 expression in normal dog heart. We demonstrated that glucose uptake was relatively enhanced in regions of severe ischemia in this model. We showed that GLUT1 mRNA and polypeptide expression but not GLUT4 expression were substantially and significantly increased in both ischemic and nonischemic myocardial regions after 6 hours. We also found that GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake induced by ischemia in perfused rat hearts were not inhibited by Wortmannin, a PI3 kinase inhibitor, whereas insulin-stimulatd increases in GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake were inhibited. To determine whether some of the same phenomena occurred in humans with chronic myocardial ischemia, we investigated myocardial GLUT mRNA expression in 11 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. We have cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and tested the effects of several factors including hypoxia and insulin.

  11. Dissecting specific and global transcriptional regulation of bacterial gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerosa, Luca; Kochanowski, Karl; Heinemann, Matthias; Sauer, Uwe

    Gene expression is regulated by specific transcriptional circuits but also by the global expression machinery as a function of growth. Simultaneous specific and global regulation thus constitutes an additional-but often neglected-layer of complexity in gene expression. Here, we develop an

  12. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tienari, Jukka [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, 05850 Hyvinkää (Finland); Nyman, Tuula A. [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehtonen, Eero [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory Animal Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Groop, Per-Henrik [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, 3004 Melbourne (Australia); Lehtonen, Sanna, E-mail: sanna.h.lehtonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Vraskou, Yoryia; Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2012-01-01

    AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively) and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively). We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α) and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  15. Expression and Localization of Glucose Transporters in Rodent Submandibular Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cetik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The submandibular gland is one of the three major salivary glands, producing a mixed secretion; this saliva is hypotonic compared to plasma. It also secretes glucose, but the mechanisms responsible for this process are poorly understood. Our study addressed the question whether glucose transporters are expressed and how are they localized within specific rodent submandibular cells, in order to estimate a possible implication in salivary glucose disposal. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the presence/localization of glucose transporters in rodent submandibular glands. Results: GLUT4 was identified in the submandibular salivary gland at both mRNA and protein level. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed its localization preponderantly in the ductal cells of the gland, near to the basolateral. SGLT1 and GLUT1 were highly expressed in submandibular tissues in both acinar and ductal cells, but not GLUT2. These results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. It was also documented that insulin stimulates the net uptake of D-glucose by ductal rings prepared from submandibulary salivary glands, the relative magnitude of such an enhancing action being comparable to that found in hemidiaphragms. Conclusion: At least three major glucose transporters are expressed in the rodent submandibular glands, of which GLUT4 is specifically localized near the basolateral side of ductal structures. This points-out its possible role in regulating glucose uptake from the bloodstream, most likely to sustain ductal cellular metabolism.

  16. Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

  17. Expression and regulation of brain metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, M; Iversen, P L; Hao, R; Cerutis, D R; Rojas, P; Happe, H K; Murrin, L C; Pfeiffer, R F

    1995-07-01

    Many, but not all, zinc-containing neurons in the brain are a subclass of the glutamatergic neurons, and they are found predominantly in the telencephalon. These neurons store zinc in their presynaptic terminals and release it by a calcium-dependent mechanism. These "vesicular" pools of zinc are viewed as endogenous modulators of ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight zinc-binding proteins consisting of 25-30% cysteine, with no aromatic amino acids or disulfide bonds. The areas of the brain containing high contents of zinc such as the retina, the pineal gland, and the hippocampus synthesize unique isoforms of MT on a continuous basis. The four MT isoforms are thought to provide the neurons and glial elements with mechanisms to distribute, donate, and sequester zinc at presynaptic terminals; or buffer the excess zinc at synaptic junctions. In this cause, glutathione disulfide may participate in releasing zinc from MT. A similar nucleotide and amino acid sequence has made it difficult to obtain cDNA probes and antibodies capable of distinguishing indisputably among MT isoforms. MT-I and MT-II isoforms are found in the brain and in the peripheral tissues; MT-III isoform, possessing an additional seven amino acids, is expressed mostly in the brain and to a very minute extent in the intestine and pancreas; whereas MT-IV isoform is found in tissues containing stratified squamous epithelial cells. Since MTs are expressed in neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles, the regulation of the expression of MT isoforms is extremely important in terms of maintaining the steady-state level of zinc and controlling redox potentials. The concentration of zinc has been shown to be altered in an extensive number of disorders of the central nervous system, including alcoholism. Alzheimer-type dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, Friedreich's ataxia, Guillaine-Barré syndrome, hepatic

  18. Diabetes Alters the Expression and Translocation of the Insulin-Sensitive Glucose Transporters 4 and 8 in the Atria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maria

    Full Text Available Although diabetes has been identified as a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation, little is known about glucose metabolism in the healthy and diabetic atria. Glucose transport into the cell, the rate-limiting step of glucose utilization, is regulated by the Glucose Transporters (GLUTs. Although GLUT4 is the major isoform in the heart, GLUT8 has recently emerged as a novel cardiac isoform. We hypothesized that GLUT-4 and -8 translocation to the atrial cell surface will be regulated by insulin and impaired during insulin-dependent diabetes. GLUT protein content was measured by Western blotting in healthy cardiac myocytes and type 1 (streptozotocin-induced, T1Dx diabetic rodents. Active cell surface GLUT content was measured using a biotinylated photolabeled assay in the perfused heart. In the healthy atria, insulin stimulation increased both GLUT-4 and -8 translocation to the cell surface (by 100% and 240%, respectively, P<0.05. Upon insulin stimulation, we reported an increase in Akt (Th308 and s473 sites and AS160 phosphorylation, which was positively (P<0.05 correlated with GLUT4 protein content in the healthy atria. During diabetes, active cell surface GLUT-4 and -8 content was downregulated in the atria (by 70% and 90%, respectively, P<0.05. Akt and AS160 phosphorylation was not impaired in the diabetic atria, suggesting the presence of an intact insulin signaling pathway. This was confirmed by the rescued translocation of GLUT-4 and -8 to the atrial cell surface upon insulin stimulation in the atria of type 1 diabetic subjects. In conclusion, our data suggest that: 1 both GLUT-4 and -8 are insulin-sensitive in the healthy atria through an Akt/AS160 dependent pathway; 2 GLUT-4 and -8 trafficking is impaired in the diabetic atria and rescued by insulin treatment. Alterations in atrial glucose transport may induce perturbations in energy production, which may provide a metabolic substrate for atrial fibrillation during diabetes.

  19. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed…

  20. Abundance in proteins expressed after functional electrical stimulation cycling or arm cycling ergometry training in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Graham, Zachary A; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher; Gater, David R

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal design. The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Clinical trial at a Medical Center. Nine men with chronic motor-complete SCI participated in functional electrical stimulation lower extremity cycling (FES-LEC; n = 4) or arm cycling ergometer (arm-cycling ergometer [ACE]; n = 5) 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Whole body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose effectiveness (Sg) and insulin sensitivity (Si). Muscle biopsies of the right vastus lateralis (VL) and triceps muscles were collected one week prior to and post the exercise training intervention. Neither training intervention altered body composition or carbohydrate metabolism. GLUT-4 increased by 3.8 fold in the VL after FES training and increased 0.6 fold in the triceps after ACE training. PGC-1α increased by 2.3 fold in the VL after FES training and 3.8 fold in the triceps after ACE training. AMPK increased by 3.4 fold in the VL after FES training and in the triceps after ACE training. FES-LEC and ACE training were associated with greater protein expressions in the trained muscles by effectively influencing the abundance of GLUT-4, AMPK and PGC-1α. Thus, FES-LEC training of paralyzed muscle can modulate protein expression similar to that of trained and innervated muscle.

  1. Expression of uncoupling protein 3 and GLUT4 gene in skeletal muscle of preterm newborns: possible control by AMP-activated protein kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Petr; Kopecký, P.; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondřej; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pláničková, L.; Vítková, I.; Andreelli, F.; Foretz, M.; Viollet, B.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2006), s. 569-575 ISSN 0031-3998 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NE6430 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272; European Commission(XE) FOOD-CT-2005-007036; CZ-FR(CZ) Barrande 2-06-32 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : newborn * muscle * metabolism Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.619, year: 2006

  2. Glucosamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress affects GLUT4 expression via activating transcription factor 6 in rat and human skeletal muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raciti, G A; Iadicicco, C; Ulianich, L

    2010-01-01

    Glucosamine, generated during hyperglycaemia, causes insulin resistance in different cells. Here we sought to evaluate the possible role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine in skeletal muscle cells....

  3. Polymorphic cis- and trans-regulation of human gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian G Cheung

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression levels of human genes vary extensively among individuals. This variation facilitates analyses of expression levels as quantitative phenotypes in genetic studies where the entire genome can be scanned for regulators without prior knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms, thus enabling the identification of unknown regulatory relationships. Here, we carried out such genetic analyses with a large sample size and identified cis- and trans-acting polymorphic regulators for about 1,000 human genes. We validated the cis-acting regulators by demonstrating differential allelic expression with sequencing of transcriptomes (RNA-Seq and the trans-regulators by gene knockdown, metabolic assays, and chromosome conformation capture analysis. The majority of the regulators act in trans to the target (regulated genes. Most of these trans-regulators were not known to play a role in gene expression regulation. The identification of these regulators enabled the characterization of polymorphic regulation of human gene expression at a resolution that was unattainable in the past.

  4. Dibenzoylmethane exerts metabolic activity through regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-mediated glucose uptake and adipogenesis pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Kim

    Full Text Available Dibenzoylmethane (DBM has been shown to exert a variety of beneficial effects on human health. However, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this study, DBM increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and stimulated glucose uptake in a skeletal muscle cell line. Both knockdown of AMPK with siRNA and inhibition with AMPK inhibitor blocked DBM-induced glucose uptake. DBM increased the concentration of intracellular calcium and glucose uptake due to DBM was abolished by STO-609 (a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor. DBM stimulated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, which was blocked by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. The expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 was increased by DBM. The translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane was also increased by DBM in AMPK dependently. In addition, DBM suppressed weight gain and prevented fat accumulation in the liver and abdomen in mice fed a high-fat diet. In pre-adipocyte cells, DBM decreased the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis. Expression of the adipogenic gene, fatty acid synthase (FAS, was suppressed by DBM in an AMPK-dependent manner. These results showed that the beneficial metabolic effects of DBM might be due to regulation of glucose uptake via AMPK in skeletal muscle and inhibition of adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of monoallelic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Hiroshi; Takayama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Monoallelic expression from biallelic genes is frequently observed in diploid eukaryotic organisms. Classic examples of this phenomenon include the well-characterized cases of genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. However, recent studies have shown that monoallelic expression is widespread in autosomal genes. This discovery was met with great interest because it represents another mechanism to generate diversity in gene expression that can affect cell fate and physiology. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. In our original study describing the dominant ⁄ recessive relationships of pollen- determinant alleles in Brassica self-incompatibility, we found that the recessive allele was specifically methylated and silenced through the action of small RNA derived from the dominant allele. In this review, we focus on recent studies of monoallelic expression in autosomal genes, and discuss the possible mechanisms driving this form of monoallelic gene suppression.

  6. Expression of Androgen Receptor Is Negatively Regulated By p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatouma Alimirah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of androgen receptor (AR in prostate cancer (PC is associated with transition to androgen independence. Because the progression of PC to advanced stages is often associated with the loss of p53 function, we tested whether the p53 could regulate the expression of AR gene. Here we report that p53 negatively regulates the expression of AR in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs. We found that in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that express the wild-type p53 and AR and in human normal PrECs, the activation of p53 by genotoxic stress or by inhibition of p53 nuclear export downregulated the expression of AR. Furthermore, forced expression of p53 in LNCaP cells decreased the expression of AR. Conversely, knockdown of p53 expression in LNCaP cells increased the AR expression. Consistent with the negative regulation of AR expression by p53, the p53-null HCT116 cells expressed higher levels of AR compared with the isogenic HCT116 cells that express the wildtype p53. Moreover, we noted that in etoposide treated LNCaP cells p53 bound to the promoter region of the AR gene, which contains a potential p53 DNA-binding consensus sequence, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Together, our observations provide support for the idea that the loss of p53 function in prostate cancer cells contributes to increased expression of AR.

  7. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  8. Expression of Androgen Receptor Is Negatively Regulated By p53

    OpenAIRE

    Fatouma Alimirah; Ravichandran Panchanathan; Jianming Chen; Xiang Zhang; Shuk-Mei Ho; Divaker Choubey

    2007-01-01

    Increased expression of androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer (PC) is associated with transition to androgen independence. Because the progression of PC to advanced stages is often associated with the loss of p53 function, we tested whether the p53 could regulate the expression of AR gene. Here we report that p53 negatively regulates the expression of AR in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). We found that in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that express the wild-type p53 and AR and in hu...

  9. Classification of topological domains based on gene expression and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Shi, Hongbo; Ahituv, Nadav

    2013-07-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression is thought to be one of the major forces shaping mammalian gene order. A recent study that used whole-genome chromosome conformation assays has shown that the mammalian genome is divided into specific topological domains that are shared between different tissues and organisms. Here, we wanted to assess whether gene expression and regulation are involved in shaping these domains and can be used to classify them. We analyzed gene expression and regulation levels in these domains by using RNA-seq and enhancer-associated ChIP-seq datasets for 17 different mouse tissues. We found 162 domains that are active (high gene expression and regulation) in all 17 tissues. These domains are significantly shorter, contain less repeats, and have more housekeeping genes. In contrast, we found 29 domains that are inactive (low gene expression and regulation) in all analyzed tissues and are significantly longer, have more repeats, and gene deserts. Tissue-specific active domains showed some correlation with tissue-type and gene ontology. Domain temporal gene regulation and expression differences also displayed some gene ontology terms fitting their temporal function. Combined, our results provide a catalog of shared and tissue-specific topological domains and suggest that gene expression and regulation could have a role in shaping them.

  10. NFATc1 regulation of TRAIL expression in human intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingding Wang

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; Apo2 has been shown to promote intestinal cell differentiation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT participates in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including differentiation. Here, we examined the role of NFAT in the regulation of TRAIL in human intestinal cells. Treatment with a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (Io increased NFAT activation and TRAIL expression; pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, an antagonist of NFAT signaling, diminished NFAT activation and TRAIL induction. In addition, knockdown of NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4 blocked PMA/Io increased TRAIL protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 activated TRAIL promoter activity and increased TRAIL mRNA and protein expression. Deletion of NFAT binding sites from the TRAIL promoter did not significantly abrogate NFATc1-increased TRAIL promoter activity, suggesting an indirect regulation of TRAIL expression by NFAT activation. Knockdown of NFATc1 increased Sp1 transcription factor binding to the TRAIL promoter and, importantly, inhibition of Sp1, by chemical inhibition or RNA interference, increased TRAIL expression. These studies identify a novel mechanism for TRAIL regulation by which activation of NFATc1 increases TRAIL expression through negative regulation of Sp1 binding to the TRAIL promoter.

  11. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of GLUT by T3 and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Ding, Yu; Liu, Juan; Heng, Dai; Xu, Kaili; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for normal reproductive function. Although 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) enhances follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced preantral follicle growth and granulosa cells development in vitro, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating ovarian development via glucose. In this study, we investigated whether and how T3 combines with FSH to regulate glucose transporter protein (GLUT) expression and glucose uptake in granulosa cells. In this study, we present evidence that T3 and FSH cotreatment significantly increased GLUT-1/GLUT-4 expression, and translocation in cells, as well as glucose uptake. These changes were accompanied by upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)3 expression, total NOS and NOS3 activity, and NO content in granulosa cells. Furthermore, we found that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is required for the regulation of GLUT expression, translocation, and glucose uptake by hormones. We also found that l-arginine upregulated GLUT-1/GLUT-4 expression and translocation, which were related to increased glucose uptake; however, these responses were significantly blocked by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester. In addition, inhibiting NO production attenuated T3- and FSH-induced GLUT expression, translocation, and glucose uptake in granulosa cells. Our data demonstrate that T3 and FSH cotreatment potentiates cellular glucose uptake via GLUT upregulation and translocation, which are mediated through the activation of the mTOR/PI3K/Akt pathway. Meanwhile, NOS3/NO are also involved in this regulatory system. These findings suggest that GLUT is a mediator of T3- and FSH-induced follicular development. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Regulation of gene expression in entomopathogenic fungi in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entomopathogenic fungi are subject to regulation system known as signal transduction that regulates the expression of the different genes required for each life stage, first comprising cuticle adhesion and degradation, later the survival in the hemolymph, and finally the fungal growth in soils. There are two ...

  13. Total Flavonoids Extracted from Oxytropis falcata Bunge Improve Insulin Resistance through Regulation on the IKKβ/NF-κB Inflammatory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Wang, Zhicheng; Jiang, Liangen; Sun, Wen; Fan, Qiang; Liu, Tonghua

    2017-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance (IR) is the main etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been known that total flavonoid extracts can markedly improve the hypoglycemic symptoms caused by IR. Nevertheless, the relevant molecular mechanism remains unclarified. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the total flavonoid extract from Oxytropis falcata Bunge. Methods. STZ-induced T2DM rats (n = 35) were divided into 5 groups: model, low-, medium-, and high-dose total flavonoids, and pioglitazone groups. Ten healthy rats were used as controls. The serum insulin and inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) level was measured by ELISA. The concentration of IRS-1, p-IRS-1, PKB p-PKB, PI3Kp85, and p-PI3K in skeletal muscles was determined by Western blot. The mRNA level of GLUT4, IκB, and NF-κB in skeletal muscle was detected by qRT-PCR. Results. The treatment of medium- and high-dose total flavonoids significantly reduced the FPG and P2hPG and enhanced insulin level in T2DM rats (P Bunge on IR. The flavonoids might reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines through downregulation of NF-κB expression in inflammatory pathway and regulate the IRS-1-PI3-K-PKB/Akt insulin pathway and thereby increased the GLUT4 expression.

  14. Down-regulation of aquaporins (AQP3) expression by RNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquaporins (AQPs) represent a family of homologous water channels expressed in many epithelial and endothelial cells. Most tumors have been shown to exhibit high vascular permeability and interstitial fluid pressure. Here, we tested the regulation on the expression of AQP3 by RNA interference (RNAi) in the human lung ...

  15. Characterization of gene expression regulated by human OTK18 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with severe HIV encephalitis (Carlson et al. 2004b), and be- ing regulated by interactions with the Tat protein (Carlson et al. 2004a). In contrast, OTK18 is ubiquitously expressed in all normal human tissues, and OTK18 expression in HIV-1 infected MDM is not significantly different at day 9 post- infection when compared to ...

  16. Regulation of proteinaceous effector expression in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kar-Chun; Oliver, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    Effectors are molecules used by microbial pathogens to facilitate infection via effector-triggered susceptibility or tissue necrosis in their host. Much research has been focussed on the identification and elucidating the function of fungal effectors during plant pathogenesis. By comparison, knowledge of how phytopathogenic fungi regulate the expression of effector genes has been lagging. Several recent studies have illustrated the role of various transcription factors, chromosome-based control, effector epistasis, and mobilisation of endosomes within the fungal hyphae in regulating effector expression and virulence on the host plant. Improved knowledge of effector regulation is likely to assist in improving novel crop protection strategies.

  17. Regulation of proteinaceous effector expression in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Chun Tan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effectors are molecules used by microbial pathogens to facilitate infection via effector-triggered susceptibility or tissue necrosis in their host. Much research has been focussed on the identification and elucidating the function of fungal effectors during plant pathogenesis. By comparison, knowledge of how phytopathogenic fungi regulate the expression of effector genes has been lagging. Several recent studies have illustrated the role of various transcription factors, chromosome-based control, effector epistasis, and mobilisation of endosomes within the fungal hyphae in regulating effector expression and virulence on the host plant. Improved knowledge of effector regulation is likely to assist in improving novel crop protection strategies.

  18. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  19. Adult-type hypolactasia and regulation of lactase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    , the main carbohydrate in milk. Individuals with adult-type hypolactasia lose their lactase expression before adulthood and consequently often become lactose intolerant with associated digestive problems (e.g. diarrhoea). In contrast, lactase persistent individuals have a lifelong lactase expression......A common genetically determined polymorphism in the human population leads to two distinct phenotypes in adults, lactase persistence and adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence). All healthy newborn children express high levels of lactase and are able to digest large quantities of lactose...... and are able to digest lactose as adults. Lactase persistence can be regarded as the mutant phenotype since other mammals down-regulate their lactase expression after weaning (the postweaning decline). This phenomenon does not occur in lactase persistent individuals. The regulation of lactase expression...

  20. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.......To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...

  1. Regulation of bacterial gene expression by ribosome stalling and rescuing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongxin; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui

    2016-05-01

    Ribosome is responsible for protein synthesis and is able to monitor the sequence and structure of the nascent peptide. Such ability plays an important role in determining overall gene expression profile of the bacteria through ribosome stalling and rescuing. In this review, we briefly summarize our current understanding of the regulation of gene expression through ribosome stalling and rescuing in bacteria, as well as mechanisms that modulate ribosome activity. Understanding the mechanisms of how bacteria modulate ribosome activity will provide not only fundamental insights into bacterial gene regulation, but also new candidate targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  2. Meteorin regulates mesendoderm development by enhancing nodal expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Kim

    Full Text Available During gastrulation, distinct lineage specification into three germ layers, the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm, occurs through an elaborate harmony between signaling molecules along the embryonic proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes, and Nodal signaling plays a key role in the early embryonic development governing embryonic axis formation, mesoderm and endoderm specification, and left-right asymmetry determination. However, the mechanism by which Nodal expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that Meteorin regulates Nodal expression and is required for mesendoderm development. It is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and further in the epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm during gastrulation. Genetic ablation of the Meteorin gene resulted in early embryonic lethality, presumably due to impaired lineage allocation and subsequent cell accumulation. Embryoid body culture using Meteorin-null embryonic stem (ES cells showed reduced Nodal expression and concomitant impairment of mesendoderm specification. Meteorin-null embryos displayed reduced levels of Nodal transcripts before the gastrulation stage, and impaired expression of Goosecoid, a definitive endoderm marker, during gastrulation, while the proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes and primitive streak formation were preserved. Our results show that Meteorin is a novel regulator of Nodal transcription and is required to maintain sufficient Nodal levels for endoderm formation, thereby providing new insights in the regulation of mesendoderm allocation.

  3. Genetic variants regulating expression levels and isoform diversity during embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Enrico; Koelling, Nils; Harnett, Dermot; Garfield, David; Casale, Francesco P; Ciglar, Lucia; Gustafson, Hilary E; Viales, Rebecca R; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Degner, Jacob F; Zhao, Bingqing; Stegle, Oliver; Birney, Ewan; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2017-01-19

    Embryonic development is driven by tightly regulated patterns of gene expression, despite extensive genetic variation among individuals. Studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) indicate that genetic variation frequently alters gene expression in cell-culture models and differentiated tissues. However, the extent and types of genetic variation impacting embryonic gene expression, and their interactions with developmental programs, remain largely unknown. Here we assessed the effect of genetic variation on transcriptional (expression levels) and post-transcriptional (3' RNA processing) regulation across multiple stages of metazoan development, using 80 inbred Drosophila wild isolates, identifying thousands of developmental-stage-specific and shared QTL. Given the small blocks of linkage disequilibrium in Drosophila, we obtain near base-pair resolution, resolving causal mutations in developmental enhancers, validated transcription-factor-binding sites and RNA motifs. This fine-grain mapping uncovered extensive allelic interactions within enhancers that have opposite effects, thereby buffering their impact on enhancer activity. QTL affecting 3' RNA processing identify new functional motifs leading to transcript isoform diversity and changes in the lengths of 3' untranslated regions. These results highlight how developmental stage influences the effects of genetic variation and uncover multiple mechanisms that regulate and buffer expression variation during embryogenesis.

  4. Oxygen-dependent regulation of aquaporin-3 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogewijs D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Hoogewijs,1,2 Melanie Vogler,3 Eveline Zwenger,3 Sabine Krull,3 Anke Zieseniss3 1Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2Institute of Physiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Cardiovascular Physiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aquaporin-3 (AQP3 expression is altered in hypoxia and whether hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1 regulates the hypoxic expression. AQP3 mRNA expression was studied in L929 fibrosarcoma cells and in several tissues derived from mice that were subjected to hypoxia. Computational analysis of the AQP3 promoter revealed conserved HIF binding sites within close proximity to the translational start site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding of HIF-1 to the endogenous hypoxia response elements. Furthermore, hypoxia resulted in increased expression of AQP3 mRNA in L929 fibrosarcoma cells. Consistently, shRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-1 greatly reduced the hypoxic induction of AQP3. In addition, mRNA analysis of organs from mice exposed to inspiratory hypoxia demonstrated pronounced hypoxia-inducible expression of AQP3 in the kidney. Overall, our findings suggest that AQP3 expression can be regulated at the transcriptional level and that AQP3 represents a novel HIF-1 target gene. Keywords: transcriptional regulation, oxygen, hypoxia-inducible factor, hypoxia response element

  5. Measuring ability to enhance and suppress emotional expression: The Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Epigenetic regulation on the gene expression signature in esophagus adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ting; Zhang, Guizhi

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms represents an important step in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic measures of esophagus adenocarcinoma (NOS). The objective of this study is to identify the epigenetic regulation on gene expression in NOS, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms of NOS. In this study, 78 patients with NOS were included and the data of mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation of were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis between NOS and controls was performed in terms of gene expression, miRNA expression, and DNA methylation. Bioinformatic analysis was followed to explore the regulation mechanisms of miRNA and DNA methylationon gene expression. Totally, up to 1320 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 32 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. 240 DEGs that were not only the target genes but also negatively correlated with the screened differentially expressed miRNAs. 101 DEGs were found to be highlymethylated in CpG islands. Then, 8 differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were selected, which showed down-regulated expression in NOS. Among of these genes, 6 genes including ADHFE1, DPP6, GRIA4, CNKSR2, RPS6KA6 and ZNF135 were target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs (hsa-mir-335, hsa-mir-18a, hsa-mir-93, hsa-mir-106b and hsa-mir-21). The identified altered miRNA, genes and DNA methylation site may be applied as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of NOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Mu Opioid Receptor Expression in Developing T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lily; Belkowski, Judith Sliker; Briscoe, Tammi; Rogers, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that functionally active μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are constitutively expressed at relatively low levels by developing T cells in the thymus. However, very little is known about the regulation of MOR expression by immature T cells. In this report, we first attempted to determine the effect of T cell receptor-induced T cell activation on the expression of MOR. We activated T cells with either the combination of anti-CD3 and CD28, or with superantigen, and observed a ...

  8. CAP1 expression is developmentally regulated in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KhosrowShahian, F; Hubberstey, A V; Crawford, M J

    2002-05-01

    We have cloned and characterized a Xenopus member of the cyclase associated protein (CAP) gene family. xCAP1 is expressed as a maternal transcript, but is up-regulated prior to gastrulation and subsequently localizes to head mesenchyme, lens, otic vesicle, and trunk mesoderm including the pronephros. At different stages, the gene also appears to differentiate surface from deep (sensorial) ectoderm. As in Drosophila, Xenopus CAP1 is expressed in the developing eye, specifically in the differentiating lens. However, in distinction to Drosophila, Xenopus CAP1 does not express in periodically arrayed neural bands.

  9. Aqueous fraction of Beta vulgaris ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic mice due to enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion, mediated by acetylcholine and GLP-1, and elevated glucose uptake via increased membrane bound GLUT4 transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ul Kabir

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the probable mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris.Aqueous fraction of B. Vulgaris extract was the only active fraction (50mg/kg. Plasma insulin level was found to be the highest at 30 mins after B. Vulgaris administration at a dose of 200mg/kg. B. Vulgaris treated mice were also assayed for plasma Acetylcholine, Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1, Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP, Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1, Pancreatic Polypeptides (PP, and Somatostatin, along with the corresponding insulin levels. Plasma Acetylcholine and GLP-1 significantly increased in B. Vulgaris treated animals and were further studied. Pharmacological enhancers, inhibitors, and antagonists of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 were also administered to the test animals, and corresponding insulin levels were measured. These studies confirmed the role of acetylcholine and GLP-1 in enhanced insulin secretion (p<0.05. Principal signaling molecules were quantified in isolated mice islets for the respective pathways to elucidate their activities. Elevated concentrations of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in B. Vulgaris treated mice were found to be sufficient to activate the respective pathways for insulin secretion (p<0.05. The amount of membrane bound GLUT1 and GLUT4 transporters were quantified and the subsequent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assayed. We showed that levels of membrane bound GLUT4 transporters, glucose-6-phosphate in skeletal myocytes, activity of glycogen synthase, and level of glycogen deposited in the skeletal muscles all increased (p<0.05.Findings of the present study clearly prove the role of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in the Insulin secreting activity of B. Vulgaris. Increased glucose uptake in the skeletal muscles and subsequent glycogen synthesis may also play a part in the anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris.

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial gene expression, the epigenetic enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposhi, Archibold; Van der Wijst, Monique Gp; Faber, Klaas Nico; Rots, Marianne G

    2017-03-01

    Epigenetics provides an important layer of information on top of the DNA sequence and is essential for establishing gene expression profiles. Extensive studies have shown that nuclear DNA methylation and histone modifications influence nuclear gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) undergoes similar epigenetic changes to regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Recently, it has been shown that mtDNA is differentially methylated in various diseases such as diabetes and colorectal cancer. Interestingly, this differential methylation was often associated with altered mitochondrial gene expression. However, the direct role of mtDNA methylation on gene expression remains elusive. Alternatively, the activity of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a protein involved in mtDNA packaging, might also influence gene expression. This review discusses the role of mtDNA methylation and potential epigenetic-like modifications of TFAM with respect to mtDNA transcription and replication. We suggest three mechanisms: (1) methylation within the non-coding D-loop, (2) methylation at gene start sites (GSS) and (3) post-translational modifications (PTMs) of TFAM. Unraveling mitochondrial gene expression regulation could open new therapeutic avenues for mitochondrial diseases.

  11. Cerebral glucose transporters expression and spatial learning in the K-ATP Kir6.2(-/-) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choeiri, C; Staines, W A; Miki, T; Seino, S; Renaud, J-M; Teutenberg, K; Messier, C

    2006-09-25

    K-ATP channels formed of the Sur and Kir subunits are widely distributed in the brain. Sur1-Kir6.2 is the most common combination of K-ATP channel subunits in the brain and Kir6.2 plays an important role in glucose metabolism through pancreatic insulin secretion or hypothalamic glucose sensing. K-ATP channels have also been reported to play a role in memory processing. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment is to assess the gene and protein expression of GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4 in various brain regions of Kir6.2(-/-) K-ATP knockout mice and to test their working memory performance. GLUT4 was measured using two antibodies, one recognizing an intracellular epitope and the other, an extracellular epitope. Relative to their corresponding wild type, semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry showed that GLUT4 protein expression as measured by a GLUT4 antibody recognizing an extracellular epitope was increased in the Kir6.2(-/-) K-ATP mice. However, there was only a small increase in GLUT4 labeling using the GLUT4 antibody recognizing the intracellular epitope. These results suggest a compensatory higher GLUT4 inclusion at the cellular neuronal membrane in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the Kir6.2(-/-) K-ATP knockout mice. However, there was no change in GLUT4 gene expression assessed by TaqMan PCR except for a decrease in the cerebellum of these mice. Working memory performance of the Kir6.2(-/-) K-ATP mice was disrupted at age of 12 weeks but not at 5 weeks. The mild glucose intolerance that is observed in the Kir6.2 knockout mice is unlikely to have created the memory deficits observed. Rather, in light of the effects of K-ATP channel modulators on memory, the memory deficits in the Kir6.2(-/-) K-ATP mice are more likely due to the absence of the Kir6.2 and possible disruption of the GLUT4 activity in the brain.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of Apoptosis Regulators in Patients with Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J.; van Zoelen, Marieke A.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F.; de Boer, Anita; Schultz, Marcus J.; Hooibrink, Berend; de Jonge, Evert; van der Poll, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is associated with a dysregulation of apoptosis in immune cells, which has been implicated in both immunosuppression and multiple organ failure. We describe the expression profiles of genes encoding key regulators of apoptosis in highly purified monocytes, granulocytes and CD4+

  13. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Moitrot, Emmanuelle; Rommens, Corinne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter. We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.

  14. Dcf1 regulates neuropeptide expression and maintains energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Li, Qian; Wu, Liang; Wen, Tieqiao

    2017-05-22

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important neurotransmitter in the brain that plays a pivotal role in food intake and energy storage. Although many studies have focused on these functions, the regulation of NPY expression remains unclear. Here we showed that dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) regulates NPY expression and maintains energy balance. We found that NPY expression is significantly reduced in the hypothalamus of Dcf1 knockout (Dcf1-/-, KO) mice. In contrast, Dcf1 overexpression significantly increases NPY expression in the cell line. We also found that Dcf1 acts upstream of the NPY gene to regulate NPY expression and modulates the NPY-NPY receptor 1-GABA signal. Notably, we observed a significant increase in the ATP concentration in Dcf1-/- mice, suggesting a greater demand for energy in the absence of Dcf1. We studied the relationship between Dcf1 and NPY and revealed that Dcf1 plays a critical role in energy balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Mittag

    Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  16. Regulation of catalase expression in healthy and cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Zamocky, Marcel; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2015-10-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that dismutates hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. The catalase gene has all the characteristics of a housekeeping gene (no TATA box, no initiator element sequence, high GC content in promoter) and a core promoter that is highly conserved among species. We demonstrate in this review that within this core promoter, the presence of DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-Y and Sp1, plays an essential role in the positive regulation of catalase expression. Additional transcription factors, such as FoxO3a, are also involved in this regulatory process. There is strong evidence that the protein Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway plays a major role in the expression of catalase by modulating the activity of FoxO3a. Over the past decade, other transcription factors (PPARγ, Oct-1, etc.), as well as genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional processes, have emerged as crucial contributors to the regulation of catalase expression. Altered expression levels of catalase have been reported in cancer tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase expression could, therefore, be of crucial importance for the future development of pro-oxidant cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  18. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braidotti, P; Nuciforo, P G; Mollenhauer, J

    2004-01-01

    and hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant......BACKGROUND: We studied the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene, in normal, proliferative, and malignant breast epithelium and its possible relation to cell cycle. METHODS: Sections from 17 benign lesions and 55 carcinomas were immunostained...... expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal...

  19. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in Yersinia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea A Schiano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of gene expression is required by bacterial pathogens to respond to continually changing environmental conditions and the host response during the infectious process. While transcriptional regulation is perhaps the most well understood form of controlling gene expression, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation that allow for more refined management of the bacterial response to host conditions. Yersinia species of bacteria are known to use various forms of post-transcriptional regulation for control of many virulence-associated genes. These include regulation by cis- and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, RNases, and thermoswitches. The effects of these and other regulatory mechanisms on Yersinia physiology can be profound and have been shown to influence type III secretion, motility, biofilm formation, host cell invasion, intracellular survival and replication, and more. In this review, we will discuss these and other post-transcriptional mechanisms and their influence on virulence gene regulation, with a particular emphasis on how these processes influence the virulence of Yersinia in the host.

  20. The regulation of CD5 expression in murine T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzenberg Leonard A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD5 is a pan-T cell surface marker that is also present on a subset of B cells, B-1a cells.Functional and developmental subsets of T cells express characteristic CD5 levels that vary over roughly a 30-fold range. Previous investigators have cloned a 1.7 Kb fragment containing the CD5 promoter and showed that it can confer similar lymphocyte-specific expression pattern as observed for endogenous CD5 expression. Results We further characterize the CD5 promoter and identify minimal and regulatory regions on the CD5 promoter. Using a luciferase reporter system, we show that a 43 bp region on the CD5 promoter regulates CD5 expression in resting mouse thymoma EL4 T cells and that an Ets binding site within the 43 bp region mediates the CD5 expression. In addition, we show that Ets-1, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, recognizes the Ets binding site in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. This Ets binding site is directly responsible for the increase in reporter activity when co-transfected with increasing amounts of Ets-1 expression plasmid. We also identify two additional evolutionarily-conserved regions in the CD5 promoter (CD5X and CD5Y and demonstrate the respective roles of the each region in the regulation of CD5 transcription. Conclusion Our studies define a minimal and regulatory promoter for CD5 and show that the CD5 expression level in T cells is at least partially dependent on the level of Ets-1 protein. Based on the findings in this report, we propose a model of CD5 transcriptional regulation in T cells.

  1. SREBP-1c regulates glucose-stimulated hepatic clusterin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gukhan [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Geun Hyang; Oh, Gyun-Sik; Yoon, Jin [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Medical Institute of Technology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Won [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seon [Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Whan, E-mail: swkim7@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Medical Institute of Technology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first report to show nutrient-regulated clusterin expression. {yields} Clusterin expression in hepatocytes was increased by high glucose concentration. {yields} SREBP-1c is directly involved in the transcriptional activation of clusterin by glucose. {yields} This glucose-stimulated activation process is mediated through tandem E-box motifs. -- Abstract: Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport. Its expression is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological states. Clusterin was recently reported to be associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their sequelae. However, the regulation of clusterin expression by metabolic signals was not addressed. In this study we evaluated the effects of glucose on hepatic clusterin expression. Interestingly, high glucose concentrations significantly increased clusterin expression in primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, but the conventional promoter region of the clusterin gene did not respond to glucose stimulation. In contrast, the first intronic region was transcriptionally activated by high glucose concentrations. We then defined a glucose response element (GlRE) of the clusterin gene, showing that it consists of two E-box motifs separated by five nucleotides and resembles carbohydrate response element (ChoRE). Unexpectedly, however, these E-box motifs were not activated by ChoRE binding protein (ChREBP), but were activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Furthermore, we found that glucose induced recruitment of SREBP-1c to the E-box of the clusterin gene intronic region. Taken together, these results suggest that clusterin expression is increased by glucose stimulation, and SREBP-1c plays a crucial role in the metabolic regulation of clusterin.

  2. MicroRNAs overexpressed in growth-restricted rat skeletal muscles regulate the glucose transport in cell culture targeting central TGF-β factor SMAD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Santanu

    2012-01-01

    The micro-array profiling of micro-RNA has been performed in rat skeletal muscle tissues, isolated from male adult offspring of intrauterine plus postnatal growth restricted model (IPGR). Apparently, the GLUT4 mRNA expression in male sk. muscle was found to be unaltered in contrast to females. The over-expression of miR-29a and miR-23a in the experimental group of SMSP (Starved Mother Starved Pups) have been found to regulate the glucose transport activity with respect to their control counterparts CMCP (Control Mother Control Pups) as confirmed in rat L6 myoblast-myocyte cell culture system. The ex-vivo experimentation demonstrates an aberration in insulin signaling pathway in male sk. muscle that leads to the localization of the membrane-bound Glut4 protein. We have identified through a series of experiments one important protein factor SMAD4, a co-SMAD critical to the TGF-beta signaling pathway. This factor is targeted by miR-29a, as identified in an in vitro reporter-assay system in cell-culture experiment. The other micro-RNA, miR-23a, targets SMAD4 indirectly that seems to be critical in regulating insulin-dependent glucose transport activity. MicroRNA mimics, inhibitors and siRNA studies indicate the role of SMAD4 as inhibitory for glucose transport activities in normal physiological condition. The data demonstrate for the first time a critical function of microRNAs in fine-tuning the regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Chronic starved conditions (IPGR) in sk. muscle up-regulates microRNA changing the target protein expression patterns, such as SMAD4, to alter the glucose transport pathways for the survival. The innovative outcome of this paper identifies a critical pathway (TGF-beta) that may act negatively for the mammalian glucose transport machinery.

  3. Lifelong Physical Activity Prevents Aging-Associated Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Myotubes via Increased Glucose Transporter Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunprajun, Tipwadee; Henriksen, Tora Ida; Scheele, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    , and significantly higher GLUT4 protein. It is likely that physical activity induces a number of stable adaptations, including increased GLUT4 expression that are retained in cells ex vivo and protect, or delay the onset of middle-aged-associated insulin resistance. Additionally, a sedentary lifestyle has an impact...... derived from human skeletal muscle satellite cells. Satellite cells were obtained from young (22 yrs) normally active or middle-aged (56.6 yrs) individuals who were either lifelong sedentary or lifelong active. Both middle-aged sedentary and middle-aged active myotubes had increased p21 and myosin heavy...... chain protein expression. Interestingly MHCIIa was increased only in myotubes from middle-aged active individuals. Middle-aged sedentary cells had intact insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation however, the same cell showed ablated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma...

  4. Regulation of VDR expression in rat and human intestine and liver - Consequences for CYP3A expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Ansar A.; Dragt, Bieuwke S.; Porte, Robert J.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in intestine and liver, but the regulation of VDR expression in intestine and liver is incompletely understood. We studied the regulation of VDR mRNA expression by ligands for VDR, farnesoid X

  5. Lola regulates glutamate receptor expression at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fukui

    2012-02-01

    Communication between pre- and post-synaptic cells is a key process in the development and modulation of synapses. Reciprocal induction between pre- and postsynaptic cells involves regulation of gene transcription, yet the underlying genetic program remains largely unknown. To investigate how innervation-dependent gene expression in postsynaptic cells supports synaptic differentiation, we performed comparative microarray analysis of Drosophila muscles before and after innervation, and of prospero mutants, which show a delay in motor axon outgrowth. We identified 84 candidate genes that are potentially up- or downregulated in response to innervation. By systematic functional analysis, we found that one of the downregulated genes, longitudinals lacking (lola, which encodes a BTB-Zn-finger transcription factor, is required for proper expression of glutamate receptors. When the function of lola was knocked down in muscles by RNAi, the abundance of glutamate receptors (GluRs, GluRIIA, GluRIIB and GluRIII, as well as that of p-21 activated kinase (PAK, was greatly reduced at the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs. Recordings of the synaptic response revealed a decrease in postsynaptic quantal size, consistent with the reduction in GluR levels. Lola appears to regulate the expression of GluRs and PAK at the level of transcription, because the amount of mRNAs encoding these molecules was also reduced in the mutants. The transcriptional level of lola, in turn, is downregulated by increased neural activity. We propose that Lola coordinates expression of multiple postsynaptic components by transcriptional regulation.

  6. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  7. Regulation of Gene Expression Patterns in Mosquito Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sourav; Saha, Tusar T; Johnson, Lisa; Zhao, Bo; Ha, Jisu; White, Kevin P; Girke, Thomas; Zou, Zhen; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2015-08-01

    In multicellular organisms, development, growth and reproduction require coordinated expression of numerous functional and regulatory genes. Insects, in addition to being the most speciose animal group with enormous biological and economical significance, represent outstanding model organisms for studying regulation of synchronized gene expression due to their rapid development and reproduction. Disease-transmitting female mosquitoes have adapted uniquely for ingestion and utilization of the huge blood meal required for swift reproductive events to complete egg development within a 72-h period. We investigated the network of regulatory factors mediating sequential gene expression in the fat body, a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver and adipose tissue, of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. Transcriptomic and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ~7500 transcripts are differentially expressed in four sequential waves during the 72-h reproductive period. A combination of RNA-interference gene-silencing and in-vitro organ culture identified the major regulators for each of these waves. Amino acids (AAs) regulate the first wave of gene activation between 3 h and 12 h post-blood meal (PBM). During the second wave, between 12 h and 36 h, most genes are highly upregulated by a synergistic action of AAs, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the Ecdysone-Receptor (EcR). Between 36 h and 48 h, the third wave of gene activation-regulated mainly by HR3-occurs. Juvenile Hormone (JH) and its receptor Methoprene-Tolerant (Met) are major regulators for the final wave between 48 h and 72 h. Each of these key regulators also has repressive effects on one or more gene sets. Our study provides a better understanding of the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms related to temporal coordination of gene expression during reproduction. We have detected the novel function of 20E/EcR responsible for transcriptional repression. This study also reveals the previously

  8. Regulation of Gene Expression Patterns in Mosquito Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lisa; Zhao, Bo; Ha, Jisu; White, Kevin P.; Girke, Thomas; Zou, Zhen; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, development, growth and reproduction require coordinated expression of numerous functional and regulatory genes. Insects, in addition to being the most speciose animal group with enormous biological and economical significance, represent outstanding model organisms for studying regulation of synchronized gene expression due to their rapid development and reproduction. Disease-transmitting female mosquitoes have adapted uniquely for ingestion and utilization of the huge blood meal required for swift reproductive events to complete egg development within a 72-h period. We investigated the network of regulatory factors mediating sequential gene expression in the fat body, a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver and adipose tissue, of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. Transcriptomic and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ~7500 transcripts are differentially expressed in four sequential waves during the 72-h reproductive period. A combination of RNA-interference gene-silencing and in-vitro organ culture identified the major regulators for each of these waves. Amino acids (AAs) regulate the first wave of gene activation between 3 h and 12 h post-blood meal (PBM). During the second wave, between 12 h and 36 h, most genes are highly upregulated by a synergistic action of AAs, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the Ecdysone-Receptor (EcR). Between 36 h and 48 h, the third wave of gene activation—regulated mainly by HR3—occurs. Juvenile Hormone (JH) and its receptor Methoprene-Tolerant (Met) are major regulators for the final wave between 48 h and 72 h. Each of these key regulators also has repressive effects on one or more gene sets. Our study provides a better understanding of the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms related to temporal coordination of gene expression during reproduction. We have detected the novel function of 20E/EcR responsible for transcriptional repression. This study also reveals the previously

  9. Family Emotion Expressiveness Mediates the Relations Between Maternal Emotion Regulation and Child Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Funlola; Shaffer, Anne

    2016-10-01

    While there is a growing body of literature examining the influence of emotion socialization on children's emotional and social development, there is less research on what predicts emotion socialization behaviors among parents. The current study explores maternal emotion regulation difficulties as a predictor of emotion socialization practices, specifically, family emotion expressiveness. Further, the current study examines the role of family emotion expressiveness as a possible mediator of the relations between maternal and child emotion regulation in a community sample of 110 mother-child dyads with preschool-aged children. Analyses revealed that positive family expressiveness mediated the relations between maternal emotion dysregulation and child emotion regulation and thus presents important clinical implications for existing emotion socialization interventions.

  10. Androgen-Dependent Regulation of Human MUC1 Mucin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mitchell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MUC1 mucin is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to determine whether androgen receptor. (20AR activation regulates expression of MUC1. The following breast and prostatic cell lines were phenotyped and grouped according to AR and MUC1protein expression: 1 AR+MUCi + [DAR17+19. (20AR transfectants of DU-145, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-453, and T47D]; 2 AR-MUCi+ [DZeoi. (20AR- vector control, DU-145, BT20, MDA-MB231, and MCF7]; 3 AIR +MUCi -. (20LNCaP and LNCaP-r. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay in the presence of synthetic androgen R1881, 0.1 pM to 1 µM. Cell surface MUC1expression was determined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of oestradiol, medroxy progesterone acetate or R1881, with and without 4 hydroxy-flutamide. (204-OH, a nonsteroidal AR antagonist. The functional significance of MUC1expression was investigated with a cell-cell aggregation assay. Only AR+ MUC1 + cell lines showed a significant increase in MUC1expression with AR activation. (20P. (20range =.01 to .0001, reversed in the presence of 4-OHF. Cell proliferation was unaffected. Increased expression of MUC1was associated with a significant. (20P. (20range =.002 to .001 reduction in cell-cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of androgen-dependent regulation of MUC1mucin. This is also functionally associated with decreased cell-cell adhesion, a recognised feature of progressive malignancy. These findings have important implications for physiological and pathological processes.

  11. Hypoxia-inhibited dual-specificity phosphatase-2 expression in endometriotic cells regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Hsing; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Hsiao, Kuei-Yang; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2011-11-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecological diseases that significantly reduces the life qualify of affected women and their families. Aberrant expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and thus over-production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) has been shown to play critical roles in the development of this disease. However, the mechanism responsible for COX-2 over-expression remains obscure. Here, we provide evidence for what we believe is a novel mechanism in regulating COX-2 expression in endometriotic stromal cells. Dual-specificity phosphatase-2 (DUSP2), a nuclear phosphatase that inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is markedly down-regulated in stromal cells of ectopic endometriotic tissues, which results in prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK and increased COX-2 expression. Expression of DUSP2 is inhibited by hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) at the transcriptional level. Treatment of normal endometrial stromal cells with hypoxia, or chemicals that cause HIF-1α accumulation, results in DUSP2 down-regulation, prolonged ERK phosphorylation and COX-2 over-expression. In contrast, forced expression of DUSP2 under hypoxia abolishes HIF-1α-induced ERK phosphorylation and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, suppression of DUSP2 by HIF-1α in eutopic endometrial stromal cells increases sensitivity of cox-2 gene to interleukin-1β stimulation, a phenomenon resembling endometriotic stromal cell characteristics. Taken together, these data suggest that DUSP2 is an important molecule in endometrial physiology and that hypoxia-inhibited DUSP2 expression is a critical factor for the development of endometriosis. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Posttranscriptional Regulation Controls Calretinin Expression in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kresoja-Rakic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Calretinin (CALB2 is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM. We previously reported that calretinin expression is regulated at the mRNA level. The presence of a medium-sized (573 nucleotide 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR predicted to contain binding sites for miR-30a/b/c/d/e and miR-9 as well as an adenine/uridine-rich element (ARE in all three transcripts arising from the CALB2 gene, suggests that calretinin expression is regulated via posttranscriptional mechanisms. Our aim was to investigate the role of the CALB2-3′UTR in the posttranscriptional regulation of calretinin expression in MPM. CALB2-3′UTR was inserted downstream of the luciferase reporter gene using pmiRGLO vector and reporter expression was determined after transfection into MPM cells. Targeted mutagenesis was used to generate variants harboring mutated miR-30 family and ARE binding sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to test for the presence of ARE binding proteins. CALB2-3′UTR significantly decreased luciferase activity in MPM cells. Analysis of mutation in the ARE site revealed a further destabilization of the reporter and human antigen R (HuR binding to the ARE sequence was detected. The mutation of two miR-30 binding sites abolished CALB2-3′UTR destabilization effect; a transient delivery of miR-30e-5p mimics or anti-miR into MPM cells resulted in a significant decrease/increase of the luciferase reporter expression and calretinin protein, respectively. Moreover, overexpression of CALB2-3′UTR quenched the effect of miR-30e-5p mimics on calretinin protein levels, possibly by sequestering the mimics, thereby suggesting a competitive endogenous RNA network. Finally, by data mining we observed that expression of miR-30e-5p was negatively correlated with the calretinin expression in a cohort of MPM patient samples. Our data show the role of (1 adenine-uridine (AU-binding proteins in calretinin stabilization and (2

  13. The regulation of APAF1 expression during development and tumourigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickman, E S; Helin, K

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis Protease-Activating Factor 1, APAF1, was originally isolated four years ago and shown to be the mammalian homologue of the C. elegans pro-apoptotic ced4 gene. Since then, the expression of APAF1 has been demonstrated to be involved in several cell death pathways, including the induction...... of apoptosis by the p53 tumour suppressor protein and neuronal apoptosis. In this review we will focus on the regulation of APAF1 expression, in particular with regard to recent developments in our understanding of the role of APAF1 in both tumourigenesis and mammalian development....

  14. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application......TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... of serum response factor, drives myofibroblast transition from various precursors. We have shown that TGFβ is necessary but insufficient for epithelial-myofibroblast transition in intact epithelia; the other prerequisite is the uncoupling of intercellular contacts, which induces Rho-dependent nuclear...

  15. Expression and regulation of nampt in human islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kover

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt is a rate-limiting enzyme in the mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis of a salvage pathway and exists in 2 known forms, intracellular Nampt (iNampt and a secreted form, extracellular Nampt (eNampt. eNampt can generate an intermediate product, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, which has been reported to support insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Nampt has been reported to be expressed in the pancreas but islet specific expression has not been adequately defined. The aim of this study was to characterize Nampt expression, secretion and regulation by glucose in human islets. Gene and protein expression of Nampt was assessed in human pancreatic tissue and isolated islets by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence/confocal imaging respectively. Variable amounts of Nampt mRNA were detected in pancreatic tissue and isolated islets. Immunofluorescence staining for Nampt was found in the exocrine and endocrine tissue of fetal pancreas. However, in adulthood, Nampt expression was localized predominantly in beta cells. Isolated human islets secreted increasing amounts of eNampt in response to high glucose (20 mM in a static glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay (GSIS. In addition to an increase in eNampt secretion, exposure to 20 mM glucose also increased Nampt mRNA levels but not protein content. The secretion of eNampt was attenuated by the addition of membrane depolarization inhibitors, diazoxide and nifedipine. Islet-secreted eNampt showed enzymatic activity in a reaction with increasing production of NAD+/NADH over time. In summary, we show that Nampt is expressed in both exocrine and endocrine tissue early in life but in adulthood expression is localized to endocrine tissue. Enzymatically active eNampt is secreted by human islets, is regulated by glucose and requires membrane depolarization.

  16. Regulation of cry Gene Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Deng; Qi Peng; Fuping Song; Didier Lereclus

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcr...

  17. Regulation of cry gene expression in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Peng, Qi; Song, Fuping; Lereclus, Didier

    2014-07-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, metabolic and post-translational levels.

  18. Regulation of cry Gene Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Deng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, metabolic and post-translational levels.

  19. Histone H3 tail clipping regulates gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Rosa, Helena; Kirmizis, Antonis; Nelson, Christopher; Bartke, Till; Saksouk, Nehme; Cote, Jacques; Kouzarides, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Induction of gene expression in yeast and human cells involves changes in histone modifications associated with promoters. Here we identify a histone H3 endopeptidase activity in S. cerevisiae that may regulate these events. The endopeptidase cleaves H3 after alanine 21, generating a histone lacking the first 21 residues and displays a preference for H3 tails carrying repressive modifications. In vivo, the H3 N-terminus is clipped, specifically within the promoter of genes following the induc...

  20. Intron retention as a component of regulated gene expression programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Aishwarya G; Smith, Christopher W J

    2017-09-01

    Intron retention has long been an exemplar of regulated splicing with case studies of individual events serving as models that provided key mechanistic insights into the process of splicing control. In organisms such as plants and budding yeast, intron retention is well understood as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation. In contrast, in mammalian systems, the extent and functional significance of intron retention have, until recently, remained greatly underappreciated. Technical challenges to the global detection and quantitation of transcripts with retained introns have often led to intron retention being overlooked or dismissed as "noise". Now, however, with the wealth of information available from high-throughput deep sequencing, combined with focused computational and statistical analyses, we are able to distinguish clear intron retention patterns in various physiological and pathological contexts. Several recent studies have demonstrated intron retention as a central component of gene expression programs during normal development as well as in response to stress and disease. Furthermore, these studies revealed various ways in which intron retention regulates protein isoform production, RNA stability and translation efficiency, and rapid induction of expression via post-transcriptional splicing of retained introns. In this review, we highlight critical findings from these transcriptomic studies and discuss commonalties in the patterns prevalent in intron retention networks at the functional and regulatory levels.

  1. The Role of Bromodomain Proteins in Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Duffy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are important in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Of the numerous histone modifications which have been identified, acetylation is one of the best characterised and is generally associated with active genes. Histone acetylation can directly affect chromatin structure by neutralising charges on the histone tail, and can also function as a binding site for proteins which can directly or indirectly regulate transcription. Bromodomains specifically bind to acetylated lysine residues on histone tails, and bromodomain proteins play an important role in anchoring the complexes of which they are a part to acetylated chromatin. Bromodomain proteins are involved in a diverse range of functions, such as acetylating histones, remodeling chromatin, and recruiting other factors necessary for transcription. These proteins thus play a critical role in the regulation of transcription.

  2. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN THE GENOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor J Atkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan life is dependent on the proper temporal and spatial control of gene expression within the many cells—essentially all with the identical genome—that make up the organism. While much is understood about how individual gene regulatory elements function, many questions remain about how they interact to maintain correct regulation globally throughout the genome. In this review we summarize the basic features and functions of the crucial regulatory elements promoters, enhancers, and insulators and discuss some of the ways in which proper interactions between these elements is realized. We focus in particular on the role of core promoter sequences and propose explanations for some of the contradictory results seen in experiments aimed at understanding insulator function. We suggest that gene regulation depends on local genomic context and argue that more holistic in vivo investigations that take into account multiple local features will be necessary to understand how genome-wide gene regulation is maintained.

  3. Complex regulation of PKCβ2 and PDK-1/AKT by ROCK2 in diabetic heart.

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    Guorong Lin

    Full Text Available The RhoA/ROCK pathway contributes to diabetic cardiomyopathy in part by promoting the sustained activation of PKCβ2 but the details of their interaction are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate if over-activation of ROCK in the diabetic heart leads to direct phosphorylation and activation of PKCβ2, and to determine if their interaction affects PDK-1/Akt signaling.Regulation by ROCK of PKCβ2 and related kinases was investigated by Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation in whole hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes from 12 to 14-week diabetic rats. Direct ROCK2 phosphorylation of PKCβ2 was examined in vitro. siRNA silencing was used to confirm role of ROCK2 in PKCβ2 phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose. Furthermore, the effect of ROCK inhibition on GLUT4 translocation was determined in isolated cardiomyocytes by confocal microscopy.Expression of ROCK2 and expression and phosphorylation of PKCβ2 were increased in diabetic hearts. A physical interaction between the two kinases was demonstrated by reciprocal immunoprecipitation, while ROCK2 directly phosphorylated PKCβ2 at T641 in vitro. ROCK2 siRNA in vascular smooth muscle cells or inhibition of ROCK in diabetic hearts reduced PKCβ2 T641 phosphorylation, and this was associated with attenuation of PKCβ2 activity. PKCβ2 also formed a complex with PDK-1 and its target AKT, and ROCK inhibition resulted in upregulation of the phosphorylation of PDK-1 and AKT, and increased translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in diabetic hearts.This study demonstrates that over-activation of ROCK2 contributes to diabetic cardiomyopathy by multiple mechanisms, including direct phosphorylation and activation of PKCβ2 and interference with the PDK-1-mediated phosphorylation and activation of AKT and translocation of GLUT4. This suggests that ROCK2 is a critical node in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and may be an

  4. Regulation of stem cell factor expression in inflammation and asthma

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    Carla A Da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a major mast cell growth factor, which could be involved in the local increase of mast cell number in the asthmatic airways. In vivo, SCF expression increases in asthmatic patients and this is reversed after treatment with glucocorticoids. In vitro in human lung fibroblasts in culture, IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, confirms this increased SCF mRNA and protein expression implying the MAP kinases p38 and ERK1/2 very early post-treatment, and glucocorticoids confirm this decrease. Surprisingly, glucocorticoids potentiate the IL-1beta-enhanced SCF expression at short term treatment, implying increased SCF mRNA stability and SCF gene transcription rate. This potentiation involves p38 and ERK1/2. Transfection experiments with the SCF promoter including intron1 also confirm this increase and decrease of SCF expression by IL-1beta and glucocorticoids, and the potentiation by glucocorticoids of the IL-1beta-induced SCF expression. Deletion of the GRE or kappaB sites abolishes this potentiation, and the effect of IL-1beta or glucocorticoids alone. DNA binding of GR and NF-kappaB are also demonstrated for these effects. In conclusion, this review concerns new mechanisms of regulation of SCF expression in inflammation that could lead to potential therapeutic strategy allowing to control mast cell number in the asthmatic airways.

  5. TRPV1 expression-dependent initiation and regulation of filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, C; Hucho, T

    2007-11-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, is present endogenously in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. It is involved in the recognition of various pain producing physical and chemical stimuli. In this work, we demonstrate that expression of TRPV1 induces neurite-like structures and filopodia and that the expressed protein is localized at the filopodial tips. Exogenous expression of TRPV1 induces filopodia both in DRG neuron-derived F11 cells and in non-neuronal cells, such as HeLa and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. We find that some of the TRPV1 expression-induced filopodia contain microtubules and microtubule-associated components, and establish cell-to-cell extensions. Using live cell microscopy, we demonstrate that the filopodia are responsive to TRPV1-specific ligands. But both, initiation and subsequent cell-to-cell extension formation, is independent of TRPV1 channel activity. The N-terminal intracellular domain of TRPV1 is sufficient for filopodial structure initiation while the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain is involved in the stabilization of microtubules within these structures. In addition, exogenous expression of TRPV1 results in altered cellular distribution and in enhanced endogenous expression of non-conventional myosin motors, namely myosin IIA and myosin IIIA. These data indicate a novel role of TRPV1 in the regulation of cellular morphology and cellular contact formation.

  6. Social Regulation of Gene Expression in Threespine Sticklebacks.

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    Anna K Greenwood

    Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed in response to social interactions is informative for understanding the molecular basis of social behavior. To address this question, we described changes in gene expression as a result of differences in the extent of social interactions. We housed threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus females in either group conditions or individually for one week, then measured levels of gene expression in three brain regions using RNA-sequencing. We found that numerous genes in the hindbrain/cerebellum had altered expression in response to group or individual housing. However, relatively few genes were differentially expressed in either the diencephalon or telencephalon. The list of genes upregulated in fish from social groups included many genes related to neural development and cell adhesion as well as genes with functions in sensory signaling, stress, and social and reproductive behavior. The list of genes expressed at higher levels in individually-housed fish included several genes previously identified as regulated by social interactions in other animals. The identified genes are interesting targets for future research on the molecular mechanisms of normal social interactions.

  7. Differential regulation of dentin matrix protein 1 expression during odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Shubin; Xie, Yixia; Pi, Yuli; Feng, Jian Q

    2005-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in mineralized tooth and bone. Both in vitro and in vivo data show that DMP1 is critical for mineralization and tooth morphogenesis (growth and development). In this study, we studied Dmp1 gene regulation. The in vitro transient transfection assay identified two important DNA fragments, the 2.4- and 9.6-kb promoter regions. We next generated and analyzed transgenic mice bearing the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene driven by the 2.4- or 9.6-kb promoter with the complete 4-kb intron 1. The 9.6-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice conferred a DMP1 expression pattern in odontoblasts identical to that in the endogenous Dmp1 gene. This is reflected by lacZ expression in Dmp1-lacZ knock-in mice during all stages of odontogenesis. In contrast, the 2.4-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice display activity in odontoblast cells only at the early stage of odontogenesis. Thus, we propose that different transcription factors regulate early or later cis-regulatory domains of the Dmp1 promoter, which gives rise to the unique spatial and temporal expression pattern of Dmp1 gene at different stages of tooth development. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Osmotic pressure can regulate matrix gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Shmuel M; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; McLoon, Anna; Chai, Liraz; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard; Weitz, David A

    2012-10-01

    Many bacteria organize themselves into structurally complex communities known as biofilms in which the cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. In general, the amount of extracellular matrix is related to the robustness of the biofilm. Yet, the specific signals that regulate the synthesis of matrix remain poorly understood. Here we show that the matrix itself can be a cue that regulates the expression of the genes involved in matrix synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of the exopolysaccharide component of the matrix causes an increase in osmotic pressure that leads to an inhibition of matrix gene expression. We further show that non-specific changes in osmotic pressure also inhibit matrix gene expression and do so by activating the histidine kinase KinD. KinD, in turn, directs the phosphorylation of the master regulatory protein Spo0A, which at high levels represses matrix gene expression. Sensing a physical cue such as osmotic pressure, in addition to chemical cues, could be a strategy to non-specifically co-ordinate the behaviour of cells in communities composed of many different species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Methods and compositions for regulating gene expression in plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachy, Roger N. (Inventor); Luis, Maria Isabel Ordiz (Inventor); Dai, Shunhong (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Novel chimeric plant promoter sequences are provided, together with plant gene expression cassettes comprising such sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the chimeric plant promoters comprise the BoxII cis element and/or derivatives thereof. In addition, novel transcription factors are provided, together with nucleic acid sequences encoding such transcription factors and plant gene expression cassettes comprising such nucleic acid sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the novel transcription factors comprise the acidic domain, or fragments thereof, of the RF2a transcription factor. Methods for using the chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors in regulating the expression of at least one gene of interest are provided, together with transgenic plants comprising such chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors.

  11. Population differences in transcript-regulator expression quantitative trait loci.

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    Pierre R Bushel

    Full Text Available Gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL are useful for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with diseases. At times, a genetic variant may be associated with a master regulator involved in the manifestation of a disease. The downstream target genes of the master regulator are typically co-expressed and share biological function. Therefore, it is practical to screen for eQTLs by identifying SNPs associated with the targets of a transcript-regulator (TR. We used a multivariate regression with the gene expression of known targets of TRs and SNPs to identify TReQTLs in European (CEU and African (YRI HapMap populations. A nominal p-value of <1×10(-6 revealed 234 SNPs in CEU and 154 in YRI as TReQTLs. These represent 36 independent (tag SNPs in CEU and 39 in YRI affecting the downstream targets of 25 and 36 TRs respectively. At a false discovery rate (FDR = 45%, one cis-acting tag SNP (within 1 kb of a gene in each population was identified as a TReQTL. In CEU, the SNP (rs16858621 in Pcnxl2 was found to be associated with the genes regulated by CREM whereas in YRI, the SNP (rs16909324 was linked to the targets of miRNA hsa-miR-125a. To infer the pathways that regulate expression, we ranked TReQTLs by connectivity within the structure of biological process subtrees. One TReQTL SNP (rs3790904 in CEU maps to Lphn2 and is associated (nominal p-value = 8.1×10(-7 with the targets of the X-linked breast cancer suppressor Foxp3. The structure of the biological process subtree and a gene interaction network of the TReQTL revealed that tumor necrosis factor, NF-kappaB and variants in G-protein coupled receptors signaling may play a central role as communicators in Foxp3 functional regulation. The potential pleiotropic effect of the Foxp3 TReQTLs was gleaned from integrating mRNA-Seq data and SNP-set enrichment into the analysis.

  12. Lifelong Physical Activity Prevents Aging-Associated Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Myotubes via Increased Glucose Transporter Expression.

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    Tipwadee Bunprajun

    Full Text Available Both aging and physical inactivity are associated with increased development of insulin resistance whereas physical activity has been shown to promote increased insulin sensitivity. Here we investigated the effects of physical activity level on aging-associated insulin resistance in myotubes derived from human skeletal muscle satellite cells. Satellite cells were obtained from young (22 yrs normally active or middle-aged (56.6 yrs individuals who were either lifelong sedentary or lifelong active. Both middle-aged sedentary and middle-aged active myotubes had increased p21 and myosin heavy chain protein expression. Interestingly MHCIIa was increased only in myotubes from middle-aged active individuals. Middle-aged sedentary cells had intact insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation however, the same cell showed ablated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. On the other hand, middle-aged active cells retained both insulin-stimulated increases in glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Middle-aged active cells also had significantly higher mRNA expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 compared to middle-aged sedentary cells, and significantly higher GLUT4 protein. It is likely that physical activity induces a number of stable adaptations, including increased GLUT4 expression that are retained in cells ex vivo and protect, or delay the onset of middle-aged-associated insulin resistance. Additionally, a sedentary lifestyle has an impact on the metabolism of human myotubes during aging and may contribute to aging-associated insulin resistance through impaired GLUT4 localization.

  13. Characterization of Gravity Regulated Osteoprotegerin Expression in Fish Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, J.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Alestrom, P.; Seibt, D.; Goerlich, R.; Schartl, M.; Winkler, C.

    Human osteoprotegerin (opg) is a secreted protein of 401 amino acids that acts as a decoy receptor for RANKL (receptor activator of NFB ligand). Opg prevents binding of RANKL to its receptor, which is present on osteoclasts and their precursors. Thereby, opg blocks the formation, differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and stimulates apoptosis of mature osteoclasts. As a consequence, opg regulates the degree of bone resorption in order to keep a constant bone mass under normal gravity conditions. Recently, clinorotation experiments using mammalian cell cultures have shown that the opg gene is down-regulated in simulated microgravity at the transcriptional level (Kanematsu et al., Bone 30, 2002). We have identified opg genes in the fish models Medaka and zebrafish to study gravity regulation of opg expression in these models at the organismal level. In Medaka embryos, opg expression starts at stages when first skeletal elements are already detectable. Putative consensus binding sites for transcription factors were identified in the promoter region of the Medaka opg gene indicating possible evolutionary conservation of gene regulatory mechanisms between fish and mammals. To analyze, whether model fish species are suitable tools to study microgravity induced changes at the molecular level in vivo, we investigated regulation of fish opg genes as a consequence of altered gravity. For this, we performed centrifugation and clinorotation experiments, subjecting fish larvae to hypergravity and simulated microgravity, and analyzed expression profiles of skeletal genes by real-time PCR. Our data represent the first experiments using whole animal model organisms to study gravity induced alteration of skeletal factors at the molecular level. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 0152) and the European Space Agency (AO-LS-99-MAP-LSS-003).

  14. Mechanisms of biotin-regulated gene expression in microbes

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    J. Satiaputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biotin is an essential micronutrient that acts as a co-factor for biotin-dependent metabolic enzymes. In bacteria, the supply of biotin can be achieved by de novo synthesis or import from exogenous sources. Certain bacteria are able to obtain biotin through both mechanisms while others can only fulfill their biotin requirement through de novo synthesis. Inability to fulfill their cellular demand for biotin can have detrimental consequences on cell viability and virulence. Therefore understanding the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate biotin biosynthesis and transport will extend our knowledge about bacterial survival and metabolic adaptation during pathogenesis when the supply of biotin is limited. The most extensively characterized protein that regulates biotin synthesis and uptake is BirA. In certain bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, BirA is a bi-functional protein that serves as a transcriptional repressor to regulate biotin biosynthesis genes, as well as acting as a ligase to catalyze the biotinylation of biotin-dependent enzymes. Recent studies have identified two other proteins that also regulate biotin synthesis and transport, namely BioQ and BioR. This review summarizes the different transcriptional repressors and their mechanism of action. Moreover, the ability to regulate the expression of target genes through the activity of a vitamin, such as biotin, may have biotechnological applications in synthetic biology.

  15. Impaired leptin gene expression and release in cultured preadipocytes isolated from individuals born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ninna S; Broholm, Christa; Gillberg, Linn

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The appetite-regulating hormone leptin is released from mature adipocytes and its production may be decreased in immature preadipocytes from LBW individuals. We recruited 14 men born with LBW and 13...... controls born with normal birth weight (NBW). Biopsies were obtained from subcutaneous abdominal fat depots and preadipocytes were isolated and cultured. Gene expression of leptin and selected differentiation markers were analyzed during preadipocyte differentiation and cell culture media was collected...... (PPARγ), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). Our findings are consistent with impaired preadipocyte maturation contributing to increased risk of developing T2D in LBW subjects....

  16. Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy

  17. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

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    Alberto Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  18. Pulsatile Versus Oscillatory Shear Stress Regulates NADPH Oxidase Subunit Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juliana; Ing, Michael H.; Salazar, Adler; Lassègue, Bernard; Griendling, Kathy; Navab, Mohamad; Sevanian, Alex; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2015-01-01

    Shear stress regulates endothelial nitric oxide and superoxide (O2−·) production, implicating the role of NADPH oxidase activity. It is unknown whether shear stress regulates the sources of reactive species production, consequent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modification, and initiation of inflammatory events. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) in the presence of 50 μg/mL of native LDL were exposed to (1) pulsatile flow with a mean shear stress (τave) of 25 dyne/cm2 and (2) oscillating flow at τave of 0. After 4 hours, aliquots of culture medium were collected for high-performance liquid chromatography analyses of electronegative LDL species, described as LDL− and LDL2−. In response to oscillatory shear stress, gp91phox mRNA expression was upregulated by 2.9±0.3-fold, and its homologue, Nox4, by 3.9±0.9-fold (PBAEC binding (PBAEC binding. The flow-dependent LDL oxidation is determined in part by the NADPH oxidase activity. The formation of modified LDL via O2−· production may also affect the regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and monocyte/BAEC binding. PMID:14593003

  19. Identifying local co-regulation relationships in gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yonggang; Gao, Qinghui; Li, Juntao; Zhao, Xiting

    2014-11-07

    Identifying interesting relationships between pairs of genes, presented over some of experimental conditions in gene expression data set, is useful for discovering novel functional gene interactions. In this paper, we introduce a new method for id entifying L ocal C o-regulation R elationships (IdLCR). These local relationships describe the behaviors of pairwise genes, which are either up- or down-regulated throughout the identified condition subset. IdLCR firstly detects the pairwise gene-gene relationships taking functional forms and the condition subsets by using a regression spline model. Then it measures the relationships using a penalized Pearson correlation and ranks the responding gene pairs by their scores. By this way, those relationships without clearly biological interpretations can be filtered out and the local co-regulation relationships can be obtained. In the simulation data sets, ten different functional relationships are embedded. Applying IdLCR to these data sets, the results show its ability to identify functional relationships and the condition subsets. For micro-array and RNA-seq gene expression data, IdLCR can identify novel biological relationships which are different from those uncovered by IFGR and MINE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  1. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  2. Gene expression dosage regulation in an allopolyploid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Matos

    Full Text Available How allopolyploids are able not only to cope but profit from their condition is a question that remains elusive, but is of great importance within the context of successful allopolyploid evolution. One outstanding example of successful allopolyploidy is the endemic Iberian cyprinid Squalius alburnoides. Previously, based on the evaluation of a few genes, it was reported that the transcription levels between diploid and triploid S. alburnoides were similar. If this phenomenon occurs on a full genomic scale, a wide functional ''diploidization'' could be related to the success of these polyploids. We generated RNA-seq data from whole juvenile fish and from adult livers, to perform the first comparative quantitative transcriptomic analysis between diploid and triploid individuals of a vertebrate allopolyploid. Together with an assay to estimate relative expression per cell, it was possible to infer the relative sizes of transcriptomes. This showed that diploid and triploid S. alburnoides hybrids have similar liver transcriptome sizes. This in turn made it valid to directly compare the S. alburnoides RNA-seq transcript data sets and obtain a profile of dosage responses across the S. alburnoides transcriptome. We found that 64% of transcripts in juveniles' samples and 44% in liver samples differed less than twofold between diploid and triploid hybrids (similar expression. Yet, respectively 29% and 15% of transcripts presented accurate dosage compensation (PAA/PA expression ratio of 1 instead of 1.5. Therefore, an exact functional diploidization of the triploid genome does not occur, but a significant down regulation of gene expression in triploids was observed. However, for those genes with similar expression levels between diploids and triploids, expression is not globally strictly proportional to gene dosage nor is it set to a perfect diploid level. This quantitative expression flexibility may be a strong contributor to overcome the genomic shock

  3. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huaqun, E-mail: chenhuaqun@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Li, Chaojun, E-mail: licj@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Model Animal Research Center (MARC) and The School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  4. Multiple upstream modules regulate zebrafish myf5 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myf5 is one member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, and it functions as a myogenic factor that is important for the specification and differentiation of muscle cells. The expression of myf5 is somite- and stage-dependent during embryogenesis through a delicate regulation. However, this complex regulatory mechanism of myf5 is not clearly understood. Results We isolated a 156-kb bacterial artificial chromosome clone that includes an upstream 80-kb region and a downstream 70-kb region of zebrafish myf5 and generated a transgenic line carrying this 156-kb segment fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene. We find strong GFP expression in the most rostral somite and in the presomitic mesoderm during segmentation stages, similar to endogenous myf5 expression. Later, the GFP signals persist in caudal somites near the tail bud but are down-regulated in the older, rostral somites. During the pharyngula period, we detect GFP signals in pectoral fin buds, dorsal rostral myotomes, hypaxial myotomes, and inferior oblique and superior oblique muscles, a pattern that also corresponds well with endogenous myf5 transcripts. To characterize the specific upstream cis-elements that regulate this complex and dynamic expression pattern, we also generated several transgenic lines that harbor various lengths within the upstream 80-kb segment. We find that (1 the -80 kb/-9977 segment contains a fin and cranial muscle element and a notochord repressor; (2 the -9977/-6213 segment contains a strong repressive element that does not include the notochord-specific repressor; (3 the -6212/-2938 segment contains tissue-specific elements for bone and spinal cord; (4 the -2937/-291 segment contains an eye enhancer, and the -2937/-2457 segment is required for notochord and myocyte expression; and (5 the -290/-1 segment is responsible for basal transcription in somites and the presomitic mesoderm. Conclusion We suggest

  5. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

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    Funahashi, Nobuaki, E-mail: nfunahashi@ri.ncgm.go.jp [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Department of Metabolic Disorder, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirota, Yoshihisa [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Suhara, Yoshitomo [Department of Bioscience and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Okano, Toshio [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K{sub 1}) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K{sub 2}). Menadione (vitamin K{sub 3}) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1

  6. Bacterial expression system with tightly regulated gene expression and plasmid copy number.

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    Bowers, Lisa M; Lapoint, Kathleen; Anthony, Larry; Pluciennik, Anna; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2004-09-29

    A new Escherichia coli host/vector system has been engineered to allow tight and uniform modulation of gene expression and gamma origin (ori) plasmid copy number. Regulation of gamma ori plasmid copy number is achieved through arabinose-inducible expression of the necessary Rep protein, pi, whose gene was integrated into the chromosome of the host strain under control of the P(BAD) promoter. gamma ori replication can be uniformly modulated over 100-fold by changing the concentration of l-arabinose in the growth medium. This strain avoids the problem of all-or-nothing induction of P(BAD) because it is deficient in both arabinose uptake and degradation genes. Arabinose enters the cell by a mutant LacY transporter, LacYA177C, which is expressed from the host chromosome. Although this strain could be compatible with any gamma ori plasmid, we describe the utility of a gamma ori expression vector that allows especially tight regulation of gene expression. With this host/vector system, it is possible to independently modulate gene expression and gene dosage, facilitating the cloning and overproduction of toxic gene products. We describe the successful use of this system for cloning a highly potent toxin, Colicin E3, in the absence of its cognate immunity protein. This system could be useful for cloning genes encoding other potent toxins, screening libraries for potential toxins, and maintaining any gamma ori vector at precise copy levels in a cell.

  7. Expression profiling of genes regulated by TGF-beta: Differential regulation in normal and tumour cells

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    Takahashi Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is one of the key cytokines implicated in various disease processes including cancer. TGF-beta inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in normal epithelial cells and in contrast, acts as a pro-tumour cytokine by promoting tumour angiogenesis, immune-escape and metastasis. It is not clear if various actions of TGF-beta on normal and tumour cells are due to differential gene regulations. Hence we studied the regulation of gene expression by TGF-beta in normal and cancer cells. Results Using human 19 K cDNA microarrays, we show that 1757 genes are exclusively regulated by TGF-beta in A549 cells in contrast to 733 genes exclusively regulated in HPL1D cells. In addition, 267 genes are commonly regulated in both the cell-lines. Semi-quantitative and real-time qRT-PCR analysis of some genes agrees with the microarray data. In order to identify the signalling pathways that influence TGF-beta mediated gene regulation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, ERK kinase, JNK kinase and integrin signalling pathways. The data suggest that regulation of majority of the selected genes is dependent on at least one of these pathways and this dependence is cell-type specific. Interestingly, an integrin pathway inhibitor, RGD peptide, significantly affected TGF-beta regulation of Thrombospondin 1 in A549 cells. Conclusion These data suggest major differences with respect to TGF-beta mediated gene regulation in normal and transformed cells and significant role of non-canonical TGF-beta pathways in the regulation of many genes by TGF-beta.

  8. Total Flavonoids Extracted from Oxytropis falcata Bunge Improve Insulin Resistance through Regulation on the IKKβ/NF-κB Inflammatory Pathway

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    Lixia Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is the main etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. It has been known that total flavonoid extracts can markedly improve the hypoglycemic symptoms caused by IR. Nevertheless, the relevant molecular mechanism remains unclarified. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the total flavonoid extract from Oxytropis falcata Bunge. Methods. STZ-induced T2DM rats (n=35 were divided into 5 groups: model, low-, medium-, and high-dose total flavonoids, and pioglitazone groups. Ten healthy rats were used as controls. The serum insulin and inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 level was measured by ELISA. The concentration of IRS-1, p-IRS-1, PKB p-PKB, PI3Kp85, and p-PI3K in skeletal muscles was determined by Western blot. The mRNA level of GLUT4, IκB, and NF-κB in skeletal muscle was detected by qRT-PCR. Results. The treatment of medium- and high-dose total flavonoids significantly reduced the FPG and P2hPG and enhanced insulin level in T2DM rats (P<0.05. When compared with controls, the serum level of MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IRS-1, and p-IRS-1 was significantly increased in T2DM rats, but the level of PKB, p-PKB, PI3Kp85, and p-PI3K expression was reduced (P<0.05. The GLUT4 and IκB mRNA expression were significantly decreased, and NF-κB mRNA level was increased (P<0.05. The treatment of low-, medium-, or high-dose total flavonoids markedly reversed the changes above (P<0.05. Conclusion. Our study has confirmed the therapeutic effects of total flavonoids from Oxytropis falcata Bunge on IR. The flavonoids might reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines through downregulation of NF-κB expression in inflammatory pathway and regulate the IRS-1-PI3-K-PKB/Akt insulin pathway and thereby increased the GLUT4 expression.

  9. Coordinate regulation of DNA methyltransferase expression during oogenesis

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    Bestor Timothy H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal mammalian development requires the action of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs for the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation within repeat elements and imprinted genes. Here we report the expression dynamics of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, as well as a regulator of DNA methylation, Dnmt3L, in isolated female germ cells. Results Our results indicate that these enzymes are coordinately regulated and that their expression peaks during the stage of postnatal oocyte development when maternal methylation imprints are established. We find that Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt3L and Dnmt1o transcript accumulation is related to oocyte diameter. Furthermore, DNMT3L deficient 15 dpp oocytes have aberrantly methylated Snrpn, Peg3 and Igf2r DMRs, but normal IAP and LINE-1 methylation levels, thereby highlighting a male germ cell specific role for DNMT3L in the establishment of DNA methylation at repeat elements. Finally, real-time RT-PCR analysis indicates that the depletion of either DNMT3L or DNMT1o in growing oocytes results in the increased expression of the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b, suggesting a potential compensation mechanism by this enzyme for the loss of one of the other DNA methyltransferases. Conclusion Together these results provide a better understanding of the developmental regulation of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Dnmt3L at the time of de novo methylation during oogenesis and demonstrate that the involvement of DNMT3L in retrotransposon silencing is restricted to the male germ line. This in turn suggests the existence of other factors in the oocyte that direct DNA methylation to transposons.

  10. Regulation of bcl-2 expression by Ubc9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaohui; Wu, Hailong; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2006-06-10

    Posttranslational modifications mediated by ubiquitin-like proteins have been implicated in regulating a variety of cellular pathways. Although small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a new member of this family, it has caught a great deal of attention recently because of its novel and distinguished functions. Sumoylation is a multiple-step process, involving maturation, activation, conjugation and ligation. Ubc9 is an E2 conjugating enzyme essential for sumoylation. We have previously shown that suppression of sumoylation by a dominant negative Ubc9 mutant (Ubc9-DN) in the estrogen receptor (ER) positive MCF-7 cells is associated with alterations of tumor cell's response to anticancer drugs as well as tumor growth in a xenograft mouse carcinoma model. To dissect the underlying mechanism of Ubc9-associated alterations of drug responsiveness and tumor growth, we profiled gene expression for the cells expressing wild type Ubc9 (Ubc9-WT) and Ubc9-DN. We found that several tumorigenesis-related genes were downregulated in the Ubc9-DN cells. Within this group, we found that over 10 genes are known to be regulated by ER. Experiments using the estrogen response element fused to the luciferase reporter showed that the basal level of luciferase activity was significantly reduced in the Ubc9-DN cells when compared to the vector alone or the Ubc9-WT cells. Furthermore, we found that both the stability and the subcellular localization of steroid hormone receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) were altered in the Ubc9-DN cells. Together, these results suggest that Ubc9 might regulate bcl-2 expression through the ER signaling pathway, which ultimately contributes to the alterations of drug responsiveness and tumor growth.

  11. Laccases: Production, Expression Regulation, and Applications in Pharmaceutical Biodegradation

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    Jie Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are a family of copper-containing oxidases with important applications in bioremediation and other various industrial and biotechnological areas. There have been over two dozen reviews on laccases since 2010 covering various aspects of this group of versatile enzymes, from their occurrence, biochemical properties, and expression to immobilization and applications. This review is not intended to be all-encompassing; instead, we highlighted some of the latest developments in basic and applied laccase research with an emphasis on laccase-mediated bioremediation of pharmaceuticals, especially antibiotics. Pharmaceuticals are a broad class of emerging organic contaminants that are recalcitrant and prevalent. The recent surge in the relevant literature justifies a short review on the topic. Since low laccase yields in natural and genetically modified hosts constitute a bottleneck to industrial-scale applications, we also accentuated a genus of laccase-producing white-rot fungi, Cerrena, and included a discussion with regards to regulation of laccase expression.

  12. Aqueous fraction of Beta vulgaris ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic mice due to enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion, mediated by acetylcholine and GLP-1, and elevated glucose uptake via increased membrane bound GLUT4 transporters.

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    Ul Kabir, Ashraf; Samad, Mehdi Bin; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Akhter, Farjana; Tasnim, Jinat; Hasan, S M Nageeb; Sayfe, Sania Sarker; Hannan, J M A

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the probable mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris. Aqueous fraction of B. Vulgaris extract was the only active fraction (50mg/kg). Plasma insulin level was found to be the highest at 30 mins after B. Vulgaris administration at a dose of 200mg/kg. B. Vulgaris treated mice were also assayed for plasma Acetylcholine, Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP), Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Pancreatic Polypeptides (PP), and Somatostatin, along with the corresponding insulin levels. Plasma Acetylcholine and GLP-1 significantly increased in B. Vulgaris treated animals and were further studied. Pharmacological enhancers, inhibitors, and antagonists of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 were also administered to the test animals, and corresponding insulin levels were measured. These studies confirmed the role of acetylcholine and GLP-1 in enhanced insulin secretion (ptransporters were quantified and the subsequent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assayed. We showed that levels of membrane bound GLUT4 transporters, glucose-6-phosphate in skeletal myocytes, activity of glycogen synthase, and level of glycogen deposited in the skeletal muscles all increased (pglucose uptake in the skeletal muscles and subsequent glycogen synthesis may also play a part in the anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris.

  13. An optimized, chemically regulated gene expression system for Chlamydomonas.

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    Paola Ferrante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system for algal and cell biology and is used for biotechnological applications, such as molecular farming or biological hydrogen production. The Chlamydomonas metal-responsive CYC6 promoter is repressed by copper and induced by nickel ions. However, induction by nickel is weak in some strains, poorly reversible by chelating agents like EDTA, and causes, at high concentrations, toxicity side effects on Chlamydomonas growth. Removal of these bottlenecks will encourage the wide use of this promoter as a chemically regulated gene expression system. METHODOLOGY: Using a codon-optimized Renilla luciferase as a reporter gene, we explored several strategies to improve the strength and reversibility of CYC6 promoter induction. Use of the first intron of the RBCS2 gene or of a modified TAP medium increases the strength of CYC6 induction up to 20-fold. In the modified medium, induction is also obtained after addition of specific copper chelators, like TETA. At low concentrations (up to 10 microM TETA is a more efficient inducer than Ni, which becomes a very efficient inducer at higher concentrations (50 microM. Neither TETA nor Ni show toxicity effects at the concentrations used. Unlike induction by Ni, induction by TETA is completely reversible by micromolar copper concentrations, thus resulting in a transient "wave" in luciferase activity, which can be repeated in subsequent growth cycles. CONCLUSIONS: We have worked out a chemically regulated gene expression system that can be finely tuned to produce temporally controlled "waves" in gene expression. The use of cassettes containing the CYC6 promoter, and of modified growth media, is a reliable and economically sustainable system for the temporally controlled expression of foreign genes in Chlamydomonas.

  14. Maternal obesity regulates gene expression in the hearts of offspring.

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    Raipuria, M; Hardy, G O; Bahari, H; Morris, M J

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests maternal obesity leads to adverse outcomes for offspring, including increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alterations in taste preferences of offspring from mothers consuming a high fat diet (HFD) have also been reported. Given recent reports describing cardiac taste receptors, we examined whether the expression of umami and bitter taste receptors is modulated by maternal obesity, and compared this with the physiological challenge of maternal exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or HFD (F) and half of each were provided with a running wheel to enable voluntary exercise (CE or FE), the others remaining sedentary (CS or FS). Two pups from each mother were killed at postnatal day 19. Both lean and obese dams undertook similar amounts of exercise (8.1 ± 2.4 vs 5.1 ± 1.5 km). Maternal obesity increased offspring body weight, adiposity, net and weight-corrected heart ventricle weight, with no effect of exercise. Maternal obesity also increased offspring plasma leptin concentrations, which were normalised by maternal exercise. Cardiac ventricle mRNA expression of bitter taste receptors, β-adrenoceptor (Adrbk1) and angiotensin II receptor type 1a (Agtr1a) were significantly decreased in response to maternal obesity, with maternal exercise decreasing Agtr1a in FE offspring. No changes in umami receptors were observed. FTO mRNA expression was down-regulated by maternal HFD with an up-regulation in offspring of CE mothers. Maternal obesity affected the expression of bitter taste receptors and other genes in the heart ventricle, potentially implicating these genes in the development of CVD associated with maternal obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling gene regulation from paired expression and chromatin accessibility data.

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    Duren, Zhana; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yong; Wong, Wing Hung

    2017-06-20

    The rapid increase of genome-wide datasets on gene expression, chromatin states, and transcription factor (TF) binding locations offers an exciting opportunity to interpret the information encoded in genomes and epigenomes. This task can be challenging as it requires joint modeling of context-specific activation of cis-regulatory elements (REs) and the effects on transcription of associated regulatory factors. To meet this challenge, we propose a statistical approach based on paired expression and chromatin accessibility (PECA) data across diverse cellular contexts. In our approach, we model (i) the localization to REs of chromatin regulators (CRs) based on their interaction with sequence-specific TFs, (ii) the activation of REs due to CRs that are localized to them, and (iii) the effect of TFs bound to activated REs on the transcription of target genes (TGs). The transcriptional regulatory network inferred by PECA provides a detailed view of how trans- and cis-regulatory elements work together to affect gene expression in a context-specific manner. We illustrate the feasibility of this approach by analyzing paired expression and accessibility data from the mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and explore various applications of the resulting model.

  16. Down-Regulation of Angiopoietin-1 Expression in Menorrhagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Peter; Nijjar, Sarbjit; Shams, Munjiba; Morgan, Susan; Gupta, Janesh; Ahmed, Asif

    2002-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential component of endometrial repair and regeneration following menses. Perturbation of this process is associated with menorrhagia, a common gynecological disorder that results in excessive menstrual bleeding. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promotes vascular maturation via the Tie-2 receptor, while angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is its natural antagonist that destabilizes vessels and initiates neovascularization in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. To test the hypothesis that menorrhagia arises as a result of poor signal for vascular maturation, we have examined the expression of Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 in endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle from 30 normal women and 28 patients with menorrhagia. Ribonuclease protection assay and Western blot analysis showed Ang-2 expression was consistently higher than Ang-1 in normal endometrium throughout the cycle. However, with menorrhagia Ang-1 mRNA and protein were not detected or down-regulated, while Ang-2 was observed at similar levels in both normal and menorrhagic endometrium resulting in a greater than a 50% decrease in the ratio of Ang-1 to Ang-2 protein. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies supported these findings and revealed cyclical changes in the expression of Ang-1 and Ang-2. These results suggest that the angiopoietin/Tie-2 system promotes vascular remodeling in endometrium and loss of normal Ang-1 expression may contribute to the excessive blood loss observed in menorrhagia. PMID:11891175

  17. L-Carnitine supplementation increases expression of PPAR-γ and glucose transporters in skeletal muscle of chronically and acutely exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Ragıp; Genc, Eyup; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Er, Besir; Cinar, Vedat; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-01-31

    In this study, the effects of L-Carnitine supplementation on the lipid peroxidation and expression of PPAR-γ and glucose transporters in the liver and muscles of chronically and acutely exercised rats were investigated. A total of 42 male Wistar Albino rats (8-week-old) were divided into six groups as follows: Control, L-Carnitine, Chronic Exercise (CE), Chronic Exercise + L-Carnitine, Acute Exercise (AE) and L-Carnitine + Acute Exercise. Chronic exercise consists of 30 m/min, 30 min/day, and 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Rats in the acute exercise groups were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. L-Carnitine was given at the level of 300 mg per kilogram of diet for 6 weeks. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum ALT, AST, urea, creatinine and glucose levels between the exercise and L-Carnitine groups (P > 0.05). Cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased by L- carnitine supplementation and chronic exercise in control groups but increased in the AE groups compared to the control group without reinforcement (P < 0.05). Serum, muscle, heart, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were lower in CE and higher in the AE groups (P < 0.001). However, L-Carnitine supplementation reduced MDA levels (P < 0.05). Liver and muscle PPAR-γ, liver GLUT-2 and muscle GLUT-4 mRNA expressions were lower in AE group than in all other groups (P < 0.001). Both chronic exercise and supplemental L-Carnitine increased liver and muscle PPAR-γ, GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 mRNA expression (P <0.05). As a result, although acute exercise increased oxidative stress, chronic exercise reduced oxidative stress by lowering lipid peroxidation level. L-Carnitine supplementation decreased oxidative stress and improved glucose and lipid metabolism by regulation of PPAR-γ, GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rats.

  18. Improved expression systems for regulated expression in Salmonella infecting eukaryotic cells.

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    Carlos Medina

    Full Text Available In this work we describe a series of improvements to the Salmonella-based salicylate-inducible cascade expression system comprised of a plasmid-borne expression module, where target gene expression is driven by the P(m promoter governed by the XylS2 regulator, and a genome-integrated regulatory module controlled by the nahR/P(sal system. We have constructed a set of high and low-copy number plasmids bearing modified versions of the expression module with a more versatile multiple cloning site and different combinations of the following elements: (i the nasF transcriptional attenuator, which reduces basal expression levels, (ii a strong ribosome binding site, and (iii the Type III Secretion System (TTSS signal peptide from the effector protein SspH2 to deliver proteins directly to the eukaryotic cytosol following bacterial infection of animal cells. We show that different expression module versions can be used to direct a broad range of protein production levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the efficient reduction of basal expression by the nasF attenuator allows the cloning of genes encoding highly cytotoxic proteins such as colicin E3 even in the absence of its immunity protein. Additionally, we show that the Salmonella TTSS is able to translocate most of the protein produced by this regulatory cascade to the cytoplasm of infected HeLa cells. Our results indicate that these vectors represent useful tools for the regulated overproduction of heterologous proteins in bacterial culture or in animal cells, for the cloning and expression of genes encoding toxic proteins and for pathogenesis studies.

  19. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

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    Ali J Vetter

    Full Text Available The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein.

  20. Regulation of. beta. -cell glucose transporter gene expression

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    Chen, Ling; Alam, Tausif; Johnson, J.H.; Unger, R.H. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA) Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, TX (USA)); Hughes, S.; Newgard, C.B. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1990-06-01

    It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of {beta} cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine whether this transporter is constitutively expressed or regulated, the authors subjected conscious unrestrained Wistar rats to perturbations in glucose homeostasis and quantitated {beta}-cell GLUT-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. After 3 hr of hypoglycemia, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA signal densities were reduced by 25% of the level in control rats. After 4 days, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA densities were reduced by 85% and 65%, respectively. After 12 days of hypoglycemia, the K{sub m} for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport in isolated rat islets, normally 18-20 mM, was 2.5 mM. This provides functional evidence of a profound reduction of high K{sub m} glucose transporter in {beta} cells. In contrast, GLUT-2 was only slightly reduced by hypoglycemia in liver. To determine the effect of prolonged hyperglycemia, they also infused animals with 50% (wt/vol) glucose for 5 days. Hyperglycemic clamping increased GLUT-2 mRNA by 46% whereas proinsulin mRNA doubled. They conclude that GLUT-2 expression in {beta} cells, but not liver, is subject to regulation by certain perturbations in blood glucose homeostasis.

  1. Dietary regulation of P-gp function and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Han, Yi; Lim, Siok Lam; Lim, Lee Yong

    2009-07-01

    Food-drug interactions have been associated with clinically important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of a drug. The aim of this paper is to review the regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by dietary components and to correlate the changes in cellular P-gp function and expression with drug bioavailability. In summary, the published literature has provided extensive data supporting the modulation of drug bioavailability through P-gp regulation by components in food groups such as fruit juices, spices, herbs, cruciferous vegetables and green tea. Most of these data were, however, derived from in vitro cell models and, except for the St John's wort, the clinical significance of most reported interactions remains to be clarified. Studies on piperine and capsaicin have underscored an often poor correlation between in vivo and in vitro data, whereas experiments involving curcumin highlighted differences between acute and chronic consumption of a dietary component on P-gp function and expression in vivo. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the dietary components will aid in addressing these knowledge gaps.

  2. Artificial transcription factor-mediated regulation of gene expression.

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    van Tol, Niels; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2014-08-01

    The transcriptional regulation of endogenous genes with artificial transcription factors (TFs) can offer new tools for plant biotechnology. Three systems are available for mediating site-specific DNA recognition of artificial TFs: those based on zinc fingers, TALEs, and on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Artificial TFs require an effector domain that controls the frequency of transcription initiation at endogenous target genes. These effector domains can be transcriptional activators or repressors, but can also have enzymatic activities involved in chromatin remodeling or epigenetic regulation. Artificial TFs are able to regulate gene expression in trans, thus allowing them to evoke dominant mutant phenotypes. Large scale changes in transcriptional activity are induced when the DNA binding domain is deliberately designed to have lower binding specificity. This technique, known as genome interrogation, is a powerful tool for generating novel mutant phenotypes. Genome interrogation has clear mechanistic and practical advantages over activation tagging, which is the technique most closely resembling it. Most notably, genome interrogation can lead to the discovery of mutant phenotypes that are unlikely to be found when using more conventional single gene-based approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of gene expression by CAR: an update.

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    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Mari; Honkakoski, Paavo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a well-known xenosensor that regulates hepatic drug metabolism and detoxification. CAR activation can be elicited by a large variety of xenobiotics, including phenobarbital (PB) which is not a directly binding CAR ligand. The mechanism of CAR activation is complex and involves translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, followed by further activation steps in the nucleus. Recently, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been identified as a PB-responsive receptor, and PB activates CAR by inhibiting the EGFR signaling. In addition to regulation of drug metabolism, activation of CAR has multiple biological end points such as modulation of xenobiotic-elicited liver injury, and the role of CAR in endobiotic functions such as glucose metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Thus, investigations on the molecular mechanism of CAR activation are critical for the real understanding of CAR-mediated processes. Here, we summarize the current understanding of mechanisms by which CAR activators regulate gene expression through cellular signaling pathways and the roles of CAR on xenobiotic-elicited hepatocellular carcinoma, liver injury, glucose metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis.

  4. Facial expression primes and implicit regulation of negative emotion.

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    Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-06-17

    An individual's responses to emotional information are influenced not only by the emotional quality of the information, but also by the context in which the information is presented. We hypothesized that facial expressions of happiness and anger would serve as primes to modulate subjective and neural responses to subsequently presented negative information. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI study in which the brains of healthy adults were scanned while they performed an emotion-rating task. During the task, participants viewed a series of negative and neutral photos, one at a time; each photo was presented after a picture showing a face expressing a happy, angry, or neutral emotion. Brain imaging results showed that compared with neutral primes, happy facial primes increased activation during negative emotion in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which are typically implicated in conflict detection and implicit emotion control, respectively. Conversely, relative to neutral primes, angry primes activated the right middle temporal gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus during the experience of negative emotion. Activity in the amygdala in response to negative emotion was marginally reduced after exposure to happy primes compared with angry primes. Relative to neutral primes, angry facial primes increased the subjectively experienced intensity of negative emotion. The current study results suggest that prior exposure to facial expressions of emotions modulates the subsequent experience of negative emotion by implicitly activating the emotion-regulation system.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pek Siew; Li, Jasmine; Holloway, Adele F; Rao, Sudha

    2013-07-01

    T cells are exquisitely poised to respond rapidly to pathogens and have proved an instructive model for exploring the regulation of inducible genes. Individual genes respond to antigenic stimulation in different ways, and it has become clear that the interplay between transcription factors and the chromatin platform of individual genes governs these responses. Our understanding of the complexity of the chromatin platform and the epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to transcriptional control has expanded dramatically in recent years. These mechanisms include the presence/absence of histone modification marks, which form an epigenetic signature to mark active or inactive genes. These signatures are dynamically added or removed by epigenetic enzymes, comprising an array of histone-modifying enzymes, including the more recently recognized chromatin-associated signalling kinases. In addition, chromatin-remodelling complexes physically alter the chromatin structure to regulate chromatin accessibility to transcriptional regulatory factors. The advent of genome-wide technologies has enabled characterization of the chromatin landscape of T cells in terms of histone occupancy, histone modification patterns and transcription factor association with specific genomic regulatory regions, generating a picture of the T-cell epigenome. Here, we discuss the multi-layered regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system, focusing on the interplay between transcription factors, and the T-cell epigenome, including the role played by chromatin remodellers and epigenetic enzymes. We will also use IL2, a key inducible cytokine gene in T cells, as an example of how the different layers of epigenetic mechanisms regulate immune responsive genes during T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Swertiamarin: An Active Lead from Enicostemma littorale Regulates Hepatic and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression by Targeting PPAR-γ and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Experimental NIDDM Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale (EL Blume is one of the herbs widely used for treating and alleviating the effects of both type I and type II diabetes. However, lack of understanding of mechanism precludes the use of the herb and its molecules. In this study, we attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism of action of swertiamarin, a compound isolated form EL, by comparing its molecular effects with those of aqueous EL extract in alleviating the insulin resistance in type II diabetes. We further investigated hypolipidemic and insulin sensitizing effect of swertiamarin in experimentally induced noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. Swertiamarin (50 mg/kg and aqueous extract (15 grams dried plant equivalent extract/kg were administered to rats orally for 40 days and tight regulation of serum glucose, insulin, and lipid profile was found in both groups. Their mode of action was by restoring G6Pase and HMG-CoA reductase activities to normal levels and restoring normal transcriptional levels of PEPCK, GK, Glut 2, PPAR-γ, leptin, adiponectin, LPL, SREBP-1c, and Glut 4 genes. This suggests that both treatments increased insulin sensitivity and regulated carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This is the first report on the role of SM in regulating the PPARγ-mediated regulation of candidate genes involved in metabolism in peripheral tissues in vivo.

  7. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages by Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNF promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1 infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the downregulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Trspfl/flCreLysM mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid to contribute, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  8. Autoimmune regulator expression in thymomas with or without autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Fanjie; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Yuanguo; Yao, Yuanyuan; Qi, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) regulates autoimmunity and self-antigen expression, such as acetylcholine receptor (AchR), in the thymus. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can down-regulate autoimmunity, but also promote tumor growth. The objective of this study was to examine the levels of AIRE, AchR, and Foxp3 expression in thymomas. The relative levels of AIRE, AchR, and Foxp3 mRNA transcripts and the frequency of AIRE+, AchR+, and Foxp3+ cells were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 79 thymoma tissue samples from 21 patients with simple thymoma (the Tm group), 39 patients with myasthenia gravis (the MG group) and 19 patients with myasthenia gravis and one other autoimmune disease (the AD group). The numbers of peripheral blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The relative levels of AIRE and AchR mRNA transcripts in the MG group were significantly lower than that in the Tm group (p=0.04, p=0.03), but higher than that in the AD group (p=0.03, p=0.04). The relative levels of Foxp3 mRNA transcripts in the Tm group were significantly higher than that in the MG and AD groups (p=0.03 for both). A similar pattern of the percentages of AIRE+, AchR+, and Foxp3+ cells in the thymoma tissues and the numbers of peripheral blood Tregs were detected in these patients. The levels of AIRE mRNA transcripts were correlated positively with that of the AchR and Foxp3 in this population. The levels of AIRE and AchR mRNA transcripts in the A/AB/B1 types of thymomas were significantly higher than that in the B2/B3/C types of thymomas in this population. Significantly lower levels of AIRE, AchR, and Foxp3 expression are associated with the development of thymoma-related autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  10. Drosha Regulates Gene Expression Independently of RNA Cleavage Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gromak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression.

  11. Chemical regulation of sex expression in certain olive cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Hegazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modifying effect of growth regulators on bud burst, flower bud formation and sex expression in olives varies greatly according to cultivar, concentration and time of application. Cycocel 200, 500 mg/l, ethephon 200 mg/l and SADH 2000 mg/l stimulated bud burst and flower bud formation in the 'Blanquetta' cv. A noticeable increase in the percentage of perfect flowers was obtained by 100 mg/l of kinetin, and 200 mg/l of Cycocel in the cv. 'Picual', Ethephon 200/1, Cycocel 200 mg/l and SADH 2000 mg/l considerably increased the percentage of perfect flowers in the cvs 'Blanquetta', 'Serrana' and 'Picual'. Treatments at green cluster stage were not effective.

  12. Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

    2011-12-31

    We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

  13. Growth hormone regulates the expression of UCP2 in myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futawaka, Kumi; Tagami, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Yuki; Koyama, Rie; Nushida, Ayaka; Nezu, Syoko; Imamoto, Miyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Moriyama, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    To determine if and how growth hormone (GH) signaling is involved in energy metabolism. We used human embryonic kidney TSA201 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, and murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts to investigate GH-induced expression of uncoupling protein2 (UCP2) to the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway by a combination of a reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting. We demonstrated that the regulation energy metabolism, which was hypothesized to be directly acted on by GH, involves UCP2 via activated STAT5B, a signal transducer downstream of GH. We also showed that the sequence at the -586 'TTCnGA' may function as a novel putative consensus sequence of STAT5s. The results suggest that GH regulates energy metabolism directly in myocytes and that UCP2 participates in the signal transduction pathway that functions downstream of the GHR/JAK/STAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation cascade of flagellar expression in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutourina, Olga A; Bertin, Philippe N

    2003-10-01

    Flagellar motility helps bacteria to reach the most favourable environments and to successfully compete with other micro-organisms. These complex organelles also play an important role in adhesion to substrates, biofilm formation and virulence process. In addition, because their synthesis and functioning are very expensive for the cell (about 2% of biosynthetic energy expenditure in Escherichia coli) and may induce a strong immune response in the host organism, the expression of flagellar genes is highly regulated by environmental conditions. In the past few years, many data have been published about the regulation of motility in polarly and laterally flagellated bacteria. However, the mechanism of motility control by environmental factors and by some regulatory proteins remains largely unknown. In this respect, recent experimental data suggest that the master regulatory protein-encoding genes at the first level of the cascade are the main target for many environmental factors. This mechanism might require DNA topology alterations of their regulatory regions. Finally, despite some differences the polar and lateral flagellar cascades share many functional similarities, including a similar hierarchical organisation of flagellar systems. The remarkable parallelism in the functional organisation of flagellar systems suggests an evolutionary conservation of regulatory mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Feeding Regulates the Expression of Pancreatic Genes in Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita De Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ineffective short-term control of feeding behavior compromises energy homeostasis and can lead to obesity. The gastrointestinal tract secretes several regulatory peptides. However, little is known about the stomach peptide contribution to the acute regulation of intake. In an attempt to identify new gastric signals, the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE method was used for the transcription profiling of stomach mucosa in 7 groups of mice: fasting and sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours after a low-fat (LF or high-fat (HF ad libitum meal. In total, 35 genes were differentially modulated by LF and HF meals compared to fasting, including 15 mRNAs coding for digestive enzymes/secretory proteins, and 10 novel transcripts. Although the basic expression profile did not undergo substantial variations, both LF and HF meals influenced the transcription. This study represents the first global analysis of stomach transcriptome as induced by different nutritional stimuli. Further studies including the characterization of novel genes may help to identify new targets for the therapy and prevention of obesity.

  16. Sirt2 Regulates Adipocyte Differentiation Involving FoxO1 Acetylation/Deacetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Enxuan; Gesta, Stephane; Ronald Kahn, C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The mammalian Sirtuin proteins contain seven family members that are homologous to yeast Sir2. Here we show that Sirt2, a cytoplasmic sirtuin, is the most abundant sirtuin in adipocytes, its expression is down regulated during preadipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Over-expression of Sirt2 inhibits differentiation, whereas reducing Sirt2 expression promotes adipogenesis. Both effects are accompanied by corresponding changes in the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and genes marking terminal adipocyte differentiation, such as Glut4, aP2, and fatty acid synthase. At the molecular level, reducing Sirt2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes acts by promoting acetylation of FoxO1. This occurs as the result of direct interaction between Sirt2 and FoxO1, and enhances insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of FoxO1, which in turn regulates FoxO1 nuclear and cytosolic localization. Thus, Sirt2 acts as an important regulator of adipocyte differentiation through control of FoxO1 acetylation/phosphorylation and activity and may contribute to control adipose tissue mass and function. PMID:17681146

  17. Down-regulation of EZH2 expression in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, Monica; Wei, Yue; Yang, Hui; Ganan-Gomez, Irene; Bohannan, Zach; Colla, Simona; Marchesini, Matteo; Bravo, Guillermo Montalban; Takahashi, Koichi; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    EZH2 genetic mutations are common in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which implies that this gene has a pathophysiological role in the disease. To further characterize molecular alterations of EZH2, and their potential prognostic impact in MDS, we assessed EZH2 RNA expression in primary bone marrow CD34+ cells from 78 patients. We found that 47% of patients have reduced EZH2 expression compared to normal controls. Further analyses revealed that EZH2 is significantly underexpressed in patients bearing chromosome 7 or 7q deletions (7-alt) when compared to controls, diploid patients, and patients with other cytogenetic alterations (pEZH2 underexpression (median OS 55 vs. 36 months; p=0.71). Importantly, this trend became significant when the analysis was restricted to the subset of cases without alterations in chromosome 7 (62 vs. 36 months; p=0.033). Furthermore, our previous work has identified a spectrum of innate immune genes in MDS CD34+ cells that are deregulated via abnormal promoter histone methylation. Because EZH2 is a key regulator of histone methylation, we assessed the relationship between deregulation of these genes and EZH2 underexpression. We observed that the mRNA levels of 11 immune genes were higher in the EZH2 underexpression group and that immune gene expression was significantly higher in patients with concomitant EZH2 underexpression and KDM6B (also known as JMJD3, an H3K27 demethylase) overexpression. Taken together, these data indicate that EZH2 underexpression may have unique impact on the molecular pathogenesis and prognosis in MDS and be an important marker for patients without chromosome 7 alteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR GENE: REGULATION OF EXPRESSION

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    Geoffrey Noel Hendy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5’-untranslated regions (UTRs that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes – promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation – as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression. Functional cis-elements in the CASR promoters responsive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH2D], proinflammatory cytokines, and the transcription factor glial cells missing-2 (GCM2 have been characterized. Reduced levels of CaSR and reduced responsiveness to active vitamin D in parathyroid neoplasia and colon carcinoma may blunt the tumor suppressor activity of the CaSR. The hypocalcemia of critically ill patients with burn injury or sepsis is associated with CASR gene upregulation by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta via kappaB elements, and by IL-6 via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3 elements in the CASR gene promoters, respectively. The CASR is transactivated by GCM2 – the expression of which is essential for parathyroid gland development. Hyperactive forms of GCM2 may contribute to later parathyroid hyperactivity or tumorigenesis. The expression of the CaSR––the calciostat––is regulated physiologically and pathophysiologically at the gene level.

  19. Regulation of bradykinin B2-receptor expression by oestrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Paolo; Emanueli, Costanza; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Demontis, Maria Piera; Anania, Vittorio; Gorioso, Nicola; Chao, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Tissue kallikrein is overexpressed in the kidney of female rats, this sexual dimorphism being associated with a greater effect of early blockade of bradykinin B2-receptors on female blood pressure phenotype. We evaluated the effect of ovariectomy and oestradiol benzoate (50 μg kg−1 every two days for two weeks) on the vasodepressor response to intra-arterial injection of bradykinin (150–900 ng kg−1) and on the expression of bradykinin B2-receptors.Ovariectomy reduced the magnitude of the vasodepressor response to bradykinin and unmasked a secondary vasopressor effect. Oestrogen replacement restored the vasodepressor response to bradykinin in ovariectomized rats.The vasodepressor responses to sodium nitroprusside (3–18 μg kg−1), acetylcholine (30–600 ng kg−1), desArg9-bradykinin (150–900 ng kg−1) or prostaglandin E2 (30–600 ng kg−1) were significantly reduced by ovariectomy. Oestrogen restored to normal the responses to desArg9-bradykinin, acetylcholine and prostaglandin E2, but not that to sodium nitroprusside.B2-receptor mRNA levels were decreased by ovariectomy in the aorta and kidney and they were restored to normal levels by oestrogen. Neither ovariectomy nor oestradiol affected receptor expression in the heart and uterus.These results indicate that oestrogen regulates B2-receptor gene expression and function. Since kinins exert a cardiovascular protective action, reduction in their vasodilator activity after menopause might contribute to the increased risk of pathological cardiovascular events. Conversely, the cardioprotective effects of oestrogen replacement might be, at least in part, mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. PMID:9283715

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhances insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose transporter type 4 protein expression in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangok Cho

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:CLA supplementation with/without endurance exercise has role in improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, when CLA supplementation was accompanied by endurance exercise, the PPAR-γ protein expression in SOM and EDL and the GLUT-4 protein expression in SOM were enhanced compared with the control group.

  1. Emotional Expressivity and Emotion Regulation: Relation to Academic Functioning among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Hanrahan, Amanda R.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined emotional expressivity (i.e., happiness, sadness, and anger) and emotion regulation (regulation of exuberance, sadness, and anger) as they relate to academic functioning (motivation, engagement, and achievement). Also, we tested the premise that emotional expressivity and emotion regulation are indirectly associated with achievement…

  2. Mothers' Emotional Expressivity and Children' Behavior Problems and Social Competence: Mediation through Children's Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Gershoff, Elizabeth Thompson; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relations between mothers' expressed positive and negative emotion and 55- to 79-month-olds' regulation, social competence, and adjustment. Structural equation modeling revealed unique effects of positive and negative maternal expressed emotion on children's regulation, and the relations of maternal expressed emotion to children's…

  3. Regulation of neuronal APL-1 expression by cholesterol starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Mary; Antebi, Adam; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid plaques composed primarily of the amyloid-β peptide, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). While mutations in APP lead to the development of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD), sporadic AD has only one clear genetic modifier: the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene. Cholesterol starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to molting and arrest phenotypes similar to loss-of-function mutants of the APP ortholog, apl-1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1), and lrp-1 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1), suggesting a potential interaction between apl-1 and cholesterol metabolism. Previously, we found that RNAi knock-down of apl-1 leads to aldicarb hypersensitivity, indicating a defect in synaptic function. Here we find the same defect is recapitulated during lrp-1 knock-down and by cholesterol starvation. A cholesterol-free diet or loss of lrp-1 directly affects APL-1 levels as both lead to loss of APL-1::GFP fluorescence in neurons. However, loss of cholesterol does not affect global transcription or protein levels as seen by qPCR and Western blot. Our results show that cholesterol and lrp-1 are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, similar to apl-1. Both are able to modulate APL-1 protein levels in neurons, however cholesterol changes do not affect global apl-1 transcription or APL-1 protein indicating the changes are specific to neurons. Thus, regulation of synaptic transmission and molting by LRP-1 and cholesterol may be mediated by their ability to control APL-1 neuronal protein expression.

  4. Regulation of neuronal APL-1 expression by cholesterol starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wiese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid plaques composed primarily of the amyloid-β peptide, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP. While mutations in APP lead to the development of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD, sporadic AD has only one clear genetic modifier: the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE gene. Cholesterol starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to molting and arrest phenotypes similar to loss-of-function mutants of the APP ortholog, apl-1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1, and lrp-1 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, suggesting a potential interaction between apl-1 and cholesterol metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously, we found that RNAi knock-down of apl-1 leads to aldicarb hypersensitivity, indicating a defect in synaptic function. Here we find the same defect is recapitulated during lrp-1 knock-down and by cholesterol starvation. A cholesterol-free diet or loss of lrp-1 directly affects APL-1 levels as both lead to loss of APL-1::GFP fluorescence in neurons. However, loss of cholesterol does not affect global transcription or protein levels as seen by qPCR and Western blot. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that cholesterol and lrp-1 are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, similar to apl-1. Both are able to modulate APL-1 protein levels in neurons, however cholesterol changes do not affect global apl-1 transcription or APL-1 protein indicating the changes are specific to neurons. Thus, regulation of synaptic transmission and molting by LRP-1 and cholesterol may be mediated by their ability to control APL-1 neuronal protein expression.

  5. Coordinated Regulation of Vasopressin Inactivation and Glucose Uptake by Action of TUG Protein in Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemichael, Estifanos N; Alcázar-Román, Abel; Rubin, Bradley R; Grossi, Laura R; Belman, Jonathan P; Julca, Omar; Löffler, Michael G; Li, Hongjie; Chi, Nai-Wen; Samuel, Varman T; Bogan, Jonathan S

    2015-06-05

    In adipose and muscle cells, insulin stimulates the exocytic translocation of vesicles containing GLUT4, a glucose transporter, and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), a transmembrane aminopeptidase. A substrate of IRAP is vasopressin, which controls water homeostasis. The physiological importance of IRAP translocation to inactivate vasopressin remains uncertain. We previously showed that in skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates proteolytic processing of the GLUT4 retention protein, TUG, to promote GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Here we show that TUG proteolysis also controls IRAP targeting and regulates vasopressin action in vivo. Transgenic mice with constitutive TUG proteolysis in muscle consumed much more water than wild-type control mice. The transgenic mice lost more body weight during water restriction, and the abundance of renal AQP2 water channels was reduced, implying that vasopressin activity is decreased. To compensate for accelerated vasopressin degradation, vasopressin secretion was increased, as assessed by the cosecreted protein copeptin. IRAP abundance was increased in T-tubule fractions of fasting transgenic mice, when compared with controls. Recombinant IRAP bound to TUG, and this interaction was mapped to a short peptide in IRAP that was previously shown to be critical for GLUT4 intracellular retention. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, IRAP was present in TUG-bound membranes and was released by insulin stimulation. Together with previous results, these data support a model in which TUG controls vesicle translocation by interacting with IRAP as well as GLUT4. Furthermore, the effect of IRAP to reduce vasopressin activity is a physiologically important consequence of vesicle translocation, which is coordinated with the stimulation of glucose uptake. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. [6]-Gingerol Affects Glucose Metabolism by Dual Regulation via the AMPKα2-Mediated AS160-Rab5 Pathway and AMPK-Mediated Insulin Sensitizing Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Lee, Hye Jeong; Moon, Ji Wook; Lee, Soo Kyung; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Joong Kwan; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    [6]-Gingerol has been used to control diabetes and dyslipidemia; however, its metabolic role is poorly understood. In this study, [6]-gingerol increased adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Stimulation of glucose uptake by [6]-gingerol was dependent on AMPKα2. Moreover, both Inhibition and knockdown of AMPKα2 blocked [6]-gingerol-induced glucose uptake. [6]-Gingerol significantly decreased the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of PP2A activity with okadaic acid enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα2. Moreover, the interaction between AMPKα2 and PP2A was increased by [6]-gingerol, suggesting that PP2A mediates the effect of [6]-gingerol on AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, [6]-gingerol increased the phosphorylation of Akt-substrate 160 (AS160), which is a Rab GTPase-activating protein. Inhibition of AMPKα2 blocked [6]-gingerol-induced AS160 phosphorylation. [6]-gingerol increased the Rab5, and AMPKα2 knockdown blocked [6]-gingerol-induced expression of Rab5, indicating AMPK play as an upstream of Rab5. It also increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA and protein expression and stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, insulin-mediated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were further potentiated by [6]-gingerol treatment. This potentiation was not observed in the presence of AMPK inhibitor compound C. In summary, our results suggest that [6]-gingerol plays an important role in glucose metabolism via the AMPKα2-mediated AS160-Rab5 pathway and through potentiation of insulin-mediated glucose regulation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  8. THE EXPRESSION, COMMUNICATION, AND REGULATION OF BIOLOGICAL EMOTIONS: SEX AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BUCK, Ross; POWERS, Stacie Renfro

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes sex and cultural differences and similarities in the expression, communication, and regulation of biological emotions from the viewpoint of developmental-interactionist theory...

  9. Regulation of DREAM Expression by Group I mGluR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinu; Kim, Insook; Oh, So Ra; Ko, Suk Jin; Lim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Dong Goo

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator) is a calcium-binding protein that regulates dynorphin expression, promotes potassium channel surface expression, and enhances presenilin processing in an expression level-dependent manner. However, no molecular mechanism has yet explained how protein levels of DREAM are regulated. Here we identified group I mGluR (mGluR1/5) as a positive regulator of DREAM protein expression. Overexpression of mGluR1/5 increased the cellular level of DREAM. Up-regulation of DREAM resulted in increased DREAM protein in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, where the protein acts as a transcriptional repressor and a modulator of its interacting proteins, respectively. DHPG (3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine), a group I mGluR agonist, also up-regulated DREAM expression in cortical neurons. These results suggest that group I mGluR is the first identified receptor that may regulate DREAM activity in neurons. PMID:21660149

  10. Constitutive and regulated expression vectors to construct polyphosphate deficient bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez Carlos A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2 and degraded by an exopolyphosphatase (PPX. Bacterial cells with polyP deficiencies are impaired in many structural and important cellular functions such as motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence. Knockout mutants of the ppk1 gene have been the most frequent strategy employed to generate polyP deficient cells. Results As an alternative method to construct polyP-deficient bacteria we developed constitutive and regulated broad-host-range vectors for depleting the cellular polyP content. This was achieved by the overexpression of yeast exopolyphosphatase (PPX1. Using this approach in a polyphosphate accumulating bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. B4, we were able to eliminate most of the cellular polyP (>95%. Furthermore, the effect of overexpression of PPX1 resembled the functional defects found in motility and biofilm formation in a ppk1 mutant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The plasmids constructed were also successfully replicated in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Burkholderia and Salmonella. Conclusion To deplete polyP contents in bacteria broad-host-range expression vectors can be used as an alternative and more efficient method compared with the deletion of ppk genes. It is of great importance to understand why polyP deficiency affects vital cellular processes in bacteria. The construction reported in this work will be of great relevance to study the role of polyP in microorganisms with non-sequenced genomes or those in which orthologs to ppk genes have not been identified.

  11. miR-381 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation via Regulating Hes1 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Shi

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent and undifferentiated precursors that retain the capacity for differentiation into both glial (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and neuronal lineages. Neural stem cells offer cell-based therapies for neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and spinal cord injuries. However, their cellular behavior is poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs involved in cell development, proliferation and differentiation through regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The role of miR-381 in the development of neural stem cells remains unknown. In this study, we showed that overexpression of miR-381 promoted neural stem cells proliferation. It induced the neural stem cells differentiation to neurons and inhibited their differentiation to astrocytes. Furthermore, we identified HES1 as a direct target of miR-381 in neural stem cells. Moreover, re-expression of HES1 impaired miR-381-induced promotion of neural stem cells proliferation and induce neural stem cells differentiation to neurons. In conclusion, miR-381 played important role in neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsky, B.; Neuert, G.; van Oudenaarden, A.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic variation is ubiquitous in biology and is often traceable to underlying genetic and environmental variation. However, even genetically identical cells in identical environments display variable phenotypes. Stochastic gene expression, or gene expression "noise," has been suggested as a

  13. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  14. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N. Arbeitman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation.

  15. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeitman, Michelle N; New, Felicia N; Fear, Justin M; Howard, Tiffany S; Dalton, Justin E; Graze, Rita M

    2016-07-07

    Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx) mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation. Copyright © 2016 Arbeitman et al.

  16. Caulerpa lentillifera extract ameliorates insulin resistance and regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Kim, Hyun Jung; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2015-02-15

    Glucose homeostasis is distorted by defects of the PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways in insulin-sensitive tissues, allowing the accumulation of glucose in the blood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and mechanisms by which ethanol extract of Caulerpa lentillifera (CLE) regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice. Mice were administered CLE (250 or 500 mg/kg BW) or rosiglitazone (RSG, 10 mg/kg BW) for 6 weeks. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT) were performed, and blood glucose was measured in db/db mice. Levels of insulin and insulin resistance factors in plasma, glycogen content in the liver, and IRS, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 expressions in skeletal muscles were measured in db/db mice. Glucose uptake and insulin signaling molecules were measured in L6 myocytes, using fluorometry and Western blotting. CLE significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, glucose level in OGTT and IPITT, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, IL-6, FFA, TG and TC levels, and hepatic glycogen content in db/db mice. CLE significantly increased the activation of IRS, AKT, PI3K, and GLUT4, which are the key effector molecules of the PI3K/AKT pathway in L6 myocytes and the skeletal muscles of db/db mice. The enhanced glucose uptake by CLE was abolished by treatment with a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), but not by an AMPK inhibitor (compound C) in L6 myocytes. CLE regulated glucose uptake and homeostasis via the PI3K/AKT pathway in myocytes and db/db mice, respectively. Our results suggest that CLE could be a potential candidate for the prevention of diabetes.

  17. Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    .... Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala...

  18. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6, Zusanli (ST36, and Sanyinjiao (SP6; in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23 was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6 and Zusanli (ST36, needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS and serum C peptide (C-P were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules.

  19. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid fatty acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Alice; Ghoreishi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults). The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1a (PGC1α) mRNA in BF...

  20. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial func...

  1. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial func...

  2. Expression and chromatin structures of cellulolytic enzyme gene regulated by heterochromatin protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiujun; Qu, Yinbo; Qin, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, homologue HepA in Penicillium oxalicum) binding is associated with a highly compact chromatin state accompanied by gene silencing or repression. HP1 loss leads to the derepression of gene expression. We investigated HepA roles in regulating cellulolytic enzyme gene expression, as an increasingly number of studies have suggested that cellulolytic enzyme gene expression is not only regulated by transcription factors, but is also affected by the chromat...

  3. Functional Architectures of Local and Distal Regulation of Gene Expression in Multiple Human Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuanyao; Finucane, Hilary K; Gusev, Alexander; Bhatia, Gaurav; Gazal, Steven; O'Connor, Luke; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Wright, Fred A; Sullivan, Patrick F; Neale, Benjamin M; Price, Alkes L

    2017-04-06

    Genetic variants that modulate gene expression levels play an important role in the etiology of human diseases and complex traits. Although large-scale eQTL mapping studies routinely identify many local eQTLs, the molecular mechanisms by which genetic variants regulate expression remain unclear, particularly for distal eQTLs, which these studies are not well powered to detect. Here, we leveraged all variants (not just those that pass stringent significance thresholds) to analyze the functional architecture of local and distal regulation of gene expression in 15 human tissues by employing an extension of stratified LD-score regression that produces robust results in simulations. The top enriched functional categories in local regulation of peripheral-blood gene expression included coding regions (11.41×), conserved regions (4.67×), and four histone marks (p regulation of peripheral-blood gene expression: coding regions (4.47×), conserved regions (4.51×), and two histone marks (p gene expression across tissues confirmed that local regulation of gene expression is largely shared across tissues but that distal regulation is highly tissue specific. Our results elucidate the functional components of the genetic architecture of local and distal regulation of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspects of Regulating Freedom of Expression on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucereanu, D.

    2008-01-01

    It is common knowledge that the internet has profoundly affected the manner in which people communicate, obtain information and express themselves. What is less explored is exactly how freedom of expression and the internet interact, and what may be the legal consequences of the special features of

  5. Transgenic overexpression of BAFF regulates the expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LI ZHANG

    Kawakami, Division of Molecular and Developmental. Biology, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka,. Japan. The pT2AL200R150G (Tol2) vector contains a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette com- posed of the Xenopus EF1 enhancer/promoter for ubiquitous expression, the rabbit globin intron, ...

  6. Regulation of mitochondrial gene expression, the epigenetic enigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mposhi, Archibold; van der Wijst, Monique G. P.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Rots, Marianne G.

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics provides an important layer of information on top of the DNA sequence and is essential for establishing gene expression profiles. Extensive studies have shown that nuclear DNA methylation and histone modifications influence nuclear gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether

  7. Differential timing of gene expression regulation between leptocephali of North Atlantic eels in the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatchez, Louis; Saint-Cyr, Jérôme; Maes, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    the alternative hypotheses of (1) differential timing of gene expression regulation during early development versus (2) species-specific differences in expression of particular genes. Our results provide much stronger support for the former hypothesis since no gene showed consistent significant differences...... in expression levels between the two species. In contrast, 146 genes showed differential timings of expression between species, although the observed expression level differences between the species were generally small. Consequently, species-specific gene expression regulation seems to play a minor role...... in species differentiation. Overall, these results show that the basis of the early developmental divergence between the American and European eel is probably influenced by differences in the timing of gene expression regulation for genes involved in a large array of biological functions...

  8. Down-regulation of ROBO2 Expression in Prostate Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Youn Jin; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence exist that axon guidance genes are involved in cancer pathogenesis. Axon guidance genes ROBO1 and ROBO2 are candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The aim of our study was to address whether ROBO1 and ROBO2 expressions are altered in prostate cancers (PCA). In this study, we analyzed ROBO1 and ROBO2 expressions in 107 PCAs. In the immunohistochemistry, loss of ROBO2 expression was identified in 66 % of PCAs and was significantly higher than that in normal cells (p 

  9. Down-regulation of ROBO2 expression in prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Jin; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2014-07-01

    Several lines of evidence exist that axon guidance genes are involved in cancer pathogenesis. Axon guidance genes ROBO1 and ROBO2 are candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The aim of our study was to address whether ROBO1 and ROBO2 expressions are altered in prostate cancers (PCA). In this study, we analyzed ROBO1 and ROBO2 expressions in 107 PCAs. In the immunohistochemistry, loss of ROBO2 expression was identified in 66 % of PCAs and was significantly higher than that in normal cells (p ROBO1 expression between normal and PCAs. Our results indicate that axon guidance protein ROBO2 is frequently lost in PCA and that ROBO2 might be involved in PCA pathogenesis as a candidate TSG.

  10. Protein Phosphatase-1 Regulates Expression of Neuregulin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ammosova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, a cellular serine/threonine phosphatase, is targeted to cellular promoters by its major regulatory subunits, PP1 nuclear targeting subunit, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1 and RepoMan. PP1 is also targeted to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII by NIPP1 where it can dephosphorylate RNAPII and cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9. Here, we show that treatment of cells with a small molecule activator of PP1 increases the abundance of a neuregulin-1 (NRG-1-derived peptide. NRG-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the cells stably or transiently expressing mutant NIPP1 (mNIPP1 that does not bind PP1, but not in the cells expressing NIPP1. Expression of mNIPP1 also activated the NRG-1 promoter in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Analysis of extracts from mNIPP1 expressing cells by glycerol gradient centrifugation showed a redistribution of PP1 and CDK9 between large and small molecular weight complexes, and increased CDK9 Thr-186 phosphorylation. This correlated with the increased CDK9 activity. Further, RNAPII co-precipitated with mNIPP1, and phosphorylation of RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD Ser-2 residues was greater in cells expressing mNIPP1. In mNIPP1 expressing cells, okadaic acid, a cell-permeable inhibitor of PP1, did not increase Ser-2 CTD phosphorylation inhibited by flavopiridol, in contrast to the NIPP1 expressing cells, suggesting that PP1 was no longer involved in RNAPII dephosphorylation. Finally, media conditioned with mNIPP1 cells induced the proliferation of wild type 84-31 cells, consistent with a role of neuregulin-1 as a growth promoting factor. Our study indicates that deregulation of PP1/NIPP1 holoenzyme activates NRG-1 expression through RNAPII and CDK9 phosphorylation in a NF-κB dependent manner.

  11. Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanta Mallika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.

  12. A light-switchable bidirectional expression module allowing simultaneous regulation of multiple genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Yang, Yi

    2015-10-02

    Several light-regulated genetic circuits have been applied to spatiotemporally control transgene expression in mammalian cells. However, simultaneous regulation of multiple genes using one genetic device by light has not yet been reported. In this study, we engineered a bidirectional expression module based on LightOn system. Our data showed that both reporter genes could be regulated at defined and quantitative levels. Simultaneous regulation of four genes was further achieved in cultured cells and mice. Additionally, we successfully utilized the bidirectional expression module to monitor the expression of a suicide gene, showing potential for photodynamic gene therapy. Collectively, we provide a robust and useful tool to simultaneously control multiple genes expression by light, which will be widely used in biomedical research and biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HOXB4 Gene Expression Is Regulated by CDX2 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Coshun, Mehmet; Mikkelsen Homburg, Keld

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) plays a key role in the homeobox regulatory network and is essential in regulating the expression of several homeobox (HOX) genes during embryonic development, particularly in the gut. Genome-wide CDX2 chromatin immunoprecipitation...... analysis and expression data from Caco2 cells also suggests a role for CDX2 in the regulation of HOXB4 gene expression in the intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HOXB4 gene expression is regulated by CDX2 in the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated binding of CDX...... demonstrating the CDX2 regulation of HOXB4 gene expression in the developed intestinal epithelium, indicating a possible role for HOXB4 in intestinal homeostasis....

  14. Comparative analysis of gene expression and regulation of replicative aging associated genes in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Sukhraj Pal Singh; Mittal, Nitish; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Roy, Nilanjan

    2011-02-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial and complex phenomenon. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is developed as a model of aging and has been widely studied in order to understand the mechanism of lifespan regulation. A large number of high-throughput studies were conducted to identify the genes which modulate lifespan. These studies provide the list of genes that regulates the lifespan in yeast; however the regulation of these aging associated genes had not been fully understood. In this study, we have shown that deletion of the genes which increase the replicative lifespan (RLS) of yeast show discrete expression patterns when compared with the genes that, on deletion, cause a decrease in lifespan. Expression of longlived (LL) genes decreases as the cell progresses from mid log to stationary phase, whereas expression of shortlived (SL) genes remains unchanged. This distinct expression of LL and SL gene-sets suggests their differential gene regulation. Further analysis of transcriptional regulation by transcription factors and epigenetic regulators (acetylation and methylation) suggests that this differential expression of the two gene-sets is due to their differential epigenetic regulations, rather than regulation by transcription factors. These results accentuate the importance of epigenetic modifications in aging. We deduce that future focused studies on epigenetic modification regulation will help lead to a better understanding of the aging process.

  15. Exogenous alpha 1-antitrypsin down-regulates SERPINA1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagi, Ahmad; Johansson, Helene; Zemack, Helen; Salipalli, Sandeep; Mörk, Lisa-Mari; Kannisto, Kristina; Jorns, Carl; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Stokkeland, Knut; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Jonigk, Danny; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Nowak, Greg; Ellis, Ewa C S

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys) A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT) expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM) treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues. In addition, SERPINA1 mRNA was assessed in lung tissues from PiZZ emphysema patients with and without A1AT therapy, and in adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from healthy PiMM donors. In a dose-dependent manner purified A1AT lowered SERPINA1 expression in hepatocytes. This latter effect was more prominent in hepatocytes stimulated with OSM. Although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0539)-analysis of lung tissues showed lower SERPINA1 expression in PiZZ emphysema patients receiving augmentation therapy relative to those without therapy. Finally, exogenously added purified A1AT (1mg/ml) reduced SERPINA1 expression in naïve as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human adherent PBMCs. Exogenous A1AT protein reduces its own endogenous expression. Hence, augmentation with native M-A1AT protein and a parallel reduction in expression of dysfunctional mutant Z-A1AT may be beneficial for PiZZ liver, and this motivates further studies.

  16. Exogenous alpha 1-antitrypsin down-regulates SERPINA1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Karadagi

    Full Text Available The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues. In addition, SERPINA1 mRNA was assessed in lung tissues from PiZZ emphysema patients with and without A1AT therapy, and in adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC isolated from healthy PiMM donors. In a dose-dependent manner purified A1AT lowered SERPINA1 expression in hepatocytes. This latter effect was more prominent in hepatocytes stimulated with OSM. Although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0539-analysis of lung tissues showed lower SERPINA1 expression in PiZZ emphysema patients receiving augmentation therapy relative to those without therapy. Finally, exogenously added purified A1AT (1mg/ml reduced SERPINA1 expression in naïve as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human adherent PBMCs. Exogenous A1AT protein reduces its own endogenous expression. Hence, augmentation with native M-A1AT protein and a parallel reduction in expression of dysfunctional mutant Z-A1AT may be beneficial for PiZZ liver, and this motivates further studies.

  17. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, Birgitte; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells....... expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and approximately 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists...

  18. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...... expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and similar to 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists...

  19. Testosterone Regulates NUCB2 mRNA Expression in Male Mouse Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Sojeong; Jeon, Daun; Kim, Heejeong; Chung, Yiwa; Choi, Narae; Yang, Hyunwon

    2017-03-01

    Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is known to take part in the control of the appetite and energy metabolism. Recently, many reports have shown nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression and function in various organs. We previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression level is higher in the pituitary gland compared to other organs and its expression is regulated by 17β-estradiol and progesterone secreted from the ovary. However, currently no data exist on the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and its regulation mechanism in the pituitary of male mouse. Therefore, we examined whether nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is expressed in the male mouse pituitary and if its expression is regulated by testosterone. As a result of PCR and western blotting, we found that a large amount of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The NUCB2 mRNA expression level in the pituitary was decreased after castration, but not in the hypothalamus. In addition, its mRNA expression level in the pituitary was increased after testosterone treatment in the castrated mice, whereas, the expression level in the hypothalamus was significantly decreased after the treatment with testosterone. The in vitro experiment to elucidate the direct effect of testosterone on NUCB2 mRNA expression showed that NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased with testosterone in cultured hypothalamus tissue, but increased with testosterone in cultured pituitary gland. The present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was highly expressed in the male mouse pituitary and was regulated by testosterone. This data suggests that reproductive-endocrine regulation through hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis may contribute to NUCB2 mRNA expression in the mouse hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  20. Cybersex: regulating sexually explicit expression on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, F H

    1996-01-01

    While the First Amendment restricts the power of the government to control access by adults to sexually explicit expression that is not obscene, the government may restrict access by children, provided that those restrictions do not limit adults to reading only "what is fit for children." Controlling access by children presents special problems in the context of broadcasting, because broadcast programming is accessible to children too young to read and because of the impossibility of segregating adults and children in the audience. The Supreme Court therefore permits the government to require "channeling" of sexually explicit programming to times when fewer unsupervised children are in the audience, to facilitate parental control over children's access to sexually explicit material. Although Internet content includes less than one percent of sexually explicit expression, that material has been the subject of intensive media and government attention. Much of that attention ignores (1) the high level of constitutional protection applicable to non-obscene, sexually explicit expression; (2) features of the Internet which facilitate controlling access by children to sexually explicit expression far more effectively than in broadcasting or print media; and (3) the First Amendment values served by permitting expression of all forms on the Internet.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of miR-212 expression in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Incoronato

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that microRNA expression in cancer may be regulated by epigenetic events. Recently, we found that in lung cancer miR-212 was strongly down-regulated. However, mechanisms involved in the regulation of miR-212 expression are unknown. Therefore, we addressed this point by investigating the molecular mechanisms of miR-212 silencing in lung cancer. We identified histone modifications rather than DNA hypermethylation as epigenetic events that regulate miR-212 levels in NSCLC. Moreover, we found that miR-212 silencing in vivo is closely associated with the severity of the disease.

  2. Developmentally regulated expression of reporter gene in adult ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. The genetic regulation of adult brain development has re- mained enigmatic to developmental biologists since long. The practical difficulty in understanding the adult brain de- velopment is that most of the mutational searches done for genes in different model systems yield mutations inducing embryonic ...

  3. Nitrogen regulates chitinase gene expression in a marine bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpin, Marina; Goodman, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonium concentration and nitrogen source regulate promoter activity and use for the transcription of chiA, the major chitinase gene of Pseudoalteromonas sp. S91 and S91CX, an S91 transposon lacZ fusion mutant. The activity of chiA was quantified by beta-galactosidase assay of S91CX cultures...

  4. Characterization of gene expression regulated by human OTK18 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One hypothesis is that OTK18 aids in the regulation of the innate immune system. To test this hypothesis, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the total RNA extracted from Drosophila melanogaster embryonic Schneider 2 (S2) cells transfected with either pEGFP-OTK18 (enhanced green fluorescent protein) or ...

  5. Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 4 regulates gene expression via transcription factor release in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Jin-Long; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Petersen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Plant and animal perception of microbes through pathogen surveillance proteins leads to MAP kinase signalling and the expression of defence genes. However, little is known about how plant MAP kinases regulate specific gene expression. We report that, in the absence of pathogens, Arabidopsis MAP...... supported by the suppression of PAD3 expression in mpk4-wrky33 double mutant backgrounds. Our data establish direct links between MPK4 and innate immunity and provide an example of how a plant MAP kinase can regulate gene expression by releasing transcription factors in the nucleus upon activation....

  6. Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-01-07

    Jan 7, 2005 ... Here, the nervous system monitors the environment and transfers signals to the endocrine system. The endocrine hormones can then alter gene expression. The second route involves environmental factors that change the methylation pattern of genes, thereby altering their transcriptional capabilities.

  7. Regulation of HIV receptor expression in cervical epithelial cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. HIV receptor .... PCR product. Results were calculated using the comparative cycle threshold ... data were expressed relative to an endogenous control of HeLa cell. cDNA included in ... Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the ...

  8. Regulation of HIV receptor expression in cervical epithelial cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of HeLa cells with LPS increased expression of the primary HIV chemokine ... and several alternative HIV receptors including CCR2b (p<0.01), CXCR6 (p<0.05) and GPR1 ... Cervical cancer tissue specimens were obtained at the time of surgery ..... body, including the gastrointestinal tract, prostate and cervix, has.

  9. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukasaki, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyazono, Agasa [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Morimura, Naoko [Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM gene expression. {yields} Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-{kappa}B activation by TNF-{alpha}. {yields} Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-{alpha}-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-{alpha} in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-{alpha}-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM expression through the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis in the developing zebrafish embryo after compound exposure: Individual gene expression and pathway regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsen, Sanne A.B., E-mail: Sanne.Hermsen@rivm.nl [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pronk, Tessa E. [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht (Netherlands); Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den [Centre for Environmental Quality, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Ven, Leo T.M. van der [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test is a promising alternative assay for developmental toxicity. Classically, morphological assessment of the embryos is applied to evaluate the effects of compound exposure. However, by applying differential gene expression analysis the sensitivity and predictability of the test may be increased. For defining gene expression signatures of developmental toxicity, we explored the possibility of using gene expression signatures of compound exposures based on commonly expressed individual genes as well as based on regulated gene pathways. Four developmental toxic compounds were tested in concentration-response design, caffeine, carbamazepine, retinoic acid and valproic acid, and two non-embryotoxic compounds, D-mannitol and saccharin, were included. With transcriptomic analyses we were able to identify commonly expressed genes, which were mostly development related, after exposure to the embryotoxicants. We also identified gene pathways regulated by the embryotoxicants, suggestive of their modes of action. Furthermore, whereas pathways may be regulated by all compounds, individual gene expression within these pathways can differ for each compound. Overall, the present study suggests that the use of individual gene expression signatures as well as pathway regulation may be useful starting points for defining gene biomarkers for predicting embryotoxicity. - Highlights: • The zebrafish embryotoxicity test in combination with transcriptomics was used. • We explored two approaches of defining gene biomarkers for developmental toxicity. • Four compounds in concentration-response design were tested. • We identified commonly expressed individual genes as well as regulated gene pathways. • Both approaches seem suitable starting points for defining gene biomarkers.

  11. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lv

    Full Text Available MHC class I (MHC-I molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade.

  12. Circadian yin-yang regulation and its manipulation to globally reprogram gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Weyman, Philip D; Umetani, Miki; Xiong, Jing; Qin, Ximing; Xu, Qing; Iwasaki, Hideo; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-12-02

    The cyanobacterial circadian program exerts genome-wide control of gene expression. KaiC undergoes rhythms of phosphorylation that are regulated by interactions with KaiA and KaiB. The phosphorylation status of KaiC is thought to mediate global transcription via output factors SasA, CikA, LabA, RpaA, and RpaB. Overexpression of kaiC has been reported to globally repress gene expression. Here, we show that the positive circadian component KaiA upregulates "subjective dusk" genes and that its overexpression deactivates rhythmic gene expression without significantly affecting growth rates in constant light. We analyze the global patterns of expression that are regulated by KaiA versus KaiC and find in contrast to the previous report of KaiC repression that there is a "yin-yang" regulation of gene expression whereby kaiA overexpression activates "dusk genes" and represses "dawn genes," whereas kaiC overexpression complementarily activates dawn genes and represses dusk genes. Moreover, continuous induction of kaiA latched KaiABC-regulated gene expression to provide constitutively increased transcript levels of diverse endogenous and heterologous genes that are expressed in the predominant subjective dusk phase. In addition to analyzing KaiA regulation of endogenous gene expression, we apply these insights to the expression of heterologous proteins whose products are of potential value, namely human proinsulin, foreign luciferase, and exogenous hydrogenase. Both KaiC and KaiA complementarily contribute to the regulation of circadian gene expression via yin-yang switching. Circadian patterns can be reprogrammed by overexpression of kaiA or kaiC to constitutively enhance gene expression, and this reprogramming can improve 24/7 production of heterologous proteins that are useful as pharmaceuticals or biofuels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum amyloid P down-regulates CCL-1 expression, and inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum amyloid P down-regulates CCL-1 expression, and inhibits Ras/MAPK signaling and development of breast cancer. Shuhong Ding, Hongzhi Li, Xiaohui Li, Wenwen Wang, Xiuling Du, Guoying Dong, Ping Zhang ...

  14. Gene expression density profiles characterize modes of genomic regulation: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Hans; Wirth, Henry; Galle, Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Our study addresses modes of genomic regulation and their characterization using the distribution of expression values. A simple model of transcriptional regulation is introduced to characterize the response of the global expression pattern to the changing properties of basal regulatory building blocks. Random genomes are generated which express and bind transcription factors according to the appearance of short motifs of coding and binding sequences. Regulation of transcriptional activity is described using a thermodynamic model. Our model predicts single-peaked distributions of expression values the flanks of which decay according to power laws. The characteristic exponent is inversely related to the product of the connectivity of the network times the regulatory strength of bound transcription factors. Such 'expression spectra' were calculated and analyzed for different model genomes. Information on structural properties and on the interactions of regulatory elements is used to build up a framework of basic characteristics of expression spectra. We analyze examples addressing different biological issues. Peak position and width of the experimental expression spectra vary with the biological context. We demonstrate that the study of the global expression pattern provides valuable information about transcriptional regulation which complements conventional searches for differentially expressed single genes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  16. Identification of human HK genes and gene expression regulation study in cancer from transcriptomics data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meili; Xiao, Jingfa; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer.

  17. Time-dependent regulation analysis dissects shifts between metabolic and gen-expression regulation during differentiation of bloodstream forms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, K.; Bouwman, J.; Lindenbergh, P.A.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent regulation analysis is a new methodology that allows us to unravel, both quantitatively and dynamically, how and when functional changes in the cell are brought about by the interplay of gene expression and metabolism. In this first experimental implementation, we dissect the initial

  18. Time-dependent regulation analysis dissects shifts between metabolic and gene-expression regulation during nitrogen starvation in baker's yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent regulation analysis is a new methodology that allows us to unravel, both quantitatively and dynamically, how and when functional changes in the cell are brought about by the interplay of gene expression and metabolism. In this first experimental implementation, we dissect the initial

  19. Nitric oxide directly regulates gene expression during Drosophila development: need some gas to drive into metamorphosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

    2011-07-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important second messenger involved in numerous biological processes, but how it regulates gene expression is not well understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, Cáceres and colleagues (pp. 1476-1485) report a critical requirement of NO as a direct regulator of gene expression through its binding to a heme-containing nuclear receptor in Drosophila. This may be an anciently evolved mechanism to coordinate behavior and metabolism during animal development.

  20. Multiple oscillators regulate circadian gene expression in Neurospora

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Alejandro; Lewis, Zachary A.; Greene, Andrew V.; March, Irene J.; Gomer, Richard H.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    High-density microarrays were used to profile circadian gene expression in Neurospora crassa cultures grown in constant darkness. We identified 145 clock-controlled genes (ccgs). The ccgs peaked in mRNA accumulation at all phases of the day, with the majority peaking in the late night to early morning. The predicted or known functions of the ccgs demonstrate that the clock contributes to a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, development, metabolism, and stress response...

  1. Role of GLUT1 in regulation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Andrisse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT1 is responsible for a large portion of basal uptake of glucose and dehydroascorbic acid, both of which play roles in antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that conditions that would decrease GLUT1-mediated transport would cause increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in L6 myoblasts, while conditions that would increase GLUT1-mediated transport would result in decreased ROS levels. We found that the GLUT1 inhibitors fasentin and phloretin increased the ROS levels induced by antimycin A and the superoxide generator pyrogallol. However, indinavir, which inhibits GLUT4 but not GLUT1, had no effect on ROS levels. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM inhibitors and activators, previously shown to inhibit and augment GLUT1-mediated transport, increased and decreased ROS levels, respectively. Mutation of an ATM target site on GLUT1 (GLUT1-S490A increased ROS levels and prevented the ROS-lowering effect of the ATM activator doxorubicin. In contrast, expression of GLUT1-S490D lowered ROS levels during challenge with pyrogallol, prevented an increase in ROS when ATM was inhibited, and prevented the pyrogallol-induced decrease in insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Taken together, the data suggest that GLUT1 plays a role in regulation of ROS and could contribute to maintenance of insulin action in the presence of ROS.

  2. Role of GLUT1 in regulation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisse, Stanley; Koehler, Rikki M; Chen, Joseph E; Patel, Gaytri D; Vallurupalli, Vivek R; Ratliff, Benjamin A; Warren, Daniel E; Fisher, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT1 is responsible for a large portion of basal uptake of glucose and dehydroascorbic acid, both of which play roles in antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that conditions that would decrease GLUT1-mediated transport would cause increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in L6 myoblasts, while conditions that would increase GLUT1-mediated transport would result in decreased ROS levels. We found that the GLUT1 inhibitors fasentin and phloretin increased the ROS levels induced by antimycin A and the superoxide generator pyrogallol. However, indinavir, which inhibits GLUT4 but not GLUT1, had no effect on ROS levels. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitors and activators, previously shown to inhibit and augment GLUT1-mediated transport, increased and decreased ROS levels, respectively. Mutation of an ATM target site on GLUT1 (GLUT1-S490A) increased ROS levels and prevented the ROS-lowering effect of the ATM activator doxorubicin. In contrast, expression of GLUT1-S490D lowered ROS levels during challenge with pyrogallol, prevented an increase in ROS when ATM was inhibited, and prevented the pyrogallol-induced decrease in insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Taken together, the data suggest that GLUT1 plays a role in regulation of ROS and could contribute to maintenance of insulin action in the presence of ROS.

  3. Food intake regulating-neuropeptides are expressed and regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction in rat placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepeda Libia A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti related peptide (AgRP, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART and melanocortins, the products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC, are hypothalamic peptides involved in feeding regulation and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence has demonstrated their expression in rat and human placenta. Methods In the current study, we have investigated the expression of those neuropeptides in the rat placenta by real-time PCR using a model of maternal food restriction. Results Our results showed that placental-derived neuropeptides were regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction. Conclusion These data could indicate that placental-derived neuropeptides represent a local regulatory circuit that may fine-tune control of energy balance during pregnancy.

  4. Regulation of gene expression in adeno-associated virus vectors in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; McCown, Thomas J

    2002-10-01

    Regulated adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have broad utility in both experimental and applied gene therapy, and to date, several regulation systems have exhibited a capability to control gene expression from viral vectors over two orders of magnitude. The tetracycline responsive system has been the most used in AAV, although other regulation systems such as RU486- and rapamycin-responsive systems are reasonable options. AAV vectors influence how regulation systems function by several mechanisms, leading to increased background gene expression and restricted induction. Methods to reduce background expression continue to be explored and systems not yet tried in AAV may prove quite functional. Although regulated promoters are often assumed to exhibit ubiquitous expression, the tropism of different neuronal subtypes can be altered dramatically by changing promoters in recombinant AAV vectors. Differences in promoter-directed tropism have significant consequences for proper expression of gene products as well as the utility of dual vector regulation. Thus regulated vector systems must be carefully optimized for each application. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  5. POTATO GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE PROMOTER-CONTROLLED GUS EXPRESSION - REGULATION OF EXPRESSION AFTER TRANSIENT AND STABLE TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; NIEBOER, M; SWAVING, J; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1992-01-01

    Chimaeric genes of promoter sequences from the potato gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were used to study GBSS expression and regulation. Analysis of stable transformants revealed that a GBSS promoter sequence of 0.4 kb was sufficient

  6. Prostacyclin synthase expression and epigenetic regulation in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) metabolizes prostaglandin H(2), into prostacyclin. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of PGIS in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and examine potential mechanisms involved in PGIS regulation. METHODS: PGIS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, and immunohistochemistry. A 204-patient NSCLC tissue microarray was stained for PGIS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Staining intensity was correlated with clinical parameters. Epigenetic mechanisms underpinning PGIS promoter expression were examined using RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. RESULTS: PGIS expression was reduced\\/absent in human NSCLC protein samples (P < .0001), but not mRNA relative to matched controls. PGIS tissue expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma (P = .004) and in male patients (P < .05). No significant correlation of PGIS or COX2 expression with overall patient survival was observed, although COX2 was prognostic for short-term (2-year) survival (P < .001). PGIS mRNA expression was regulated by DNA CpG methylation and histone acetylation in NSCLC cell lines, with chromatin remodeling taking place directly at the PGIS gene. PGIS mRNA expression was increased by both demethylation agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Protein levels were unaffected by demethylation agents, whereas PGIS protein stability was negatively affected by histone deacetylase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: PGIS protein expression is reduced in NSCLC, and does not correlate with overall patient survival. PGIS expression is regulated through epigenetic mechanisms. Differences in expression patterns between mRNA and protein levels suggest that PGIS expression and protein stability are regulated post-translationally. PGIS protein stability may have an important therapeutic role in NSCLC.

  7. Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Expressive Suppression and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…

  8. Regulating Emotionally Expressive Behavior: Implications of Goals and Social Partner from Middle Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Zeman, Janice L.; Stegall, Sheri

    2001-01-01

    Examined emotion regulation decisions and outcome expectations following emotionally expressive behavior in fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders as a function of goals, age, and gender. Found that participants distinguished between vignettes characterized by prosocial versus self-protective goals. Goal type influenced emotional regulation decisions…

  9. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  10. High-fat diet feeding alters metabolic response to fasting/non fasting conditions. Effect on caveolin expression and insulin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2011-04-13

    The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F) to not fasted (NF) rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF) diet for 72 days. Serum glucose was analysed enzymatically and insulin and leptin by ELISA. Caveolins and insulin signalling intermediaries (IR, IRS-1 and 2 and GLUT4) were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Caveolin and IR phosphorylation was measured by immunoprecipitation. Data were analysed with Mann-Whitney U test. High-fat fed animals showed metabolic alterations and developed obesity and insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, food intake (NF) induced activation of IR and increased expression of IRS-2 in control animals with normal metabolic response. HF animals became overweight, hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic and showed insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle of these animals, food intake (NF) also induced IRS-2 expression together with IR, although this was not active. Caveolin 3 expression in this tissue was increased by food intake (NF) in animals fed either diet. In RP adipocytes of control animals, food intake (NF) decreased IR and IRS-2 expression but increased that of GLUT4. A similar but less intense response was found in SC adipocytes. Food intake (NF) did not change caveolin expression in RP adipocytes with either diet, but in SC adipocytes of HF animals a reduction was observed. Food intake (NF) decreased caveolin-1 phosphorylation in RP but increased it in SC adipocytes of control animals, whereas it increased caveolin-2 phosphorylation in both types of adipocytes independently of the diet. Animals fed a control-diet show a normal response to food intake (NF), with activation of the insulin signalling pathway but without appreciable changes in caveolin expression, except a small increase of caveolin-3 in muscle. Animals fed a high-fat diet

  11. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F

    2007-01-01

    -regulated (>twofold, p 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved...... development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p

  12. The expression and regulation of glucose transporters in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter proteins are involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. In particular, the high expressions of sodium-glucose cotransporter and glucose transporter proteins in tumor cells show that these two transporters play a key role in tumor cell metabolism. Studying the crystal structure and conformation of human glucose transporter proteins has enabled the development of drugs based on specific binding sites, opening up a new path towards more effective cancer treatments. This mini review serves to summarize our existing understanding of the metabolic pathways of tumor cells, focusing on the roles of glucose transporter proteins.

  13. Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Jaime J; Rigby, Peter W J

    2010-11-01

    During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of cyclooxygenase expression in cultured vascular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pash, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism in vascular tissue results in synthesis of prostacylin. The key enzyme in this synthesis pathway, cyclooxygenase, is down-regulated through self-inactivation. An analogous refractory state is produced by aspirin which irreversibly acetylates the enzyme. To further understand this phenomenon, the inactivation and recovery of cyclooxygenase activity was assayed in cultured ray vascular smooth muscle cells using exogenously added arachidonic acid. Self-inactivation of cyclooxygenase was observed following treatment with micromolar amounts of arachidonic acid. The recovery of cyclooxygenase activity following self-inactivation was analogous to that observed following aspirin-inactivation in that it depended on protein synthesis and required either serum or EGF. Two additional factors, TGF-{beta} and uric acid, were found to enhance the stimulation of cyclooxygenase recovery by EGF. A defined medium containing 10 ng/mL EGF, 1 ng/mL TGF{beta} and 0.1 mM uric acid duplicated the cyclooxygenase recovery activity of 10% serum. Stimulation of cyclooxygenase activity by EGF and TGF-{beta} was inhibited by cycloheximide but not by actinomycin-D, indicating a link to increased translation of pre-existing mRNA. A lack of significant effect on overall protein synthesis by EGF and TGF-{beta}, measured by ({sup 35}S)-methionine incorporation under conditions where a multi-fold increase in cyclooxygenase activity was seen, indicates that the translational regulation of a small fraction of total mRNA and possibly cyclooxygenase is occurring.

  15. NPAT expression is regulated by E2F and is essential for cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Guang; Bracken, Adrian P; Burkard, Karina

    2003-01-01

    of NPAT is regulated by E2F. Consistently, we find that the E2F sites in the NPAT promoter are required for its activation during the G(1)/S-phase transition. Moreover, we show that the expression of NPAT accelerates S-phase entry in cells released from quiescence. The inhibition of NPAT expression...

  16. Mouse Protocadherin-1 Gene Expression Is Regulated by Cigarette Smoke Exposure In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Henk; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Brouwer, Uilke; den Boef, Lisette E.; Gras, Renee; Reinders-Luinge, Marjan; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; van der Toorn, Marco; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Willemse, Brigitte W. M.; Sayers, Ian; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Nawijn, Martijn C.

    2014-01-01

    Protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) is a novel susceptibility gene for airway hyperresponsiveness, first identified in families exposed to cigarette smoke and is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells. Here, we asked how mouse Pcdh1 expression is regulated in lung structural cells in vivo under physiological

  17. Regulation of the spatiotemporal pattern of expression of the glutamine synthetase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie-Venema, H.; Hakvoort, T. B.; van Hemert, F. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase, the enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia into glutamine, is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally controlled manner. The first part of this review focuses on its spatiotemporal pattern of expression, the factors that regulate

  18. Regulation of cell-to-cell variability in divergent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Wu, Shuyang; Pocetti, Christopher; Bai, Lu

    2016-03-24

    Cell-to-cell variability (noise) is an important feature of gene expression that impacts cell fitness and development. The regulatory mechanism of this variability is not fully understood. Here we investigate the effect on gene expression noise in divergent gene pairs (DGPs). We generated reporters driven by divergent promoters, rearranged their gene order, and probed their expressions using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). We show that two genes in a co-regulated DGP have higher expression covariance compared with the separate, tandem and convergent configurations, and this higher covariance is caused by more synchronized firing of the divergent transcriptions. For differentially regulated DGPs, the regulatory signal of one gene can stochastically 'leak' to the other, causing increased gene expression noise. We propose that the DGPs' function in limiting or promoting gene expression noise may enhance or compromise cell fitness, providing an explanation for the conservation pattern of DGPs.

  19. LncRNA-ANCR down-regulation suppresses invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells by regulating EZH2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Yang; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Ying-Li; Liu, Bao; Wang, Meng; Hong, Xuan; Yu, Yan; Zhou, Yao-Hui; Zeng, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to explore the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-ANCR on the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells by regulating enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression. CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected and CRC SW620 cells line and normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIECs) were incubated. CRC SW620 cells line was transfected with ANCR-siRNA. The expressions of ANCR and EZH2 mRNA were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). EZH2 and trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) protein expressions were detected using Western blotting. The relationship between ANCR and EZH2 was determined through RNA pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. Cell invasion and migration were determined by Trans-well and cell scratch assays. ANCR, EZH2 and H3K27me3 expressions were up-regulated in CRC tissues and SW620 cells (all P EZH2 mRNA and protein expressions (all P EZH2. The results of Trans-well and cell scratch tests showed that when ANCR expression was decreased, the invasion and migration abilities of SW620 cells significantly declined (both P EZH2.

  20. The plant nuclear envelope and regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Geraint

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) separates the key mechanisms of transcription and translation, and as such is a critical control point in all eukaryotic cells. In plants, the proteins of the NE influence a number of processes including the control of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA and protein, chromatin localization to the nuclear periphery, and direct chromatin binding by members of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). In this review I attempt to bring these roles under the umbrella of their effect on gene expression, even though the complex nature of this cellular environment means there is considerable overlap of effects. Although the volume of research in plant cells has greatly improved over recent years, it is clear that our understanding of how the components of the NE either directly or indirectly influence gene expression is still in its infancy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Regulation of semaphorin 4D expression and cell proliferation of ovarian cancer by ERalpha and ERbeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Semaphorin 4D (sema 4D is involved in the progress of multiple cancers. In the presence of estrogen-like ligands, estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ participate in the progress of breast and ovarian cancers by transcriptional regulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of sema 4D and elucidate the regulatory pattern of ERα and ERβ on sema 4D expression in ovarian cancers. Sema 4D levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Patients with malignant ovarian cancers had significantly higher sema 4D levels than controls, suggesting an oncogene role of sema 4D in ovarian cancer. ERα expressions were up-regulated in SKOV-3 cells compared with normal ovarian IOSE80 epithelial cells. Conversely, down-regulation of ERβ was observed in SKOV-3 cells. Forced over-expression of ERα and ERβ in SKOV-3 cells was manipulated to establish ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cell lines. Incubation of ERα+ SKOV-3 cells with ERs agonist 17β-estradiol (E2 significantly enhanced sema 4D expression and rate of cell proliferation. Incubated with E2, ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells showed lower sema 4D expression and cell proliferation. Blocking ERα and ERβ activities with ICI182-780 inhibitor, sema 4D expressions and cell proliferation of ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells were recovered to control levels. Taken together, the data showed that sema 4D expression was positively correlated with the progress of ovarian cancer. ERα positively regulated sema 4D expression and accelerated cell proliferation. ERβ negatively regulated sema 4D expression and inhibited cell multiplication.

  2. Apoptosis and JNK activation are differentially regulated by Fas expression level in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Koepke, A; Jarad, G; Schlessman, K; Cleveland, R P; Wang, B; Konieczkowski, M; Schelling, J R

    2001-07-01

    In chronic renal disease, renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) Fas expression is up-regulated, leading to apoptotic RTC deletion and tubular atrophy. In vitro, cytokine- or hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Fas expression is associated with RTC apoptosis. In contrast, constitutively expressed, low level RTC Fas does not mediate apoptosis, suggesting that Fas may be coupled to expression level-dependent RTC signaling pathways. Fas is known to signal through JNK in many systems, but the requirement of JNK activation for apoptosis remains controversial. To determine if RTC Fas regulates JNK activity and apoptosis, human RTC were transfected with graded concentrations of a eukaryotic expression vector for murine Fas. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V, TUNEL and PARP cleavage assays. JNK activity was determined by immune complex kinase assay and/or immunoblots with phospho-specific JNK antibodies, in the presence or absence of co-expressed dominant negative JNK constructs. Fas antibody stimulation of RTC with high Fas expression levels (to model RTC phenotype in renal disease) caused a tenfold increase in apoptosis, while RTC with low level Fas expression (to model normal RTC phenotype) were apoptosis-resistant. Fas ligation activated JNK in RTC expressing low levels of Fas, but not in apoptosis-sensitive RTC with increased Fas expression. Dominant negative JNK co-expression failed to inhibit apoptosis in RTC expressing high levels of Fas, suggesting that JNK is neither necessary, nor sufficient, for Fas-dependent apoptosis. At high levels of expression, RTC Fas promotes apoptosis in a JNK-independent manner. At low basal expression, Fas induces JNK activation, but not apoptosis, consistent with novel roles for RTC Fas as a mediator of cell stress or chronic inflammation.

  3. Regulation of gene expression by FSP27 in white and brown adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bofu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT play critical roles in controlling energy homeostasis and in the development of obesity and diabetes. The mouse Fat-Specific protein 27 (FSP27, a member of the cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE family, is expressed in both BAT and WAT and is associated with lipid droplets. Over-expression of FSP27 promotes lipid storage, whereas FSP27 deficient mice have improved insulin sensitivity and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. In addition, FSP27-deficient white adipocytes have reduced lipid storage, smaller lipid droplets, increased mitochondrial activity and a higher expression of several BAT-selective genes. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which FSP27 controls lipid storage and gene expression in WAT and BAT, we systematically analyzed the gene expression profile of FSP27-deficient WAT by microarray analysis and compared the expression levels of a specific set of genes in WAT and BAT by semi-quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results BAT-selective genes were significantly up-regulated, whereas WAT-selective genes were down-regulated in the WAT of FSP27-deficient mice. The expression of the BAT-selective genes was also dramatically up-regulated in the WAT of leptin/FSP27 double deficient mice. In addition, the expression levels of genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, the TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid oxidation, were increased in the FSP27-deficient WAT. In contrast, the expression levels for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, the classic complement pathway and TGF-β signaling were down-regulated in the FSP27-deficient WAT. Most importantly, the expression levels of regulatory factors that determine BAT identity, such as CEBPα/β, PRDM16 and major components of the cAMP pathway, were markedly up-regulated in the WAT of FSP27-deficient mice. The expression levels of these regulatory

  4. Regulation of gene expression by FSP27 in white and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De; Zhang, Yinxin; Xu, Li; Zhou, Linkang; Wang, Yue; Xue, Bofu; Wen, Zilong; Li, Peng; Sang, Jianli

    2010-07-22

    Brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT) play critical roles in controlling energy homeostasis and in the development of obesity and diabetes. The mouse Fat-Specific protein 27 (FSP27), a member of the cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) family, is expressed in both BAT and WAT and is associated with lipid droplets. Over-expression of FSP27 promotes lipid storage, whereas FSP27 deficient mice have improved insulin sensitivity and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. In addition, FSP27-deficient white adipocytes have reduced lipid storage, smaller lipid droplets, increased mitochondrial activity and a higher expression of several BAT-selective genes. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which FSP27 controls lipid storage and gene expression in WAT and BAT, we systematically analyzed the gene expression profile of FSP27-deficient WAT by microarray analysis and compared the expression levels of a specific set of genes in WAT and BAT by semi-quantitative real-time PCR analysis. BAT-selective genes were significantly up-regulated, whereas WAT-selective genes were down-regulated in the WAT of FSP27-deficient mice. The expression of the BAT-selective genes was also dramatically up-regulated in the WAT of leptin/FSP27 double deficient mice. In addition, the expression levels of genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, the TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid oxidation, were increased in the FSP27-deficient WAT. In contrast, the expression levels for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, the classic complement pathway and TGF-beta signaling were down-regulated in the FSP27-deficient WAT. Most importantly, the expression levels of regulatory factors that determine BAT identity, such as CEBP alpha/beta, PRDM16 and major components of the cAMP pathway, were markedly up-regulated in the WAT of FSP27-deficient mice. The expression levels of these regulatory factors were also up-regulated in

  5. The DAF-7 TGF-β signaling pathway regulates chemosensory receptor gene expression in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Katherine M.; Sarafi-Reinach, Trina R.; Horne, Jennifer G.; Saffer, Adam M.; Sengupta, Piali

    2002-01-01

    Regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression in response to environmental or developmental cues provides a mechanism by which animals can alter their sensory responses. Here we demonstrate a role for the daf-7 TGF-β pathway in the regulation of expression of a subset of chemoreceptor genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. We describe a novel role of this pathway in maintaining receptor gene expression in the adult and show that the DAF-4 type II TGF-β receptor functions cell-autonomously to modulate...

  6. Multiple oscillators regulate circadian gene expression in Neurospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Lewis, Zachary A.; Greene, Andrew V.; March, Irene J.; Gomer, Richard H.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    High-density microarrays were used to profile circadian gene expression in Neurospora crassa cultures grown in constant darkness. We identified 145 clock-controlled genes (ccgs). The ccgs peaked in mRNA accumulation at all phases of the day, with the majority peaking in the late night to early morning. The predicted or known functions of the ccgs demonstrate that the clock contributes to a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, development, metabolism, and stress responses. Although the period of rhythm of most of the ccgs was found to depend on the well characterized frequency (FRQ)-based oscillator, three ccgs appeared to have a rhythm that was significantly short in the long period (29-h) frq7 mutant strain. These ccgs accumulate mRNA rhythmically with a circadian period in a frq-null strain, confirming the existence of a second oscillator in N. crassa. PMID:14597725

  7. Uterine Micro-Environment and Estrogen-Dependent Regulation of Osteopontin Expression in Mouse Blastocyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhen Xie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation is a highly synchronized bioprocess between an activated blastocyst and a receptive uterus. In mice, successful implantation relies on the dynamic interplay of estrogen and progesterone; however, the key mediators downstream of these hormones that act on blastocyst competency and endometrium receptivity acquisition are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression of osteopontin (OPN in mouse blastocysts is regulated by ovarian estrogen and uterine micro-environment. OPN mRNA is up-regulated in mouse blastocyst on day 4 of pregnancy, which is associated with ovarian estrogen secretion peak. Hormone treatment in vivo demonstrated that OPN expression in a blastocyst is regulated by estrogen through an estrogen receptor (ER. Our results of the delayed and activated implantation model showed that OPN expression is induced after estrogen injection. While estrogen treatment during embryo culture in vitro showed less effect on OPN expression, the tubal ligation model on day 3 of pregnancy confirmed that the regulation of estrogen on OPN expression in blastocyst might, through some specific cytokines, have existed in a uterine micro-environment. Collectively, our study presents that estrogen regulates OPN expression and it may play an important role during embryo implantation by activating blastocyst competence and facilitating the endometrium acceptable for active blastocyst.

  8. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  9. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  10. NDRG2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma adhesion, migration and invasion by regulating CD24 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yurong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients is poor due to the high metastatic rate of the disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis is extremely urgent. The role of CD24 and NDRG2 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, has not yet been explored in HCC. Methods The mRNA and protein expression of CD24 and NDRG2 was analyzed in MHCC97H, Huh7 and L-02 cells. Changes in cell adhesion, migration and invasion were detected by up- or down-regulating NDRG2 by adenovirus or siRNA. The expression pattern of NDRG2 and CD24 in HCC tissues and the relationship between NDRG2 and HCC clinical features was analyzed by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Results NDRG2 expression was negatively correlated with malignancy in HCC. NDRG2 exerted anti-tumor activity by regulating CD24, a molecule that mediates cell-cell interaction, tumor proliferation and adhesion. NDRG2 up-regulation decreased CD24 expression and cell adhesion, migration and invasion. By contrast, NDRG2 down-regulation enhanced CD24 expression and cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of 50 human HCC clinical specimens showed a strong correlation between NDRG2 down-regulation and CD24 overexpression (P = 0.04. In addition, increased frequency of NDRG2 down-regulation was observed in patients with elevated AFP serum level (P = 0.006, late TNM stage (P = 0.009, poor differentiation grade (P = 0.002, tumor invasion (P = 0.004 and recurrence (P = 0.024. Conclusions Our findings indicate that NDRG2 and CD24 regulate HCC adhesion, migration and invasion. The expression level of NDRG2 is closely related to the clinical features of HCC. Thus, NDRG2 plays an important physiological role in HCC metastasis.

  11. Look before you regulate: differential perceptual strategies underlying expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2011-08-01

    Successful emotion regulation is important for maintaining psychological well-being. Although it is known that emotion regulation strategies, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, may have divergent consequences for emotional responses, the cognitive processes underlying these differences remain unclear. Here we used eye-tracking to investigate the role of attentional deployment in emotion regulation success. We hypothesized that differences in the deployment of attention to emotional areas of complex visual scenes may be a contributing factor to the differential effects of these two strategies on emotional experience. Eye-movements, pupil size, and self-reported negative emotional experience were measured while healthy young adult participants viewed negative IAPS images and regulated their emotional responses using either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression. Consistent with prior work, reappraisers reported feeling significantly less negative than suppressers when regulating emotion as compared to a baseline condition. Across both groups, participants looked away from emotional areas during emotion regulation, an effect that was more pronounced for suppressers. Critically, irrespective of emotion regulation strategy, participants who looked toward emotional areas of a complex visual scene were more likely to experience emotion regulation success. Taken together, these results demonstrate that attentional deployment varies across emotion regulation strategies and that successful emotion regulation depends on the extent to which people look toward emotional content in complex visual scenes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Regulation of CCN2 gene expression and possible roles in developing tooth germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyama, Manabu; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Sugito, Hiroki; Nagayama, Motohiko; Kuboki, Takuo; Pacifici, Maurizio; Koyama, Eiki

    2013-11-01

    CCN proteins are extracellular and cell-associated molecules involved in several developmental processes, but their expression patterns and regulation in tooth development remain unclear. Here we first determined the expression patterns of CCN genes in mouse tooth germs. We found that at early stages CCN2 was detected in dental lamina, dental mesenchyme, and primary enamel knot, while other CCN family members were