Eva, R.; Koseki, H.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Fawcett, James
Roč. 130, č. 21 (2017), s. 3663-3675 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : axon regeneration * axon transport * neuronal polarisation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016
Li, Ping; Teng, Zhao-Qian; Liu, Chang-Mei
Spinal cord injury is a devastating disease which disrupts the connections between the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. Most injured neurons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration after injury. MicroRNAs can modulate multiple genes' expression and are tightly controlled during nerve development or the injury process. Evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs and their signaling pathways play important roles in mediating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury. This article reviews the role and mechanism of differentially expressed microRNAs in regulating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury, as well as their therapeutic potential for promoting axonal regeneration and repair of the injured spinal cord.
Wilson Pak-Kin Lou
Full Text Available Adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS neurons are unable to regenerate following axonal injury, leading to permanent functional impairments. Yet, the reasons underlying this regeneration failure are not fully understood. Here, we studied the transcriptome and translatome shortly after spinal cord injury. Profiling of the total and ribosome-bound RNA in injured and naïve spinal cords identified a substantial post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In particular, transcripts associated with nervous system development were down-regulated in the total RNA fraction while remaining stably loaded onto ribosomes. Interestingly, motif association analysis of post-transcriptionally regulated transcripts identified the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE as enriched in a subset of these transcripts that was more resistant to injury-induced reduction at the transcriptome level. Modulation of these transcripts by overexpression of the CPE binding protein, Cpeb1, in mouse and Drosophila CNS neurons promoted axonal regeneration following injury. Our study uncovered a global evolutionarily conserved post-transcriptional mechanism enhancing regeneration of injured CNS axons.
Pastuhov, Strahil Iv; Fujiki, Kota; Tsuge, Anna; Asai, Kazuma; Ishikawa, Sho; Hirose, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Hisamoto, Naoki
The mechanisms that govern the ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by the JNK-MAPK pathway. In this study, we identify two components functioning upstream of the JNK pathway: the Ste20-related protein kinase MAX-2 and the Rac-type GTPase CED-10. CED-10, when bound by GTP, interacts with MAX-2 and functions as its upstream regulator in axon regeneration. CED-10, in turn, is activated by axon injury via signals initiated from the integrin α-subunit INA-1 and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase SRC-1 and transmitted via the signaling module CED-2/CrkII-CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO. This module is also known to regulate the engulfment of apoptotic cells during development. Our findings thus reveal that the molecular machinery used for engulfment of apoptotic cells also promotes axon regeneration through activation of the JNK pathway. The molecular mechanisms of axon regeneration after injury remain poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by the JNK-MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that integrin, Rac-GTPase, and several other molecules, all of which are known to regulate engulfment of apoptotic cells during development, also regulate axon regeneration. This signaling module activates the JNK-MAPK cascade via MAX-2, a PAK-like protein kinase that binds Rac. Our findings thus reveal that the molecular machinery used for engulfment of apoptotic cells also promotes axon regeneration through activation of the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/369710-12$15.00/0.
Weng, Yi-Lan; Wang, Xu; An, Ran; Cassin, Jessica; Vissers, Caroline; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yajing; Xu, Tianlei; Wang, Xinyuan; Wong, Samuel Zheng Hao; Joseph, Jessica; Dore, Louis C; Dong, Qiang; Zheng, Wei; Jin, Peng; Wu, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; He, Chuan; Liu, Kai; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism and regulates developmental transitions by promoting mRNA decay. Little is known about the role of m6A in the adult mammalian nervous system. Here we report that sciatic nerve lesion elevates levels of m6A-tagged transcripts encoding many regeneration-associated genes and protein translation machinery components in the adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Single-base resolution m6A-CLIP mapping further reveals a dynamic m6A landscape in the adult DRG upon injury. Loss of either m6A methyltransferase complex component Mettl14 or m6A-binding protein Ythdf1 globally attenuates injury-induced protein translation in adult DRGs and reduces functional axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system in vivo. Furthermore, Pten deletion-induced axon regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons in the adult central nervous system is attenuated upon Mettl14 knockdown. Our study reveals a critical epitranscriptomic mechanism in promoting injury-induced protein synthesis and axon regeneration in the adult mammalian nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benowitz, Larry I; Popovich, Phillip G
The inflammatory response that accompanies neural injury involves multiple cell types and effector molecules with both positive and negative effects. Inflammation is essential for normal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system, and here we review evidence that augmenting inflammation can enhance regeneration in areas of the central nervous system in which it normally does not occur. Within the spinal cord, inflammation enables transplanted sensory neurons to regenerate lengthy axons and enhances the ability of a trophic factor to promote corticospinal tract sprouting. Induction of inflammation in the eye supports survival of retinal ganglion cells and enables them to regenerate injured axons through the optic nerve. These effects are linked to an atypical trophic factor, oncomodulin, along with other, better known molecules. Induction of inflammation within dorsal root ganglia, when combined with other treatments, enables peripheral sensory neurons to regenerate axons into the spinal cord. However, inflammation also has negative effects that impede recovery. In light of the importance of inflammation for neural repair, it is important to identify the specific cell types and molecules responsible for the positive and negative effects of inflammation and to develop treatments that tip the balance to favor repair.
Liu, Shengwen; Sandner, Beatrice; Schackel, Thomas; Nicholson, LaShae; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Puttagunta, Radhika; Müller, Rainer; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin
Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally. In addition, we examined whether SC injection into the caudal spinal parenchyma would further enhance regeneration of descending axons to re-enter the host spinal cord. Our data show that both serotonergic and descending axons traced by biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) extend throughout the scaffolds. The number of regenerating axons is significantly increased when caudal BDNF expression is activated and transient BDNF delivery is able to sustain axons after gene expression is switched off. Descending axons are confined to the caudal graft/host interface even with continuous BDNF expression for 8weeks. Only with a caudal injection of SCs, a pathway facilitating axonal regeneration through the host/graft interface is generated allowing axons to successfully re-enter the caudal spinal cord. Recovery from spinal cord injury is poor due to the limited regeneration observed in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Biomaterials, cell transplantation and growth factors that can guide axons across a lesion site, provide a cellular substrate, stimulate axon growth and have shown some promise in increasing the growth distance of regenerating axons. In the present study, we combined an alginate biomaterial with linear channels with transplantation of Schwann cells within
Song, Yuanquan; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M.; Zheng, Yi; Han, Chun; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung
Both cell-intrinsic and extrinsic pathways govern axon regeneration, but only a limited number of factors have been identified and it is not clear to what extent axon regeneration is evolutionarily conserved. Whether dendrites also regenerate is unknown. Here we report that, like the axons of mammalian sensory neurons, the axons of certain Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons are capable of substantial regeneration in the periphery but not in the CNS, and activating the Akt pathway enhances axon regeneration in the CNS. Moreover, those da neurons capable of axon regeneration also display dendrite regeneration, which is cell type-specific, developmentally regulated, and associated with microtubule polarity reversal. Dendrite regeneration is restrained via inhibition of the Akt pathway in da neurons by the epithelial cell-derived microRNA bantam but is facilitated by cell-autonomous activation of the Akt pathway. Our study begins to reveal mechanisms for dendrite regeneration, which depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including the PTEN–Akt pathway that is also important for axon regeneration. We thus established an important new model system—the fly da neuron regeneration model that resembles the mammalian injury model—with which to study and gain novel insights into the regeneration machinery. PMID:22759636
Tian, Xiaolin; Wu, Chunlai
...‐mediated pathways play important roles in controlling the presynaptic size, synaptic elimination and stabilization, synaptic transmission, postsynaptic receptor abundance, axonal degeneration and regeneration...
Mustafa M Siddiq
Full Text Available Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP levels has proven to be one of the most effective means of overcoming inhibition of axonal regeneration by myelin-associated inhibitors such as myelin-associated glycoprotein, Nogo, and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein. Pharmacological manipulation of cAMP through the administration of dibutyryl cAMP or rolipram leads to enhanced axonal growth both in vivo and in vitro, and importantly, upregulation of cAMP within dorsal root ganglion neurons is responsible for the conditioning lesion effect, which indicates that cAMP plays a significant role in the endogenous mechanisms that promote axonal regeneration. The effects of cAMP are transcription-dependent and are mediated through the activation of protein kinase A and the transcription factor CREB. This leads to the induction of a variety of genes, several of which have been shown to overcome myelin-mediated inhibition in their own right. In this review, we will highlight the pro-regenerative effects of arginase I, interleukin-6, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and metallothionein-I/II, and discuss their potential for therapeutic use in spinal cord injury.
Byrne, Alexandra B; Hammarlund, Marc
How axons repair themselves after injury is a fundamental question in neurobiology. With its conserved genome, relatively simple nervous system, and transparent body, C. elegans has recently emerged as a productive model to uncover the cellular mechanisms that regulate and execute axon regeneration. In this review, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the C. elegans model of regeneration. We explore the technical advances that enable the use of C. elegans for in vivo regeneration studies, review findings in C. elegans that have contributed to our understanding of the regeneration response across species, discuss the potential of C. elegans research to provide insight into mechanisms that function in the injured mammalian nervous system, and present potential future directions of axon regeneration research using C. elegans. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that function as key post-transcriptional regulators in neural development, brain function and neurological diseases. Growing evidence indicates that microRNAs are also important mediators of nerve regeneration, however, the affected signaling mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we show that nerve injury-induced miR-431 stimulates regenerative axon growth by silencing Kremen1, an antagonist of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Both the gain-of-function of miR-431 and knockdown of Kremen1 significantly enhance axon outgrowth in murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG neuronal cultures. Using cross-linking with AGO-2 immunoprecipitation (CLIP, and 3′ untranslated region (UTR luciferase reporter assay we demonstrate miR-431 direct interaction on the 3’-UTR of Kremen1 mRNA. Together, our results identify miR-431 as an important regulator of axonal regeneration and a promising therapeutic target.
Han, Sung Min; Baig, Huma S; Hammarlund, Marc
Axon regeneration is essential to restore the nervous system after axon injury. However, the neuronal cell biology that underlies axon regeneration is incompletely understood. Here we use in vivo, single-neuron analysis to investigate the relationship between nerve injury, mitochondrial localization, and axon regeneration. Mitochondria translocate into injured axons so that average mitochondria density increases after injury. Moreover, single-neuron analysis reveals that axons that fail to increase mitochondria have poor regeneration. Experimental alterations to axonal mitochondrial distribution or mitochondrial respiratory chain function result in corresponding changes to regeneration outcomes. Axonal mitochondria are specifically required for growth-cone migration, identifying a key energy challenge for injured neurons. Finally, mitochondrial localization to the axon after injury is regulated in part by dual-leucine zipper kinase 1 (DLK-1), a conserved regulator of axon regeneration. These data identify regulation of axonal mitochondria as a new cell-biological mechanism that helps determine the regenerative response of injured neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
W.J. Mandemakers (Wim); R. Zwart (Ronald); M.M. Jaegle (Martine); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik); P. Visser (Pim); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D. Meijer (Daniëlle)
textabstractThe POU domain transcription factor Oct-6 is a major regulator of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. During nerve development and regeneration, expression of Oct-6 is under the control of axonal signals. Identification of the cis-acting elements
Jiun L Do
Full Text Available Adult CNS neurons exhibit a reduced capacity for growth compared to developing neurons, due in part to downregulation of growth-associated genes as development is completed. We tested the hypothesis that SnoN, an embryonically regulated transcription factor that specifies growth of the axonal compartment, can enhance growth in injured adult neurons. In vitro, SnoN overexpression in dissociated adult DRG neuronal cultures significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, TGF-β1, a negative regulator of SnoN, inhibited neurite outgrowth, and SnoN over-expression overcame this inhibition. We then examined whether SnoN influenced axonal regeneration in vivo: indeed, expression of a mutant form of SnoN resistant to degradation significantly enhanced axonal regeneration following cervical spinal cord injury, despite peri-lesional upregulation of TGF-β1. Thus, a developmental mechanism that specifies extension of the axonal compartment also promotes axonal regeneration after adult CNS injury.
Sakamoto, Kazuma; Kadomatsu, Kenji
Therapeutics specific to neural injury have long been anticipated but remain unavailable. Axons in the central nervous system do not readily regenerate after injury, leading to dysfunction of the nervous system. This failure of regeneration is due to both the low intrinsic capacity of axons for regeneration and the various inhibitors emerging upon injury. After many years of concerted efforts, however, these hurdles to axon regeneration have been partially overcome. This review summarizes the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration. We highlight proteoglycans, particularly because it has become increasingly clear that these proteins serve as critical regulators for axon regeneration. Studies on proteoglycans have revealed that glycans not only assist in the modulation of protein functions but also act as main players-e.g., as functional ligands mediating intracellular signaling through specific receptors on the cell surface. By regulating clustering of the receptors, glycans in the proteoglycan moiety, i.e., glycosaminoglycans, promote or inhibit axon regeneration. In addition, proteoglycans are involved in various types of neural plasticity, ranging from synaptic plasticity to experience-dependent plasticity. Although studies on proteins have progressively facilitated our understanding of the nervous system, glycans constitute a new frontier for further research and development in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuro-glycoscience, edited by Kenji Kadomatsu and Hiroshi Kitagawa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tyson J. Edwards
Full Text Available Growth cones facilitate the repair of nervous system damage by providing the driving force for axon regeneration. Using single-neuron laser axotomy and in vivo time-lapse imaging, we show that syndecan, a heparan sulfate (HS proteoglycan, is required for growth cone function during axon regeneration in C. elegans. In the absence of syndecan, regenerating growth cones form but are unstable and collapse, decreasing the effective growth rate and impeding regrowth to target cells. We provide evidence that syndecan has two distinct functions during axon regeneration: (1 a canonical function in axon guidance that requires expression outside the nervous system and depends on HS chains and (2 an intrinsic function in growth cone stabilization that is mediated by the syndecan core protein, independently of HS. Thus, syndecan is a regulator of a critical choke point in nervous system repair.
Chisholm, Andrew D.; Hutter, Harald; Jin, Yishi; Wadsworth, William G.
The correct wiring of neuronal circuits depends on outgrowth and guidance of neuronal processes during development. In the past two decades, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of axon outgrowth and guidance. Genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has played a key role in elucidating conserved pathways regulating axon guidance, including Netrin signaling, the slit Slit/Robo pathway, Wnt signaling, and others. Axon guidance factors were first identified by screens for mutations affecting animal behavior, and by direct visual screens for axon guidance defects. Genetic analysis of these pathways has revealed the complex and combinatorial nature of guidance cues, and has delineated how cues guide growth cones via receptor activity and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Several axon guidance pathways also affect directed migrations of non-neuronal cells in C. elegans, with implications for normal and pathological cell migrations in situations such as tumor metastasis. The small number of neurons and highly stereotyped axonal architecture of the C. elegans nervous system allow analysis of axon guidance at the level of single identified axons, and permit in vivo tests of prevailing models of axon guidance. C. elegans axons also have a robust capacity to undergo regenerative regrowth after precise laser injury (axotomy). Although such axon regrowth shares some similarities with developmental axon outgrowth, screens for regrowth mutants have revealed regeneration-specific pathways and factors that were not identified in developmental screens. Several areas remain poorly understood, including how major axon tracts are formed in the embryo, and the function of axon regeneration in the natural environment. PMID:28114100
Anderson, Mark A.; Burda, Joshua E.; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O’Shea, Timothy M.; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S.; Deming, Timothy J.; Sofroniew, Michael V.
Summary Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or deleting chronic astrocyte scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. In striking contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocyte scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents CNS axon regeneration. PMID:27027288
Full Text Available Following an acute central nervous system injury, axonal regeneration and functional recovery are extremely limited. This is due to an extrinsic inhibitory growth environment and the lack of intrinsic growth competence. Retinoic acid (RA signaling, essential in developmental dorsoventral patterning and specification of spinal motor neurons, has been shown through its receptor, the transcription factor RA receptor β2 (RARß2, to induce axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI. Recently, it has been shown that in dorsal root ganglia neurons, cAMP levels were greatly increased by lentiviral RARβ2 expression and contributed to neurite outgrowth. Moreover, RARβ agonists, in cerebellar granule neurons and in the brain in vivo, induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase dependent phosphorylation of AKT that was involved in RARβ-dependent neurite outgrowth. More recently, RA-RARß pathways were shown to directly transcriptionally repress a member of the inhibitory Nogo receptor complex, Lingo-1, under an axonal growth inhibitory environment in vitro as well as following spinal injury in vivo. This perspective focuses on these newly discovered molecular mechanisms and future directions in the field.
Lu, Paul; Blesch, Armin; Graham, Lori; Wang, Yaozhi; Samara, Ramsey; Banos, Karla; Haringer, Verena; Havton, Leif; Weishaupt, Nina; Bennett, David; Fouad, Karim; Tuszynski, Mark H
We subjected rats to either partial midcervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion...
Full Text Available The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways are important for axon regeneration. Axonal injury induces expression of the svh-2 gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, stimulation of which by the SVH-1 growth factor leads to activation of the JNK pathway. Here, we identify ETS-4 and CEBP-1, related to mammalian Ets and C/EBP, respectively, as transcriptional activators of svh-2 expression following axon injury. ETS-4 and CEBP-1 function downstream of the cAMP and Ca2+-p38 MAPK pathways, respectively. We show that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ETS-4 promotes its complex formation with CEBP-1. Furthermore, activation of both cAMP and Ca2+ signaling is required for activation of svh-2 expression. Thus, the cAMP/Ca2+ signaling pathways cooperatively activate the JNK pathway, which then promotes axon regeneration.
Moldovan, M; Krarup, C
AIM: Following Wallerian degeneration, peripheral myelinated axons have the ability to regenerate and, given a proper pathway, establish functional connections with targets. In spite of this capacity, the clinical outcome of nerve regeneration remains unsatisfactory. Early studies have found...... that regenerated internodes remain persistently short though this abnormality did not seem to influence recovery in conduction. It remains unclear to which extent abnormalities in axonal function itself may contribute to the poor outcome of nerve regeneration. METHODS: We review experimental evidence indicating...... that internodes play an active role in axonal function. RESULTS: By investigating internodal contribution to axonal excitability we have found evidence that axonal function may be permanently compromised in regenerated nerves. Furthermore, we illustrate that internodal function is also abnormal in regenerated...
Stevens, Dylan T.; Mathew, Manoj; Goksör, Mattias; Pilon, Marc
The precise cutting of axons in C. elegans using short laser pulses permits the investigation of parameters that may influence axonal regeneration. This study began by building and optimizing a femtosecond laser axotomy setup that we first used to monitor the effect of cutting axons near or far from the cell body of the PLM mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans. To assess regeneration, we developed a scoring system where the angle between the regenerating trajectory and its direct line to the target is measured; we called this measurement the "angle of regeneration". The results indicate that axons cut near the cell body regenerate better than those cut far from the cell body but nearer their target. The role of teneurins, which are transmembrane proteins with a large extracellular domain that are thought to regulate the remodelling of the extracellular matrix, has not yet been explored as a potential contributor to axon regeneration. We cut PLM axons in wild-type or ten-1 mutant worms, and measured the angle of regeneration 48 hours later, and the frequency of reconnection to the target. Our results show that functional ten-1 contributes to successful axon regeneration.
Full Text Available Brachial plexus injury often involves traumatic root avulsion resulting in permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. The lack of sufficient regeneration from spinal motoneurons to the peripheral nerve (PN is considered to be one of the major causes of the unsatisfactory outcome of various surgical interventions for repair of the devastating injury. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential inhibitory signals which influence axonal regeneration after root avulsion injury. The results of the study showed that root avulsion triggered GSK-3β activation in the injured motoneurons and remaining axons in the ventral funiculus. Systemic application of a clinical dose of lithium suppressed activated GSK-3β in the lesioned spinal cord to the normal level and induced extensive axonal regeneration into replanted ventral roots. Our study suggests that GSK-3β activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3β inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS.
Smith, George M; Falone, Anthony E; Frank, Eric
Functional regeneration within the adult spinal cord remains a formidable task. A major barrier to regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord is the dorsal root entry zone. This region displays many of the inhibitory features characteristic of other central nervous system injuries. Several experimental treatments, including inactivation of inhibitory molecules (such as Nogo and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) or administration of neurotrophic factors (such as nerve growth factor, neurotrophin3, glial-derived neurotrophic factor and artemin), have been found to promote anatomical and functional regeneration across this barrier. However, there have been relatively few experiments to determine whether regenerating axons project back to their appropriate target areas within the spinal cord. This review focuses on recent advances in sensory axon regeneration, including studies assessing the ability of sensory axons to reconnect with their original synaptic targets. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lu, Paul; Blesch, Armin; Graham, Lori; Wang, Yaozhi; Samara, Ramsey; Banos, Karla; Haringer, Verena; Havton, Leif; Weishaupt, Nina; Bennett, David; Fouad, Karim; Tuszynski, Mark H.
We subjected rats to either partial mid-cervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion. Subjects received cAMP injections into brainstem reticular motor neurons to stimulate their endogenous growth state, bone marrow stromal cell grafts in lesion sites to provide permissive matrices for axonal growth, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gradients beyond the lesion to stimulate distal growth of motor axons. Findings were compared to several control groups. Combinatorial treatment generated motor axon regeneration beyond both C5 hemisection and complete transection sites. Yet despite formation of synapses with neurons below the lesion, motor outcomes worsened after partial cervical lesions and spasticity worsened after complete transection. These findings highlight the complexity of spinal cord repair, and the need for additional control and shaping of axonal regeneration. PMID:22699902
Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1 is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO, we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury.
Full Text Available Anti-glycan/ganglioside antibodies are the most common immune effectors found in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which is a peripheral autoimmune neuropathy. We previously reported that disease-relevant anti-glycan autoantibodies inhibited axon regeneration, which echo the clinical association of these antibodies and poor recovery in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. However, the specific molecular and cellular elements involved in this antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration are not previously defined. This study examined the role of Fcγ receptors and macrophages in the antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration. A well characterized antibody passive transfer sciatic nerve crush and transplant models were used to study the anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration in wild type and various mutant and transgenic mice with altered expression of specific Fcγ receptors and macrophage/microglia populations. Outcome measures included behavior, electrophysiology, morphometry, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting. We demonstrate that the presence of autoantibodies, directed against neuronal/axonal cell surface gangliosides, in the injured mammalian peripheral nerves switch the proregenerative inflammatory environment to growth inhibitory milieu by engaging specific activating Fcγ receptors on recruited monocyte-derived macrophages to cause severe inhibition of axon regeneration. Our data demonstrate that the antibody orchestrated Fcγ receptor-mediated switch in inflammation is one mechanism underlying inhibition of axon regeneration. These findings have clinical implications for nerve repair and recovery in antibody-mediated immune neuropathies. Our results add to the complexity of axon regeneration in injured peripheral and central nervous systems as adverse effects of B cells and autoantibodies on neural injury and repair are increasingly recognized.
Thanos, Solon; Böhm, Michael R R; Meyer zu Hörste, Melissa; Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Hennig, Maren; Bauer, Dirk; Heiligenhaus, Arndt
Neuroprotection is an emerging challenge in ophthalmology due to the particularly exposed location of retinal neurons and to the steadily increasing rate of intraocular surgical and pharmacological treatments applied to various eye diseases. Within few decades neuroprotection has developed from strongly contested approaches to being recognized and introduced as a potentially clinical application. One of the groups of putative substances for neuroprotection comprises αA- and αB-crystallins, which are types of heat-shock proteins and are considered to be molecular chaperones. The β/γ-crystallins form their own superfamily and are characterized as proteins with a distinct structure containing four Greek key motifs. Besides being abundant in the ocular lens, crystallins are also expressed in both the developing and mature retina. Crystallins are dramatically up-regulated in numerous retinal pathologies, including mechanical injury, ischemic insults, age-related macular degeneration, uveoretinitis, and diabetic retinopathy. Crystallins of the α family are thought to play a crucial role in retinal neuron survival and inflammation. Crystallins of the β/γ superfamily are also small proteins with a possible emerging role in retinal tissue remodeling and repair. One of the typical retinal diseases associated with crystallins is the experimental glaucomatous neuropathy that is characterized by their expression. Another typical retinal disease is the atrophy that occurs after mechanical injury to the optic nerve, which is associated with the need to regrow retinal axons. We have shown in regenerative models in vivo and in vitro that βB2-crystallin actively supports the regenerative growth of cut retinal axons, thereby offering targets for neuroprotective and regenerative treatments. In this review we discuss the discovery that βB2-crystallin is clearly up-regulated in the regenerating retina in vitro. βB2-Crystallin is produced and secreted during axon elongation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the cellular mechanisms regulating axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for developing treatments for nerve injury and neurodegenerative disease. In neurons, axon degeneration is distinct from cell body death and often precedes or is associated with the onset of disease symptoms. In the peripheral nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates, after degeneration of detached fragments, axons can often regenerate to restore function. Many studies of axonal degeneration and regeneration have used in vitro approaches, but the influence of extrinsic cell types on these processes can only be fully addressed in live animals. Because of its simplicity and superficial location, the larval zebrafish posterior lateral line (pLL nerve is an ideal model system for live studies of axon degeneration and regeneration. Results We used laser axotomy and time-lapse imaging of pLL axons to characterize the roles of leukocytes, Schwann cells and target sensory hair cells in axon degeneration and regeneration in vivo. Immune cells were essential for efficient removal of axonal debris after axotomy. Schwann cells were required for proper fasciculation and pathfinding of regenerating axons to their target cells. Intact target hair cells were not themselves required for regeneration, but chemical ablation of neuromasts caused axons to transiently deviate from their normal paths. Conclusions Macrophages, Schwann cells, and target sensory organs are required for distinct aspects of pLL axon degeneration or regeneration in the zebrafish larva. Our work introduces a powerful vertebrate model for analyzing axonal degeneration and regeneration in the living animal and elucidating the role of extrinsic cell types in these processes.
von Euler, Mia; Janson, A M; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard
Here we present evidence for spontaneous and long-lasting regeneration of CNS axons after spinal cord lesions in adult rats. The length of 200 kD neurofilament (NF)-immunolabeled axons was estimated after photochemically induced ischemic spinal cord lesions using a stereological tool. The total l...... lesions in rodents and that the fibers remain several months after injury. The findings of tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactivity in the axons suggest that descending central fibers contribute to this endogenous repair of ischemic spinal cord injury.......Here we present evidence for spontaneous and long-lasting regeneration of CNS axons after spinal cord lesions in adult rats. The length of 200 kD neurofilament (NF)-immunolabeled axons was estimated after photochemically induced ischemic spinal cord lesions using a stereological tool. The total...... cells, while other fibers were unmyelinated. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that some of the regenerated fibers were tyrosine hydroxylase- or serotonin-immunoreactive, indicating a central origin. These findings suggest that there is a considerable amount of spontaneous regeneration after spinal cord...
Full Text Available The developmental decrease of the intrinsic regenerative ability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS is associated with reduced activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR in mature neurons such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. While mTOR activity is further decreased upon axonal injury, maintenance of its pre-injury level, for instance by genetic deletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, markedly promotes axon regeneration in mammals. The current study now addressed the question whether active mTOR might generally play a central role in axon regeneration by analyzing its requirement in regeneration-competent zebrafish. Remarkably, regulation of mTOR activity after optic nerve injury in zebrafish is fundamentally different compared to mammals. Hardly any activity was detected in naïve RGCs, whereas it was markedly increased upon axotomy in vivo as well as in dissociated cell cultures. After a short burst, mTOR activity was quickly attenuated, which is contrary to the requirements for axon regeneration in mammals. Surprisingly, mTOR activity was not essential for axonal growth per se, but correlated with cytokine- and PTEN inhibitor-induced neurite extension in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR using rapamycin significantly reduced axonal regeneration in vivo and delayed functional recovery after optic nerve injury. Therefore, axotomy-induced mTOR activity is involved in CNS axon regeneration in zebrafish similar to mammals, although it plays an ancillary rather than essential role in this regeneration-competent species.
Full Text Available Our knowledge of the destructive events that regulate axonal degeneration is rudimentary. Here, we examine the role of caspases and their endogenous inhibitor, the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, in axonal degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG axons. We show that caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-9 are present in axons and are cleaved upon nerve growth factor (NGF withdrawal. We observed that caspase-3 activity is high in NGF-withdrawn axons and that CASP3−/− axons are protected from degeneration. XIAP−/− DRG sensory neurons degenerate more rapidly and contain more active caspase-3 than their wild-type counterparts, indicating that axonal caspases are normally regulated by XIAP. Importantly, axonal XIAP levels drop sharply after NGF withdrawal; if XIAP levels are maintained by overexpression, axonal caspase-3 activation and axonal degeneration are suppressed. Finally, we show that XIAP−/− embryos have stunted dermal innervation. We propose that XIAP-mediated caspase inhibition plays an important role in regulating morphogenic events that shape the nervous system during development.
Lotfi, Parisa; Garde, Kshitija; Chouhan, Amit K; Bengali, Ebrahim; Romero-Ortega, Mario I
Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces have been proposed as viable alternatives for the natural control of robotic prosthetic devices. However, sensory and motor axons at the neural interface are of mixed sub-modality types, which difficult the specific recording from motor axons and the eliciting of precise sensory modalities through selective stimulation. Here we evaluated the possibility of using type specific neurotrophins to preferentially entice the regeneration of defined axonal populations from transected peripheral nerves into separate compartments. Segregation of mixed sensory fibers from dorsal root ganglion neurons was evaluated in vitro by compartmentalized diffusion delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), to preferentially entice the growth of TrkA+ nociceptive and TrkC+ proprioceptive subsets of sensory neurons, respectively. The average axon length in the NGF channel increased 2.5-fold compared to that in saline or NT-3, whereas the number of branches increased threefold in the NT-3 channels. These results were confirmed using a 3D "Y"-shaped in vitro assay showing that the arm containing NGF was able to entice a fivefold increase in axonal length of unbranched fibers. To address if such segregation can be enticed in vivo, a "Y"-shaped tubing was used to allow regeneration of the transected adult rat sciatic nerve into separate compartments filled with either NFG or NT-3. A significant increase in the number of CGRP+ pain fibers were attracted toward the sural nerve, while N-52+ large-diameter axons were observed in the tibial and NT-3 compartments. This study demonstrates the guided enrichment of sensory axons in specific regenerative chambers, and supports the notion that neurotrophic factors can be used to segregate sensory and perhaps motor axons in separate peripheral interfaces.
Mehta, Saloni T; Luo, Xueting; Park, Kevin K; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P
Axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is intrinsically and extrinsically inhibited by multiple factors. One major factor contributing to intrinsic regeneration failure is the inability of mature neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) to activate regeneration-associated transcription factors (TFs) post-injury. A prior study identified TFs overexpressed in neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compared to the CNS; some of these could be involved in the ability of PNS neurons to regenerate. Of these, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as well its downstream regeneration-associated targets, showed a significant upregulation in PNS neurons relative to CNS neurons, and a constitutively active variant of Stat3 (Stat3CA) promoted neurite growth when expressed in cerebellar neurons (Lerch et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2011). To further enhance STAT3's neurite outgrowth enhancing activity, Stat3CA was fused with a viral activation domain (VP16). VP16 hyperactivates TFs by recruiting transcriptional co-factors to the DNA binding domain (Hirai et al., 2010). Overexpression of this VP16-Stat3CA chimera in primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase of neurite outgrowth as well as Stat3 transcriptional activity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo transduction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with AAV constructs expressing VP16-Stat3CA resulted in regeneration of optic nerve axons after injury, to a greater degree than for those expressing Stat3CA alone. These findings confirm and extend the concept that overexpression of hyperactivated transcription factors identified as functioning in PNS regeneration can promote axon regeneration in the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian
We found persistent abnormalities in the recovery of membrane excitability in long-term regenerated motor nerve fibres in the cat as indicated in the companion paper. These abnormalities could partly be explained by membrane hyperpolarization. To further investigate this possibility, we compared...... the changes in excitability in control nerves and long-term regenerated cat nerves (3-5 years after tibial nerve crush) during manoeuvres known to alter axonal membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump function: polarization, cooling to 20 degrees C, reperfusion after 10 min ischaemia, and up to 60 s of repetitive stimulation...... at 200 Hz. The abnormalities in excitability of regenerated nerves were reduced by depolarization and cooling and increased by hyperpolarization and during postischaemia. Moreover, the time course of recovery of excitability from repetitive stimulation and ischaemia was prolonged in regenerated nerves...
[ANGLÈS] There exist many illnesses like Alzheimer's disease and stroke or brain injuries that due to degeneration of the nervous system people can not have normal life anymore. This is a consequence of neuron damage which can not recover or regenerate after being severed in adult mammalian brain and spinal cord. On the other hand, there are examples in nature like Caenorhabditis elegans round worm, zebrafish or even mice that their nervous system can recuperate. The aim of this thesis is to ...
Johnson, S L; Schroeder, M L; Sánchez, J A; Kirk, M D
Rhythmic biting, a component of consummatory feeding behavior in the sea hare Aplysia californica, is eliminated following bilateral cerebral-buccal connective (CBC) crushes and recovers within 14 days postlesion. To assess axonal regeneration after CBC lesions, we used biocytin backfills of CBCs followed by fluorescence labeling with streptavidin-lissamine rhodamine. Anterograde transport of biocytin showed up to 1 mm of outgrowth by regenerating axons at 3 days postlesion. At 7 days postlesion, the regenerated axons approached or had entered the ipsilateral buccal neuropil and exhibited numerous varicosities; the average rate of axonal growth was 326 microm/day for the longest, most rapidly growing axons labeled in the CBC. The number of varicosities on labeled axons, suggestive of intercellular interactions, was increased dramatically at all times postlesion. At 14 and 20 days postlesion, regenerated axons branched extensively in the ipsilateral buccal neuropil, entered the contralateral buccal neuropil, and entered peripheral nerves on both sides of the midline. At these later times postlesion, some labeled axons encircled unlabeled buccal cell bodies and exhibited branches containing numerous varicosities, indicative of axosomatic contacts. Some regenerating axons were observed in the sheath of the CBC, but the vast majority of labeled axons remained confined to the connective core, as in control preparations. The bilateral projections within the buccal ganglia of labeled cerebral-to-buccal axons and the large number of varicosities present on these processes are indicative of regenerating axons and synapses that likely contribute to the functional recovery of rhythmic biting.
Gey, Manuel; Wanner, Renate; Schilling, Corinna; Pedro, Maria T.; Sinske, Daniela
Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce ‘effector’ RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting that these molecules might be effector RAGs of ATF3's pro-regenerative function. In addition to the induction of growth-promoting molecules, we present data that ATF3 suppresses growth-inhibiting molecules such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In summary, we show a pro-regenerative ATF3 function during PNS nerve regeneration involving transcriptional activation of a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster. ATF3 is a general injury-inducible factor, therefore ATF3-mediated mechanisms identified herein might apply to other cell and injury types. PMID:27581653
Nardos G. Tassew
Full Text Available Developing strategies that promote axonal regeneration within the injured CNS is a major therapeutic challenge, as axonal outgrowth is potently inhibited by myelin and the glial scar. Although regeneration can be achieved using the genetic deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of the mTOR pathway, this requires inactivation prior to nerve injury, thus precluding therapeutic application. Here, we show that, remarkably, fibroblast-derived exosomes (FD exosomes enable neurite growth on CNS inhibitory proteins. Moreover, we demonstrate that, upon treatment with FD exosomes, Wnt10b is recruited toward lipid rafts and activates mTOR via GSK3β and TSC2. Application of FD exosomes shortly after optic nerve injury promoted robust axonal regeneration, which was strongly reduced in Wnt10b-deleted animals. This work uncovers an intercellular signaling pathway whereby FD exosomes mobilize an autocrine Wnt10b-mTOR pathway, thereby awakening the intrinsic capacity of neurons for regeneration, an important step toward healing the injured CNS.
Xu, Chen; Klaw, Michelle C; Lemay, Michel A; Baas, Peter W; Tom, Veronica J
While it is well established that the axons of adult neurons have a lower capacity for regrowth, some regeneration of certain CNS populations after spinal cord injury (SCI) is possible if their axons are provided with a permissive substrate, such as an injured peripheral nerve. While some axons readily regenerate into a peripheral nerve graft (PNG), these axons almost always stall at the distal interface and fail to reinnervate spinal cord tissue. Treatment of the glial scar at the distal graft interface with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can improve regeneration, but most regenerated axons need further stimulation to extend beyond the interface. Previous studies demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting kinesin-5, a motor protein best known for its essential role in mitosis but also expressed in neurons, with the pharmacological agent monastrol increases axon growth on inhibitory substrates in vitro. We sought to determine if monastrol treatment after an SCI improves functional axon regeneration. Animals received complete thoracic level 7 (T7) transections and PNGs and were treated intrathecally with ChABC and either monastrol or DMSO vehicle. We found that combining ChABC with monastrol significantly enhanced axon regeneration. However, there were no further improvements in function or enhanced c-Fos induction upon stimulation of spinal cord rostral to the transection. This indicates that monastrol improves ChABC-mediated axon regeneration but that further treatments are needed to enhance the integration of these regrown axons. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Williams, Ryan R; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D; Bunge, Mary Bartlett
The transplantation of autologous Schwann cells (SCs) to repair the injured spinal cord is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial. In support, this study determined properties of spinal cord/SC bridge interfaces that enabled regenerated brainstem axons to cross them, possibly leading to improvement in rat hindlimb movement. Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of brainstem axons across the rostral interface. The regenerating brainstem axons formed synaptophysin(+) bouton-like terminals and contacted MAP2A(+) dendrites at the caudal interface. Brainstem axon regeneration was directly associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP(+)) astrocyte processes that elongated into the SC bridge. Electron microscopy revealed that axons, SCs, and astrocytes were enclosed together within tunnels bounded by a continuous basal lamina. Neuroglycan (NG2) expression was associated with these tunnels. One week after injury, the GFAP(+) processes coexpressed nestin and brain lipid-binding protein, and the tips of GFAP(+)/NG2(+) processes extended into the bridges together with the regenerating brainstem axons. Both brainstem axon regeneration and number of GFAP(+) processes in the bridges correlated with improvement in hindlimb locomotion. Following SCI, astrocytes may enter a reactive state that prohibits axon regeneration. Elongation of astrocyte processes into SC bridges, however, and formation of NG2(+) tunnels enable brainstem axon regeneration and improvement in function. It is important for spinal cord repair to define conditions that favor elongation of astrocytes into lesions/transplants.
Sainath, Rajiv; Ketschek, Andrea; Grandi, Leah; Gallo, Gianluca
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. It is reported that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching. The effects of CSPGs on actin cytoskeletal dynamics are specific to axon segments populated by mitochondria. In contrast, CSPGs do not affect the microtubule content of axons, or the localization of microtubules into axonal filopodia, a required step in the mechanism of branch formation. It is also reported that CSPGs decrease the mitochondria-dependent axonal translation of cortactin, an actin associated protein involved in branching. Finally, the inhibitory effects of CSPGs on axon branching, actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the axonal translation of cortactin are reversed by culturing neurons with acetyl-l-carnitine, which promotes mitochondrial respiration. Collectively these data indicate that CSPGs impair mitochondrial function in axons, an effect which contributes to the inhibition of axon branching. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 419-437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hoeber, Jan; Konig, Niclas; Trolle, Carl
Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly...... restores sensory functions. In this study, we elucidate mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated ingrowth of sensory axons after dorsal root avulsion (DRA). We show that human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPC), and also, mesoporous silica particles loaded with growth factor mimetics (Meso......MIM), supported sensory axon regeneration. However, when hscNSPC and MesoMIM were combined, sensory axon regeneration failed. Morphological and tracing analysis showed that sensory axons grow through the newly established glial scar along “bridges” formed by migrating stem cells. Coimplantation of Meso...
Full Text Available The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the signaling pathways that orchestrate axon regeneration are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by SVH-2 Met-like growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling through the JNK MAPK pathway. Here we show that SVH-4/DDR-2, an RTK containing a discoidin domain that is activated by collagen, and EMB-9 collagen type IV regulate the regeneration of neurons following axon injury. The scaffold protein SHC-1 interacts with both DDR-2 and SVH-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of svh-2 and shc-1 suppresses the delay in axon regeneration observed in ddr-2 mutants, suggesting that DDR-2 functions upstream of SVH-2 and SHC-1. These results suggest that DDR-2 modulates the SVH-2-JNK pathway via SHC-1. We thus identify two different RTK signaling networks that play coordinated roles in the regulation of axonal regeneration.
Takeda, A; Atobe, Y; Kadota, T; Goris, R C; Funakoshi, K
Spontaneous nerve regeneration beyond the scar frequently occurs in fish after spinal cord lesions, in contrast to mammals. Here we examined the spatiotemporal relationship between the fibrous scar and axonal regeneration in the goldfish. Within 1 week after hemisection of the spinal cord, the open wound was closed by a fibrous scar that was demarcated from the surrounding nervous tissue by the glia limitans, which was immunoreactive for laminin. Within 1 week after hemisection, regenerating axons entered the fibrous scar, and were surrounded by laminin-coated tubular structures continuous with the glia limitans. Regenerating axons that initially entered the fibrous scar were usually accompanied by glial processes. Within 2-3 weeks after hemisection, the tubular structures became enlarged, and the regenerating axons increased in number, fasciculating in the tubules. Glial processes immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acid protein and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons then entered the tubular structures to associate with the regenerating axons. The tubular structures developed further, creating tunnels that penetrated the fibrous scar, through which the regenerating axons passed. At 6-12 weeks after hemisection, the fibrous scar was smaller and the enlarged tunnels contained many glial processes and several axons. The findings of present study demonstrated that, following spinal lesions in goldfish, regenerating axons enter and pass the scar tissue. The regenerating axons first enter the fibrous scar with glial elements and then grow through laminin-coated tubular structures within the fibrous scar. Invasion by glial processes and neuronal elements into the tubular structures reduces the fibrous scar area and allows for more regenerating axons to pass beyond the fibrous scar. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lau, Billy Y B; Fogerson, Stephanie M; Walsh, Rylie B; Morgan, Jennifer R
Axon regeneration after spinal cord injury in mammals is inadequate to restore function, illustrating the need to design better strategies for improving outcomes. Increasing the levels of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) after spinal cord injury enhances axon regeneration across a wide variety of species, making it an excellent candidate molecule that has therapeutic potential. However, several important aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which cAMP enhances axon regeneration are still unclear, such as how cAMP affects axon growth patterns, the molecular components within growing axon tips, the lesion scar, and neuronal survival. To address these points, we took advantage of the large, identified reticulospinal (RS) neurons in lamprey, a vertebrate that exhibits robust axon regeneration after a complete spinal cord transection. Application of a cAMP analog, db-cAMP, at the time of spinal cord transection increased the number of axons that regenerated across the lesion site. Db-cAMP also promoted axons to regenerate in straighter paths, prevented abnormal axonal growth patterns, increased the levels of synaptotagmin within axon tips, and increased the number of axotomized neurons that survived after spinal cord injury, thereby increasing the pool of neurons available for regeneration. There was also a transient increase in the number of microglia/macrophages and improved repair of the lesion site. Taken together, these data reveal several new features of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cAMP-mediated enhancement of axon regeneration, further emphasizing the positive roles for this conserved pathway. © 2013.
Takeoka, Aya; Jindrich, Devin L.; Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; Zhong, Hui; van den Brand, Rubia; Pham, Daniel L.; Ziegler, Matthias D.; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Phelps, Patricia E.
Reports based primarily on anatomical evidence suggest that olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplantation promotes axon regeneration across a complete spinal cord transection in adult rats. Based on functional, electrophysiological, and anatomical assessments, we found that OEG promoted axon regeneration across a complete spinal cord transection and that this regeneration altered motor responses over time. At 7 months after transection, 70% of OEG-treated rats showed motor-evoked potential...
Rao, Kavitha; Stone, Michelle C.; Weiner, Alexis T.; Gheres, Kyle W.; Zhou, Chaoming; Deitcher, David L.; Levitan, Edwin S.; Rolls, Melissa M
Mutations in >50 genes, including spastin and atlastin, lead to hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We previously demonstrated that reduction of spastin leads to a deficit in axon regeneration in a Drosophila model. Axon regeneration was similarly impaired in neurons when HSP proteins atlastin, seipin, and spichthyin were reduced. Impaired regeneration was dependent on genetic background and was observed when partial reduction of HSP proteins was combined with expression of dominant-negative...
Ryan R Williams
Full Text Available Unlike CNS neurons in adult mammals, neurons in fish and embryonic mammals can regenerate their axons after injury. These divergent regenerative responses are in part mediated by the growth-associated expression of select transcription factors. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, MASH1/Ascl1a, is transiently expressed during the development of many neuronal subtypes and regulates the expression of genes that mediate cell fate determination and differentiation. In the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio, Ascl1a is also transiently expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs that regenerate axons after optic nerve crush. Utilizing transgenic zebrafish with a 3.6 kb GAP43 promoter that drives expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP, we observed that knock-down of Ascl1a expression reduces both regenerative gap43 gene expression and axonal growth after injury compared to controls. In mammals, the development of noradrenergic brainstem neurons requires MASH1 expression. In contrast to zebrafish RGCs, however, MASH1 is not expressed in the mammalian brainstem after spinal cord injury (SCI. Therefore, we utilized adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors to overexpress MASH1 in four month old rat (Rattus norvegicus brainstem neurons in an attempt to promote axon regeneration after SCI. We discovered that after complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord and implantation of a Schwann cell bridge, animals that express MASH1 exhibit increased noradrenergic axon regeneration and improvement in hindlimb joint movements compared to controls. Together these data demonstrate that MASH1/Ascl1a is a fundamental regulator of axonal growth across vertebrates and can induce modifications to the intrinsic state of neurons to promote functional regeneration in response to CNS injury.
Shields, Lisa B E; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A; Gray, Rebecca; Shields, Christopher B
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are up-regulated in the spinal cord after SCI, creating a molecular barrier inhibitory to axon growth. Chondroitinase ABC degrades CSPGs in vitro and in vivo. We studied whether IT ChABC promotes axonal regeneration in a laceration model of SCI. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used: control and rats treated with low-dose and high-dose IT ChABC. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan breakdown products were measured by 2-B-6 expression, and intact CSPGs by CS-56 expression. Sensory axonal regeneration was traced after CTB injection into the median, ulnar, and sciatic nerves. CS-56 expression was down-regulated and 2-B-6 expression was increased in the groups treated with IT ChABC but not in the control. Laminin and GFAP immunoreactivity was unaltered in the ChABC groups. The number of axons growing into the scar was 3.1 times greater (P scar after a laceration SCI with a minimal increase in sensory axonal regeneration into and across the laceration gap.
van Niekerk, Erna A; Tuszynski, Mark H; Lu, Paul; Dulin, Jennifer N
Following axotomy, a complex temporal and spatial coordination of molecular events enables regeneration of the peripheral nerve. In contrast, multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system. In this review, we examine the current understanding of differences in protein expression and post-translational modifications, activation of signaling networks, and environmental cues that may underlie the divergent regenerative capacity of central and peripheral axons. We also highlight key experimental strategies to enhance axonal regeneration via modulation of intraneuronal signaling networks and the extracellular milieu. Finally, we explore potential applications of proteomics to fill gaps in the current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration, and to provide insight into the development of more effective approaches to promote axonal regeneration following injury to the nervous system. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
van Niekerk, Erna A.; Tuszynski, Mark H.; Lu, Paul; Dulin, Jennifer N.
Following axotomy, a complex temporal and spatial coordination of molecular events enables regeneration of the peripheral nerve. In contrast, multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system. In this review, we examine the current understanding of differences in protein expression and post-translational modifications, activation of signaling networks, and environmental cues that may underlie the divergent regenerative capacity of central and peripheral axons. We also highlight key experimental strategies to enhance axonal regeneration via modulation of intraneuronal signaling networks and the extracellular milieu. Finally, we explore potential applications of proteomics to fill gaps in the current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration, and to provide insight into the development of more effective approaches to promote axonal regeneration following injury to the nervous system. PMID:26695766
Hoeber, Jan; König, Niclas; Trolle, Carl; Lekholm, Emilia; Zhou, Chunfang; Pankratova, Stanislava; Åkesson, Elisabet; Fredriksson, Robert; Aldskogius, Håkan; Kozlova, Elena N
Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly restores sensory functions. In this study, we elucidate mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated ingrowth of sensory axons after dorsal root avulsion (DRA). We show that human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPC), and also, mesoporous silica particles loaded with growth factor mimetics (MesoMIM), supported sensory axon regeneration. However, when hscNSPC and MesoMIM were combined, sensory axon regeneration failed. Morphological and tracing analysis showed that sensory axons grow through the newly established glial scar along "bridges" formed by migrating stem cells. Coimplantation of MesoMIM prevented stem cell migration, "bridges" were not formed, and sensory axons failed to enter the spinal cord. MesoMIM applied alone supported sensory axons ingrowth, but without affecting glial scar formation. In vitro, the presence of MesoMIM significantly impaired migration of hscNSPC without affecting their level of differentiation. Our data show that (1) the ability of stem cells to migrate into the spinal cord and organize cellular "bridges" in the newly formed interface is crucial for successful sensory axon regeneration, (2) trophic factor mimetics delivered by mesoporous silica may be a convenient alternative way to induce sensory axon regeneration, and (3) a combinatorial approach of individually beneficial components is not necessarily additive, but can be counterproductive for axonal growth.
Ruschel, Jörg; Hellal, Farida; Flynn, Kevin C.; Dupraz, Sebastian; Elliot, David A.; Tedeschi, Andrea; Bates, Margaret; Sliwinski, Christopher; Brook, Gary; Dobrint, Kristina; Peitz, Michael; Brüstle, Oliver; Norenberg, Michael D.; Blesch, Armin; Weidner, Norbert; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bixby, John L.; Bradke, Frank
After central nervous system (CNS) injury, inhibitory factors in the lesion scar and a poor axon growth potential prevent axon regeneration. Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and promotes axon growth. However, the cellular mechanisms of this dual effect remain unclear. Here, delayed systemic administration of a blood-brain barrier permeable microtubule stabilizing drug, epothilone B, decreased scarring after rodent spinal cord injury (SCI) by abrogating polarization and directed migration of scar-forming fibroblasts. Conversely, epothilone B reactivated neuronal polarization by inducing concerted microtubule polymerization into the axon tip, which propelled axon growth through an inhibitory environment. Together, these drug elicited effects promoted axon regeneration and improved motor function after SCI. With recent clinical approval, epothilones hold promise for clinical use after CNS injury. PMID:25765066
Koffler, Jacob; Samara, Ramsey F; Rosenzweig, Ephron S
The past 30 years of research in spinal cord injury (SCI) have revealed that, under certain conditions, some types of axons are able to regenerate. To aid these axons in bridging the lesion site, many experimenters place cellular grafts at the lesion. However, to increase the potential for functional recovery, it is likely advantageous to maximize the number of axons that reach the intact spinal cord on the other side of the lesion. Implanting linear-channeled scaffolds at the lesion site provides growing axons with linear growth paths, which minimizes the distance they must travel to reach healthy tissue. Moreover, the linear channels help the regenerating axons maintain the correct mediolateral and dorsoventral position in the spinal cord, which may also improve functional recovery by keeping the axons nearer to their correct targets. Here, we provide a protocol to perform a full spinal cord transection in rats that accommodates an implanted scaffold.
Lin, C-L; Heron, P; Hamann, S R; Smith, G M
Successful regeneration after injury requires either the direct reformation of the circuit or the formation of a bridge circuit to provide partial functional return through a more indirect route. Presently, little is known about the specificity of how regenerating axons reconnect or reconstruct functional circuits. We have established an in vivo Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) model, which in the presence of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), shows very robust regeneration of peptidergic nociceptive axons, but not other sensory axons. Expression of NGF in normal, non-injured animals leads to robust sprouting of only the peptidergic nociceptive axons. Interestingly, NGF-induced sprouting of these axons leads to severe chronic pain, whereas, regeneration leads to protective-like pain without chronic pain. Using this model we set out to compare differences in behavioral outcomes and circuit features between these two groups. In this study, we examined pre-synaptic and post-synaptic markers to evaluate the relationship between synaptic connections and behavioral responses. NGF-induced sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) axons resulted in a significant redistribution of synapses and cFos expression into the deeper dorsal horn. Regeneration of only the CGRP axons showed a general reduction in synapses and cFos expression within laminae I and II; however, inflammation of the hindpaw induced peripheral sensitization. These data show that although NGF-induced sprouting of peptidergic axons induces robust chronic pain and cFos expression throughout the entire dorsal horn, regeneration of the same axons resulted in normal protective pain with a synaptic and cFos distribution similar, albeit significantly less than that shown by the sprouting of CGRP axons. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zuo, Yu-Chao; Xiong, Nan-Xiang; Zhao, Hong-Yang
Evidence suggested that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is involved in Nogo-66 inhibiting axonal regeneration in vitro, but its effect in vivo was poorly understood. We showed that stereotactic injection of shRNA GSK-3β-adeno associated virus (GSK-3β-AAV) diminished syringomyelia and promoted axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI), using stereotactic injection of shRNA GSK-3β-AAV (tested with Western blotting and RT-PCR) into the sensorimotor cortex of rats with SCI and by the detection of biotin dextran amine (BDA)-labeled axonal regeneration. We also determined the right position to inject into the sensorimotor cortex. Our findings consolidate the hypothesis that downregulation of GSK-3β promotes axonal regeneration after SCI.
Williams, Ryan R; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D; Bunge, Mary Bartlett
.... Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of brainstem axons across the rostral interface...
Teng, Felicia Yu Hsuan; Tang, Bor Luen
Failure of severed adult CNS axons to regenerate could be attributed to both a reduced intrinsic capacity to grow and an heightened susceptibility to inhibitory factors of the CNS extracellular environment...
Cheah, Menghon; Andrews, Melissa R; Chew, Daniel J; Moloney, E.; Verhaagen, J.; Fässler, Reinhard; Fawcett, James W
UNLABELLED: After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally,
de Ruiter, Godard C W; Spinner, Robert J; Verhaagen, J.; Malessy, Martijn J A
Misdirection of regenerating axons is one of the factors that can explain the limited results often found after nerve injury and repair. In the repair of mixed nerves innervating different distal targets (skin and muscle), misdirection may, for example, lead to motor axons projecting toward skin,
Full Text Available Improving axonal transport in the injured and diseased central nervous system has been proposed as a promising strategy to improve neuronal repair. However, the contribution of each cargo to the repair mechanism is unknown. DRG neurons globally increase axonal transport during regeneration. Because the transport of specific cargos after axonal insult has not been examined systematically in a model of enhanced regenerative capacity, it is unknown whether the transport of all cargos would be modulated equally in injured central nervous system neurons. Here, using a microfluidic culture system we compared neurons co-deleted for PTEN and SOCS3, an established model of high axonal regeneration capacity, to control neurons. We measured the axonal transport of three cargos (mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and late endosomes in regenerating axons and found that the transport of mitochondria, but not the other cargos, was increased in PTEN/SOCS3 co-deleted axons relative to controls. The results reported here suggest a pivotal role for this organelle during axonal regeneration.
Koch, Jan Christoph; Tönges, Lars; Michel, Uwe; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul
The Rho/ROCK pathway is a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of various pathway members has been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and survival. However, because pharmacological inhibitors are inherently limited in their specificity, shRNA-mediated approaches can add more information on the function of each single kinase involved. Thus, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) to specifically downregulate Ras homologous member A (RhoA) via shRNA. We found that specific knockdown of RhoA promoted neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) grown on the inhibitory substrate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as well as neurite regeneration of primary midbrain neurons (PMN) after scratch lesion. In the rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model in vivo, downregulation of RhoA significantly enhanced axonal regeneration compared to control. Moreover, survival of RGC transduced with AAV expressing RhoA-shRNA was substantially increased at 2 weeks after optic nerve axotomy. Compared to previous data using pharmacological inhibitors to target RhoA, its upstream regulator Nogo or its main downstream target ROCK, the specific effects of RhoA downregulation shown here were most pronounced in regard to promoting RGC survival but neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration were also increased significantly. Taken together, we show here that specific knockdown of RhoA substantially increases neuronal survival after optic nerve axotomy and modestly increases neurite outgrowth in vitro and axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush.
Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Lei; Zhang, Jianbin; Hu, Xueyu; Zhang, Yongguang; Liang, Wei; Wu, Siyu; Luo, Zhuojing
Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to promote nerve regeneration when it was applied to the proximal nerve stump. However, the possible beneficial effect of establishing a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect on nerve regeneration has not been reported in previous studies. The present study attempted to establish a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect, and examined its effect on nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In the present study, a conductive scaffold was constructed and used to bridge a 15 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and intermittent ES (3 V, 20 Hz) was applied to the conductive scaffold to establish an electrical environment at the site of nerve defect. Nerve regeneration and functional recovery were examined after nerve injury repair and ES. We found that axonal regeneration and remyelination of the regenerated axons were significantly enhanced by ES which was applied to conductive scaffold. In addition, both motor and sensory functional recovery was significantly improved and muscle atrophy was partially reversed by ES localized at the conductive scaffold. Further investigations showed that the expression of S-100, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), P0 and Par-3 was significantly up-regulated by ES at the conductive scaffold. Establishing an electrical environment with ES localized at the conductive scaffold is capable of accelerating nerve regeneration and promoting functional recovery in a 15 mm nerve defect in rats. The findings provide new directions for exploring regenerative approaches to achieve better functional recovery in the treatment of large nerve defect.
Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; St John, James; Key, Brian
In order to begin to understand how primary olfactory and vomeronasal organ (VNO) axons target specific regions of the olfactory bulb, we examined the sorting behaviour of these axons following neonatal unilateral olfactory bulbectomy. Bulbectomy induced widespread ipsilateral death of the primary olfactory and VNO neurons. After 4 weeks, many new sensory axons had re-grown into the cranial cavity and established a prominent plexus with evidence of dense tufts that were similar in gross appearance to glomeruli. Axons expressing the cell adhesion molecule OCAM, which normally innervate the ventrolateral and rostral halves of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively, sorted out and segregated from those axons not expressing this molecule within the plexus. In addition, VNO axons formed large discrete bundles that segregated from main olfactory axons within the plexus. Thus, VNO and primary olfactory axons as well as discrete subpopulations of both are able to sort out and remain segregated in the absence of the olfactory bulb. Sorting and convergence of axons therefore occur independently of the olfactory bulb and are probably attributable either to inherent properties of the axons themselves or to interactions between the axons and accompanying glial ensheathing cells.
Oscar A. Carballo-Molina
Full Text Available Damage caused to neural tissue by disease or injury frequently produces a discontinuity in the nervous system. Such damage generates diverse alterations that are commonly permanent, due to the limited regeneration capacity of the adult nervous system, particularly the Central Nervous System (CNS. The cellular reaction to noxious stimulus leads to several events such as the formation of glial and fibrous scars, which inhibit axonal regeneration in both the CNS and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS. Although in the PNS there is some degree of nerve regeneration, it is common that the growing axons reinnervate incorrect areas, causing mismatches. Providing a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration in combination with delivery systems for the release of molecules, which enhances axonal growth, could increase regeneration and the recovery of functions in the CNS or the PNS. Currently, there are no effective vehicles to supply growth factors or cells to the damaged/diseased nervous system. Hydrogels are polymers that are biodegradable, biocompatible and have the capacity to deliver a large range of molecules in situ. The inclusion of cultured neural cells into hydrogels forming three-dimensional structures allows the formation of synapses and neuronal survival. There is also evidence showing that hydrogels constitute an amenable substrate for axonal growth of endogenous or grafted cells, overcoming the presence of axonal regeneration inhibitory molecules, in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent experiments suggest that hydrogels can carry and deliver several proteins relevant for improving neuronal survival and axonal growth. Although the use of hydrogels is appealing, its effectiveness is still a matter of discussion, and more results are needed to achieve consistent recovery using different parameters. This review also discusses areas of opportunity where hydrogels can be applied, in order to promote axonal regeneration of
Hammarlund, Marc; Nix, Paola; Hauth, Linda; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Bastiani, Michael
Regeneration of injured neurons can restore function, but most neurons regenerate poorly or not at all. The failure to regenerate in some cases is due to a lack of activation of cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. Thus, these pathways might be targeted for the development of therapies that can restore neuron function after injury or disease. Here, we show that the DLK-1 MAP kinase pathway is essential for regeneration in C. elegans motor neurons. Loss of this pathway eliminates regeneration...
Full Text Available After spinal cord injury (SCI, astrocytes become hypertrophic and proliferative, forming a dense network of astroglial processes at the site of the lesion. This constitutes a physical and biochemical barrier to axonal regeneration. Mitochondrial fission regulates cell cycle progression; inhibiting the cell cycle of astrocytes can reduce expression levels of axon growth-inhibitory molecules as well as astroglial scar formation after SCI. We therefore investigated how an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, Mdivi-1, would affect astrocyte proliferation, astroglial scar formation, and axonal regeneration following SCI in rats. Western blot and immunofluorescent double-labeling showed that Mdivi-1 markedly reduced the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and a cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in astrocytes 3 days after SCI. Moreover, Mdivi-1 decreased the expression of GFAP and neurocan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Notably, immunofluorescent labeling and Nissl staining showed that Mdivi-1 elevated the production of growth-associated protein-43 and increased neuronal survival at 4 weeks after SCI. Finally, hematoxylin-eosin staining and behavioral evaluation of motor function indicated that Mdivi-1 also reduced cavity formation and improved motor function 4 weeks after SCI. Our results confirm that Mdivi-1 promotes motor function after SCI, and indicate that inhibiting mitochondrial fission using Mdivi-1 can inhibit astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation and contribute to axonal regeneration after SCI in rats.
Šmít, Daniel; Fouquet, Coralie; Pincet, Frédéric; Zapotocky, Martin; Trembleau, Alain
While axon fasciculation plays a key role in the development of neural networks, very little is known about its dynamics and the underlying biophysical mechanisms. In a model system composed of neurons grown ex vivo from explants of embryonic mouse olfactory epithelia, we observed that axons dynamically interact with each other through their shafts, leading to zippering and unzippering behavior that regulates their fasciculation. Taking advantage of this new preparation suitable for studying such interactions, we carried out a detailed biophysical analysis of zippering, occurring either spontaneously or induced by micromanipulations and pharmacological treatments. We show that zippering arises from the competition of axon-axon adhesion and mechanical tension in the axons, and provide the first quantification of the force of axon-axon adhesion. Furthermore, we introduce a biophysical model of the zippering dynamics, and we quantitatively relate the individual zipper properties to global characteristics of the developing axon network. Our study uncovers a new role of mechanical tension in neural development: the regulation of axon fasciculation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19907.001 PMID:28422009
Šmít, Daniel; Fouquet, Coralie; Pincet, Frédéric; Zapotocky, Martin; Trembleau, Alain
While axon fasciculation plays a key role in the development of neural networks, very little is known about its dynamics and the underlying biophysical mechanisms. In a model system composed of neurons grown ex vivo from explants of embryonic mouse olfactory epithelia, we observed that axons dynamically interact with each other through their shafts, leading to zippering and unzippering behavior that regulates their fasciculation. Taking advantage of this new preparation suitable for studying such interactions, we carried out a detailed biophysical analysis of zippering, occurring either spontaneously or induced by micromanipulations and pharmacological treatments. We show that zippering arises from the competition of axon-axon adhesion and mechanical tension in the axons, and provide the first quantification of the force of axon-axon adhesion. Furthermore, we introduce a biophysical model of the zippering dynamics, and we quantitatively relate the individual zipper properties to global characteristics of the developing axon network. Our study uncovers a new role of mechanical tension in neural development: the regulation of axon fasciculation.
Kato, Kinshi; Liu, Huaqing; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Myers, Robert R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.
Peripheral nerve regeneration begins immediately after injury. Understanding the mechanisms by which early modulators of axonal degeneration regulate neurite outgrowth may affect the development of new strategies to promote nerve repair. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a crucial role in the initiation of degenerative cascades after peripheral nerve injury. Here we demonstrate using real-time Taqman quantitative RT-PCR that, during the time course (days 1–60) of sciatic nerve crush, TNF-α mRNA expression is induced at 1 day and returned to baseline at 5 days after injury in nerve and the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Immediate therapy with the TNF-α antagonist etanercept (fusion protein of TNFRII and human IgG), administered systemically (i.p.) and locally (epineurially) after nerve crush injury, enhanced the rate of axonal regeneration, as determined by nerve pinch test and increased number of characteristic clusters of regenerating nerve fibers distal to nerve crush segments. These fibers were immunoreactive for growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and etanercept, detected by anti-human IgG immunofluorescence. Increased GAP-43 expression was found in the injured nerve and in the corresponding DRG and ventral spinal cord after systemic etanercept compared with vehicle treatments. This study established that immediate therapy with TNF-α antagonist supports axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19746434
Becker, Catherina G.; Becker, Thomas
We analyzed the role of chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans, putative inhibitors of axonal regeneration in mammals, in the regenerating visual pathway of adult zebrafish. In the adult, CS immunoreactivity was not detectable before or after an optic nerve crush in the optic nerve and tract but was constitutively present in developing and adult nonretinorecipient pretectal brain nuclei, where CSs may form a boundary preventing regenerating optic fibers from growing into these inappropri...
Trakhtenberg, Ephraim F; Li, Yiqing; Feng, Qian; Tso, Janice; Rosenberg, Paul A; Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Benowitz, Larry I
The inability of axons to regenerate over long-distances in the central nervous system (CNS) limits the recovery of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although pre-clinical studies have identified a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon growth after CNS damage, the extent of recovery remains quite limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Here, we used traumatic injury to the mouse optic nerve as a model system to test the effects of combining several treatments that have recently been found to promote axon regeneration without the risks associated with manipulating known tumor suppressors or oncogenes. The treatments tested here include TPEN, a chelator of mobile (free) zinc (Zn(2+)); shRNA against the axon growth-suppressing transcription factor Klf9; and the atypical growth factor oncomodulin combined with a cAMP analog. Whereas some combinatorial treatments produced only marginally stronger effects than the individual treatments alone, co-treatment with TPEN and Klf9 knockdown had a substantially stronger effect on axon regeneration than either one alone. This combination also promoted a high level of cell survival at longer time points. Thus, Zn(2+) chelation in combination with Klf9 suppression holds therapeutic potential for promoting axon regeneration after optic nerve injury, and may also be effective for treating other CNS injuries and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mar, Fernando M; da Silva, Tiago F; Morgado, Marlene M; Rodrigues, Lorena G; Rodrigues, Daniel; Pereira, Marta I L; Marques, Ana; Sousa, Vera F; Coentro, João; Sá-Miranda, Clara; Sousa, Mónica M; Brites, Pedro
Lack of axon regeneration following spinal cord injury has been mainly ascribed to the inhibitory environment of the injury site, i.e., to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs). Here, we used shiverer (shi) mice to assess axon regeneration following spinal cord injury in the presence of MAIs and CSPG but in the absence of compact myelin. Although in vitro shi neurons displayed a similar intrinsic neurite outgrowth to wild-type neurons, in vivo, shi fibers had increased regenerative capacity, suggesting that the wild-type spinal cord contains additional inhibitors besides MAIs and CSPG. Our data show that besides myelin protein, myelin lipids are highly inhibitory for neurite outgrowth and suggest that this inhibitory effect is released in the shi spinal cord given its decreased lipid content. Specifically, we identified cholesterol and sphingomyelin as novel myelin-associated inhibitors that operate through a Rho-dependent mechanism and have inhibitory activity in multiple neuron types. We further demonstrated the inhibitory action of myelin lipids in vivo, by showing that delivery of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a drug that reduces the levels of lipids specifically in the injury site, leads to increased axon regeneration of wild-type (WT) dorsal column axons following spinal cord injury. In summary, our work shows that myelin lipids are important modulators of axon regeneration that should be considered together with protein MAIs as critical targets in strategies aiming at improving axonal growth following injury.
Cheah, Menghon; Andrews, Melissa R; Chew, Daniel J; Moloney, Elizabeth B; Verhaagen, Joost; Fässler, Reinhard; Fawcett, James W
After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally, integrins can be inactivated by CSPGs, and this inhibition can be overcome by the presence of a β1-binding integrin activator, kindlin-1. We examined the synergistic effect of α9 integrin and kindlin-1 on sensory axon regeneration in adult rat spinal cord after dorsal root crush and adeno-associated virus transgene expression in dorsal root ganglia. After 12 weeks, axons from C6-C7 dorsal root ganglia regenerated through the tenascin-C-rich dorsal root entry zone into the dorsal column up to C1 level and above (>25 mm axon length) through a normal pathway. Animals also showed anatomical and electrophysiological evidence of reconnection to the dorsal horn and behavioral recovery in mechanical pressure, thermal pain, and ladder-walking tasks. Expression of α9 integrin or kindlin-1 alone promoted much less regeneration and recovery. The study demonstrates that long-distance sensory axon regeneration over a normal pathway and with sensory and sensory-motor recovery can be achieved. This was achieved by expressing an integrin that recognizes tenascin-C, one of the components of glial scar tissue, and an integrin activator. This enabled extensive long-distance (>25 mm) regeneration of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons with topographically correct connections in the spinal cord. The extent of growth and recovery we have seen would probably be clinically significant. Restoration of sensation to hands, perineum, and genitalia would be a significant improvement for a spinal cord-injured patient. Copyright © 2016 CHEAH et al.
Rao, Ting; Wu, Fei; Xing, Danmou; Peng, Zhengren; Ren, Dong; Feng, Wei; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Zhiming; Wang, Huan; Wang, Junweng; Kan, Wusheng; Zhang, Qingsong
Background: Valproic acid (VPA) is used to be an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. It has recently been demonstrated that VPA could promote neurite outgrowth, activate the extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway, and increases bcl-2 and growth cone-associated protein 43 levels in spinal cord. In the present research we demonstrate the effect of VPA on peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery of motor function following sciatic nerve transaction in rats. Methods: The rats in VPA group and control group were administered with valproic acid (300mg/kg) and sodium chloride respectively after operation. Each animal was observed sciatic nerve index (SFI) at 2-week intervals and studied electrophysiology at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Histological and morphometrical analyses were performed 12 weeks after operation. Using the digital image-analysis system, thickness of the myelin sheath was measured, and total numbers of regenerated axons were counted. Results: There was a significant difference in SFI, electrophysiological index (motor-nerve conduct velocity), and morphometrical results (regenerated axon number and thickness of myelin sheath) in nerve regeneration between the VPA group and controls (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results demonstrated that VPA is able to enhance sciatic nerve regeneration in rats, suggesting the potential clinical application of VPA for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:25207308
Tedeschi, Andrea; Omura, Takao; Costigan, Michael
The importance of genetic diversity in biological investigation has been recognized since the pioneering studies of Gregor Johann Mendel and Charles Darwin. Research in this area has been greatly informed recently by the publication of genomes from multiple species. Genes regulate and create every part and process in a living organism, react with the environment to create each living form and morph and mutate to determine the history and future of each species. The regenerative capacity of neurons differs profoundly between animal lineages and within the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. Here, we discuss research that suggests that genetic background contributes to the ability of injured axons to regenerate in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), by controlling the regulation of specific signaling cascades. We detail the methods used to identify these pathways, which include among others Activin signaling and other TGF-β superfamily members. We discuss the potential of altering these pathways in patients with CNS damage and outline strategies to promote regeneration and repair by combinatorial manipulation of neuron-intrinsic and extrinsic determinants. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kemp, Stephen W P; Syed, Shahbaz; Walsh, Walsh; Zochodne, Douglas W; Midha, Rajiv
Peripheral nerve regeneration within guidance conduits involves a critical association between regenerating axons, Schwann cells (SCs), and neovascularization. However, it is currently unknown if there is a greater association between these factors in nonpermeable versus semipermeable nerve guide conduits. We therefore examined this collaboration in both silicone- and collagen-based nerve conduits in both 5- and 10-mm-injury gaps in rat sciatic nerves. Results indicate that collagen conduits promoted enhanced axonal and SC regeneration and association when compared to silicone conduits in the shorter 5-mm-gap model. In addition, collagen tubes displayed enhanced neovascularization over silicone conduits, suggesting that these three factors are intimately related in successful peripheral nerve regeneration. At later time points (1- and 2-month analysis) in a 10-mm-gap model, collagen tubes displayed enhanced axonal regeneration, myelination, and vascularization when compared to silicone-based conduits. Results from these studies suggest that regenerating cables within collagen-based conduits are revascularized earlier and more completely, which in turn enhances peripheral nerve regeneration through these nerve guides as compared to silicone conduits.
Santos, Daniel; González-Pérez, Francisco; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Udina, Esther; Del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier
After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively. For in vivo studies, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone tube filled with a collagen and laminin matrix with NGF/NT3 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MP) (LM + MP.NGF/NT3), or a collagen and fibronectin matrix with BDNF in PLGA MPs (FN + MP.BDNF). Retrograde labeling and functional tests showed that LM + MP.NGF/NT3 increased the number of regenerated sensory neurons and improved sensory functional recovery, whereas FN + MP.BDNF preferentially increased regenerated motoneurons and enhanced motor functional recovery. Therefore, combination of ECM molecules with NTFs may be a good approach to selectively enhance motor and sensory axons regeneration and promote appropriate target reinnervation.
Santos, Daniel; González-Pérez, Francisco; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Udina, Esther; Del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier
After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively. For in vivo studies, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone tube filled with a collagen and laminin matrix with NGF/NT3 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MP) (LM + MP.NGF/NT3), or a collagen and fibronectin matrix with BDNF in PLGA MPs (FN + MP.BDNF). Retrograde labeling and functional tests showed that LM + MP.NGF/NT3 increased the number of regenerated sensory neurons and improved sensory functional recovery, whereas FN + MP.BDNF preferentially increased regenerated motoneurons and enhanced motor functional recovery. Therefore, combination of ECM molecules with NTFs may be a good approach to selectively enhance motor and sensory axons regeneration and promote appropriate target reinnervation. PMID:28036084
Luo, Xueting; Salgueiro, Yadira; Beckerman, Samuel R; Lemmon, Vance P; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Park, Kevin K
Injured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons do not regenerate spontaneously, causing loss of vision in glaucoma and after trauma. Recent studies have identified several strategies that induce long distance regeneration in the optic nerve. Thus, a pressing question now is whether regenerating RGC axons can find their appropriate targets. Traditional methods of assessing RGC axon regeneration use histological sectioning. However, tissue sections provide fragmentary information about axonal trajectory and termination. To unequivocally evaluate regenerating RGC axons, here we apply tissue clearance and light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to image whole optic nerve and brain without physical sectioning. In mice with PTEN/SOCS3 deletion, a condition known to promote robust regeneration, axon growth followed tortuous paths through the optic nerve, with many axons reversing course and extending towards the eye. Such aberrant growth was prevalent in the proximal region of the optic nerve where strong astroglial activation is present. In the optic chiasms of PTEN/SOCS3 deletion mice and PTEN deletion/Zymosan/cAMP mice, many axons project to the opposite optic nerve or to the ipsilateral optic tract. Following bilateral optic nerve crush, similar divergent trajectory is seen at the optic chiasm compared to unilateral crush. Centrally, axonal projection is limited predominantly to the hypothalamus. Together, we demonstrate the applicability of LSFM for comprehensive assessment of optic nerve regeneration, providing in-depth analysis of the axonal trajectory and pathfinding. Our study indicates significant axon misguidance in the optic nerve and brain, and underscores the need for investigation of axon guidance mechanisms during optic nerve regeneration in adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Namekata, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Atsuko; Kawamura, Kazuto; Harada, Chikako; Harada, Takayuki
The dedicator of cytokinesis (Dock) family is composed of atypical guanine exchange factors (GEFs) that activate the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. Rho GTPases are best documented for their roles in actin polymerization and they regulate important cellular functions, including morphogenesis, migration, neuronal development, and cell division and adhesion. To date, 11 Dock family members have been identified and their roles have been reported in diverse contexts. There has been increasing interest in elucidating the roles of Dock proteins in recent years and studies have revealed that they are potential therapeutic targets for various diseases, including glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and combined immunodeficiency. Among the Dock proteins, Dock3 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system and recent studies have revealed that Dock3 plays a role in protecting retinal ganglion cells from neurotoxicity and oxidative stress as well as in promoting optic nerve regeneration. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the 11 Dock GEFs and their therapeutic potential, with a particular focus on Dock3 as a novel target for the treatment of glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical reapposition of peripheral nerve results in some axonal regeneration and functional recovery, but the clinical outcome in long distance nerve defects is disappointing and research continues to utilize further interventional approaches to optimize functional recovery. We describe the use of nerve constructs consisting of decellularized vein grafts filled with spider silk fibers as a guiding material to bridge a 6.0 cm tibial nerve defect in adult sheep. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nerve constructs were compared to autologous nerve grafts. Regeneration was evaluated for clinical, electrophysiological and histological outcome. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained at 6 months and 10 months post surgery in each group. Ten months later, the nerves were removed and prepared for immunostaining, electrophysiological and electron microscopy. Immunostaining for sodium channel (NaV 1.6 was used to define nodes of Ranvier on regenerated axons in combination with anti-S100 and neurofilament. Anti-S100 was used to identify Schwann cells. Axons regenerated through the constructs and were myelinated indicating migration of Schwann cells into the constructs. Nodes of Ranvier between myelin segments were observed and identified by intense sodium channel (NaV 1.6 staining on the regenerated axons. There was no significant difference in electrophysiological results between control autologous experimental and construct implantation indicating that our construct are an effective alternative to autologous nerve transplantation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that spider silk enhances Schwann cell migration, axonal regrowth and remyelination including electrophysiological recovery in a long-distance peripheral nerve gap model resulting in functional recovery. This improvement in nerve regeneration could have significant clinical implications for reconstructive nerve surgery.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation (ES has been shown to promote nerve regeneration when it was applied to the proximal nerve stump. However, the possible beneficial effect of establishing a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect on nerve regeneration has not been reported in previous studies. The present study attempted to establish a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect, and examined its effect on nerve regeneration and functional recovery. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: In the present study, a conductive scaffold was constructed and used to bridge a 15 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and intermittent ES (3 V, 20 Hz was applied to the conductive scaffold to establish an electrical environment at the site of nerve defect. Nerve regeneration and functional recovery were examined after nerve injury repair and ES. We found that axonal regeneration and remyelination of the regenerated axons were significantly enhanced by ES which was applied to conductive scaffold. In addition, both motor and sensory functional recovery was significantly improved and muscle atrophy was partially reversed by ES localized at the conductive scaffold. Further investigations showed that the expression of S-100, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, P0 and Par-3 was significantly up-regulated by ES at the conductive scaffold. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Establishing an electrical environment with ES localized at the conductive scaffold is capable of accelerating nerve regeneration and promoting functional recovery in a 15 mm nerve defect in rats. The findings provide new directions for exploring regenerative approaches to achieve better functional recovery in the treatment of large nerve defect.
Full Text Available Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI is due to failure of axonal regeneration. It is believed that the capacities of neurons to regrow their axons are due partly to their intrinsic characteristics, which in turn are greatly influenced by several types of inhibitory molecules that are present, or even increased in the extracellular environment of the injured spinal cord. Many of these inhibitory molecules have been studied extensively in recent years. It has been suggested that the small GTPase RhoA is an intracellular convergence point for signaling by these extracellular inhibitory molecules, but due to the complexity of the central nervous system (CNS in mammals, and the limitation of pharmacological tools, the specific roles of RhoA are unclear. By exploiting the anatomical and technical advantages of the lamprey CNS, we recently demonstrated that RhoA knockdown promotes true axon regeneration through the lesion site after SCI. In addition, we found that RhoA knockdown protects the large, identified reticulospinal neurons from apoptosis after their axons were axotomized in spinal cord. Therefore, manipulation of the RhoA signaling pathway may be an important approach in the development of treatments that are both neuroprotective and axon regeneration-promoting, to enhance functional recovery after SCI.
Full Text Available Background: Valproic acid (VPA is used to be an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. It has recently been demonstrated that VPA could promote neurite outgrowth, activate the extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway, and increases bcl-2 and growth cone-associated protein 43 levels in spinal cord. In the present research we demonstrate the effect of VPA on peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery of motor function following sciatic nerve transaction in rats. Methods: The rats in VPA group and control group were administered with valproic acid (300mg/kg and sodium chloride respectively after operation. Each animal was observed sciatic nerve index (SFI at 2-week intervals and studied electrophysiology at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Histological and morphometrical analyses were performed 12 weeks after operation. Using the digital image-analysis system, thickness of the myelin sheath was measured, and total numbers of regenerated axons were counted. Results: There was a significant difference in SFI, electrophysiological index (motor-nerve conduct velocity, and morphometrical results (regenerated axon number and thickness of myelin sheath in nerve regeneration between the VPA group and controls ( P
Jan Christoph Koch
Full Text Available The Rho/ROCK pathway is a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of various pathway members has been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and survival. However, because pharmacological inhibitors are inherently limited in their specificity, shRNA-mediated approaches can add more information on the function of each single kinase involved. Thus, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV to specifically downregulate RhoA via shRNA. We found that specific knockdown of RhoA promoted neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGC grown on the inhibitory substrate CSPG as well as neurite regeneration of primary midbrain neurons after scratch lesion. In the rat optic nerve crush model in vivo, downregulation of RhoA significantly enhanced axonal regeneration compared to control. Moreover, survival of RGCs transduced with AAV expressing RhoA-shRNA was substantially increased at two weeks after optic nerve axotomy.Compared to previous data using pharmacological inhibitors to target RhoA, its upstream regulator Nogo or its main downstream target ROCK2, the specific effects of RhoA downregulation shown here were more pronounced in regard to promoting RGC survival while the stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth were rather moderate. Taken together, we show here that specific knockdown of RhoA substantially increases neuronal survival after optic nerve axotomy and modestly increases neurite outgrowth in vitro and axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush.
Hollis, Edmund Roy
Growth factors are indispensable in the formation and maintenance of neuronal circuits during development. We investigated the ability of manipulating key developmental signaling cascades to recapitulate a growth state in lesioned corticospinal motor neurons (CSMNs). We hypothesized that stimulation of axotomized CSMNs with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which robustly promotes neonatal CSMN axon outgrowth, would induce regenerative growth in the adult. We found IGF-I to promote the su...
Sainath, Rajiv; Armijo-Weingart, Lorena; Ketscheck, Andrea; Xu, Zhuxuan; Li, Shuxin; Gallo, Gianluca
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix that inhibit the extension and regeneration of axons. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are functionally inter-linked organelles important to axon development and maintenance. We report that CSPGs impair the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cones of chicken embryonic sensory axons. The effect of CSPGs on the targeting of mitochondria is blocked by inhibition of the LAR receptor for CSPGs. The regulation of the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cone by CSPGs is due to attenuation of PI3K signaling, which is known to be downstream of LAR receptor activation. Dynactin is a required component of the dynein motor complex that drives the normally occurring retrograde evacuation of mitochondria from growth cones. CSPGs elevate the levels of p150 Glu dynactin found in distal axons, and inhibition of the interaction of dynactin with dynein increased axon lengths on CSPGs. CSPGs decreased the membrane potential of mitochondria, and pharmacological inhibition of mitochondria respiration at the growth cone independent of manipulation of mitochondria positioning impaired axon extension. Combined inhibition of dynactin and potentiation of mitochondria respiration further increased axon lengths on CSPGs relative to inhibition of dynactin alone. These data reveal that the regulation of the localization of mitochondria and ER to growth cones is a previously unappreciated aspect of the effects of CSPGs on embryonic axons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1351-1370, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Patricia J Ward
Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.
F. Hellal (Farida); A. Hurtado (Andres); J. Ruschel (Jörg); K.C. Flynn (Kevin); C.J. Laskowski (Claudia); M. Umlauf (Martina); L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); D. Strikis (Dinara); V. Lemmon (Vance); J. Bixby (John); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); F. Bradke (Frank)
textabstractHypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through
Chen, Peiwen; Piao, Xianhua; Bonaldo, Paolo
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) has remarkable regenerative abilities after injury. Successful PNS regeneration relies on both injured axons and non-neuronal cells, including Schwann cells and immune cells. Macrophages are the most notable immune cells that play key roles in PNS injury and repair. Upon peripheral nerve injury, a large number of macrophages are accumulated at the injury sites, where they not only contribute to Wallerian degeneration, but also are educated by the local microenvironment and polarized to an anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2), thus contributing to axonal regeneration. Significant progress has been made in understanding how macrophages are educated and polarized in the injured microenvironment as well as how they contribute to axonal regeneration. Following the discussion on the main properties of macrophages and their phenotypes, in this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of macrophage infiltration after PNS injury. Moreover, we will discuss the recent findings elucidating how macrophages are polarized to M2 phenotype in the injured PNS microenvironment, as well as the role and underlying mechanisms of macrophages in peripheral nerve injury, Wallerian degeneration and regeneration. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential application by targeting macrophages in treating peripheral nerve injury and peripheral neuropathies.
Günther, Manuel Ingo; Weidner, Norbert; Müller, Rainer; Blesch, Armin
Despite recent progress in enhancing axonal growth in the injured spinal cord, the guidance of regenerating axons across an extended lesion site remains a major challenge. To determine whether regenerating axons can be guided in rostrocaudal direction, we implanted 2mm long alginate-based anisotropic capillary hydrogels seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as control into a C5 hemisection lesion of the rat spinal cord. Four weeks post-lesion, numerous BMSCs survived inside the scaffold channels, accompanied by macrophages, Schwann cells and blood vessels. Quantification of axons growing into channels demonstrated 3-4 times more axons in hydrogels seeded with BMSCs expressing BDNF (BMSC-BDNF) compared to control cells. The number of anterogradely traced axons extending through the entire length of the scaffold was also significantly higher in scaffolds with BMSC-BDNF. Increasing the channel diameters from 41μm to 64μm did not lead to significant differences in the number of regenerating axons. Lesions filled with BMSC-BDNF without hydrogels exhibited a random axon orientation, whereas axons were oriented parallel to the hydrogel channel walls. Thus, alginate-based scaffolds with an anisotropic capillary structure are able to physically guide regenerating axons. After injury, regenerating axons have to extend across the lesion site in the injured spinal cord to reestablish lost neuronal connections. While cell grafting and growth factor delivery can promote growth of injured axons, without proper guidance, axons rarely extend across the lesion site. Here, we show that alginate biomaterials with linear channels that are filled with cells expressing the growth-promoting neurotrophin BDNF promote linear axon extension throughout the channels after transplantation to the injured rat spinal cord. Animals that received the same cells but no alginate guidance structure did not
Kirsch, Matthias; Campos Friz, Marianella; Vougioukas, Vassilios I; Hofmann, Hans-Dieter
The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the recruitment of immune cells during inflammatory processes. Previous studies investigating its involvement in the process of Wallerian degeneration and focusing on its potential role in macrophage recruitement have come to controversial conclusions. To examine whether Wallerian degeneration is altered in the absence of ICAM-1, we have analyzed changes in the expression of axonal and Schwann cell markers following sciatic nerve crush in wildtype and ICAM-1-deficient mice. We report that the lack of ICAM-1 leads to impaired axonal degeneration and regeneration and to alterations in Schwann cell responses following sciatic nerve crush. Degradation of neurofilament protein, the collapse of axonal profiles, and the re-expression of neurofilament proteins are substantially delayed in the distal nerve segment of ICAM-1(-/-) mice. In contrast, the degradation of myelin, as determined by immunostaining for myelin protein zero, is unaltered in the mutants. Upregulation of GAP-43 and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) expression, characteristic for Schwann cells dedifferentiating in response to nerve injury, is differentially altered in the mutant animals. These results indicate that ICAM-1 is essential for the normal progression of axonal degeneration and regeneration in distal segments of injured peripheral nerves.
English, Arthur W.; Cucoranu, Delia; Mulligan, Amanda; Sabatier, Manning
We investigated the extent of misdirection of regenerating axons when that regeneration was enhanced using treadmill training. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were applied to the cut proximal stumps of the tibial and common fibular nerves two or four weeks after transection and surgical repair of the mouse sciatic nerve. The spatial locations of retrogradely labeled motoneurons were studied in untreated control mice and in mice receiving two weeks of treadmill training, either according to a continuous protocol (10 m/min, one hour/day, five day/week) or an interval protocol (20 m/min for two minutes, followed by a five minute rest, repeated 4 times, five days/week). More retrogradely labeled motoneurons were found in both treadmill trained groups. The magnitude of this increase was as great as or greater than that found after using other enhancement strategies. In both treadmill trained groups, the proportions of motoneurons labeled from tracer applied to the common fibular nerve that were found in spinal cord locations reserved for tibial motoneurons in intact mice was no greater than in untreated control mice and significantly less than found after electrical stimulation or chondroitinase treatment. Treadmill training in the first two weeks following peripheral nerve injury produces a marked enhancement of motor axon regeneration without increasing the propensity of those axons to choose pathways leading to functionally inappropriate targets. PMID:19731339
Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons. We discuss how reintroduction of these receptors in damaged neurons facilitates signalling from the internal environment of the cell with the external environment of the lesion milieu, effectively resulting in growth and repair following injury. In summary, we suggest an appropriate balance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are required to obtain substantial axon regeneration.
Full Text Available Microsurgical suturing is the gold standard of nerve coaptation. Although literature on the usefulness of fibrin glue as an alternative is becoming increasingly available, it remains contradictory. Furthermore, no data exist on how both repair methods might influence the morphological aspects (arborization; branching of early peripheral nerve regeneration. We used the sciatic nerve transplantation model in thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice (YFP; n = 10. Pieces of nerve (1cm were grafted from YFP-negative mice (n = 10 into those expressing YFP. We performed microsuture coaptations on one side and used fibrin glue for repair on the contralateral side. Seven days after grafting, the regeneration distance, the percentage of regenerating and arborizing axons, the number of branches per axon, the coaptation failure rate, the gap size at the repair site and the time needed for surgical repair were all investigated. Fibrin glue repair resulted in regenerating axons travelling further into the distal nerve. It also increased the percentage of arborizing axons. No coaptation failure was detected. Gap sizes were comparable in both groups. Fibrin glue significantly reduced surgical repair time. The increase in regeneration distance, even after the short period of time, is in line with the results of others that showed faster axonal regeneration after fibrin glue repair. The increase in arborizing axons could be another explanation for better functional and electrophysiological results after fibrin glue repair. Fibrin glue nerve coaptation seems to be a promising alternative to microsuture repair.
Lieberman Alexander R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan NG2 blocks neurite outgrowth in vitro and has been proposed as a major inhibitor of axonal regeneration in the CNS. Although a substantial body of evidence underpins this hypothesis, it is challenged by recent findings including strong expression of NG2 in regenerating peripheral nerve. Results We studied axonal regeneration in the PNS and CNS of genetically engineered mice that do not express NG2, and in sex and age matched wild-type controls. In the CNS, we used anterograde tracing with BDA to study corticospinal tract (CST axons after spinal cord injury and transganglionic labelling with CT-HRP to trace ascending sensory dorsal column (DC axons after DC lesions and a conditioning lesion of the sciatic nerve. Injury to these fibre tracts resulted in no difference between knockout and wild-type mice in the ability of CST axons or DC axons to enter or cross the lesion site. Similarly, after dorsal root injury (with conditioning lesion, most regenerating dorsal root axons failed to grow across the dorsal root entry zone in both transgenic and wild-type mice. Following sciatic nerve injuries, functional recovery was assessed by analysis of the toe-spreading reflex and cutaneous sensitivity to Von Frey hairs. Anatomical correlates of regeneration were assessed by: retrograde labelling of regenerating dorsal root ganglion (DRG cells with DiAsp; immunostaining with PGP 9.5 to visualise sensory reinnervation of plantar hindpaws; electron microscopic analysis of regenerating axons in tibial and digital nerves; and by silver-cholinesterase histochemical study of motor end plate reinnervation. We also examined functional and anatomical correlates of regeneration after injury of the facial nerve by assessing the time taken for whisker movements and corneal reflexes to recover and by retrograde labelling of regenerated axons with Fluorogold and DiAsp. None of the anatomical or functional analyses
At present there is no clinically effective treatment for injuries or pathological processes that disrupt the continuity of axons in the mature central nervous system. However, a number of studies suggest that a tremendous potential exists for developing therapies. In particular biomaterials in the form of bridging substrates been shown to support at least some level of axonal regeneration across the lesion site, but display a limited capacity for directing axons toward their targets. To influence the directionality of the regeneration process filaments and tubes appear promising but the technology is far from optimized. As a step toward optimization, we investigated various components of a tissue-engineered bridging device consisting of numerous filaments surrounded by a semipermeable biodegradable hollow fiber membrane (HFM). In the first part of the thesis, we studied the influence of filament diameter and various extracellular matrix coatings on neuron regeneration suing a dorsal root ganglion explant model. We found that laminin surface treated filaments that approached the size of spinal axons support significantly longer regenerative outgrowth than similarly treated filaments of larger diameter, and exceed outgrowth distance on similarly sized filaments treated with fibronectin. Such substrates also consistently supported the attachment and alignment of glial cells and directed the outgrowth of regenerating axons along the long axis of the filaments. In the last part of the thesis, biodegradable hollow fiber membranes were fabricated and their physical, chemical and degradation properties were analyzed. We found that it is possible to use phase inversion methods to fabricate hollow fiber membranes of widely varying properties that degrade of the course of several months. We then evaluated the biocompatibility of the new materials after implantation in the CNS using an adult rat model. We found that the implants were well tolerated and elicited a reaction
Full Text Available Upregulation and activation of developmental axon guidance molecules, such as semaphorins and members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family and their ligands, the ephrins, play a role in the inhibition of axonal regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. Previously we have demonstrated in a knockout model that axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury is promoted in the absence of the axon guidance protein EphA4. Antagonism of EphA4 was therefore proposed as a potential therapy to promote recovery from spinal cord injury. To further assess this potential, two soluble recombinant blockers of EphA4, unclustered ephrin-A5-Fc and EphA4-Fc, were examined for their ability to promote axonal regeneration and to improve functional outcome following spinal cord hemisection in wildtype mice. A 2-week administration of either of these blockers following spinal cord injury was sufficient to promote substantial axonal regeneration and functional recovery by 5 weeks following injury. Both inhibitors produced a moderate reduction in astrocytic gliosis, indicating that much of the effect of the blockers may be due to promotion of axon growth. These studies provide definitive evidence that soluble inhibitors of EphA4 function offer considerable therapeutic potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury and may have broader potential for the treatment of other central nervous system injuries.
Moldovan, Mihai; Sørensen, Jesper; Krarup, Christian
Functional outcome after peripheral nerve regeneration is often poor, particularly involving nerve injuries far from their targets. Comparison of sensory and motor axon regeneration before target reinnervation is not possible in the clinical setting, and previous experimental studies addressing...... the question of differences in growth rates of different nerve fibre populations led to conflicting results. We developed an animal model to compare growth and maturation of the fastest growing sensory and motor fibres within the same mixed nerve after Wallerian degeneration. Regeneration of cat tibial nerve...... after crush (n = 13) and section (n = 7) was monitored for up to 140 days, using implanted cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic and tibial nerves and wire electrodes at plantar muscles. To distinguish between sensory and motor fibres, recordings were carried out from L6-S2 spinal roots using cuff...
T. Stepanova (Tatiana); I. Smal (Ihor); J.A.J. van Haren (Jeffrey); U. Akinci (Umut); Z. Liu (Zhe); M. Miedema (Marja); R. Limpens (Ronald); M. van Ham (Marco); M. van der Reijden (Michael); R.A. Poot (Raymond); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M. Mommaas (Mieke); E. Meijering (Erik); N.J. Galjart (Niels)
textabstractIn Chinese hamster ovary cells, microtubules originate at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and grow persistently toward the cell edge, where they undergo catastrophe . In axons, microtubule dynamics must be regulated differently because microtubules grow parallel to the plasma
Rodriguez, Justin P; Coulter, Michael; Miotke, Jill; Meyer, Ronald L; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Levine, Joel M
When the brain or spinal cord is injured, glial cells in the damaged area undergo complex morphological and physiological changes resulting in the formation of the glial scar. This scar contains reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, macrophages and other myeloid cells, meningeal cells, proliferating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and a dense extracellular matrix. Whether the scar is beneficial or detrimental to recovery remains controversial. In the acute phase of recovery, scar-forming astrocytes limit the invasion of leukocytes and macrophages, but in the subacute and chronic phases of injury the glial scar is a physical and biochemical barrier to axonal regrowth. The signals that initiate the formation of the glial scar are unknown. Both canonical and noncanonical signaling Wnts are increased after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because Wnts are important regulators of OPC and oligodendrocyte development, we examined the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the glial reactions to CNS injury. In adult female mice carrying an OPC-specific conditionally deleted β-catenin gene, there is reduced proliferation of OPCs after SCI, reduced accumulation of activated microglia/macrophages, and reduced astrocyte hypertrophy. Using an infraorbital optic nerve crush injury, we show that reducing β-catenin-dependent signaling in OPCs creates an environment that is permissive to axonal regeneration. Viral-induced expression of Wnt3a in the normal adult mouse spinal cord induces an injury-like response in glia. Thus canonical Wnt signaling is both necessary and sufficient to induce injury responses among glial cells. These data suggest that targeting Wnt expression after SCI may have therapeutic potential in promoting axon regeneration. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410285-13$15.00/0.
de Lima, Silmara; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Kurimoto, Takuji; Oliveira, Julia Teixeira; Yin, Yuqin; Li, Yiqing; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Fagiolini, Michela; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Benowitz, Larry
The mature optic nerve cannot regenerate when injured, leaving victims of traumatic nerve damage or diseases such as glaucoma with irreversible visual losses. Recent studies have identified ways to stimulate retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons part-way through the optic nerve, but it remains unknown whether mature axons can reenter the brain, navigate to appropriate target areas, or restore vision. We show here that with adequate stimulation, retinal ganglion cells are able to regenerate axons the full length of the visual pathway and on into the lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, and other visual centers. Regeneration partially restores the optomotor response, depth perception, and circadian photoentrainment, demonstrating the feasibility of reconstructing central circuitry for vision after optic nerve damage in mature mammals.
Kar, Amar N; MacGibeny, Margaret A; Gervasi, Noreen M; Gioio, Anthony E; Kaplan, Barry B
Axonal protein synthesis is a complex process involving selective mRNA localization and translational regulation. In this study, using in situ hybridization and metabolic labeling, we show that the mRNAs encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 are present in the axons of rat sympathetic neurons and are locally translated. We also report that a noncoding microRNA, miR16, modulates the axonal expression of eIF2B2 and eIF4G2. Transfection of axons with precursor miR16 and anti-miR16 showed that local miR16 levels modulated axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as axon outgrowth. siRNA-mediated knock-down of axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 mRNA also resulted in a significant decrease in axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 protein. Moreover, results of metabolic labeling studies showed that downregulation of axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 expression also inhibited local protein synthesis and axon growth. Together, these data provide evidence that miR16 mediates axonal growth, at least in part, by regulating the local protein synthesis of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 in the axon.
Del Valle, Jaume; Santos, Daniel; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; de la Oliva, Natàlia; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Navarro, Xavier
Segregation of regenerating motor and sensory axons may be a good strategy to improve selective functionality of regenerative interfaces to provide close loop commands. Provided that extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert guidance effects on different neuronal populations, we assessed in vivo the potential of separating sensory and motor axons regenerating in a bicompartmental Y-type tube, with each branch prefilled with an adequate combination of ECM and NTFs. The severed rat sciatic nerve was repaired using a bicompartmental tube filled with a collagen matrix enriched with fibronectin and BDNF encapsulated in PLGA microspheres (FN+MP.BDNF) in one compartment to preferentially attract motor axons and collagen enriched with laminin and NGF and NT-3 in microspheres (LM+MP.NGF/NT-3) in the other compartment for promoting sensory axons regeneration. Control animals were implanted with the same Y-tube with a collagen matrix with microspheres containing PBS (Col+MP.PBS). By using retrotracer labeling, we found that LM+MP.NGF/NT-3 did not attract higher number of regenerated sensory axons compared to controls, and no differences were observed in sensory functional recovery. However, FN+MP.BDNF guided a higher number of regenerating motor axons compared to controls, improving also motor recovery. A small proportion of sensory axons with large soma size, likely proprioceptive neurons, was also attracted to the FN+MP.BDNF compartment. These results demonstrate that muscular axonal guidance can be modulated in vivo by the addition of fibronectin and BDNF. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rhiner, Christa; Gysi, Stephan; Fröhli, Erika; Hengartner, Michael O; Hajnal, Alex
During nervous system development, axons that grow out simultaneously in the same extracellular environment are often sorted to different target destinations. As there is only a restricted set of guidance cues known, regulatory mechanisms are likely to play a crucial role in controlling cell migration and axonal pathfinding. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) carry long chains of differentially modified sugar residues that have been proposed to encode specific information for nervous system development. Here, we show that the cell surface proteoglycan syndecan SDN-1 functions autonomously in neurons to control the neural migration and guidance choices of outgrowing axons. Epistasis analysis suggests that heparan sulfate (HS) attached to SDN-1 can regulate guidance signaling by the Slit/Robo pathway. Furthermore, SDN-1 acts in parallel with other HSPG core proteins whose HS side chains are modified by the C5-epimerase HSE-5, and/or the 2O-sulfotransferase HST-2, depending on the cellular context. Taken together, our experiments show that distinct HS modification patterns on SDN-1 are involved in regulating axon guidance and cell migration in C. elegans.
Full Text Available Successful nerve regeneration after nerve trauma is not only important for the restoration of motor and sensory functions, but also to reduce the potential for abnormal sensory impulse generation that can occur following neuroma formation. Satisfying functional results after severe lesions are difficult to achieve and the development of interventional methods to achieve optimal functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is of increasing clinical interest. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs have been used to improve axonal regeneration and functional outcome in a number of studies in spinal cord injury models. The rationale is that the OECs may provide trophic support and a permissive environment for axonal regeneration. The experimental transplantation of OECs to support and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration is much more limited. This chapter reviews studies using OECs as an experimental cell therapy to improve peripheral nerve regeneration.
Full Text Available Damage to the central nervous system (CNS is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly, as repair after lesions or neurodegenerative disease usually fails because of the limited capacity of CNS regeneration. The causes underlying this limited regenerative potential are multifactorial, but one critical aspect is neuroinflammation. Although classically considered as harmful, it is now becoming increasingly clear that inflammation can also promote regeneration, if the appropriate context is provided. Here, we review the current knowledge on how acute inflammation is intertwined with axonal regeneration, an important component of CNS repair. After optic nerve or spinal cord injury, inflammatory stimulation and/or modification greatly improve the regenerative outcome in rodents. Moreover, the hypothesis of a beneficial role of inflammation is further supported by evidence from adult zebrafish, which possess the remarkable capability to repair CNS lesions and even restore functionality. Lastly, we shed light on the impact of aging processes on the regenerative capacity in the CNS of mammals and zebrafish. As aging not only affects the CNS, but also the immune system, the regeneration potential is expected to further decline in aged individuals, an element that should definitely be considered in the search for novel therapeutic strategies.
Van houcke, Jessie
Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly, as repair after lesions or neurodegenerative disease usually fails because of the limited capacity of CNS regeneration. The causes underlying this limited regenerative potential are multifactorial, but one critical aspect is neuroinflammation. Although classically considered as harmful, it is now becoming increasingly clear that inflammation can also promote regeneration, if the appropriate context is provided. Here, we review the current knowledge on how acute inflammation is intertwined with axonal regeneration, an important component of CNS repair. After optic nerve or spinal cord injury, inflammatory stimulation and/or modification greatly improve the regenerative outcome in rodents. Moreover, the hypothesis of a beneficial role of inflammation is further supported by evidence from adult zebrafish, which possess the remarkable capability to repair CNS lesions and even restore functionality. Lastly, we shed light on the impact of aging processes on the regenerative capacity in the CNS of mammals and zebrafish. As aging not only affects the CNS, but also the immune system, the regeneration potential is expected to further decline in aged individuals, an element that should definitely be considered in the search for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28203046
Leclere, Pascal G; Norman, Emma; Groutsi, Filitsa; Coffin, Robert; Mayer, Ulrike; Pizzey, John; Tonge, David
The subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons recognized by Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) differ from other neurons by expressing receptors for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rather than neurotrophins. Additionally, IB4-labeled neurons do not express the laminin receptor, alpha7-integrin (Gardiner et al., 2005), necessary for optimal axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. In cultures of dissociated DRG neurons of adult mice on laminin, robust spontaneous neurite outgrowth from IB4-negative neurons occurs and is strongly enhanced by previous axotomy. In contrast, IB4-labeled neurons show little neurite outgrowth and do not express GAP 43, even after axotomy or culture with GDNF. Moreover, growth of their axons through collagen gels is impaired compared with other DRG neurons. To determine whether the sparse neurite outgrowth of IB4-labeled neurons is attributable to lack of integrin expression, DRG cultures were infected with a herpes simplex 1 vector encoding alpha7-integrin, but its forced expression failed to promote neurite outgrowth in either IB4-labeled or other DRG neurons or in cultured adult retinal ganglion cells. Forced coexpression of both alpha7-integrin and GAP 43 also failed to promote neurite outgrowth in IB4-labeled neurons. In addition, cultured sciatic nerve segments were found to release much lower levels of GDNF, demonstrated by ELISA, than nerve growth factor. These findings together with their impaired intrinsic axonal regeneration capacity may contribute to the known vulnerability of the IB4-labeled population of DRG neurons to peripheral nerve injury.
Full Text Available Wnt signaling is essential for axon wiring throughout the development of the nervous system in vertebrates and invertebrates. In vertebrates, Wnts are expressed in gradients that span the entire anterior-posterior axis in the spinal cord and the medial-lateral axis in the superior colliculus. In the brainstem, Wnts are expressed in more complex gradients along the anterior-posterior axis. These gradients provide directional information for axon pathfinding and positional information for topographic mapping and are detected by cell polarity signaling pathways. The gradient expression of Wnts and the coordinated expression of Wnt signaling systems are regulated by mechanisms which are currently unknown. Injury to the adult spinal cord results in the re-induction of Wnts in multiple cell types around the lesion site and their signaling system in injured axons. Reinduced Wnts form gradients around the lesion site, with the lesion site being the peak. The reinduced Wnts may be responsible for the well-known retraction of descending motor axons through the atypical kinase receptor Ryk. Wnt signaling is an appealing therapeutic target for CNS repair. The mechanisms regulating the reinduction will be informative for therapeutic design.
Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; De Winter, F; Holtmaat, Anthony J D G; Verhaagen, J
To explore a role for chemorepulsive axon guidance mechanisms in the regeneration of primary olfactory axons, we examined the expression of the chemorepellent semaphorin III (sema III), its receptor neuropilin-1, and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) during regeneration of the olfactory
Fenrich, Keith K; Skelton, Nicole; MacDermid, Victoria E
, develop de novo axons. Our goal was to determine whether spinal commissural interneurons (CINs), axotomized by 3-4-mm midsagittal transection at C3, form de novo axons from distal dendrites. All experiments were performed on adult cats. CINs in C3 were stained with extracellular injections of Neurobiotin...
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) promote nerve regeneration and neuronal survival after peripheral nerve injury. However, drawbacks related with administration and bioactivity during long periods limit their therapeutic application. In this study, PLGA microspheres (MPs) were used to locally release different NTFs and evaluate whether they accelerate axonal regeneration in comparison with free NTFs or controls. ELISA, SEM, UV/visible light microscopy, organotypic cultures of DRG explants and spina...
Fagoe, Nitish D; Attwell, Callan L; Kouwenhoven, Dorette; Verhaagen, J.; Mason, M.R.J.
Peripheral nerve injury results in the activation of a number of transcription factors (TFs) in injured neurons, some of which may be key regulators of the regeneration-associated gene (RAG) programme. Among known RAG TFs, ATF3, Smad1, STAT3 and c-Jun have all been linked to successful axonal
Karttunen, Marja J.; Czopka, Tim; Goedhart, Marieke; Early, Jason J.
Demyelination is observed in numerous diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the endogenous regenerative process of remyelination can replace myelin lost in disease, and in various animal models. Unfortunately, the process of remyelination often fails, particularly with ageing. Even when remyelination occurs, it is characterised by the regeneration of myelin sheaths that are abnormally thin and short. This imperfect remyelination is likely to have implications for the restoration of normal circuit function and possibly the optimal metabolic support of axons. Here we describe a larval zebrafish model of demyelination and remyelination. We employ a drug-inducible cell ablation system with which we can consistently ablate 2/3rds of oligodendrocytes in the larval zebrafish spinal cord. This leads to a concomitant demyelination of 2/3rds of axons in the spinal cord, and an innate immune response over the same time period. We find restoration of the normal number of oligodendrocytes and robust remyelination approximately two weeks after induction of cell ablation, whereby myelinated axon number is restored to control levels. Remarkably, we find that myelin sheaths of normal length and thickness are regenerated during this time. Interestingly, we find that axons grow significantly in caliber during this period of remyelination. This suggests the possibility that the active growth of axons may stimulate the regeneration of myelin sheaths of normal dimensions. PMID:28542521
Chen, Bingkun K; Madigan, Nicolas N; Hakim, Jeffrey S; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; McMahon, Siobhan S; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J
Positively-charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF+ ) is a biodegradable hydrogel used for spinal cord injury repair. We compared scaffolds containing primary Schwann cells (SCs) to scaffolds delivering SCs genetically modified to secrete high concentrations of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Multichannel OPF+ scaffolds loaded with SCs or GDNF-SCs were implanted into transected rat spinal cords for 4 weeks. GDNF-SCs promoted regeneration of more axons into OPF+ scaffolds (2773.0 ± 396.0) than primary SC OPF+ scaffolds (1666.0 ± 352.2) (p = 0.0491). This increase was most significant in central and ventral-midline channels of the scaffold. Axonal remyelination was quantitated by stereologic analysis. Increased myelination of regenerating axons was observed in the GDNF-SC group. Myelinating cell and axon complexes were formed by host SCs and not by implanted cells or host oligodendrocytes. Fast Blue retrograde tracing studies determined the rostral-caudal directionality of axonal growth. The number of neurons that projected axons rostrally through the GDNF-SC scaffolds was higher (7929 ± 1670) than in animals with SC OPF+ scaffolds (1069 ± 241.5) (p OPF+ scaffolds partially recovered locomotor function at weeks 3 and 4 following surgery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge G.; Liang, Yu-Xiang; You, Si-Wei; Tay, David K. C.; Zhang, Shuguang; So, Kwok-Fai; Schneider, Gerald E.
Nanotechnology is often associated with materials fabrication, microelectronics, and microfluidics. Until now, the use of nanotechnology and molecular self assembly in biomedicine to repair injured brain structures has not been explored. To achieve axonal regeneration after injury in the CNS, several formidable barriers must be overcome, such as scar tissue formation after tissue injury, gaps in nervous tissue formed during phagocytosis of dying cells after injury, and the failure of many adult neurons to initiate axonal extension. Using the mammalian visual system as a model, we report that a designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold creates a permissive environment for axons not only to regenerate through the site of an acute injury but also to knit the brain tissue together. In experiments using a severed optic tract in the hamster, we show that regenerated axons reconnect to target tissues with sufficient density to promote functional return of vision, as evidenced by visually elicited orienting behavior. The peptide nanofiber scaffold not only represents a previously undiscovered nanobiomedical technology for tissue repair and restoration but also raises the possibility of effective treatment of CNS and other tissue or organ trauma. CNS regeneration | tissue repair | nanomedicine
Yao, L; Daly, W; Newland, B; Yao, S; Wang, W; Chen, B K K; Madigan, N; Windebank, A; Pandit, A
Functionalized biomaterial scaffolds targeted at improving axonal regeneration by enhancing guided axonal growth provide a promising approach for the repair of spinal cord injury. Collagen neural conduits provide structural guidance for neural tissue regeneration, and in this study it is shown that these conduits can also act as a reservoir for sustained gene delivery. Either a G-luciferase marker gene or a neurotrophin-3-encoding gene, complexed to a non-viral, cyclized, PEGylated transfection vector, was loaded within a multichannel collagen conduit. The complexed genes were then released in a controlled fashion using a dual release system both in vitro and in vivo. For evaluation of their biological performance, the loaded conduits were implanted into the completely transected rat thoracic spinal cord (T8-T10). Aligned axon regeneration through the channels of conduits was observed one month post-surgery. The conduits delivering neurotrophin-3 polyplexes resulted in significantly increased neurotrophin-3 levels in the surrounding tissue and a statistically higher number of regenerated axons versus the control conduits (Pspinal cord.
Fink, Kathren L; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Cafferty, William B J
Spinal cord injury interrupts descending motor tracts and creates persistent functional deficits due to the absence of spontaneous axon regeneration. Of descending pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is thought to be the most critical for voluntary function in primates. Even with multiple tracer injections and genetic tools, the CST is visualized to only a minor degree in experimental studies. Here, we identify and validate the mu-crystallin (crym) gene as a high-fidelity marker of the CST. In transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under crym regulatory elements (crym-GFP), comprehensive and near complete CST labeling is achieved throughout the spinal cord. Bilateral pyramidotomy eliminated the 17,000 GFP-positive CST axons that were reproducibly labeled in brainstem from the spinal cord. We show that CST tracing with crym-GFP is 10-fold more efficient than tracing with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Using crym-GFP, we reevaluated the CST in mice lacking nogo receptor 1 (NgR1), a protein implicated in limiting neural repair. The number and trajectory of CST axons in ngr1(-/-) mice without injury was indistinguishable from ngr1(+/+) mice. After dorsal hemisection in the midthoracic cord, CST axons did not significantly regenerate in ngr1(+/+) mice, but an average of 162 of the 6000 labeled thoracic CST axons (2.68%) regenerated >100 μm past the lesion site in crym-GFP ngr1(-/-) mice. Although traditional BDA tracing cannot reliably visualize regenerating ngr1(-/-) CST axons, their regenerative course is clear with crym-GFP. Therefore the crym-GFP transgenic mouse is a useful tool for studies of CST anatomy in experimental studies of motor pathways. Axon regeneration fails in the adult CNS, resulting in permanent functional deficits. Traditionally, inefficient extrinsic tracers such a biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) are used to label regenerating fibers after therapeutic intervention. We introduce crym-green fluorescent protein (GFP
Properzi, F.; Carulli, D.; Asher, R.A.; Muir, E.; Camargo, L.M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Dam, G.B. ten; Furukawa, Y.; Mikami, T.; Sugahara, K.; Toida, T.; Geller, H.M.; Fawcett, J.W.
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the CNS after injury and inhibit axon regeneration mainly through their glycosaminoglycan (CS-GAG) chains. We have analysed the mRNA levels of the CS-GAG synthesizing enzymes and measured the CS-GAG disaccharide composition by
Wei, Y T [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tian, W M [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yu, X [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Cui, F Z [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hou, S P [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Xu, Q Y [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Lee, In-Seop [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)
A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue.
Liu, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Hung-Ming; Wu, Tsung-Huan; Chen, Li-You; Yang, Yin-Shuo; Tseng, To-Jung; Liao, Wen-Chieh
The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 that cluster at juxtaparanodal (JXP) regions are essential in the regulation of nerve excitability and play a critical role in axonal conduction. When demyelination occurs, Kv1.1/Kv1.2 activity increases, suppressing the membrane potential nearly to the equilibrium potential of K+, which results in an axonal conduction blockade. The recovery of K+-dependent communication signals and proper clustering of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels at JXP regions may directly reflect nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. However, little is known about potassium channel expression and its relationship with the dynamic potassium ion distribution at the node of Ranvier during the regenerative process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI). In the present study, end-to-end neurorrhaphy (EEN) was performed using an in vivo model of PNI. The distribution of K+ at regenerating axons following EEN was detected by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The specific localization and expression of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels were examined by confocal microscopy and western blotting. Our data showed that the re-establishment of K+ distribution and intensity was correlated with the functional recovery of compound muscle action potential morphology in EEN rats. Furthermore, the re-clustering of Kv1.1/1.2 channels 1 and 3 months after EEN at the nodal region of the regenerating nerve corresponded to changes in the K+ distribution. This study provided direct evidence of K+ distribution in regenerating axons for the first time. We proposed that the Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels re-clustered at the JXP regions of regenerating axons are essential for modulating the proper patterns of K+ distribution in axons for maintaining membrane potential stability after EEN.
Blesch, Armin; Lu, Paul; Tsukada, Shingo; Alto, Laura Taylor; Roet, Kasper; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Dan; Tuszynski, Mark H
Previous studies indicate that peripheral nerve conditioning lesions significantly enhance central axonal regeneration via modulation of cAMP-mediated mechanisms. To gain insight into the nature and temporal dependence of neural mechanisms underlying conditioning lesion effects on central axonal regeneration, we compared the efficacy of peripheral sciatic nerve crush lesions to cAMP elevations (in lumbar dorsal root ganglia) on central sensory axonal regeneration when administered either before or after cervical spinal cord lesions. We found significantly greater effects of conditioning lesions compared to cAMP elevations on central axonal regeneration when combined with cellular grafts at the lesion site and viral neurotrophin delivery; further, these effects persisted whether conditioning lesions were applied prior to or shortly after spinal cord injury. Indeed, conditioning lesions recruited extensively greater sets of genetic mechanisms of possible relevance to axonal regeneration compared to cAMP administration, and sustained these changes for significantly greater time periods through the post-lesion period. We conclude that cAMP-mediated mechanisms account for only a portion of the potency of conditioning lesions on central axonal regeneration, and that recruitment of broader genetic mechanisms can extend the effect and duration of cellular events that support axonal growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Newborn striatal neurons induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO can form functional projections targeting into the substantia nigra, which should be very important for the recovery of motor function. Exercise training post-stroke improves motor recovery in clinic patients and increases striatal neurogenesis in experimental animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise on axon regeneration of newborn projection neurons in adult rat brains following ischemic stroke. Rats were subjected to a transient MCAO to induce focal cerebral ischemic injury, followed by 30 minutes of exercise training daily from 5 to 28 days after MCAO. Motor function was tested using the rotarod test. We used fluorogold (FG nigral injection to trace striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons, and green fluorescent protein (GFP-targeting retroviral vectors combined with FG double labeling (GFP(+ -FG(+ to detect newborn projection neurons. The results showed that exercise improved the recovery of motor function of rats after MCAO. Meanwhile, exercise also increased the levels of BDNF and VEGF, and reduced Nogo-A in ischemic brain. On this condition, we further found that exercise significantly increased the number of GFP(+ -FG(+ neurons in the striatum and frontal and parietal cortex ipsilateral to MCAO, suggesting an increase of newborn striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons by exercise post-stroke. In addition, we found that exercise also increased NeuN(+ and FG(+ cells in the striatum and frontal and parietal cortex, the ischemic territory, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunopositive staining cells in the substantia nigra, a region remote from the ischemic territory. Our results provide the first evidence that exercise can effectively enhance the capacity for regeneration of newborn projection neurons in ischemic injured mammalian brains while improving motor function. Our results provide a very important cellular mechanism
Negro, Samuele; Lessi, Francesca; Duregotti, Elisa; Aretini, Paolo; La Ferla, Marco; Franceschi, Sara; Menicagli, Michele; Bergamin, Elisanna; Radice, Egle; Thelen, Marcus; Megighian, Aram; Pirazzini, Marco; Mazzanti, Chiara M; Rigoni, Michela; Montecucco, Cesare
The neuromuscular junction has retained through evolution the capacity to regenerate after damage, but little is known on the inter-cellular signals involved in its functional recovery from trauma, autoimmune attacks, or neurotoxins. We report here that CXCL12α, also abbreviated as stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is produced specifically by perisynaptic Schwann cells following motor axon terminal degeneration induced by α-latrotoxin. CXCL12α acts via binding to the neuronal CXCR4 receptor. A CXCL12α-neutralizing antibody or a specific CXCR4 inhibitor strongly delays recovery from motor neuron degeneration in vivo Recombinant CXCL12α in vivo accelerates neurotransmission rescue upon damage and very effectively stimulates the axon growth of spinal cord motor neurons in vitro These findings indicate that the CXCL12α-CXCR4 axis plays an important role in the regeneration of the neuromuscular junction after motor axon injury. The present results have important implications in the effort to find therapeutics and protocols to improve recovery of function after different forms of motor axon terminal damage. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
Yost H Joseph
Full Text Available Abstract Background How axon guidance signals regulate growth cone behavior and guidance decisions in the complex in vivo environment of the central nervous system is not well understood. We have taken advantage of the unique features of the zebrafish embryo to visualize dynamic growth cone behaviors and analyze guidance mechanisms of axons emerging from a central brain nucleus in vivo. Results We investigated axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF, which are the first axons to extend in the zebrafish midbrain. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging, we show that both positive axon-axon interactions and guidance by surrounding tissue control initial nucMLF axon guidance. We further show that two guidance molecules, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1 and laminin-α1, are essential for the initial directional extension of nucMLF axons and their subsequent convergence into a tight fascicle. Fixed tissue analysis shows that TAG-1 knockdown causes errors in nucMLF axon pathfinding similar to those seen in a laminin-α1 mutant. However, in vivo time-lapse imaging reveals that while some defects in dynamic growth cone behavior are similar, there are also defects unique to the loss of each gene. Loss of either TAG-1 or laminin-α1 causes nucMLF axons to extend into surrounding tissue in incorrect directions and reduces axonal growth rate, resulting in stunted nucMLF axons that fail to extend beyond the hindbrain. However, defects in axon-axon interactions were found only after TAG-1 knockdown, while defects in initial nucMLF axon polarity and excessive branching of nucMLF axons occurred only in laminin-α1 mutants. Conclusion These results demonstrate how two guidance cues, TAG-1 and laminin-α1, influence the behavior of growth cones during axon pathfinding in vivo. Our data suggest that TAG-1 functions to allow growth cones to sense environmental cues and mediates positive axon-axon interactions. Laminin-α1 does not regulate
Gu, Mengchao; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Xiaohui; Guo, Lei; Lu, Teng; Li, Yuhuan; He, Xijing
To investigate the effectiveness and the potential role of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium (OEC-M) to treat contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). The contusive SCI model was established by NYU weight-drop impactor at T10 segment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of control medium (Con-M, n=18), low dose OEC-M (n=18) and high dose OEC-M (n=18). Immunofluorescence was performed to identify the purity of cultured OECs. BBB score was used to assess the functional recovery. BDNF concentrations of OEC-M, Con-M and rats plasma samples were determined by ELISA. Conventional MRI and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) were applied to visualize the repair process of SCI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and immunohistochemistry of NF200 were carried out to evaluate the axonal regeneration. After the systemic delivery of treatment, BBB scores and BDNF levels in peripheral blood were significantly higher in OEC-M treated groups than in Con-M group. MRI and DTT demonstrated a better radiological recovery after SCI in OEC-M treated groups and higher dose of OEC-M were accompanied with better outcomes. DTI and NF200 staining revealed the OEC-M treatment promoted axonal regeneration around the injury epicenter but no axonal regeneration was observed at the lesion site. The results indicate that the OEC-M treatment improves the functional recovery and promotes the axonal regeneration around the injury epicenter after contusive SCI. This strategy represents a novel cell-free OEC based therapy to effectively treat SCI. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0051 TITLE: Activation of mTor Signaling by Gene Transduction to Induce Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System ...Central Nervous System Following Neural Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0051 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert...mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS), unlike the peripheral nervous system (PNS), is incapable of axon regeneration. There are currently two
Vega-Meléndez, Giam S; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Blanco, Rosa E
Neurotrophins such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) play important roles in neuronal survival and in axonal outgrowth during development. However, whether they can modulate regeneration after optic nerve injury in the adult animal is less clear. The present study investigates the effects of application of these neurotrophic factors on the speed, number, and distribution of regenerating axons in the frog Rana pipiens after optic nerve crush. Optic nerves were crushed and the factors, or phosphate-buffered saline, were applied to the stump or intraocularly. The nerves were examined at different times after axotomy, using anterograde labeling with biotin dextran amine and antibody against growth-associated protein 43. We measured the length, number, and distribution of axons projecting beyond the lesion site. Untreated regenerating axons show an increase in elongation rate over 3 weeks. CNTF more than doubles this rate, FGF-2 increases it, and BDNF has little effect. In contrast, the numbers of regenerating axons that have reached 200 μm at 2 weeks were more than doubled by FGF-2, increased by CNTF, and barely affected by BDNF. The regenerating axons were preferentially distributed in the periphery of the nerve; although the numbers of axons were increased by neurotrophic factor application, this overall distribution was substantially unaffected. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available GABAA receptors distributed in somatodendritic compartments play critical roles in regulating neuronal activities, including spike timing and firing pattern; however, the properties and functions of GABAA receptors at the axon are still poorly understood. By recording from the cut end (bleb of the main axon trunk of layer -5 pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortical slices, we found that currents evoked by GABA iontophoresis could be blocked by picrotoxin, indicating the expression of GABAA receptors in axons. Stationary noise analysis revealed that single-channel properties of axonal GABAA receptors were similar to those of somatic receptors. Perforated patch recording with gramicidin revealed that the reversal potential of the GABA response was more negative than the resting membrane potential at the axon trunk, suggesting that GABA may hyperpolarize the axonal membrane potential. Further experiments demonstrated that the activation of axonal GABAA receptors regulated the amplitude and duration of action potentials (APs and decreased the AP-induced Ca2+ transients at the axon. Together, our results indicate that the waveform of axonal APs and the downstream Ca2+ signals are modulated by axonal GABAA receptors.
Quintá, H R; Pasquini, J M; Rabinovich, G A; Pasquini, L A
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) prevents axonal regeneration through binding to the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)/PlexinA4 receptor complex. Here, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an endogenous glycan-binding protein, selectively bound to the NRP-1/PlexinA4 receptor complex in injured neurons through a glycan-dependent mechanism, interrupts the Sema3A pathway and contributes to axonal regeneration and locomotor recovery after SCI. Although both Gal-1 and its monomeric variant contribute to de-activation of microglia, only high concentrations of wild-type Gal-1 (which co-exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium) bind to the NRP-1/PlexinA4 receptor complex and promote axonal regeneration. Our results show that Gal-1, mainly in its dimeric form, promotes functional recovery of spinal lesions by interfering with inhibitory signals triggered by Sema3A binding to NRP-1/PlexinA4 complex, supporting the use of this lectin for the treatment of SCI patients.
Torpe, Nanna; Pocock, Roger David John
Neuronal wiring during development requires that the growth cones of axons and dendrites are correctly guided to their appropriate targets. As in other animals, axon growth cones in Caenorhabditis elegans integrate information in their extracellular environment via interactions among transiently ...... data suggest that DPY-18 regulates ephrin expression to direct axon guidance, a role for P4Hs that may be conserved in higher organisms....
Leterrier, Christophe; Dargent, Bénédicte
The transmission of information in the brain depends on the highly polarized architecture of neurons. A number of cellular transport processes support this organization, including active targeting of proteins and passive corralling between compartments. The axon initial segment (AIS), which separates the somatodendritic and axonal compartments, has a key role in neuronal physiology, as both the initiation site of action potentials and the gatekeeper of the axonal arborization. Over the years, the AIS main components and their interactions have been progressively unraveled, as well as their role in the AIS assembly and maintenance. Two mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the regulation of protein transport at the AIS: a surface diffusion barrier and an intracellular traffic filter. However, a molecular understanding of these processes is still lacking. In the view of recent results on the AIS cytoskeleton structure, we will discuss how a better knowledge of the AIS architecture can help understanding its role in the regulation of protein transport and the maintenance of axonal identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Y; Zuo, Y; Wang, X L; Huo, H J; Jiang, J M; Yan, H B; Xiao, Y L
We investigated the effect of neural stem cells (NSC) and erythropoietin (EPO) on axon regeneration in adult rats with transected spinal cord injury, and provided an experimental basis for clinical treatment. Forty Wistar rats with T10-transected spinal cord injury were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats: a control group (group A), an NSC-transplant group (group B), an NSC-transplant and EPO group (group C), and an EPO group (group D). Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) anterograde corticospinal cord neuronal tracing and Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing were carried out at the 8th week after operation to observe the regeneration of nerve fibers. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score was used to evaluate restoration. 1) BDA and FG immunofluorescence staining: in group C, a large number of regenerated axons were observed and some penetrated the injured area. In group B, only a small number of regenerated axons were observed and none penetrated the injured area. In group D, only sporadic regenerated nerve fibers were observed occasionally, while in group A, no axonal regeneration was observed. In group C, a small number of cones and axons emitted yellow fluorescence, and no FG-labeled cells were observed in the other groups. 2) The BBB scores for group C were higher than those for the other groups, and the differences were statistically significance (P regeneration in rats with transected spinal cord injury, and accelerate the functional recovery of the hindlimb locomotor.
Colak, Dilek; Ji, Sheng-Jian; Porse, Bo T
Growth cones enable axons to navigate toward their targets by responding to extracellular signaling molecules. Growth-cone responses are mediated in part by the local translation of axonal messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, the mechanisms that regulate local translation are poorly understood. Here we...... (NMD) pathway. We find that NMD regulates Robo3.2 synthesis by inducing the degradation of Robo3.2 transcripts in axons that encounter the floor plate. Commissural neurons deficient in NMD proteins exhibit aberrant axonal trajectories after crossing the midline, consistent with misregulation of Robo3.......2 expression. These data show that local translation is regulated by mRNA stability and that NMD acts locally to influence axonal pathfinding....
Deng, Lingxiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Naikui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M.; Xu, Xiao-Ming
Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function. PMID:23536080
Deng, Ling-Xiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Nai-Kui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M; Xu, Xiao-Ming
Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function.
Wyatt, Cameron; Ebert, Anselm; Reimer, Michell M.; Rasband, Kendall; Hardy, Melissa; Chien, Chi-Bin; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G.
During formation of the optic projection in astray/robo2 mutant zebrafish, optic axons exhibit rostro-caudal pathfinding errors, ectopic midline crossing and increased terminal arbor size. Here we show that these errors persist into adulthood, even when robo2 function is conditionally reduced only during initial formation of the optic projection. Adult errors include massive ectopic optic tracts in the telencephalon. During optic nerve regeneration in astray/robo2 animals, these tracts are not re-populated and ectopic midline crossing is reduced compared to unlesioned mutants. This is despite a comparable macrophage/microglial response and upregulation of contactin1a in oligodendrocytes of entopic and ectopic tracts. However, other errors, such as expanded termination areas and ectopic growth into the tectum, were frequently re-committed by regenerating optic axons. Retinal ganglion cells with regenerating axons re-express robo2 and expression of slit ligands is maintained in some areas of the adult optic pathway. However, slit expression is reduced rostral and caudal to the chiasm, compared to development and ubiquitous overexpression of Slit2 did not elicit major pathfinding phenotypes. This shows that (1) there is not an efficient correction mechanism for large-scale pathfinding errors of optic axons during development; (2) degenerating tracts do not provide a strong guidance cue for regenerating optic axons in the adult CNS, unlike the PNS; and (3) robo2 is less important for pathfinding of optic axons during regeneration than during development. PMID:20943924
Zou, Yixiao; Stagi, Massimiliano; Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Siegel, Chad S; Nakatsu, Fubito; Cafferty, William B J; Strittmatter, Stephen M
Axonal growth and neuronal rewiring facilitate functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Known interventions that promote neural repair remain limited in their functional efficacy. To understand genetic determinants of mammalian CNS axon regeneration, we completed an unbiased RNAi gene-silencing screen across most phosphatases in the genome. We identified one known and 17 previously unknown phosphatase suppressors of injury-induced CNS axon growth. Silencing Inpp5f (Sac2) leads to robust enhancement of axon regeneration and growth cone reformation. Results from cultured Inpp5f(-/-) neurons confirm lentiviral shRNA results from the screen. Consistent with the nonoverlapping substrate specificity between Inpp5f and PTEN, rapamycin does not block enhanced regeneration in Inpp5f(-/-) neurons, implicating mechanisms independent of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Inpp5f(-/-) mice develop normally, but show enhanced anatomical and functional recovery after mid-thoracic dorsal hemisection injury. More serotonergic axons sprout and/or regenerate caudal to the lesion level, and greater numbers of corticospinal tract axons sprout rostral to the lesion. Functionally, Inpp5f-null mice exhibit enhanced recovery of motor functions in both open-field and rotarod tests. This study demonstrates the potential of an unbiased high-throughput functional screen to identify endogenous suppressors of CNS axon growth after injury, and reveals Inpp5f (Sac2) as a novel suppressor of CNS axon repair after spinal cord injury. Significance statement: The extent of axon regeneration is a critical determinant of neurological recovery from injury, and is extremely limited in the adult mammalian CNS. We describe an unbiased gene-silencing screen that uncovered novel molecules suppressing axonal regeneration. Inpp5f (Sac2) gene deletion promoted recovery from spinal cord injury with no side effects. The mechanism of action is distinct from another lipid phosphatase implicated in regeneration, PTEN
Mary C. Halloran
Full Text Available Axon growth and branching, and development of neuronal polarity are critically dependent on proper organization and dynamics of the microtubule (MT cytoskeleton. MTs must organize with correct polarity for delivery of diverse cargos to appropriate subcellular locations, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating MT polarity remain poorly understood. Moreover, how an actively branching axon reorganizes MTs to direct their plus ends distally at branch points is unknown. We used high-speed, in vivo imaging of polymerizing MT plus ends to characterize MT dynamics in developing sensory axon arbors in zebrafish embryos. We find that axonal MTs are highly dynamic throughout development, and that the peripheral and central axons of sensory neurons show differences in MT behaviors. Furthermore, we show that Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn-1, a kinesin adaptor required for sensory axon branching, also regulates MT polarity in developing axon arbors. In wild type neurons the vast majority of MTs are directed in the correct plus-end-distal orientation from early stages of development. Loss of Clstn-1 causes an increase in MTs polymerizing in the retrograde direction. These misoriented MTs most often are found near growth cones and branch points, suggesting Clstn-1 is particularly important for organizing MT polarity at these locations. Together, our results suggest that Clstn-1, in addition to regulating kinesin-mediated cargo transport, also organizes the underlying MT highway during axon arbor development.
Exercise dependent increase in axon regeneration into peripheral nerve grafts by propriospinal but not sensory neurons after spinal cord injury is associated with modulation of regeneration-associated genes.
Sachdeva, Rahul; Theisen, Catherine C; Ninan, Vinu; Twiss, Jeffery L; Houlé, John D
Insufficient regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) axons contributes to persisting neurological dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI). Peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) support regeneration by thousands of injured intraspinal axons and help them bypass some of the extracellular barriers that form after SCI. However this number represents but a small portion of the total number of axons that are injured. Here we tested if rhythmic sensory stimulation during cycling exercise would boost the intrinsic regenerative state of neurons to enhance axon regeneration into PNGs after a lower thoracic (T12) spinal transection of adult rats. Using True Blue retrograde tracing, we show that 4 weeks of cycling improves regeneration into a PNG from lumbar interneurons but not by primary sensory neurons. The majority of neurons that regenerate their axon are within 5 mm of the lesion and their number increased 70% with exercise. Importantly propriospinal neurons in more distant regions (5-20 mm from the lesion) that routinely exhibit very limited regeneration responded to exercise by increasing the number of regenerating neurons by 900%. There was no exercise-associated increase in regeneration from sensory neurons. Analyses using fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that this increase in regenerative response is associated with changes in levels of mRNAs encoding the regeneration associated genes (RAGs) GAP43, β-actin and Neuritin. While propriospinal neurons showed increased mRNA levels in response to SCI alone and then to grafting and exercise, sensory neurons did not respond to SCI, but there was a response to the presence of a PNG. Thus, exercise is a non-invasive approach to modulate gene expression in injured neurons leading to an increase in regeneration. This sets the stage for future studies to test whether exercise will promote axon outgrowth beyond the PNG and reconnection with spinal cord neurons, thereby demonstrating a potential clinical application of
Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Takamatsu, Kiyohito; Shintani, Kosuke; Onode, Ema; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Hidaka, Noriaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki
Aging influences peripheral nerve regeneration. Nevertheless, most basic research of bioabsorbable nerve conduits including commercial products have been performed in very young animals. Results from these studies may not provide information about axonal regeneration in aged tissue, because young nerve tissue holds sufficient endogenous potential for axonal regeneration. The clinical target age for nerve conduit application is most likely going to increase with a rapidly growing elderly population. In the present study, we examined axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve defects in aged and young mice. 5-mm sciatic nerve defects in young (6 weeks old) and aged (92 weeks old) mice were reconstructed using nerve conduits (composed of a poly lactide and caprolactone) or autografts. In addition, in aged mice, sciatic nerve defects were reconstructed using nerve conduits coated with mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSc)-derived neurospheres. Using electrophysiological and histological techniques, we demonstrated axonal regeneration was significantly less effective in aged than in young mice both for nerve conduits and for nerve autografts. However, despite the low regenerative capacity of the peripheral nerve in aged mice, axonal regeneration significantly increased when nerve conduits coated with iPSc-derived neurospheres, rather than nerve conduits alone, were used. The present study shows that aging negatively affects peripheral nerve regeneration based on nerve conduits in mice. However, axonal regeneration using nerve conduits was improved when supportive iPSc-derived neurospheres were added in the aged mice. We propose that tissue-engineered bioabsorbable nerve conduits in combination with iPSc-derived neurospheres hold therapeutic potential both in young and elderly patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Louis C Leung
Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules play a central role in mediating axonal tract development within the nascent nervous system. NF-protocadherin (NFPC, a member of the non-clustered protocadherin family, has been shown to regulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC axon and dendrite initiation, as well as influencing axonal navigation within the mid-optic tract. However, whether NFPC mediates RGC axonal behaviour at other positions within the optic pathway remains unclear. Here we report that NFPC plays an important role in RGC axonogenesis, but not in intraretinal guidance. Moreover, axons with reduced NFPC levels exhibit insensitivity to Netrin-1, an attractive guidance cue expressed at the optic nerve head. Netrin-1 induces rapid turnover of NFPC localized to RGC growth cones, suggesting that the regulation of NFPC protein levels may underlie Netrin-1-mediated entry of RGC axons into the optic nerve head. At the tectum, we further reveal a function for NFPC in controlling RGC axonal entry into the final target area. Collectively, our results expand our understanding of the role of NFPC in RGC guidance and illustrate that this adhesion molecule contributes to axon behaviour at multiple points in the optic pathway.
Gordon, Tessa; Amirjani, Nasim; Edwards, David C; Chan, K Ming
Electrical stimulation (ES) of injured peripheral nerves accelerates axonal regeneration in laboratory animals. However, clinical applicability of this intervention has never been investigated in human subjects. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of ES on axonal regeneration after surgery in patients with median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel causing marked motor axonal loss. A randomized control trial was conducted to provide proof of principle for ES-induced acceleration of axon regeneration in human patients. Carpel tunnel release surgery (CTRS) was performed and in the stimulation group of patients, stainless steel electrode wires placed alongside the median nerve proximal to the surgical decompression site for immediate 1 h 20 Hz bipolar ES. Subjects were followed for a year at regular intervals. Axonal regeneration was quantified using motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and sensory and motor nerve conduction studies. Purdue Pegboard Test, Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments, and Levine's Self-Assessment Questionnaire were used to assess functional recovery. The stimulation group had significant axonal regeneration 6-8 months after the CTRS when the MUNE increased to 290+/-140 (mean+/-SD) motor units (MU) from 150+/-62 MU at baseline (p0.2). Terminal motor latency significantly accelerated in the stimulation group but not the control group (p>0.1). Sensory nerve conduction values significantly improved in the stimulation group earlier than the controls. Other outcome measures showed a significant improvement in both patient groups. We conclude that brief low frequency ES accelerates axonal regeneration and target reinnervation in humans. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Subcellular targeting and local translation of mRNAs are critical for axon development. However, the precise local control of mRNA translation requires investigation. We report that the Fmr1-encoded protein, FMRP-mediated axonal delivery of miR-181d negatively regulates axon elongation by locally targeting the transcripts of MAP1B (Map1b and calmodulin (Calm1 in primary sensory neurons. miR-181d affected the local synthesis of MAP1B and calmodulin in axons. FMRP was associated with miR-181d, Map1b, and Calm1. Both FMRP deficiency in Fmr1I304N mice and Fmr1 knockdown impeded the axonal delivery of miR-181d, Map1b, and Calm1 and reduced the protein levels of MAP1B and calmodulin in axons. Furthermore, nerve growth factor (NGF induced Map1b and Calm1 release from FMRP and miR-181d-repressing granules, thereby promoting axon elongation. Both miR-181d overexpression and FMRP knockdown impaired NGF-induced axon elongation. Our study reveals a mechanism for the local regulation of translation by miR-181d and FMRP during axon development.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Axons navigate to their future synaptic targets with the help of choice points, intermediate targets that express axon guidance cues. Once they reach a choice point, axons need to switch their response from attraction to repulsion in order to move on with the next stage of their journey. The mechanisms underlying the change in axonal responsiveness are poorly understood. Commissural axons become sensitive to the repulsive activity of Slits when they cross the ventral midline of the CNS. Responsiveness to Slits depends on surface expression of Robo receptors. In Drosophila, Commissureless (Comm plays a crucial regulatory role in midline crossing by keeping Robo levels low on precommissural axons. Interestingly, to date no vertebrate homolog of comm has been identified. Robo3/Rig1 has been shown to control Slit sensitivity before the midline, but without affecting Robo1 surface expression. Results We had identified RabGDI, a gene linked to human mental retardation and an essential component of the vesicle fusion machinery, in a screen for differentially expressed floor-plate genes. Downregulation of RabGDI by in ovo RNAi caused commissural axons to stall in the floor plate, phenocopying the effect observed after downregulation of Robo1. Conversely, premature expression of RabGDI prevented commissural axons from entering the floor plate. Furthermore, RabGDI triggered Robo1 surface expression in cultured commissural neurons. Taken together, our results identify RabGDI as a component of the switching mechanism that is required for commissural axons to change their response from attraction to repulsion at the intermediate target. Conclusion RabGDI takes over the functional role of fly Comm by regulating the surface expression of Robo1 on commissural axons in vertebrates. This in turn allows commissural axons to switch from attraction to repulsion at the midline of the spinal cord.
Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs comprise a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that control diverse critical biological processes including various aspects of brain development. Eighteen NR genes exist in the Drosophila genome. To explore their roles in brain development, we knocked down individual NRs through the development of the mushroom bodies (MBs by targeted RNAi. Besides recapitulating the known MB phenotypes for three NRs, we found that unfulfilled (unf, an ortholog of human photoreceptor specific nuclear receptor (PNR, regulates axonal morphogenesis and neuronal subtype identity. The adult MBs develop through remodeling of gamma neurons plus de-novo elaboration of both alpha'/beta' and alpha/beta neurons. Notably, unf is largely dispensable for the initial elaboration of gamma neurons, but plays an essential role in their re-extension of axons after pruning during early metamorphosis. The subsequently derived MB neuron types also require unf for extension of axons beyond the terminus of the pruned bundle. Tracing single axons revealed misrouting rather than simple truncation. Further, silencing unf in single-cell clones elicited misguidance of axons in otherwise unperturbed MBs. Such axon guidance defects may occur as MB neurons partially lose their subtype identity, as evidenced by suppression of various MB subtype markers in unf knockdown MBs. In sum, unf governs axonal morphogenesis of multiple MB neuron types, possibly through regulating neuronal subtype identity.
Full Text Available Synaptic clustering on dendritic branches enhances plasticity, input integration and neuronal firing. However, the mechanisms guiding axons to cluster synapses at appropriate sites along dendritic branches are poorly understood. We searched for such a mechanism by investigating the structural overlap between dendritic branches and axons in a simplified model of neuronal networks--the hippocampal cell culture. Using newly developed software, we converted images of meshes of overlapping axonal and dendrites into topological maps of intersections, enabling quantitative study of overlapping neuritic geometry at the resolution of single dendritic branch-to-branch and axon-to-branch crossings. Among dendro-dendritic crossing configurations, it was revealed that the orientations through which dendritic branches cross is a regulated attribute. While crossing angle distribution among branches thinner than 1 µm appeared to be random, dendritic branches 1 µm or wider showed a preference for crossing each other at angle ranges of either 50°-70° or 80°-90°. It was then found that the dendro-dendritic crossings themselves, as well as their selective angles, both affected the path of axonal growth. Axons displayed 4 fold stronger tendency to traverse within 2 µm of dendro-dendritic intersections than at farther distances, probably to minimize wiring length. Moreover, almost 70% of the 50°-70° dendro-denritic crossings were traversed by axons from the obtuse angle's zone, whereas only 15% traversed through the acute angle's zone. By contrast, axons showed no orientation restriction when traversing 80°-90° crossings. When such traverse behavior was repeated by many axons, they converged in the vicinity of dendro-dendritic intersections, thereby clustering their synaptic connections. Thus, the vicinity of dendritic branch-to-branch crossings appears to be a regulated structure used by axons as a target for efficient wiring and as a preferred site for
Full Text Available Axonogenesis, a process for the establishment of neuron connectivity, is central to brain function. The role of metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 that is specifically enriched in the brain, has not been addressed in axon development. In this study, we tested if synaptamide (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine, an endogenous metabolite of DHA, affects axon growth in cultured cortical neurons. We found that synaptamide increased the average axon length, inhibited GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1 transcription and sonic hedgehog (Shh target gene expression while inducing cAMP elevation. Similar effects were produced by cyclopamine, a regulator of the Shh pathway. Conversely, Shh antagonized elevation of cAMP and blocked synaptamide-mediated increase in axon length. Activation of Shh pathway by a smoothened (SMO agonist (SAG or overexpression of SMO did not inhibit axon growth mediated by synaptamide or cyclopamine. Instead, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished synaptamide-mediated axon growth indicating requirement of cAMP elevation for this process. Our findings establish that synaptamide promotes axon growth while Shh antagonizes synaptamide-mediated cAMP elevation and axon growth by a SMO-independent, non-canonical pathway.
Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Connors, Theresa; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Tom, Veronica J
After a spinal cord injury (SCI), CNS axons fail to regenerate, resulting in permanent deficits. This is due to: (1) the presence of inhibitory molecules, e.g., chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG), in the glial scar at the lesion; and (2) the diminished growth capacity of adult neurons. We sought to determine whether expressing a constitutively active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) in adult neurons after a complete SCI in rats improves intrinsic growth potential to result in axon regeneration out of a growth-supportive peripheral nerve grafted (PNG) into the SCI cavity. We also hypothesized that treating the glial scar with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which digests CSPG, would further allow caRheb-transduced neurons to extend axons across the distal graft interface. We found that targeting this pathway at a clinically relevant post-SCI time point improves both sprouting and regeneration of axons. CaRheb increased the number of axons, but not the number of neurons, that projected into the PNG, indicative of augmented sprouting. We also saw that caRheb enhanced sprouting far rostral to the injury. CaRheb not only increased growth rostral and into the graft, it also resulted in significantly more regrowth of axons across a ChABC-treated scar into caudal spinal cord. CaRheb(+) neurons had higher levels of growth-associated-43, suggestive of a newly identified mechanism for mTOR-mediated enhancement of regeneration. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that simultaneously addressing intrinsic and scar-associated, extrinsic impediments to regeneration results in significant regrowth beyond an extremely challenging, complete SCI site. After spinal cord injury (SCI), CNS axons fail to regenerate, resulting in permanent deficits. This is due to the diminished growth capacity of adult neurons and the presence of inhibitory molecules in the scar at the lesion. We sought to simultaneously counter both of these obstacles to achieve more robust regeneration after
Lee, Yee-Shuan; Wu, Siliang; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston; Bunge, Mary Bartlett
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has been utilized for spinal cord repair and demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of combining SC transplantation with novel conduits to bridge the completely transected adult rat spinal cord. This is the first and initial study to evaluate the potential of using a fibrous piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) conduit with SCs for spinal cord repair. PVDF-TrFE has been shown to enhance neurite growth in vitro and peripheral nerve repair in vivo. In this study, SCs adhered and proliferated when seeded onto PVDF-TrFE scaffolds in vitro. SCs and PVDF-TrFE conduits, consisting of random or aligned fibrous inner walls, were transplanted into transected rat spinal cords for 3 weeks to examine early repair. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocyte processes and GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SCs were interdigitated at both rostral and caudal spinal cord/SC transplant interfaces in both types of conduits, indicative of permissivity to axon growth. More noradrenergic/DβH+ (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase) brainstem axons regenerated across the transplant when greater numbers of GFAP+ astrocyte processes were present. Aligned conduits promoted extension of DβH+ axons and GFAP+ processes farther into the transplant than random conduits. Sensory CGRP+ (calcitonin gene-related peptide) axons were present at the caudal interface. Blood vessels formed throughout the transplant in both conduits. This study demonstrates that PVDF-TrFE conduits harboring SCs are promising for spinal cord repair and deserve further investigation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 444-456. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Axon degeneration is a tightly regulated, self-destructive program that is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this program remain poorly understood. Here, we identify S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (Skp1a, a core component of a Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as a critical regulator of axon degeneration after injury in mammalian neurons. Depletion of Skp1a prolongs survival of injured axons in vitro and in the optic nerve in vivo. We demonstrate that Skp1a regulates the protein level of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2 in axons. Loss of axonal Nmnat2 contributes to a local ATP deficit that triggers axon degeneration. Knockdown of Skp1a elevates basal levels of axonal Nmnat2, thereby delaying axon degeneration through prolonged maintenance of axonal ATP. Consistent with Skp1a functioning through regulation of Nmnat2, Skp1a knockdown fails to protect axons from Nmnat2 knockdown. These results illuminate the molecular mechanism underlying Skp1a-dependent axonal destruction.
Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Perrais, David; Jaskolski, Frédéric; Vimeney, Alice; Mulle, Christophe
Axonal growth cones are responsible for the correct guidance of developing axons and the establishment of functional neural networks. They are highly motile because of fast and continuous rearrangements of their actin-rich cytoskeleton. Here we have used live imaging of axonal growth cones of hippocampal neurons in culture and quantified their motility with a temporal resolution of 2 s. Using novel methods of analysis of growth cone dynamics, we show that transient activation of kainate receptors by bath-applied kainate induced a fast and reversible growth cone stalling. This effect depends on electrical activity and can be mimicked by the transient discharge of action potentials elicited in the neuron by intracellular current injections at the somatic level through a patch pipette. Growth cone stalling induced by electrical stimulation is mediated by calcium entry from the extracellular medium as well as by calcium release from intracellular stores that define spatially restricted microdomains directly affecting cytoskeletal dynamics. We propose that growth cone motility is dynamically controlled by transient bursts of spontaneous electrical activity, which constitutes a prominent feature of developing neural networks in vivo.
Edbladh, M; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Ekström, P A
We used the in vitro regenerating frog sciatic nerve to look for effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) on regeneration of sensory axons and on injury induced support cell proliferation in the outgrowth region. In nerves cultured for 11 days, a physiological...... increased the outgrowth distance of the furthest regenerating sensory axons by 10%. The preparation was particularly sensitive to insulin during the first 5 days of culturing. Furthermore, both insulin and IGF-II were found to inhibit proliferation of support cells in the outgrowth region in a manner...... suggesting effects via their individual receptors. The inhibition, about 30%, was observable after 4 but not 11 days in culture. It is not clear if this reflects a stimulated differentiation of some cells. By contrast, IGF-I lacked effects on both regeneration and proliferation. In conclusion, the results...
Koch, Jan C; Solis, Gonzalo P; Bodrikov, Vsevolod; Michel, Uwe; Haralampieva, Deana; Shypitsyna, Aleksandra; Tönges, Lars; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul; Stuermer, Claudia A O
The ability of fish retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to regenerate their axons was shown to require the re-expression and function of the two proteins reggie-1 and -2. RGCs in mammals fail to upregulate reggie expression and to regenerate axons after lesion suggesting the possibility that induced upregulation might promote regeneration. In the present study, RGCs in adult rats were induced to express reggie-1 by intravitreal injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV2/1) expressing reggie-1 (AAV.R1-EGFP) 14d prior to optic nerve crush. Four weeks later, GAP-43-positive regenerating axons had crossed the lesion and grown into the nerve at significantly higher numbers and length (up to 5mm) than the control transduced with AAV.EGFP. Consistently, after transduction with AAV.R1-EGFP as opposed to AAV.EGFP, primary RGCs in vitro grew long axons on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and Nogo-A, both glial cell-derived inhibitors of neurite growth, suggesting that reggie-1 can provide neurons with the ability to override inhibitors of neurite growth. This reggie-1-mediated enhancement of growth was reproduced in mouse hippocampal and N2a neurons which generated axons 40-60% longer than their control counterparts. This correlates with the reggie-1-dependent activation of Src and PI3 kinase (PI3K), of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 and downstream effectors such as cofilin. This increased growth also depends on TC10, the GTPase involved in cargo delivery to the growth cone. Thus, the upregulation of reggie-1 in mammalian neurons provides nerve cells with neuron-intrinsic properties required for axon growth and successful regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yong-Tang; Lu, Xiu-Min; Zhu, Feng; Huang, Peng; Yu, Ying; Long, Zai-Yun; Wu, Ya-Min
As a co-receptor of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and a critical receptor for paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PirB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) mediates the inhibitory effects of myelin-associated inhibitors on axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Therefore, the p75NTR antagonist, such as recombinant p75NTR protein or its homogenates may block the inhibitory effects of myelin and promote the axonal regeneration and functional recovery. The purposes of this study are to subclone and express the extracellular domain gene of human p75NTR with IgG-Fc (hp75NTR-ED-Fc) in prokaryotic expression system and investigate the effects of the recombinant protein on axonal regeneration and functional recovery in spinal cord-injured rats. The hp75NTR-ED-Fc coding sequence was amplified from pcDNA-hp75NTR-ED-Fc by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subcloned into vector pET32a (+), then the effects of the purified recombinant protein on neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons cultured with myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) were determined, and the effects of the fusion protein on axonal regeneration, functional recovery, and its possible mechanisms in spinal cord-injured rats were further investigated. The results indicated that the purified infusion protein could promote neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons, promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and decrease RhoA activation in spinal cord-injured rats. Taken together, the findings revealed that p75NTR still may be a potential and novel target for therapeutic intervention for spinal cord injury and that the hp75NTR-ED-Fc fusion protein treatment enhances functional recovery by limiting tissue loss and stimulating axonal growth in spinal cord-injured rats, which may result from decreasing the activation of RhoA.
Full Text Available Motor neuron axon targeting in the periphery is correlated with the positions of motor neuron inputs in the CNS, but how these processes are coordinated to form a myotopic map remains poorly understood. We show that the LIM homeodomain factor Islet (Isl controls targeting of both axons and dendrites in Drosophila motor neurons through regulation of the Frazzled (Fra/DCC receptor. Isl is required for fra expression in ventrally projecting motor neurons, and isl and fra mutants have similar axon guidance defects. Single-cell labeling indicates that isl and fra are also required for dendrite targeting in a subset of motor neurons. Finally, overexpression of Fra rescues axon and dendrite targeting defects in isl mutants. These results indicate that Fra acts downstream of Isl in both the periphery and the CNS, demonstrating how a single regulatory relationship is used in multiple cellular compartments to coordinate neural circuit wiring.
Lee, Xinhua; Yang, Zhongshu; Shao, Zhaohui; Rosenberg, Sheila S; Levesque, Melissa; Pepinsky, R Blake; Qiu, Mengsheng; Miller, Robert H; Chan, Jonah R; Mi, Sha
Neurons and glia share a mutual dependence in establishing a functional relationship, and none is more evident than the process by which axons control myelination. Here, we identify LRR and Ig domain-containing, Nogo receptor-interacting protein (LINGO-1) as a potent axonal inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that is regulated by nerve growth factor and its cognate receptor TrkA in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas LINGO-1 expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was previously identified as an inhibitor of differentiation, we demonstrate that axonal expression of LINGO-1 inhibits differentiation with equal potency. Disruption of LINGO-1 on either cell type is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory action and promote differentiation and myelination, independent of axon diameter. Furthermore, these results were recapitulated in transgenic mice overexpressing the full length LINGO-1 under the neuronal promoter synapsin. Myelination was greatly inhibited in the presence of enforced axonal LINGO-1. The implications of these results relate specifically to the development of potential therapeutics targeting extrinsic growth factors that may regulate the axonal expression of modulators of oligodendrocyte development.
Zhang, Peisu; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Liu, Yong; Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Ioannis, Grammatikakis; Martindale, Jennifer L; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Yang, In Hong; Gorospe, Myriam; Mattson, Mark P
Despite considerable evidence that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites, roles for axonal RBPs are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a non-telomeric isoform of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2-S) is a novel RBP that regulates axonal plasticity. TRF2-S interacts directly with target mRNAs to facilitate their axonal delivery. The process is antagonized by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Distinct from the current RNA-binding model of FMRP, we show that FMRP occupies the GAR domain of TRF2-S protein to block the assembly of TRF2-S-mRNA complexes. Overexpressing TRF2-S and silencing FMRP promotes mRNA entry to axons and enhances axonal outgrowth and neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. Our findings suggest a pivotal role for TRF2-S in an axonal mRNA localization pathway that enhances axon outgrowth and neurotransmitter release.
A comparative morphological, electrophysiological and functional analysis of axon regeneration through peripheral nerve autografts genetically modified to overexpress BDNF, CNTF, GDNF, NGF, NT3 or VEGF
Hoyng, Stefan A; De Winter, Fred; Gnavi, Sara; de Boer, Ralph; Boon, Lennard I; Korvers, Laura M; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Malessy, Martijn J A; Verhaagen, J.
The clinical outcome of microsurgical repair of an injured peripheral nerve with an autograft is suboptimal. A key question addressed here is: can axon regeneration through an autograft be further improved? In this article the impact of six neurotrophic factors (BDNF, CNTF, GDNF, NGF, NT3 or VEGF)
Hu, Ying; Leaver, Simone G; Plant, Giles W; Hendriks, William T J; Niclou, Simone P; Verhaagen, J.; Harvey, Alan R; Cui, Qi
We recently described a method for reconstituting peripheral nerve (PN) sheaths using adult Schwann cells (SCs). Reconstructed PN tissue grafted onto the cut optic nerve supports the regeneration of injured adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. To determine whether genetic manipulation of
Reid, A; Sherry, T J; Yücel, D; Llamosas, E; Nicholas, H R
C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors which cooperate with a variety of transcription factors to repress gene expression. Caenorhabditis elegans CTBP-1 expression has been observed in the nervous system and hypodermis. In C. elegans, CTBP-1 regulates several processes including Acute Functional Tolerance to ethanol and functions in the nervous system to modulate both lifespan and expression of a lipase gene called lips-7. Incorrect structure and/or function of the nervous system can lead to behavioral changes. Here, we demonstrate reduced exploration behavior in ctbp-1 mutants. Our examination of a subset of neurons involved in regulating locomotion revealed that the axonal morphology of dorsal SMD (SMDD) neurons is altered in ctbp-1 mutants at the fourth larval (L4) stage. Expressing CTBP-1 under the control of the endogenous ctbp-1 promoter rescued both the exploration behavior phenotype and defective SMDD axon structure in ctbp-1 mutants at the L4 stage. Interestingly, the pre-synaptic marker RAB-3 was found to localize to the mispositioned portion of SMDD axons in a ctbp-1 mutant. Further analysis of SMDD axonal morphology at days 1, 3 and 5 of adulthood revealed that the number of ctbp-1 mutants showing an SMDD axonal morphology defect increases in early adulthood and the observed defect appears to be qualitatively more severe. CTBP-1 is prominently expressed in the nervous system with weak expression detected in the hypodermis. Surprisingly, solely expressing CTBP-1a in the nervous system or hypodermis did not restore correct SMDD axonal structure in a ctbp-1 mutant. Our results demonstrate a role for CTBP-1 in exploration behavior and the regulation of SMDD axonal morphology in C. elegans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pawar, Kiran; Cummings, Brian J; Thomas, Aline; Shea, Lonnie D; Levine, Ariel; Pfaff, Sam; Anderson, Aileen J
Severed axon tracts fail to exhibit robust or spontaneous regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regeneration failure reflects a combination of factors, including the growth state of neuronal cell bodies and the regeneration-inhibitory environment of the central nervous system. However, while spared circuitry can be retrained, target reinnervation depends on longitudinally directed regeneration of transected axons. This study describes a biodegradable implant using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) bridges as a carrier scaffold to support regeneration after injury. In order to detect regeneration of descending neuronal tracts into the bridge, and beyond into intact caudal parenchyma, we developed a mouse cervical implantation model and employed Crym:GFP transgenic mice. Characterization of Crym:GFP mice revealed that descending tracts, including the corticospinal tract, were labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP), while ascending sensory neurons and fibers were not. Robust co-localization between GFP and neurofilament-200 (NF-200) as well as GFP and GAP-43 was observed at both the rostral and caudal bridge/tissue interface. No evidence of similar regeneration was observed in mice that received gelfoam at the lesion site as controls. Minimal co-localization between GFP reporter labeling and macrophage markers was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that axons originating from descending fiber tracts regenerated, entered into the PLG bridge at the rostral margin, continued through the bridge site, and exited to re-enter host tissue at the caudal edge of the intact bridge. Finally, regeneration through implanted bridges was associated with a reduction in ipsilateral forelimb errors on a horizontal ladder task. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Daan M van den Brink
Full Text Available Nervous system function requires that neurons within neural circuits are connected together precisely. These connections form during the process of axon guidance whereby each neuron extends an axon that migrates, often large distances, through a complex environment to reach its synaptic target. This task can be simplified by utilising intermediate targets to divide the route into smaller sections. This requires that axons adapt their behaviour as they migrate towards and away from intermediate targets. In the central nervous system the midline acts as an intermediate target for commissural axons. In Drosophila commissural axons switch from attraction towards to extension away from the midline by regulating the levels of the Roundabout receptor on their cell surface. This is achieved by Commissureless which directs Roundabout to an intracellular compartment in the soma prior to reaching the midline. Once across the midline Roundabout is allowed to reach the surface and acts as a receptor for the repellent ligand Slit that is secreted by cells at the midline. Here we investigated candidate intracellular mechanisms that may facilitate the intracellular targeting of Commissureless and Roundabout within the soma of commissural neurons. Using modified forms of Commissureless or Rabs we show that neither ubiquitination nor Rab activity are necessary for the intracellular targeting of Commissureless. In addition we reveal that axon outgrowth of many populations of neurons within the Drosophila central nervous system is also independent of Rab activity.
Maria João Godinho
Full Text Available We used morphological, immunohistochemical and functional assessments to determine the impact of genetically-modified peripheral nerve (PN grafts on axonal regeneration after injury. Grafts were assembled from acellular nerve sheaths repopulated ex vivo with Schwann cells (SCs modified to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a secretable form of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, or neurotrophin-3 (NT3. Grafts were used to repair unilateral 1 cm defects in rat peroneal nerves and 10 weeks later outcomes were compared to normal nerves and various controls: autografts, acellular grafts and grafts with unmodified SCs. The number of regenerated βIII-Tubulin positive axons was similar in all grafts with the exception of CNTF, which contained the fewest immunostained axons. There were significantly lower fiber counts in acellular, untransduced SC and NT3 groups using a PanNF antibody, suggesting a paucity of large caliber axons. In addition, NT3 grafts contained the greatest number of sensory fibres, identified with either IB4 or CGRP markers. Examination of semi- and ultra-thin sections revealed heterogeneous graft morphologies, particularly in BDNF and NT3 grafts in which the fascicular organization was pronounced. Unmyelinated axons were loosely organized in numerous Remak bundles in NT3 grafts, while the BDNF graft group displayed the lowest ratio of umyelinated to myelinated axons. Gait analysis revealed that stance width was increased in rats with CNTF and NT3 grafts, and step length involving the injured left hindlimb was significantly greater in NT3 grafted rats, suggesting enhanced sensory sensitivity in these animals. In summary, the selective expression of BDNF, CNTF or NT3 by genetically modified SCs had differential effects on PN graft morphology, the number and type of regenerating axons, myelination, and locomotor function.
Meng, Lingbin; Huang, Tao; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L; Krimm, Robin
Taste nerves readily regenerate to reinnervate denervated taste buds; however, factors required for regeneration have not yet been identified. When the chorda tympani nerve is sectioned, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) remains high in the geniculate ganglion and lingual epithelium, despite the loss of taste buds. These observations suggest that BDNF is present in the taste system after nerve section and may support taste nerve regeneration. To test this hypothesis, we inducibly deleted Bdnf during adulthood in mice. Shortly after Bdnf gene recombination, the chorda tympani nerve was unilaterally sectioned causing a loss of both taste buds and neurons, irrespective of BDNF levels. Eight weeks after nerve section, however, regeneration was differentially affected by Bdnf deletion. In control mice, there was regeneration of the chorda tympani nerve and taste buds reappeared with innervation. In contrast, few taste buds were reinnervated in mice lacking normal Bdnf expression such that taste bud number remained low. In all genotypes, taste buds that were reinnervated were normal-sized, but non-innervated taste buds remained small and atrophic. On the side of the tongue contralateral to the nerve section, taste buds for some genotypes became larger and all taste buds remained innervated. Our findings suggest that BDNF is required for nerve regeneration following gustatory nerve section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lingappa, Jaisri R.; Zigmond, Richard E.
The cervical sympathetic trunks (CST) contain axons of preganglionic neurons that innervate the superior cervical ganglia (SCG). Since, regeneration of CST fibers can be extensive and can reestablish certain specific patterns of SCG connections, restoration of end organ function would be expected. This expectation was examined with respect to the pineal gland, an organ innervated by the two SCG. The activity of pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) exhibits a large circadian rhythm, with activity high at night, which is dependent on the gland’s sympathetic input. Thirty six hours after the CST were crushed bilaterally, nocturnal NAT was decreased by 99%. Three months later, enzyme activity had recovered only to 15% of control values, a recovery dependent on regeneration of CST fibers. Nevertheless, a small day-night rhythm was present in lesioned animals. Neither the density of the gland’s adrenergic innervation nor the ability of an adrenergic agonist to stimulate NAT activity was reduced in rats with regenerated CST. In addition, stimulation of the regenerated CST at a variety of frequencies was at least as effective in increasing NAT activity as seen with control nerves. These data suggest that the failure of pineal function to recover is not due to a quantitative deficit in the extent of reinnervation or in synaptic efficacy. Rather, we suggest that there is some loss of specificity in the synaptic connections made in the SCG during reinnervation, resulting in a loss of the central neuronal information necessary for directing a normal NAT rhythm and thus normal pineal function. PMID:23486957
Yates, Darran M
Neurofilaments are the intermediate filaments of neurons and are synthesised in neuronal cell bodies and then transported through axons. Neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a principal component of neurofilaments, and phosphorylation of NFL head domain is believed to regulate the assembly of neurofilaments. However, the role that NFL phosphorylation has on transport of neurofilaments is poorly understood. To address this issue, we monitored axonal transport of phosphorylation mutants of NFL. We mutated four known phosphorylation sites in NFL head domain to either preclude phosphorylation, or mimic permanent phosphorylation. Mutation to preclude phosphorylation had no effect on transport but mutation of three sites to mimic permanent phosphorylation inhibited transport. Mutation of all four sites together to mimic permanent phosphorylation proved especially potent at inhibiting transport and also disrupted neurofilament assembly. Our results suggest that NFL head domain phosphorylation is a regulator of neurofilament axonal transport.
Edens, Brittany M; Yan, Jianhua; Miller, Nimrod; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Teepu; Ma, Yongchao C
The etiological underpinnings of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are complex and incompletely understood, although contributions to pathogenesis by regulators of proteolytic pathways have become increasingly apparent. Here, we present a novel variant in UBQLN4 that is associated with ALS and show that its expression compromises motor axon morphogenesis in mouse motor neurons and in zebrafish. We further demonstrate that the ALS-associated UBQLN4 variant impairs proteasomal function, and identify the Wnt signaling pathway effector beta-catenin as a UBQLN4 substrate. Inhibition of beta-catenin function rescues the UBQLN4 variant-induced motor axon phenotypes. These findings provide a strong link between the regulation of axonal morphogenesis and a new ALS-associated gene variant mediated by protein degradation pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25453.001 PMID:28463112
Full Text Available The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. In contrast, exogenous LIS1 expression or endogenous LIS1 augmentation by calpain inhibition restored axonal extension capacity in mature DRG neurons and facilitated regeneration of the damaged sciatic nerve. The insulator protein CTCF suppressed LIS1 expression in mature DRG neurons, and this reduction resulted in excessive accumulation of phosphoactivated GSK-3β at the axon tip, causing failure of the axonal extension. Conversely, sustained LIS1 expression inhibited developmental axon pruning in the mammillary body. Thus, LIS1 regulation may coordinate the balance between axonal growth and pruning during maturation of neuronal circuits.
Jang, Yongwoo; Jung, Jooyoung; Kim, Hyungsup; Oh, Jungeun; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Jung, Saewoon; Kim, Kyung-Tai; Cho, Hawon; Yang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, In-Beom; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Oh, Uhtaek
Spinal muscular atrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by the degenerations of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. Recent advances in genetics have resulted in the identification of missense mutations in TRPV4 in patients with these hereditary neuropathies. Neurodegeneration caused by Ca(2+) overload due to the gain-of-function mutation of TRPV4 was suggested as the molecular mechanism for the neuropathies. Despite the importance of TRPV4 mutations in causing neuropathies, the precise role of TRPV4 in the sensory/motor neurons is unknown. Here, we report that TRPV4 mediates neurotrophic factor-derived neuritogenesis in developing peripheral neurons. TRPV4 was found to be highly expressed in sensory and spinal motor neurons in early development as well as in the adult, and the overexpression or chemical activation of TRPV4 was found to promote neuritogenesis in sensory neurons as well as PC12 cells, whereas its knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition had the opposite effect. More importantly, nerve growth factor or cAMP treatment up-regulated the expression of phospholipase A(2) and TRPV4. Neurotrophic factor-derived neuritogenesis appears to be regulated by the phospholipase A(2)-mediated TRPV4 pathway. These findings show that TRPV4 mediates neurotrophic factor-induced neuritogenesis in developing peripheral nerves. Because neurotrophic factors are essential for the maintenance of peripheral nerves, these findings suggest that aberrant TRPV4 activity may lead to some types of pathology of sensory and motor nerves.
Niwa, Shinsuke; Tao, Li; Lu, Sharon Y; Liew, Gerald M; Feng, Wei; Nachury, Maxence V; Shen, Kang
Axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs) is essential for synapse development and function. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is localized to SVPs and directly activates UNC-104/KIF1A, the axonal-transport kinesin for SVPs in C. elegans. It is not clear how ARL-8 is activated in this process. Here we show that part of the BLOC-1-related complex (BORC), previously shown to regulate lysosomal transport, is required to recruit and activate ARL-8 on SVPs. We found mutations in six BORC subunits-blos-1/BLOS1, blos-2/BLOS2, snpn-1/Snapin, sam-4/Myrlysin, blos-7/Lyspersin, and blos-9/MEF2BNB-cause defects in axonal transport of SVPs, leading to ectopic accumulation of synaptic vesicles in the proximal axon. This phenotype is suppressed by constitutively active arl-8 or unc-104 mutants. Furthermore, SAM-4/Myrlysin, a subunit of BORC, promotes the GDP-to-GTP exchange of ARL-8 in vitro and recruits ARL-8 onto SVPs in vivo. Thus, BORC regulates the axonal transport of synaptic materials and synapse formation by controlling the nucleotide state of ARL-8. Interestingly, the other two subunits of BORC essential for lysosomal transport, kxd-1/KXD1 and blos-8/Diaskedin, are not required for the SVP transport, suggesting distinct subunit requirements for lysosomal and SVP trafficking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, M B; Szabo-Maas, T M; Poyer, J C; Zoran, M J
Regeneration of motor systems involves reestablishment of central control networks, reinnervation of muscle targets by motoneurons, and reconnection of neuromodulatory circuits. Still, how these processes are integrated as motor function is restored during regeneration remains ill defined. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying motoneuronal regeneration of neuromuscular synapses related to feeding movements in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis. Neurons B19 and B110, although activated during different phases of the feeding pattern, innervate similar sets of muscles. However, the percentage of muscle fibers innervated, the efficacy of excitatory junction potentials, and the strength of muscle contractions were different for each cell's specific connections. After peripheral nerve crush, a sequence of transient electrical and chemical connections formed centrally within the buccal ganglia. Neuromuscular synapse regeneration involved a three-phase process: the emergence of spontaneous synaptic transmission (P1), the acquisition of evoked potentials of weak efficacy (P2), and the establishment of functional reinnervation (P3). Differential synaptic efficacy at muscle contacts was recapitulated in cell culture. Differences in motoneuronal presynaptic properties (i.e., quantal content) were the basis of disparate neuromuscular synapse function, suggesting a role for retrograde target influences. We propose a homeostatic model of molluscan motor system regeneration. This model has three restoration events: (1) transient central synaptogenesis during axonal outgrowth, (2) intermotoneuronal inhibitory synaptogenesis during initial neuromuscular synapse formation, and (3) target-dependent regulation of neuromuscular junction formation.
Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian
at different stimulation durations (strength-duration relationship), after a conditioning nerve impulse (recovery of excitability), or during the application of a polarizing current (threshold electrotonus). Four months after the lesion, regenerated nerves showed a higher rheobase, shorter chronaxie, shorter...... refractory period and higher than normal threshold variations during threshold electrotonus (TE). A partial recovery was observed during the first 2 years of maturation. The recovery to depolarizing TE seemed complete but all other EI remained abnormal even after 5 years of regeneration, the most pronounced...
Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhijun; Zhang, Hongtian
Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord were induced to differentiate into oligodendrocyte precursor-like cells in vitro. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells were transplanted into contused rat spinal cords. Immunofluorescence double staining indicated that transplanted cells survived in injured spinal cord, and differentiated into mature and immature oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Biotinylated dextran amine tracing results showed that cell transplantation promoted a higher density of the corticospinal tract in the central and caudal parts of the injured spinal cord. Luxol fast blue and toluidine blue staining showed that the volume of residual myelin was significantly increased at 1 and 2 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion epicenter after cell transplantation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining verified that the newly regenerated myelin sheath was derived from the central nervous system. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan testing showed an evident behavioral recovery. These results suggest that human umbilical mesenchymal stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells promote the regeneration of spinal axons and myelin sheaths.
Filous, Angela R; Tran, Amanda; Howell, C James; Busch, Sarah A; Evans, Teresa A; Stallcup, William B; Kang, Shin H; Bergles, Dwight E; Lee, Seong-il; Levine, Joel M; Silver, Jerry
NG2 is purportedly one of the most growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) produced after spinal cord injury. Nonetheless, once the severed axon tips dieback from the lesion core into the penumbra they closely associate with NG2+ cells. We asked if proteoglycans play a role in this tight cell-cell interaction and whether overadhesion upon these cells might participate in regeneration failure in rodents. Studies using varying ratios of CSPGs and adhesion molecules along with chondroitinase ABC, as well as purified adult cord-derived NG2 glia, demonstrate that CSPGs are involved in entrapping neurons. Once dystrophic axons become stabilized upon NG2+ cells, they form synaptic-like connections both in vitro and in vivo. In NG2 knock-out mice, sensory axons in the dorsal columns dieback further than their control counterparts. When axons are double conditioned to enhance their growth potential, some traverse the lesion core and express reduced amounts of synaptic proteins. Our studies suggest that proteoglycan-mediated entrapment upon NG2+ cells is an additional obstacle to CNS axon regeneration. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416369-16$15.00/0.
Cen, Ling-Ping; Liang, Jia-Jian; Chen, Jian-Huan; Harvey, Alan R; Ng, Tsz Kin; Zhang, Mingzhi; Pang, Chi Pui; Cui, Qi; Fan, You-Ming
The aim of the present study was to determine whether adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated transfer of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and RhoA shRNA has additive effects on promoting the survival and axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve crush (ONC). Silencing effects of AAV-RhoA shRNA were confirmed by examining neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and by quantifying RhoA expression levels with western blotting. Young adult Fischer rats received an intravitreal injection of (i) saline, (ii) AAV green fluorescent protein (GFP), (iii) AAV-CNTF, (iv) AAV-RhoA shRNA, or (v) a combination of both AAV-CNTF and AAV-RhoA shRNA. Two weeks later, the ON was completely crushed. Three weeks after ONC, RGC survival was estimated by counting βIII-tubulin-positive neurons in retinal whole mounts. Axon regeneration was evaluated by counting GAP-43-positive axons in the crushed ON. It was found that AAV-RhoA shRNA decreased RhoA expression levels and promoted neurite outgrowth in vitro. In the ONC model, AAV-RhoA shRNA by itself had only weak beneficial effects on RGC axon regeneration. However, when combined with AAV-CNTF, AAV-RhoA shRNA significantly improved the therapeutic effect of AAV-CNTF on axon regeneration by nearly two fold, even though there was no significant change in RGC viability. In sum, this combination of vectors increases the regenerative response and can lead to more successful therapeutic outcomes following neurotrauma. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Coordinated changes at excitatory and inhibitory synapses are essential for normal brain development and function. It is well established that excitatory neurons undergo structural changes, but our knowledge about inhibitory structural plasticity is rather scarce. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the dynamics of GABAergic boutons in the dendritic region of the hippocampal CA1 area using time-lapse two-photon imaging in organotypic hippocampal cultures from GAD65-GFP mice. We show that ~20% of inhibitory boutons are not stable. They are appearing, disappearing and reappearing at specific locations along the inhibitory axon and reflect immature or incomplete synapses. Furthermore, we observed that persistent boutons show large volume fluctuations over several hours, suggesting that presynaptic content of inhibitory synapses is not constant. Our data show that inhibitory boutons are highly dynamic structures and suggest that inhibitory axons are continuously probing potential locations for inhibitory synapse formation by redistributing presynaptic material along the axon.In addition, we found that neuronal activity affects the exploratory dynamics of inhibitory axons. Blocking network activity rapidly reduces the number of transient boutons, whereas enhancing activity reduces the number of persistent inhibitory boutons, possibly reflecting enhanced competition between boutons along the axon. The latter effect requires signaling through GABAA receptors. We propose that activity-dependent regulation of bouton dynamics contributes to inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
Zhang, Wenming; Fang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chaofan; Li, Wen; Wong, Wai Man; Xu, Yejun; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jianhua
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) usually results in poor functional recovery. Nerve repair is the common clinical treatment for PNI but is always obstructed by the chronic degeneration of the distal stump and muscle. Cell transplantation can alleviate the muscle atrophy after PNI, but the subsequent recovery of the locomotive function is seldom described. In this study, we combined cell transplantation and nerve repair to investigate whether the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord cells could benefit the delayed nerve repair. The experiment consisted of 3 stages: transection of the tibial nerve to induce 'pre-degeneration', a second surgery performed 2 weeks later for transplantation of E14 embryonic spinal cord cells or vehicle (culture medium) at the distal end of the injured nerve, and, 3 months later, the removal of the grafted cells and the cross-suturing of the residual distal end to the proximal end of a freshly cut ipsilateral common peroneal (CP) nerve. Cell survival and fate after the transplantation were investigated, and the functional recovery after the cross-suturing was compared between the groups. The grafted cells could survive and generate motor neurons, extending axons that were subsequently myelinated and forming synapses with the muscle. After the cross-suturing, the axonal regeneration from the proximal stump of the injured CP nerve and the functional recovery of the denervated gastrocnemius muscle were significantly promoted in the group receiving the cells. Our study presents a new perspective indicating that the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord neurons may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for PNI. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skinner, Andrea; Khan, Sumbul Jawed; Smith-Bolton, Rachel K
Although tissue regeneration has been studied in a variety of organisms, from Hydra to humans, many of the genes that regulate the ability of each animal to regenerate remain unknown. The larval imaginal discs of the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster have complex patterning, well-characterized development and a high regenerative capacity, and are thus an excellent model system for studying mechanisms that regulate regeneration. To identify genes that are important for wound healing and tissue repair, we have carried out a genetic screen for mutations that impair regeneration in the wing imaginal disc. Through this screen we identified the chromatin-modification gene trithorax as a key regeneration gene. Here we show that animals heterozygous for trithorax are unable to maintain activation of a developmental checkpoint that allows regeneration to occur. This defect is likely to be caused by abnormally high expression of puckered, a negative regulator of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, at the wound site. Insufficient JNK signaling leads to insufficient expression of an insulin-like peptide, dILP8, which is required for the developmental checkpoint. Thus, trithorax regulates regeneration signaling and capacity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Okuda, Akinori; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Shimizu, Takamasa; Shigematsu, Hideki; Iwata, Eiichiro; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Koizumi, Munehisa; Akahane, Manabu; Nishi, Mayumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito
OBJECTIVE Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a theoretical potential as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although a scaffold is sometimes used for retaining transplanted cells in damaged tissue, it is also known to induce redundant immunoreactions during the degradation processes. In this study, the authors prepared cell sheets made of BMSCs, which are transplantable without a scaffold, and investigated their effects on axonal regeneration, glial scar formation, and functional recovery in a completely transected SCI model in rats. METHODS BMSC sheets were prepared from the bone marrow of female Fischer 344 rats using ascorbic acid and were cryopreserved until the day of transplantation. A gelatin sponge (GS), as a control, or BMSC sheet was transplanted into a 2-mm-sized defect of the spinal cord at the T-8 level. Axonal regeneration and glial scar formation were assessed 2 and 8 weeks after transplantation by immunohistochemical analyses using anti-Tuj1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies, respectively. Locomotor function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale. RESULTS The BMSC sheets promoted axonal regeneration at 2 weeks after transplantation, but there was no significant difference in the number of Tuj1-positive axons between the sheet- and GS-transplanted groups. At 8 weeks after transplantation, Tuj1-positive axons elongated across the sheet, and their numbers were significantly greater in the sheet group than in the GS group. The areas of GFAP-positive glial scars in the sheet group were significantly reduced compared with those of the GS group at both time points. Finally, hindlimb locomotor function was ameliorated in the sheet group at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study indicate that an ascorbic acid-induced BMSC sheet is effective in the treatment of SCI and enables autologous transplantation without requiring a
Li, Hong-Peng; Komuta, Yukari; Kimura-Kuroda, Junko; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.
Abstract Dermatan sulfate (DS) is synthesized from chondroitin sulfate (CS) by epimerization of glucuronic acid of CS to yield iduronic acid. In the present study, the role of CS and DS was examined in mice that received transection of nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway followed by injection of glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes into the lesion site. Two weeks after injury, fibrotic and glial scars were formed around the lesion, and transected axons did not regenerate beyond the fibrotic scar. Injection of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which degrades both CS and DS, completely suppressed the fibrotic scar formation, reduced the glial scar, and promoted the regeneration of dopaminergic axons. Injection of the DS-degrading enzyme chondroitinase B (ChB) also yielded similar results. By contrast, injection of chondroitinase AC (ChAC), a CS-degrading enzyme, did not suppress the fibrotic and glial scar formation, but reduced CS immunoreactivity and promoted the axonal regeneration. Addition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) to a co-culture of meningeal fibroblasts and cerebral astrocytes induces a fibrotic scar-like cell cluster. The effect of TGF-β1 on cluster formation was suppressed by treatment with ChABC or ChB, but not by ChAC. TGF-β1-induced cell cluster repelled neurites of neonatal cerebellar neurons, but addition of ChABC or ChAC suppressed the inhibitory property of clusters on neurite outgrowth. The present study is the first to demonstrate that DS and CS play different functions after brain injury: DS is involved in the lesion scar formation, and CS inhibits axonal regeneration. PMID:23438307
Kumagai, Gentaro; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Toh, Satoshi; McNiece, Ian; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton
Neurotrophins and the transplantation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs) are both candidate therapies targeting spinal cord injury (SCI). While some studies have suggested the ability of MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural cells, other SCI studies have proposed anti-inflammatory and other mechanisms underlying established beneficial effects. We grafted rat MSCs genetically modified to express MNTS1, a multineurotrophin that binds TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and p75(NTR) receptors or MSC-MNTS1/p75(-) that binds mainly to the Trk receptors. Seven days after contusive SCI, PBS-only, GFP-MSC, MSC-MNTS1/GFP or MSC-MNTS1/p75(-)/GFP were delivered into the injury epicenter. All transplanted groups showed reduced inflammation and cystic cavity size compared to control SCI rats. Interestingly, transplantation of the MSC-MNTS1 and MSC-MNTS1/p75(-), but not the naïve MSCs, enhanced axonal growth and significantly prevented cutaneous hypersensitivity after SCI. Moreover, transplantation of MSC-MNTS1/p75(-) promoted angiogenesis and modified glial scar formation. These findings suggest that MSCs transduced with a multineurotrophin are effective in promoting cell growth and improving sensory function after SCI. These novel data also provide insight into the neurotrophin-receptor dependent mechanisms through which cellular transplantation leads to functional improvement after experimental SCI. © 2013.
Ben-Zvi, A; Ben-Gigi, L; Yagil, Z; Lerman, O; Behar, O
Regulation of axon growth is a critical event in neuronal development. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a strong inducer of axon growth and survival in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Paradoxically, high concentrations of NGF are present in the target region where axon growth must slow down for axons to accurately identify their correct targets. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a powerful axonal repellent molecule for DRG neurons, is also situated in their target regions. NGF is a modulator of Sema3A-induced repulsion and death. We show that Sema3A is a regulator of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth via the TrkA receptor, independent of its growth cone repulsion activity. First, neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons is more sensitive to Sema3A than repulsion. Second, at concentrations sufficient to significantly inhibit Sema3A-induced repulsion, NGF has no effect on Sema3A-induced axon growth inhibition. Third, Sema3A-induced outgrowth inhibition, but not repulsion activity, is dependent on NGF stimulation. Fourth, Sema3A attenuates TrkA-mediated growth signaling, but not survival signaling, and over-expression of constitutively active TrkA blocks Sema3A-induced axon growth inhibition, suggesting that Sema3A activity is mediated via regulation of NGF/TrkA-induced growth. Finally, quantitative analysis of axon growth in vivo supports the possibility that Sema3A affects axon growth, in addition to its well-documented role in axon guidance. We suggest a model whereby NGF at high concentrations in the target region is important for survival, attraction and inhibition of Sema3A-induced repulsion, while Sema3A inhibits its growth-promoting activity. The combined and cross-modulatory effects of these two signaling molecules ensure the accuracy of the final stages in axon targeting.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SCs are the cell type responsible for the formation of the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system (PNS. As retinoic acid (RA and other retinoids have a profound effect as regulators of the myelination program, we sought to investigate how their nuclear receptors levels were regulated in this cell type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, by using Schwann cells primary cultures from neonatal Wistar rat pups, as well as myelinating cocultures of Schwann cells with embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, we have found that sustained expression of RXR-γ depends on the continuous presence of a labile activator, while axonal contact mimickers produced an increase in RXR-γ mRNA and protein levels, increment that could be prevented by RA. The upregulation by axonal contact mimickers and the transcriptional downregulation by RA were dependent on de novo protein synthesis and did not involve changes in mRNA stability. On the other hand, RAR-β mRNA levels were only slightly modulated by axonal contact mimickers, while RA produced a strong transcriptional upregulation that was independent of de novo protein synthesis without changes in mRNA stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All together, our results show that retinoid receptors are regulated in a complex manner in Schwann cells, suggesting that they could have a prominent role as regulators of Schwann cell physiology.
Abbas, Ozan L; Borman, Hüseyin; Uysal, Çağri A; Gönen, Zeynep B; Aydin, Leyla; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Ilhan, Şebnem; Yazici, Ayşe C
Cross-face nerve grafting combined with functional muscle transplantation has become the standard in reconstructing an emotionally controlled smile in complete irreversible facial palsy. However, the efficacy of this procedure depends on the ability of regenerating axons to breach two nerve coaptations and reinnervate endplates in denervated muscle. The current study tested the hypothesis that adipose-derived stem cells would enhance axonal regeneration through a cross-facial nerve graft and thereby enhance recovery of the facial nerve function. Twelve rats underwent transection of the right facial nerve, and cross-facial nerve grafting using the sciatic nerve as an interpositional graft, with coaptations to the ipsilateral and contralateral buccal branches, was carried out. Rats were divided equally into two groups: a grafted but nontreated control group and a grafted and adipose-derived stem cell-treated group. Three months after surgery, biometric and electrophysiologic assessments of vibrissae movements were performed. Histologically, the spectra of fiber density, myelin sheath thickness, fiber diameter, and g ratio of the nerve were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the evaluation of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junctions. The data from the biometric and electrophysiologic analysis of vibrissae movements, immunohistochemical analysis, and histologic assessment of the nerve showed that adipose-derived stem cells significantly enhanced axonal regeneration through the graft. These observations suggest that adipose-derived stem cells could be a clinically translatable route toward new methods to enhance recovery after cross-facial nerve grafting.
Gwak, So-Jung; Macks, Christian; Jeong, Da Un; Kindy, Mark; Lynn, Michael; Webb, Ken; Lee, Jeoung Soo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration. After generation of rat compression SCI model, PgP/siRhoA polyplexes were locally injected into the lesion site. Relative to untreated injury only, PgP/siRhoA polyplexes significantly reduced RhoA mRNA and protein expression for up to 4 weeks post-injury. Histological analysis at 4 weeks post-injury showed that RhoA knockdown was accompanied by reduced apoptosis, cavity size, and astrogliosis and increased axonal regeneration within the lesion site. These studies demonstrate that PgP is an efficient non-viral delivery carrier for therapeutic siRhoA to the injured spinal cord and may be a promising platform for the development of combinatorial TNA/drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gap junctions (GJs between neurons are present in both the newborn and the adult nervous system, and although important roles have been suggested or demonstrated in a number of instances, in many other cases a full understanding of their physiological role is still missing. GJs are expressed in the rodent lumbar cord at birth and mediate both dye and electrical coupling between motor neurons. This expression has been proposed to mediate: (i fast synchronization of motoneuronal spike activity, in turn linked to the process of refinement of neuromuscular connections, and (ii slow synchronization of locomotor-like oscillatory activity. Soon after birth this coupling disappears. Since in the adult rat regeneration of motor fibers after peripheral nerve injury leads to a recapitulation of synaptic refinement at the target muscles, we tested whether GJs between motor neurons are transiently re-expressed. We found that in conditions of maximal responsiveness of lumbar motor neurons (such as no depression by anesthetics, decerebrate release of activity of subsets of motor neurons, use of temporal and spatial summation by antidromic and orthodromic stimulations, testing of large ensembles of motor neurons no firing is observed in ventral root axons in response to antidromic spike invasion of nearby counterparts. We conclude that junctional coupling between motor neurons is not required for the refinement of neuromuscular innervation in the adult.
Favero, Morgana; Cangiano, Alberto; Busetto, Giuseppe
Gap junctions (GJs) between neurons are present in both the newborn and the adult nervous system, and although important roles have been suggested or demonstrated in a number of instances, in many other cases a full understanding of their physiological role is still missing. GJs are expressed in the rodent lumbar cord at birth and mediate both dye and electrical coupling between motor neurons. This expression has been proposed to mediate: (i) fast synchronization of motoneuronal spike activity, in turn linked to the process of refinement of neuromuscular connections, and (ii) slow synchronization of locomotor-like oscillatory activity. Soon after birth this coupling disappears. Since in the adult rat regeneration of motor fibers after peripheral nerve injury leads to a recapitulation of synaptic refinement at the target muscles, we tested whether GJs between motor neurons are transiently re-expressed. We found that in conditions of maximal responsiveness of lumbar motor neurons (such as no depression by anesthetics, decerebrate release of activity of subsets of motor neurons, use of temporal and spatial summation by antidromic and orthodromic stimulations, testing of large ensembles of motor neurons) no firing is observed in ventral root axons in response to antidromic spike invasion of nearby counterparts. We conclude that junctional coupling between motor neurons is not required for the refinement of neuromuscular innervation in the adult.
Drerup, Catherine M; Herbert, Amy L; Monk, Kelly R; Nechiporuk, Alex V
Mitochondrial transport in axons is critical for neural circuit health and function. While several proteins have been found that modulate bidirectional mitochondrial motility, factors that regulate unidirectional mitochondrial transport have been harder to identify. In a genetic screen, we found a zebrafish strain in which mitochondria fail to attach to the dynein retrograde motor. This strain carries a loss-of-function mutation in actr10 , a member of the dynein-associated complex dynactin. The abnormal axon morphology and mitochondrial retrograde transport defects observed in actr10 mutants are distinct from dynein and dynactin mutant axonal phenotypes. In addition, Actr10 lacking the dynactin binding domain maintains its ability to bind mitochondria, arguing for a role for Actr10 in dynactin-mitochondria interaction. Finally, genetic interaction studies implicated Drp1 as a partner in Actr10-dependent mitochondrial retrograde transport. Together, this work identifies Actr10 as a factor necessary for dynactin-mitochondria interaction, enhancing our understanding of how mitochondria properly localize in axons.
Clark, Scott G; Chiu, Catherine
Neurons acquire distinct cell identities and implement differential gene programs to generate their appropriate neuronal attributes. On the basis of position, axonal structure and synaptic connectivity, the 302 neurons of the nematode Ceanorhabditis elegans are divided into 118 classes. The development and differentiation of many neurons require the gene zag-1, which encodes a deltaEF1/ZFH-1 Zn-finger-homeodomain protein. zag-1 mutations cause misexpression of neuron-specific genes, block formation of stereotypic axon branches, perturb neuronal migrations, and induce various axon-guidance, fasciculation and branching errors. A zag-1-GFP translational reporter is expressed transiently in most or all neurons during embryogenesis and in select neurons during the first larval stage. Analysis of the zag-1 promoter reveals that zag-1 is expressed in neurons and specific muscles, and that ZAG-1 directly represses its own expression. zag-1 activity also downregulates expression of genes involved in either the synthesis or reuptake of serotonin, dopamine and GABA. We propose that ZAG-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor to regulate multiple, discrete, neuron-specific aspects of terminal differentiation, including cell migration, axonal development and gene expression.
Tessier, Charles R; Broadie, Kendal
Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes, as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity or both: a distinction that is vital for engineering intervention strategies. To address this crucial issue, we have used the Drosophila FraX model to investigate the developmental function of Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP). dFMRP expression and regulation of chickadee/profilin coincides with a transient window of late brain development. During this time, dFMRP is positively regulated by sensory input activity, and is required to limit axon growth and for efficient activity-dependent pruning of axon branches in the Mushroom Body learning/memory center. These results demonstrate that dFMRP has a primary role in activity-dependent neural circuit refinement during late brain development.
Les lesions dels nervis perifèrics provoquen paràlisis, anestèsia i pèrdua del control autonòmic de la zona afectada. Després de lesió, la part distal dels axons queda desconectat del soma i degenera, provocant la denervació dels òrgans diana. La degeneració walleriana crea un microambient favorable per al creixement axonal, alhora que la neurona canvia a un fenotip proregeneratiu. Malauradament, la manca d'especificitat de la regeneració, en termes de creixement motor i sensorial i reinnerva...
Domènech-Estévez, Enric; Baloui, Hasna; Meng, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yanqing; Deinhardt, Katrin; Dupree, Jeff L; Einheber, Steven; Chrast, Roman; Salzer, James L
The signaling pathways that regulate myelination in the PNS remain poorly understood. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, activated in Schwann cells by neuregulin and the extracellular matrix, has an essential role in the early events of myelination. Akt/PKB, a key effector of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, was previously implicated in CNS, but not PNS myelination. Here we demonstrate that Akt plays a crucial role in axon ensheathment and in the regulation of myelin sheath thickness in the PNS. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt in DRG neuron-Schwann cell cocultures dramatically decreased MBP and P0 levels and myelin sheath formation without affecting expression of Krox20/Egr2, a key transcriptional regulator of myelination. Conversely, expression of an activated form of Akt in purified Schwann cells increased expression of myelin proteins, but not Krox20/Egr2, and the levels of activated Rac1. Transgenic mice expressing a membrane-targeted, activated form of Akt under control of the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase promoter, exhibited thicker PNS and CNS myelin sheaths, and PNS myelin abnormalities, such as tomacula and myelin infoldings/outfoldings, centered around the paranodes and Schmidt Lanterman incisures. These effects were corrected by rapamycin treatmentin vivo Importantly, Akt activity in the transgenic mice did not induce myelination of nonmyelinating Schwann cells in the sympathetic trunk or Remak fibers of the dorsal roots, although, in those structures, they wrapped membranes redundantly around axons. Together, our data indicate that Akt is crucial for PNS myelination driving axonal wrapping by unmyelinated and myelinated Schwann cells and enhancing myelin protein synthesis in myelinating Schwann cells. Although the role of the key serine/threonine kinase Akt in promoting CNS myelination has been demonstrated, its role in the PNS has not been established and remains uncertain. This work reveals that Akt
Melemedjian, Ohannes K; Tillu, Dipti V; Moy, Jamie K; Asiedu, Marina N; Mandell, Edward K; Ghosh, Sourav; Dussor, Gregory; Price, Theodore J
Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings
Zhang, Peisu; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Liu, Yong; Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Ioannis, Grammatikakis; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Yongqing; Kevin G Becker; Yang, In Hong; Gorospe, Myriam; Mark P Mattson
Despite considerable evidence that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites, roles for axonal RBPs are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a non-telomeric isoform of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2-S) is a novel RBP that regulates axonal plasticity. TRF2-S interacts directly with target mRNAs to facilitate their axonal delivery. The process is antagonized by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Distinct from the current RNA-...
Philip R Lee
Full Text Available Myelination is a highly dynamic process that continues well into adulthood in humans. Several recent gene expression studies have found abnormal expression of genes involved in myelination in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. Defects in myelination could contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness by impairing information processing as a consequence of altered impulse conduction velocity and synchrony between cortical regions carrying out higher level cognitive functions. Myelination can be altered by impulse activity in axons and by environmental experience. Psychiatric illness is treated by psychotherapy, behavioral modification, and drugs affecting neurotransmission, raising the possibility that myelinating glia may not only contribute to such disorders, but that activity-dependent effects on myelinating glia could provide one of the cellular mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effects of these treatments. This review examines evidence showing that genes and gene networks important for myelination can be regulated by functional activity in axons.
Lopez-Verrilli, M. Alejandra; Court, Felipe A.
Schwann cells (SCs) are the glial component of the peripheral nervous system, with essential roles during development and maintenance of axons, as well as during regenerative processes after nerve injury. SCs increase conduction velocities by myelinating axons, regulate synaptic activity at presynaptic nerve terminals and are a source of trophic factors to neurons. Thus, development and maintenance of peripheral nerves are crucially dependent on local signaling between SCs and axons. In addition to the classic mechanisms of intercellular signaling, the possibility of communication through secreted vesicles has been poorly explored to date. Interesting recent findings suggest the occurrence of lateral transfer mediated by vesicles from glial cells to axons that could have important roles in axonal growth and axonal regeneration. Here, we review the role of vesicular transfer from SCs to axons and propose the advantages of this means in supporting neuronal and axonal maintenance and regeneration after nerve damage. PMID:22707941
María Alejandra eLopez-Verrilli
Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are the glial component of the peripheral nervous system, with essential roles during development and maintenance of axons, as well as during regenerative processes after nerve injury. SCs increase conduction velocities by myelinating axons, regulate synaptic activity at presynaptic nerve terminals and are a source of trophic factors to neurons. Thus, development and maintenance of peripheral nerves are crucially dependent on local signalling between SCs and axons. In addition to the classic mechanisms of intercellular signalling, the possibility of communication through secreted vesicles has been poorly explored to date. Interesting recent findings suggest the occurrence of lateral transfer mediated by vesicles from glial cells to axons that could have important roles in axonal growth and axonal regeneration. Here, we review the role of vesicular transfer from SCs to axons and propose the benefits of this means in supporting neuronal and axonal maintenance and regeneration after nerve damage.
Liu, Huaqing; Angert, Mila; Nishihara, Tasuku; Shubayev, Igor; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I
Regeneration of sensory neurons after spinal cord injury depends on the function of dividing neuronal-glial antigen 2 (NG2)-expressing cells. We have shown that increases in the number of dividing NG2-positive cells through short-term pharmacologic inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases contributes to recovery after spinal cord injury. A conditioning sciatic nerve crush (SNC) preceding spinal cord injury stimulates central sensory axon regeneration via the intraganglionic action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Here, using bromodeoxyuridine, mitomycin (mitosis inhibitor), and cholera toxin B tracer, we demonstrate that SNC-induced division of spinal glia is related to the spinal induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and contributes to central sensory axon growth into the damaged spinal cord. Dividing cells were mainly NG2-positive and Iba1-positive and included myeloid NG2-positive populations. The cells dividing in response to SNC mainly matured into oligodendrocytes and microglia within the injured spinal cord. Some postmitotic cells remained NG2-reactive and were associated with regenerating fibers. Moreover, intraganglionic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression was induced after administration of SNC or cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog (dbcAMP) to dorsal root ganglia in vivo and in primary adult dorsal root ganglia cultures. Collectively, these findings support a novel model whereby a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated regeneration program induced in sensory neurons by a conditioning peripheral nerve lesion uses tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 to protect against short-term proteolysis, enabling glial cell division and promoting axon growth into the damaged CNS.
Sandvig, Axel; Sandvig, Ioanna; Berry, Martin; Olsen, Øystein; Pedersen, Tina Bugge; Brekken, Christian; Thuen, Marte
To assess optic nerve (ON) regeneration after injury by applying manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a study of comparative physiology between nonregenerating rat and mouse species and regenerating frog and fish species. The normal visual projections of rats, mice, frogs, and fish was visualized by intravitreal MnCl(2) injection followed by MRI. Rats and mice with ON crush (ONC) were divided into nonregenerating (ONC only), and regenerating animals with peripheral nerve graft (ONC+PNG; rats) or lens injury (ONC+LI; mice) and monitored by MEMRI at 1 and 20 days post-lesion (dpl). Frog and fish with ON transection (ONT) were monitored by MEMRI up to 6 months postlesion (mpl). Signal intensity profiles of the Mn(2+)-enhanced ON were consistent with ON regeneration in the ONC+PNG and ONC+LI rat and mice groups, respectively, compared with the nonregenerating ONC groups. Furthermore, signal intensity profiles of the Mn(2+)-enhanced ON obtained between 1 mpl and 6 mpl in the fish and frog groups, respectively, were consistent with spontaneous, complete ON regeneration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MEMRI is a viable method for serial, in vivo monitoring of normal, induced, and spontaneously regenerating optic nerve axons in different species. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Lee, Yee-Shuan; Wu, Siliang; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston; Bunge, Mary Bartlett
Among various models for spinal cord injury in rats, the contusion model is the most often used because it is the most common type of human spinal cord injury. The complete transection model, although not as clinically relevant as the contusion model, is the most rigorous method to evaluate axon regeneration. In the contusion model, it is difficult to distinguish regenerated from sprouted or spared axons due to the presence of remaining tissue post injury. In the complete transection model, a bridging method is necessary to fill the gap and create continuity from the rostral to the caudal stumps in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatments. A reliable bridging surgery is essential to test outcome measures by reducing the variability due to the surgical method. The protocols described here are used to prepare Schwann cells (SCs) and conduits prior to transplantation, complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level 8 (T8), insert the conduit, and transplant SCs into the conduit. This approach also uses in situ gelling of an injectable basement membrane matrix with SC transplantation that allows improved axon growth across the rostral and caudal interfaces with the host tissue.
Nygård, Ingvild E.; Mortensen, Kim E.; Hedegaard, Jakob
Background After partial hepatectomy (PHx), the liver regeneration process terminates when the normal liver-mass/body-weight ratio of 2.5% has been re-established. To investigate the genetic regulation of the terminating phase of liver regeneration, we performed a 60% PHx in a porcine model. Liver...... biopsies were taken at the time of resection, after three weeks and upon termination the sixth week. Gene expression profiles were obtained using porcine oligonucleotide microarrays. Our study reveals the interactions between genes regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and the role...
Stasheff, S F; Mott, D D; Wilson, W A
1. The preceding report presented evidence that the kindling-like induction of electrographic seizures (EGSs) in the hippocampal slice is accompanied by a lasting increase in the excitability of CA3 axon terminals, which is manifested by an increase in action-potential initiation at this site. In this report we explore the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the induction and maintenance of this antidromic firing, as well as the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor in regulating this activity once it has been induced. 2. Kindling-like stimulus trains (60 Hz, 2 s) were delivered to s. radiatum of CA3 at 10-min intervals. As EGSs developed in control artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), the frequency of axon terminal firing increased markedly (by 10.33 +/- 3.29 spikes/min, mean +/- SE P EGSs and suppressed the increase in terminal firing seen in control ACSF (mean increase 1.06 +/- 1.11 spikes/min, P EGSs and antidromic spikes were induced in control ACSF, it failed to alter the frequency of terminal firing (mean 6.44 +/- 2.03 in control ACSF, 8.89 +/- 2.31 in APV; P > 0.1). Thus the NMDA receptor is required for the induction but not maintenance of increased axon terminal firing, as we previously have shown to be the case for EGSs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ino, Daisuke; Iino, Masamitsu
Formation of myelin sheaths by Schwann cells (SCs) enables rapid and efficient transmission of action potentials in peripheral axons, and disruption of myelination results in disorders that involve decreased sensory and motor functions. Given that construction of SC myelin requires high levels of lipid and protein synthesis, mitochondria, which are pivotal in cellular metabolism, may be potential regulators of the formation and maintenance of SC myelin. Supporting this notion, abnormal mitochondria are found in SCs of neuropathic peripheral nerves in both human patients and the relevant animal models. However, evidence for the importance of SC mitochondria in myelination has been limited, until recently. Several studies have recently used genetic approaches that allow SC-specific ablation of mitochondrial metabolic activity in living animals to show the critical roles of SC mitochondria in the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve axons. Here, we review current knowledge about the involvement of SC mitochondria in the formation and dysfunction of myelinated axons in the peripheral nervous system.
Mary Ann Manavalan
Full Text Available Guiding axon growth cones towards their targets is a fundamental process that occurs in a developing nervous system. Several major signaling systems are involved in axon-guidance, and disruption of these systems causes axon-guidance defects. However, the specific role of the environment in which axons navigate in regulating axon-guidance has not been examined in detail. In Drosophila, the ventral nerve cord is divided into segments, and half-segments and the precursor neuroblasts are formed in rows and columns in individual half-segments. The row-wise expression of segment-polarity genes within the neuroectoderm provides the initial row-wise identity to neuroblasts. Here, we show that in embryos mutant for the gene midline, which encodes a T-box DNA binding protein, row-2 neuroblasts and their neuroectoderm adopt a row-5 identity. This reiteration of row-5 ultimately creates a non-permissive zone or a barrier, which prevents the extension of interneuronal longitudinal tracts along their normal anterior-posterior path. While we do not know the nature of the barrier, the axon tracts either stall when they reach this region or project across the midline or towards the periphery along this zone. Previously, we had shown that midline ensures ancestry-dependent fate specification in a neuronal lineage. These results provide the molecular basis for the axon guidance defects in midline mutants and the significance of proper specification of the environment to axon-guidance. These results also reveal the importance of segmental polarity in guiding axons from one segment to the next, and a link between establishment of broad segmental identity and axon guidance.
Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Chiu, Kellie; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Elefant, Felice
Tip60 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzyme that epigenetically regulates genes enriched for neuronal functions through interaction with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain. However, whether Tip60-mediated epigenetic dysregulation affects specific neuronal processes in vivo and contributes to neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here, we show that Tip60 HAT activity mediates axonal growth of the Drosophila pacemaker cells, termed “small ventrolateral neurons” (sLNvs), and their production of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) that functions to stabilize Drosophila sleep–wake cycles. Using genetic approaches, we show that loss of Tip60 HAT activity in the presence of the Alzheimer’s disease-associated APP affects PDF expression and causes retraction of the sLNv synaptic arbor required for presynaptic release of PDF. Functional consequence of these effects is evidenced by disruption of the sleep–wake cycle in these flies. Notably, overexpression of Tip60 in conjunction with APP rescues these sleep–wake disturbances by inducing overelaboration of the sLNv synaptic terminals and increasing PDF levels, supporting a neuroprotective role for dTip60 in sLNv growth and function under APP-induced neurodegenerative conditions. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for Tip60 mediated sleep–wake regulation via control of axonal growth and PDF levels within the sLNv-encompassing neural network and provide insight into epigenetic-based regulation of sleep disturbances observed in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22982579
Choi, Yong-Jin; Di Nardo, Alessia; Kramvis, Ioannis; Meikle, Lynsey; Kwiatkowski, David J; Sahin, Mustafa; He, Xi
Axon formation is fundamental for brain development and function. TSC1 and TSC2 are two genes, mutations in which cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease characterized by tumor predisposition and neurological abnormalities including epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism. Here we show that Tsc1 and Tsc2 have critical functions in mammalian axon formation and growth. Overexpression of Tsc1/Tsc2 suppresses axon formation, whereas a lack of Tsc1 or Tsc2 function induces ectopic axons in vitro and in the mouse brain. Tsc2 is phosphorylated and inhibited in the axon but not dendrites. Inactivation of Tsc1/Tsc2 promotes axonal growth, at least in part, via up-regulation of neuronal polarity SAD kinase, which is also elevated in cortical tubers of a TSC patient. Our results reveal key roles of TSC1/TSC2 in neuronal polarity, suggest a common pathway regulating polarization/growth in neurons and cell size in other tissues, and have implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of TSC and associated neurological disorders and for axonal regeneration.
Pan P Li
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The assembly of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ is initiated when nerve and muscle first contact each other by filopodial processes which are thought to enable close interactions between the synaptic partners and facilitate synaptogenesis. We recently reported that embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons preferentially extended filopodia towards cocultured muscle cells and that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF produced by muscle activated neuronal FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1 to induce filopodia and favor synaptogenesis. Intriguingly, in an earlier study we found that neurotrophins (NTs, a different set of target-derived factors that act through Trk receptor tyrosine kinases, promoted neuronal growth but hindered presynaptic differentiation and NMJ formation. Thus, here we investigated how bFGF- and NT-signals in neurons jointly elicit presynaptic changes during the earliest stages of NMJ development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whereas forced expression of wild-type TrkB in neurons reduced filopodial extension and triggered axonal outgrowth, expression of a mutant TrkB lacking the intracellular kinase domain enhanced filopodial growth and slowed axonal advance. Neurons overexpressing wild-type FGFR1 also displayed more filopodia than control neurons, in accord with our previous findings, and, notably, this elevation in filopodial density was suppressed when neurons were chronically treated from the beginning of the culture period with BDNF, the NT that specifically activates TrkB. Conversely, inhibition by BDNF of NMJ formation in nerve-muscle cocultures was partly reversed by the overexpression of bFGF in muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the balance between neuronal FGFR1- and TrkB-dependent filopodial assembly and axonal outgrowth regulates the establishment of incipient NMJs.
Zhang, Ge; Lei, Fei; Zhou, Qingzhong; Feng, Daxiong; Bai, Yongheng
Previous studies have reported that the Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCKII) and glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK)‑3β signaling pathways are involved in axonal regeneration. The present study investigated the effects of the combined application of Y27632 (a ROCKII inhibitor) and 4-benzyl-2‑methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8; a GSK‑3β inhibitor) on neurite outgrowth and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 90 female Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly allocated into six groups, and the SCI rats received daily administration of 1.6 mg/kg Y27632 for 2 weeks and/or 1 mg/kg TDZD‑8 for 3 weeks via a catheter. Cellular apoptosis in the injured spinal cords was measured at each time point using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression levels of growth‑associated protein‑43 (GAP‑43) were determined by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, an anterograde tracer was used to analyze axonal regeneration, the Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB) was analyzed, and the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) test was conducted. The results demonstrated that SCI upregulated the number of apoptotic cells, increased GAP‑43 expression and enhanced the latent periods of SEP, as compared with in mice that underwent a sham operation. Furthermore, SCI decreased the BBB scores and the SEP amplitudes. These injuries in the spinal cord were reduced following treatment with Y27632, TDZD‑8, or their combined application, as detected by decreased apoptosis, the induction of axonal regeneration, and the promotion of functional recovery of the lower limbs. Although the BBB scores, and SEP amplitudes and latent periods were not significantly different among the three drug treatment groups, the combined application of Y27632 and TDZD‑8 resulted in stronger axonal regenerative potency and a greater protective effect on
Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons coalesce into specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB according to their odorant receptor (OR expression. Several guidance molecules enhance the coalescence of homotypic OSN projections, in an OR-specific- and neural-activity-dependent manner. However, the mechanism by which homotypic OSN axons are organized into glomeruli is unsolved. We previously reported that the clustered protocadherin-α (Pcdh-α family of diverse cadherin-related molecules plays roles in the coalescence and elimination of homotypic OSN axons throughout development. Here we showed that the elimination of small ectopic homotypic glomeruli required the constitutive expression of a Pcdh-α isoform and Pcdh-α’s cytoplasmic region, but not OR specificity or neural activity. These results suggest that Pcdh-α proteins provide a cytoplasmic signal to regulate repulsive activity for homotypic OSN axons independently of OR expression and neural activity. The counterbalancing effect of Pcdh-α proteins for the axonal coalescence mechanisms mediated by other olfactory guidance molecules indicate a possible mechanism for the organization of homotypic OSN axons into glomeruli during development.
Full Text Available Abstract Background NURR1 (also named as NR4A2 is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, which can bind to DNA and modulate expression of target genes. Previous studies have shown that NURR1 is essential for the nigral dopaminergic neuron phenotype and function maintenance, and the defects of the gene are possibly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD. Results In this study, we used new born Nurr1 knock-out mice combined with Affymetrix genechip technology and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify Nurr1 regulated genes, which led to the discovery of several transcripts differentially expressed in the nigro-striatal pathway of Nurr1 knock-out mice. We found that an axon genesis gene called Topoisomerase IIβ (Top IIβ was down-regulated in Nurr1 knock-out mice and we identified two functional NURR1 binding sites in the proximal Top IIβ promoter. While in Top IIβ null mice, we saw a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra and lack of neurites along the nigro-striatal pathway. Using specific TOP II antagonist ICRF-193 or Top IIβ siRNA in the primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM neurons, we documented that suppression of TOP IIβ expression resulted in VM neurites shortening and growth cones collapsing. Furthermore, microinjection of ICRF-193 into the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB led to the loss of nigro-striatal projection. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that Top IIβ might be a down-stream target of Nurr1, which might influence the processes of axon genesis in dopaminergic neurons via the regulation of TOP IIβ expression. The Nurr1-Top IIβ interaction may shed light on the pathologic role of Nurr1 defect in the nigro-striatal pathway deficiency associated with PD.
Chen, Jie; Laramore, Cindy; Shifman, Michael I
After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, injured axons fail to regenerate. By contrast, lampreys recover from complete spinal transection and axons regenerate selectively in their correct paths. Yet the large, identified reticulospinal neurons in the lamprey brain vary greatly in their regenerative abilities - some have high regeneration capacity (probability of regeneration >50%) and others have low regeneration capacity (regenerating and non-regenerating neurons located in the same brain region and projecting to the same axon tracts suggests that differences in their regenerating abilities depend upon factors intrinsic to the neurons. Previous work has suggested that axon regeneration, especially in PNS, could depend on epigenetic mechanisms of histone modifications, such as the acetylation of histone tails. Our data indicated that expression of the enzymes responsible for regulating the acetylation of histone (KATs and HDACs) - KAT2A, KAT5 and P300 and HDAC3 did not change after SCI in either high regeneration capacity or low regeneration capacity neurons. In the present report, we show a novel and unexpected relationship between neuron regeneration abilities and expression of HDAC1. While HDAC1 expression was downregulated in both high and low regeneration capacity neurons 2 and 4weeks after SCI, it was upregulated at 7weeks at almost all RS neurons. However, at 10weeks post-transection only high regeneration capacity neurons displayed elevated HDAC1 mRNA expression and HDAC1 expression was again downregulated in low regeneration capacity neurons. Moreover, we show that HDAC1 is preferentially expressed in regenerated neurons, but not in non-regenerating neurons. Together, these results suggest that SCI causes significant changes in HDAC1 expression and that HDAC1 expression in regenerating neurons may modulates a survival or regeneration programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benowitz, Larry I; He, Zhigang; Goldberg, Jeffrey L
The optic nerve has been widely used to investigate factors that regulate axon regeneration in the mammalian CNS. Although retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, show little capacity to regenerate their axons following optic nerve damage, studies spanning the 20(th) century showed that some RGCs can regenerate axons through a segment of peripheral nerve grafted to the optic nerve. More recently, some degree of regeneration has been achieved through the optic nerve itself by factors associated with intraocular inflammation (oncomodulin) or by altering levels of particular transcription factors (Klf-4, -9, c-myc), cell-intrinsic suppressors of axon growth (PTEN, SOCS3), receptors to cell-extrinsic inhibitors of axon growth (Nogo receptor, LAR, PTP-σ) or the intracellular signaling pathway activated by these receptors (RhoA). Other regulators of regeneration and cell survival continue to be identified in this system at a rapid pace. Combinatorial treatments that include two or more of these factors enable some retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons from the eye through the entire length of the optic nerve and across the optic chiasm. In some cases, regenerating axons have been shown to innervate the appropriate central target areas and elicit postsynaptic responses. Many discoveries made in this system have been found to enhance axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. Thus, progress in optic nerve regeneration holds promise not only for visual restoration but also for improving outcome after injury to other parts of the mature CNS. Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch
Choi, C.I.; Yoo, K.H.; Hussaini, S.M.; Jeon, B.T.; Welby, J.; Gan, H.; Scarisbrick, I.A.; Zhang, Z.; Baker, D.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Rodriguez, M.; Jang, M.H.
Myelination, the process by which oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons, is key to axonal signal transduction and related motor function in the central nervous system (CNS). Aging is characterized by degenerative changes in the myelin sheath, although the molecular underpinnings of
Andersen Erica F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of specific neuronal morphology requires precise control over cell motility processes, including axon formation, outgrowth and branching. Dynamic remodeling of the filamentous actin (F-actin cytoskeleton is critical for these processes; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling motile axon behaviors and F-actin dynamics in vivo. Neuronal structure is specified in part by intrinsic transcription factor activity, yet the molecular and cellular steps between transcription and axon behavior are not well understood. Zebrafish Rohon-Beard (RB sensory neurons have a unique morphology, with central axons that extend in the spinal cord and a peripheral axon that innervates the skin. LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD transcription factor activity is required for formation of peripheral RB axons. To understand how neuronal morphogenesis is controlled in vivo and how LIM-HD transcription factor activity differentially regulates peripheral versus central axons, we used live imaging of axon behavior and F-actin distribution in vivo. Results We used an F-actin biosensor containing the actin-binding domain of utrophin to characterize actin rearrangements during specific developmental processes in vivo, including axon initiation, consolidation and branching. We found that peripheral axons initiate from a specific cellular compartment and that F-actin accumulation and protrusive activity precede peripheral axon initiation. Moreover, disruption of LIM-HD transcriptional activity has different effects on the motility of peripheral versus central axons; it inhibits peripheral axon initiation, growth and branching, while increasing the growth rate of central axons. Our imaging revealed that LIM-HD transcription factor activity is not required for F-actin based protrusive activity or F-actin accumulation during peripheral axon initiation, but can affect positioning of F-actin accumulation and axon formation. Conclusion Our ability
Seo, Dong Kwang; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Min, Joongkee; Yoon, Hyung Ho; Shin, Eun-Sil; Kim, Seong Who; Jeon, Sang Ryong
While pure mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) is known to be safe, its efficacy is insufficient. Therefore, gene-modified stem cells are being developed to enhance the effect of pure MSCs. We investigated the effect of stem cell therapy through the transfection of a Wnt3a-producing gene that stimulates axonal regeneration. MSCs obtained from the human umbilical cord blood (hMSCs) were multiplied, cultivated, and transfected with the pLenti-Wnt3a-GFP viral vector to produce Wnt3a-secreting hMSCs. A total of 50 rats were injured with an Infinite Horizon impactor at the level of the T7-8 vertebrae. Rats were divided into five groups according to the transplanted material: (1) phosphate-buffered saline injection group (sham group, n = 10); (Pertz et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1931-1936, 39) Wnt3a protein injection group (Wnt3a protein group, n = 10); (3) hMSC transplantation group (MSC group, n = 10); (4) hMSCs transfected with the pLenti vector transplantation group (pLenti-MSC group, n = 10); (5) hMSCs transfected with the pLenti+Wnt3a vector transplantation group (Wnt3a-MSC group, n = 10). Behavioral tests were performed daily for the first 3 days after injury and then weekly for 8 weeks. The injured spinal cords were extracted, and axonal regeneration markers including choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) were investigated by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and western blotting. Seven weeks after the transplantation (8 weeks after SCI), rats in the Wnt3a-MSC group achieved significantly higher average scores in the motor behavior tests than those in the other groups (p regeneration in a rat SCI model.
Li, Ge; Che, Ming-Tian; Zhang, Ke; Qin, Li-Na; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Rui-Qiang; Rong, Li-Min; Liu, Shu; Ding, Ying; Shen, Hui-Yong; Long, Si-Mei; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan
Persistent neurotrophic factor delivery is crucial to create a microenvironment for cell survival and nerve regeneration in spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to develop a NT-3/fibroin coated gelatin sponge scaffold (NF-GS) as a novel controlled artificial release therapy for SCI. In vitro, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were planted into the NF-GS and release test showed that NF-GS was capable to generate a sustainable NT-3 release up to 28 days. MSCs in NF-GS had high cell activity with excellent cell distribution and phenotype. Then, the NF-GS was transplanted into the injury site of spinal cord of rat and canine in vivo, which exhibited strong biocompatibility during post-transplantation period. Four weeks following transplantation, the concentration of NT-3 was much higher than that in control groups. Cavity areas in the injury/graft site were significantly reduced due to tissue regeneration and axonal extensions associated with myelin sheath through the glial scar into the NF-GS. Additionally, the NF-GS decreased the inflammation by reducing the CD68 positive cells and TNF-α. A striking feature was the occurrence of some cells and myelin-like structure that appeared to traverse the NF-GS. The present results demonstrate that the NF-GS has the property to control the release of NT-3 from the NT-3/fibroin complex thus facilitating regeneration of injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fei, Da; Huang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) regulate the survival of gustatory neurons, axon growth and branching, and innervation of taste buds during development. These actions are largely, but not completely, mediated through the tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB. Here, we investigated the role of p75, the other major receptor for BDNF and NT4, in the development of the taste system. We found that p75-/-mice showed delayed axon outgrowth and reduced branching of gustatory axons at embryonic day (E)13.5. From E14.5 to E18.5, gustatory neurons innervated fewer papillae and completely failed to innervate the mid-region of the tongue in p75-/-mice. These early effects of the p75 mutation on gustatory axons preceded the loss of geniculate ganglion neurons starting at E14.5 and also contributed to a loss of taste buds at and after birth. Because knockouts for the TrkB receptor (TrkB-/-) do not lose as many taste buds as hybrid knockouts for its two ligands (BDNF and NT4), we asked if p75 maintains those additional taste buds in the absence of TrkB. It does not; hybrid TrkB-/-/p75-/-mice had more taste buds than TrkB-/-mice; these additional taste buds were not due to an increase in neurons or innervation. p75 regulates gustatory neuron axon branching and tongue innervation patterns during taste system development. This function is likely accomplished independently of BDNF, NT4, and TrkB. In addition, p75 does not support the remaining neurons or taste buds in TrkB-/-mice.
Stoyanova, Irina I.; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Rutten, Wim L. C.
Artificial nerve guidance channels enhance the regenerative effectiveness in an injured peripheral nerve but the existing design so far has been limited to basic straight tubes simply guiding the growth to bridge the gap. Hence, one of the goals in development of more effective neuroprostheses is to create bidirectional highly selective neuro-electronic interface between a prosthetic device and the severed nerve. A step towards improving selectivity for both recording and stimulation have been made with some recent in vitro studies which showed that three-dimensional (3D) bifurcating microchannels can separate neurites growing on a planar surface and bring them into contact with individual electrodes. Since the growing axons in vivo have the innate tendency to group in bundles surrounded by connective tissue, one of the big challenges in neuro-prosthetic interface design is how to overcome it. Therefore, we performed experiments with 3D bifurcating guidance scaffolds implanted in the sciatic nerve of rats to test if this new channel architecture could trigger separation pattern of ingrowth also in vivo. Our results showed that this new method enabled the re-growth of neurites into channels with gradually diminished width (80, 40 and 20 µm) and facilitated the separation of the axonal bundles with 91% success. It seems that the 3D bifurcating scaffold might contribute towards conveying detailed neural control and sensory feedback to users of prosthetic devices, and thus could improve the quality of their daily life.
Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush.
Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Detloff, Megan R; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J
While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush. Additionally, we posited that if we combined that approach with digestion of upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) at the DREZ with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we would promote regeneration of sensory axons across the DREZ into the spinal cord. We first assessed if this strategy promotes neuritic growth in an in vitro model of the glial scar containing CSPG. ChABC allowed for some regeneration across the once potently inhibitory substrate. Combining ChABC treatment with expression of caRheb in DRG significantly improved this growth. We then determined if this combination strategy also enhanced regeneration through the DREZ after dorsal root crush in adult rats in vivo. After unilaterally crushing C4-T1 dorsal roots, we injected AAV5-caRheb or AAV5-GFP into the ipsilateral C5-C8 DRGs. ChABC or PBS was injected into the ipsilateral dorsal horn at C5-C8 to digest CSPG, for a total of four animal groups (caRheb + ChABC, caRheb + PBS, GFP + ChABC, GFP + PBS). Regeneration was rarely observed in PBS-treated animals, whereas short-distance regrowth across the DREZ was observed in ChABC-treated animals. No difference in axon number or length between the ChABC groups was observed, which may be related to intraganglionic inflammation induced by the
De Col, Roberto; Messlinger, Karl; Carr, Richard W
Axonal conduction velocity varies according to the level of preceding impulse activity. In unmyelinated axons this typically results in a slowing of conduction velocity and a parallel increase in threshold. It is currently held that Na+–K+-ATPase-dependent axonal hyperpolarization is responsible for this slowing but this has long been equivocal. We therefore examined conduction velocity changes during repetitive activation of single unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges. In direct contradiction to the currently accepted postulate, Na+–K+-ATPase blockade actually enhanced activity-induced conduction velocity slowing, while the degree of velocity slowing was curtailed in the presence of lidocaine (10–300 μm) and carbamazepine (30–500 μm) but not tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10–80 nm). This suggests that a change in the number of available sodium channels is the most prominent factor responsible for activity-induced changes in conduction velocity in unmyelinated axons. At moderate stimulus frequencies, axonal conduction velocity is determined by an interaction between residual sodium channel inactivation following each impulse and the retrieval of channels from inactivation by a concomitant Na+–K+-ATPase-mediated hyperpolarization. Since the process is primarily dependent upon sodium channel availability, tracking conduction velocity provides a means of accessing relative changes in the excitability of nociceptive neurons. PMID:18096592
Qiu, Xue-Cheng; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Rong-Yi; Ding, Ying; Zeng, Xiang; Lai, Bi-Qin; Ling, Eng-Ang; Wu, Jin-Lang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan
Severe spinal cord injury often causes temporary or permanent damages in strength, sensation, or autonomic functions below the site of the injury. So far, there is still no effective treatment for spinal cord injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to repair injured spinal cord as an effective strategy. However, the low neural differentiation frequency of MSCs has limited its application. The present study attempted to explore whether the grafted MSC-derived neural-like cells in a gelatin sponge (GS) scaffold could maintain neural features or transdifferentiate into myelin-forming cells in the transected spinal cord. We constructed an engineered tissue by co-seeding of MSCs with genetically enhanced expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high-affinity receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) separately into a three-dimensional GS scaffold to promote the MSCs differentiating into neural-like cells and transplanted it into the gap of a completely transected rat spinal cord. The rats received extensive post-operation care, including cyclosporin A administrated once daily for 2 months. MSCs modified genetically could differentiate into neural-like cells in the MN + MT (NT-3-MSCs + TrKC-MSCs) group 14 days after culture in the GS scaffold. However, after the MSC-derived neural-like cells were transplanted into the injury site of spinal cord, some of them appeared to lose the neural phenotypes and instead transdifferentiated into myelin-forming cells at 8 weeks. In the latter, the MSC-derived myelin-forming cells established myelin sheaths associated with the host regenerating axons. And the injured host neurons were rescued, and axon regeneration was induced by grafted MSCs modified genetically. In addition, the cortical motor evoked potential and hindlimb locomotion were significantly ameliorated in the rat spinal cord transected in the MN + MT group compared with the GS and MSC groups. Grafted MSC-derived neural-like cells in the
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small noncoding ~22-nt RNAs, which have been reported to play a crucial role in maintaining bone development and metabolism. Osteogenesis originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiating into mature osteoblasts and each period of bone formation is inseparable from the delicate regulation of various miRNAs. Of note, apprehending the sophisticated circuit between miRNAs and osteogenic homeostasis is of great value for artificial skeletal regeneration for severe bone defects. In this review, we highlight how different miRNAs interact with diverse osteo-related genes and endeavor to sketch the contours of potential manipulations of miRNA-modulated bone repair.
Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are present in both pyramidal neurons and interneurons of the hippocampus. These receptors play an important role in the adult structural plasticity of excitatory neurons, but their impact on the remodeling of interneurons is unknown. Among hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin-expressing cells located in the stratum oriens are of special interest because of their functional importance and structural characteristics: they display dendritic spines, which change density in response to different stimuli. In order to understand the role of NMDARs on the structural plasticity of these interneurons, we have injected acutely MK-801, an NMDAR antagonist, to adult mice which constitutively express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP in these cells. We have behaviorally tested the animals, confirming effects of the drug on locomotion and anxiety-related behaviors. NMDARs were expressed in the somata and dendritic spines of somatostatin-expressing interneurons. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the density of spines did not vary, but we found a significant increase in the density of their en passant boutons (EPB. We have also used entorhino-hippocampal organotypic cultures to study these interneurons in real-time. There was a rapid decrease in the apparition rate of spines after MK-801 administration, which persisted for 24 h and returned to basal levels afterwards. A similar reversible decrease was detected in spine density. Our results show that both spines and axons of interneurons can undergo remodeling and highlight NMDARs as regulators of this plasticity. These results are specially relevant given the importance of all these players on hippocampal physiology and the etiopathology of certain psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available The threshold firing frequency of a neuron is a characterizing feature of its dynamical behaviour, in turn determining its role in the oscillatory activity of the brain. Two main types of dynamics have been identified in brain neurons. Type 1 dynamics (regular spiking shows a continuous relationship between frequency and stimulation current (f-I(stim and, thus, an arbitrarily low frequency at threshold current; Type 2 (fast spiking shows a discontinuous f-I(stim relationship and a minimum threshold frequency. In a previous study of a hippocampal neuron model, we demonstrated that its dynamics could be of both Type 1 and Type 2, depending on ion channel density. In the present study we analyse the effect of varying channel density on threshold firing frequency on two well-studied axon membranes, namely the frog myelinated axon and the squid giant axon. Moreover, we analyse the hippocampal neuron model in more detail. The models are all based on voltage-clamp studies, thus comprising experimentally measurable parameters. The choice of analysing effects of channel density modifications is due to their physiological and pharmacological relevance. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that both axon models display exclusively Type 2 dynamics, independently of ion channel density. Nevertheless, both models have a region in the channel-density plane characterized by an N-shaped steady-state current-voltage relationship (a prerequisite for Type 1 dynamics and associated with this type of dynamics in the hippocampal model. In summary, our results suggest that the hippocampal soma and the two axon membranes represent two distinct kinds of membranes; membranes with a channel-density dependent switching between Type 1 and 2 dynamics, and membranes with a channel-density independent dynamics. The difference between the two membrane types suggests functional differences, compatible with a more flexible role of the soma membrane than that of the axon membrane.
Liu, Jia; Chen, Jian; Liu, Bin; Yang, Cuilan; Xie, Denghui; Zheng, Xiaochen; Xu, Song; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Zhongmin; Bai, Xiaochun; Jin, Dadi
The stem cell-based experimental therapies are partially successful for the recovery of spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, acellular spinal cord (ASC) scaffolds which mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM) have been successfully prepared. This study aimed at investigating whether the spinal cord lesion gap could be bridged by implantation of bionic-designed ASC scaffold alone and seeded with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) respectively, and their effects on functional improvement. A laterally hemisected SCI lesion was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=36) and ASC scaffolds seeded with or without hUCB-MSCs were implanted into the lesion immediately. All rats were behaviorally tested using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test once a week for 8weeks. Behavioral analysis showed that there was significant locomotor recovery improvement in combined treatment group (ASC scaffold and ASC scaffold+hUCB-MSCs) as compared with the SCI only group (pregeneration at lesion sites. This study provides evidence for the first time that ASC scaffold seeded with hUCB-MSCs is able to bridge a spinal cord cavity and promote long-distance axon regeneration and functional recovery in SCI rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disorder of the motor system. About 10% of cases are familial and 20% of these families have point mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1 gene. SOD-1 catalyses the superoxide radical (O−2 into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The clinical neurophysiology in ALS plays a fundamental role in differential diagnosis between the familial and sporadic forms and in the assessment of its severity and progression. Sixty ALS patients (34 males; 26 females were enrolled in the study and examined basally (T0 and every 4 months (T1, T2, and T3. Fifteen of these patients are SOD-1 symptomatic mutation carriers (nine males, six females. We used Macro-EMG and Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE in order to evaluate the neuronal loss and the re-innervation process at the onset of disease and during follow-up period. Results and Discussion: SOD-1 mutation carriers have a higher number of motor units at the moment of diagnosis when compared with the sporadic form, despite a more dramatic drop in later stages. Moreover, in familiar SOD-1 ALS there is not a specific time interval in which the axonal regeneration can balance the neuronal damage. Taken together, these results strengthen the idea of a different pathogenetic mechanism at the base of sALS and fALS.
Background It has been shown that olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) and Schwann cell (SCs) transplantation are beneficial as cellular treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI), especially acute and sub-acute time points. In this study, we transplanted DsRED transduced adult OEG and SCs sub-acutely (14 days) following a T10 moderate spinal cord contusion injury in the rat. Behaviour was measured by open field (BBB) and horizontal ladder walking tests to ascertain improvements in locomotor function. Fluorogold staining was injected into the distal spinal cord to determine the extent of supraspinal and propriospinal axonal sparing/regeneration at 4 months post injection time point. The purpose of this study was to investigate if OEG and SCs cells injected sub acutely (14 days after injury) could: (i) improve behavioral outcomes, (ii) induce sparing/regeneration of propriospinal and supraspinal projections, and (iii) reduce tissue loss. Results OEG and SCs transplanted rats showed significant increased locomotion when compared to control injury only in the open field tests (BBB). However, the ladder walk test did not show statistically significant differences between treatment and control groups. Fluorogold retrograde tracing showed a statistically significant increase in the number of supraspinal nuclei projecting into the distal spinal cord in both OEG and SCs transplanted rats. These included the raphe, reticular and vestibular systems. Further pairwise multiple comparison tests also showed a statistically significant increase in raphe projecting neurons in OEG transplanted rats when compared to SCs transplanted animals. Immunohistochemistry of spinal cord sections short term (2 weeks) and long term (4 months) showed differences in host glial activity, migration and proteoglycan deposits between the two cell types. Histochemical staining revealed that the volume of tissue remaining at the lesion site had increased in all OEG and SCs treated groups. Significant
Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B
radiatum of CA3 and the dentate hilus, which display axonal sprouting but no degenerative changes or microglial activation, and (2) the outer part of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and in stratum moleculare of CA3 and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, areas that display dense anterograde...
Amy N Hicks
Full Text Available Using transposon-mediated gene-trap mutagenesis, we have generated a novel mouse mutant termed Blad (Bloated Bladder. Homozygous mutant mice die perinatally showing a greatly distended bladder, underdeveloped diaphragm and a reduction in total skeletal muscle mass. Wild type and heterozygote mice appear normal. Using PCR, we identified a transposon insertion site in the first intron of Nmnat2 (Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase 2. Nmnat2 is expressed predominantly in the brain and nervous system and has been linked to the survival of axons. Expression of this gene is undetectable in Nmnat2(blad/blad mutants. Examination of the brains of E18.5 Nmnat2(blad/blad mutant embryos did not reveal any obvious morphological changes. In contrast, E18.5 Nmnat2(blad/blad homozygotes showed an approximate 60% reduction of spinal motoneurons in the lumbar region and a more than 80% reduction in the sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. In addition, facial motoneuron numbers were severely reduced, and there was virtually a complete absence of axons in the hind limb. Our observations suggest that during embryogenesis, Nmnat2 plays an important role in axonal growth or maintenance. It appears that in the absence of Nmnat2, major target organs and tissues (e.g., muscle are not functionally innervated resulting in perinatal lethality. In addition, neither Nmnat1 nor 3 can compensate for the loss of Nmnat2. Whilst there have been recent suggestions that Nmnat2 may be an endogenous modulator of axon integrity, this work represents the first in vivo study demonstrating that Nmnat2 is involved in axon development or survival in a mammal.
Full Text Available Mutations in Pten-induced kinase 1 (PINK1 are linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (FPD. PINK1 has previously been implicated in mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, quality control, and electron transport chain function. However, it is not clear how these processes are interconnected and whether they are sufficient to explain all aspects of PINK1 pathogenesis. Here we show that PINK1 also controls mitochondrial motility. In Drosophila, downregulation of dMiro or other components of the mitochondrial transport machinery rescued dPINK1 mutant phenotypes in the muscle and dopaminergic (DA neurons, whereas dMiro overexpression alone caused DA neuron loss. dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions. In Drosophila larval motor neurons, overexpression of dPINK1 inhibited axonal mitochondria transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas dPINK1 knockdown promoted anterograde transport. In HeLa cells, overexpressed hPINK1 worked together with hParkin, another FPD gene, to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of hMiro1 and hMiro2, apparently in a Ser-156 phosphorylation-independent manner. Also in HeLa cells, loss of hMiro promoted the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and facilitated autophagy of damaged mitochondria, effects previously associated with activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These newly identified functions of PINK1/Parkin and Miro in mitochondrial transport and mitophagy contribute to our understanding of the complex interplays in mitochondrial quality control that are critically involved in PD pathogenesis, and they may explain the peripheral neuropathy symptoms seen in some PD patients carrying particular PINK1 or Parkin mutations. Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1
Li, Yiqing; Andereggen, Lukas; Yuki, Kenya; Omura, Kumiko; Yin, Yuqin; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Erdogan, Burcu; Asdourian, Maria S; Shrock, Christine; de Lima, Silmara; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Zhuo, Yehong; Hershfinkel, Michal; Lippard, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Paul A; Benowitz, Larry
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release. Zn(2+) accumulation in amacrine cell processes involves the Zn(2+) transporter protein ZnT-3, and deletion of slc30a3, the gene encoding ZnT-3, promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration. Intravitreal injection of Zn(2+) chelators enables many RGCs to survive for months after nerve injury and regenerate axons, and enhances the prosurvival and regenerative effects of deleting the gene for phosphatase and tensin homolog (pten). Importantly, the therapeutic window for Zn(2+) chelation extends for several days after nerve injury. These results show that retinal Zn(2+) dysregulation is a major factor limiting the survival and regenerative capacity of injured RGCs, and point to Zn(2+) chelation as a strategy to promote long-term RGC protection and enhance axon regeneration.
Full Text Available During axon guidance, growth cones navigate toward attractive cues by inserting new membrane on the cue side. This process depends on Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ channels, but the Ca2+ sensor and effector governing this asymmetric vesicle export remain unknown. We identified a protein complex that controls asymmetric ER Ca2+-dependent membrane vesicle export. The Ca2+-dependent motor protein myosin Va (MyoVa tethers membrane vesicles to the ER via a common binding site on the two major ER Ca2+ channels, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors. In response to attractive cues, micromolar Ca2+ from ER channels triggers MyoVa-channel dissociation and the movement of freed vesicles to the cue side, enabling growth cone turning. MyoVa-Ca2+ channel interactions are required for proper long-range axon growth in developing spinal cord in vivo. These findings reveal a peri-ER membrane export pathway for Ca2+-dependent attraction in axon guidance.
LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W
Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turney, Stephen G.; Ahmed, Mostafa; Chandrasekar, Indra; Wysolmerski, Robert B.; Goeckeler, Zoe M.; Rioux, Robert M.; Whitesides, George M.; Bridgman, Paul C.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes growth, differentiation, and survival of sensory neurons in the mammalian nervous system. Little is known about how NGF elicits faster axon outgrowth or how growth cones integrate and transform signal input to motor output. Using cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that myosin II (MII) is required for NGF to stimulate faster axon outgrowth. From experiments inducing loss or gain of function of MII, specific MII isoforms, and vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, we determined that NGF causes decreased vinculin-dependent actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance. Inhibition of MII blocked NGF stimulation, indicating the central role of restraint in directed outgrowth. The restraint consists of myosin IIB- and IIA-dependent processes: retrograde actin network flow and transverse actin bundling, respectively. The processes differentially contribute on laminin-1 and fibronectin due to selective actin tethering to adhesions. On laminin-1, NGF induced greater vinculin-dependent adhesion–cytoskeletal coupling, which slowed retrograde actin network flow (i.e., it regulated the molecular clutch). On fibronectin, NGF caused inactivation of myosin IIA, which negatively regulated actin bundling. On both substrates, the result was the same: NGF-induced weakening of MII-dependent restraint led to dynamic microtubules entering the actin-rich periphery more frequently, giving rise to faster elongation. PMID:26631553
Takeuchi, Michiko; Kamei, Naosuke; Shinomiya, Rikuo; Sunagawa, Toru; Suzuki, Osami; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ohtori, Seiji; Ochi, Mitsuo
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that are associated with repair processes after central nervous system injury. Although PRP have been applied to some regenerative therapies, the regeneration effects of PRP on spinal cord injury have not been reported. This study applied a rat organ coculture system to examine the ability of PRP to enhance axonal growth in spinal cord tissues and to identify the growth factors in PRP that contribute to the regulation of axon growth. PRP from human peripheral blood was added to organ cocultures. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies against PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, IGF-1, or VEGF were added to the cocultures with PRP. Axon growth from the brain cortex into the spinal cord was assessed quantitatively using anterograde axon tracing with DiI. Addition of PRP to the cocultures promoted axon growth, and the axon growth was significantly suppressed by the addition of neutralizing antibodies against IGF-1 and VEGF, but not PDGF-AB. In contrast, axon growth was promoted significantly by the addition of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-β1. These findings indicate that PRP promotes axon growth in spinal cord tissues through mechanisms associated with IGF-1 and VEGF, and that TGF-β1 in PRP exerts negative effects on axon growth.
Full Text Available Mangiferin, a xanthonoid found in plants including mangoes and iris unguicularis, was suggested in previous studies to have anti-hyperglycemic function, though the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effect of mangiferin by the regeneration of β-cells in mice following 70% partial pancreatectomy (PPx, and to explore the mechanisms of mangiferin-induced β-cell proliferation. For this purpose, adult C57BL/6J mice after 7–14 days post-PPx, or a sham operation were subjected to mangiferin (30 and 90 mg/kg body weight or control solvent injection. Mangiferin-treated mice exhibited an improved glycemia and glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin levels, enhanced β-cell hyperplasia, elevated β-cell proliferation and reduced β-cell apoptosis. Further dissection at the molecular level showed several key regulators of cell cycle, such as cyclin D1, D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 were significantly up-regulated in mangiferin-treated mice. In addition, critical genes related to β-cell regeneration, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, neurogenin 3 (Ngn3, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2, Forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo-1, and glucokinase (GCK, were found to be promoted by mangiferin at both the mRNA and protein expression level. Thus, mangiferin administration markedly facilitates β-cell proliferation and islet regeneration, likely by regulating essential genes in the cell cycle and the process of islet regeneration. These effects therefore suggest that mangiferin bears a therapeutic potential in preventing and/or treating the diabetes.
Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H; Brubacher, John L; Newmark, Phillip A
Planarians regenerate all body parts after injury, including the central nervous system (CNS). We capitalized on this distinctive trait and completed a gene expression-guided functional screen to identify factors that regulate diverse aspects of neural regeneration in Schmidtea mediterranea. Our screen revealed molecules that influence neural cell fates, support the formation of a major connective hub, and promote reestablishment of chemosensory behavior. We also identified genes that encode signaling molecules with roles in head regeneration, including some that are produced in a previously uncharacterized parenchymal population of cells. Finally, we explored genes downregulated during planarian regeneration and characterized, for the first time, glial cells in the planarian CNS that respond to injury by repressing several transcripts. Collectively, our studies revealed diverse molecules and cell types that underlie an animal’s ability to regenerate its brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17002.001 PMID:27612384
Placheta, Eva; Hendry, J Michael; Wood, Matthew D; Lafontaine, Christine W; Liu, Edward H; Cecilia Alvarez Veronesi, M; Frey, Manfred; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H
Accumulating evidence suggests that neuregulin, a potent Schwann cell mitogen, and its receptor, ErbB2, have an important role in regulating peripheral nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that Herceptin (Trastuzumab), a monoclonal antibody that binds ErbB2, would disrupt ErbB2 signaling, allowing us to evaluate ErbB2's importance in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the extent of peripheral motor and sensory nerve regeneration and distal axonal outgrowth was analyzed two and four weeks after common peroneal (CP) nerve injury in rats. Outcomes analyzed included neuron counts after retrograde labeling, histomorphometry, and protein analysis. The data analysis revealed that there was no impact of Herceptin administration on either the numbers of motor or sensory neurons that regenerated their axons but histomorphometry revealed that Herceptin significantly increased the number of regenerated axons in the distal repaired nerve after 4 weeks. Protein analysis with Western blotting revealed no difference in either expression levels of ErbB2 or the amount of activated, phosphorylated ErbB2 in injured nerves. In conclusion, administration of the ErbB2 receptor inhibitor after nerve transection and surgical repair did not alter the number of regenerating neurons but markedly increased the number of regenerated axons per neuron in the distal nerve stump. Enhanced axon outgrowth in the presence of this ErbB2 inhibitor indicates that ErbB2 signaling may limit the numbers of axons that are emitted from each regenerating neuron. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The use of in vitro techniques for conserving plant biodiversity and protecting rare and endangered multipurpose plant species is considered as one of the most important ex-situ conservation policies. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Calligonum comosum is important and that has achieved to ...
Halasi, Gabor; Søviknes, Anne Mette; Sigurjonsson, Olafur; Glover, Joel C
Developmental patterning during regulative regeneration of the chicken embryo spinal neural tube was characterized by assessing proliferation and the expression of transcription factors specific to neural progenitor and postmitotic neuron populations. One to several segments of the thoracolumbar neural tube were selectively excised unilaterally to initiate regeneration. The capacity for regeneration depended on the stage when ablation was performed and the extent of tissue removed. 20% of surviving embryos exhibited complete regulative regeneration, wherein the missing hemi-neural tube was reconstituted to normal size and morphology. Fate-mapping of proliferative adjacent tissue indicated contributions from the opposite side of the neural tube and potentially from the ipsilateral neural tube rostral and caudal to the lesion. Application of the thymidine analog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) demonstrated a moderate increase in cell proliferation in lesioned relative to control embryos, and quantitative PCR demonstrated a parallel moderate increase in transcription of proliferation-related genes. Mathematical calculation showed that such modest increases are sufficient to account for the amount of regenerated tissue. Within the regenerated neural tube the expression pattern of progenitor-specific transcription factors was recapitulated in the separate advancing ventral and dorsal fronts of regeneration, with no evidence of abnormal mixing of progenitor subpopulations, indicating that graded patterning mechanisms do not require continuity of neural tube tissue along the dorsoventral axis and do not involve a sorting out of committed progenitors. Upon completion of the regeneration process, the pattern of neuron-specific transcription factor expression was essentially normal. Modest deficits in the numbers of transcription factor-defined neuron types were evident in the regenerated tissue, increasing particularly in dorsal neuron types with later lesions. These
Guo, Qi; Zhao, Guixia; Ni, Jiajia; Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Yizhe; Tian, Qingnan; Zhang, Shoutao
Planarians are an ideal model organism for regeneration research due to their amazing ability to regenerate. DNA replication is crucial for genome stability. Replication factor C (RFC), which is a replication factor C-like complex and plays an important role during DNA replication in eukaryotes, has been reported as a wound response factor during planarian regeneration. However, how RFC controls regeneration in planarians by regulating DNA replication remains to be explained. Here, we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in intact and regenerated planarians. Approximately 132 protein spots showed differences between intact and regenerative tissues. We selected 21 significantly expressed protein spots and processed them using TOF MS analysis. Finally, we cloned three of these candidate genes (Djhsp70, Djrfc2, Djfaim), focusing on the function of Djrfc2 during regeneration. We found that the distribution of Djrfc2 tends toward the wound site. RNA interference (RNAi) of Djrfc2 increases the number of dividing cells and the expression level of planarian neoblast marker genes, which may result in hyper-proliferation. Our studies use an available approach to directly study the regeneration dynamic at the protein level and provide further evidence to support a function of Djrfc2 in planarian regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hong, Peng; Chen, Kang; Huang, Bihui; Liu, Min; Cui, Miao; Rozenberg, Inna; Chaqour, Brahim; Pan, Xiaoyue; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.
The native capacity of adult skeletal muscles to regenerate is vital to the recovery from physical injuries and dystrophic diseases. Currently, the development of therapeutic interventions has been hindered by the complex regulatory network underlying the process of muscle regeneration. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, we identified hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible 1 (HEXIM1, also referred to as CLP-1), the inhibitory component of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, as a pivotal regulator of skeletal muscle regeneration. Hexim1-haplodeficient muscles exhibited greater mass and preserved function compared with those of WT muscles after injury, as a result of enhanced expansion of satellite cells. Transplanted Hexim1-haplodeficient satellite cells expanded and improved muscle regeneration more effectively than WT satellite cells. Conversely, HEXIM1 overexpression restrained satellite cell proliferation and impeded muscle regeneration. Mechanistically, dissociation of HEXIM1 from P-TEFb and subsequent activation of P-TEFb are required for satellite cell proliferation and the prevention of early myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest a crucial role for the HEXIM1/P-TEFb pathway in the regulation of satellite cell–mediated muscle regeneration and identify HEXIM1 as a potential therapeutic target for degenerative muscular diseases. PMID:23023707
p70S6K(CA)-TAU-ZIP: This construct supplements the peptide -based cAPP axon targeting motif with an mRNA-based motif, the 3’UTR axon-targeting ‘zip...Efeyan A, Sabatini DM. mTOR: from growth signal integration to cancer, diabetes and ageing. NatRevMolCell Biol. 2011;12:21-35. 8. Morita T, Sobue K
Tong, Cheuk Ka; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Paredes, Mercedes F; Huang, Eric J; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo
In the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) and ependymal (E1) cells share the apical surface of the ventricular–subventricular zone (V–SVZ). In a recent article, we show that supraependymal serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from the raphe nuclei in mice form an extensive plexus on the walls of the lateral ventricles where they contact E1 cells and NSCs. Here we further characterize the contacts between 5HT supraependymal axons and E1 cells in mice, and show that suprependymal axons tightly associated to E1 cells are also present in the walls of the human lateral ventricles. These observations raise interesting questions about the function of supraependymal axons in the regulation of E1 cells. PMID:26413556
Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T
Reduced oxygen (O 2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O 2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O 2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O 2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O 2 ) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O 2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. © FASEB.
Full Text Available Liver regeneration is a complex phenomenon aimed at maintaining a constant liver mass in the event of injury resulting in loss of hepatic parenchyma. Partial hepatectomy is followed by a series of events involving multiple signaling pathways controlled by mitogenic growth factors (HGF, EGF and their receptors (MET and EGFR. In addition multiple cytokines and other signaling molecules contribute to the orchestration of a signal which drives hepatocytes into DNA synthesis. The other cell types of the liver receive and transmit to hepatocytes complex signals so that, in the end of the regenerative process, complete hepatic tissue is assembled and regeneration is terminated at the proper time and at the right liver size. If hepatocytes fail to participate in this process, the biliary compartment is mobilized to generate populations of progenitor cells which transdifferentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver size.
Fothergill, Thomas; Donahoo, Amber-Lee S; Douglass, Amelia; Zalucki, Oressia; Yuan, Jiajia; Shu, Tianzhi; Goodhill, Geoffrey J; Richards, Linda J
The left and right sides of the nervous system communicate via commissural axons that cross the midline during development using evolutionarily conserved molecules. These guidance cues have been particularly well studied in the mammalian spinal cord, but it remains unclear whether these guidance mechanisms for commissural axons are similar in the developing forebrain, in particular for the corpus callosum, the largest and most important commissure for cortical function. Here, we show that Netrin1 initially attracts callosal pioneering axons derived from the cingulate cortex, but surprisingly is not attractive for the neocortical callosal axons that make up the bulk of the projection. Instead, we show that Netrin-deleted in colorectal cancer signaling acts in a fundamentally different manner, to prevent the Slit2-mediated repulsion of precrossing axons thereby allowing them to approach and cross the midline. These results provide the first evidence for how callosal axons integrate multiple guidance cues to navigate the midline.
Assessment of Glial Scar, Tissue Sparing, Behavioral Recovery and Axonal Regeneration following Acute Transplantation of Genetically Modified Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Contusion.
Mukhamedshina, Yana O; Garanina, Ekaterina E; Masgutova, Galina A; Galieva, Luisa R; Sanatova, Elvira R; Chelyshev, Yurii A; Rizvanov, Albert A
This study investigated the potential for protective effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MCs) genetically modified with the VEGF and GNDF genes on contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. An adenoviral vector was constructed for targeted delivery of VEGF and GDNF to UCB-MCs. Using a rat contusion SCI model we examined the efficacy of the construct on tissue sparing, glial scar severity, the extent of axonal regeneration, recovery of motor function, and analyzed the expression of the recombinant genes VEGF and GNDF in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of UCB-MCs transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing VEGF and GDNF at the site of SCI induced tissue sparing, behavioral recovery and axonal regeneration comparing to the other constructs tested. The adenovirus encoding VEGF and GDNF for transduction of UCB-MCs was shown to be an effective and stable vehicle for these cells in vivo following the transplantation into the contused spinal cord. Our results show that a gene delivery using UCB-MCs-expressing VEGF and GNDF genes improved both structural and functional parameters after SCI. Further histological and behavioral studies, especially at later time points, in animals with SCI after transplantation of genetically modified UCB-MCs (overexpressing VEGF and GDNF genes) will provide additional insight into therapeutic potential of such cells.
Kilinc, Devrim; Blasiak, Agata; O'Mahony, James J.; Lee, Gil U.
Growth cones, dynamic structures at axon tips, integrate chemical and physical stimuli and translate them into coordinated axon behaviour, e.g., elongation or turning. External force application to growth cones directs and enhances axon elongation in vitro; however, direct mechanical stimulation is rarely combined with chemotactic stimulation. We describe a microfluidic device that exposes isolated cortical axons to gradients of diffusing and substrate-bound molecules, and permits the simultaneous application of piconewton (pN) forces to multiple individual growth cones via magnetic tweezers. Axons treated with Y-27632, a RhoA kinase inhibitor, were successfully towed against Semaphorin 3A gradients, which repel untreated axons, with less than 12 pN acting on a small number of neural cell adhesion molecules. Treatment with Y-27632 or monastrol, a kinesin-5 inhibitor, promoted axon towing on substrates coated with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, potent axon repellents. Thus, modulating key molecular pathways that regulate contractile stress generation in axons counteracts the effects of repellent molecules and promotes tension-induced growth. The demonstration of parallel towing of axons towards inhibitory environments with minute forces suggests that mechanochemical stimulation may be a promising therapeutic approach for the repair of the damaged central nervous system, where regenerating axons face repellent factors over-expressed in the glial scar.
Ma, Huixian; Yu, Hui; Li, Ting; Zhao, Yan; Hou, Ming; Chen, Zheyu; Wang, Yue; Sun, Tao
Radial migration is essential for the precise lamination and the coordinated function of the cerebral cortex. However, the molecular mechanisms for neuronal radial migration are not clear. Here, we report that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-3 (JIP3) is highly expressed in the brain of embryonic mice and essential for radial migration. Knocking down JIP3 by in utero electroporation specifically perturbs the radial migration of cortical neurons but has no effect on neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we illustrate that JIP3 knockdown delays but does not block the migration of cortical neurons by investigating the distribution of neurons with JIP3 knocked down in the embryo and postnatal mouse. Finally, we find that JIP3 regulates cortical neuronal migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport during brain development. These findings deepen our understanding of the regulation of neuronal development by JIP3 and provide us a novel view on the regulating mechanisms of neuronal radial migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brock, Amanda R; Seto, Mabel; Smith-Bolton, Rachel K
Regeneration is a complex process that requires an organism to recognize and repair tissue damage, as well as grow and pattern new tissue. Here, we describe a genetic screen to identify novel regulators of regeneration. We ablated the Drosophila melanogaster larval wing primordium by inducing apoptosis in a spatially and temporally controlled manner and allowed the tissue to regenerate and repattern. To identify genes that regulate regeneration, we carried out a dominant-modifier screen by assessing the amount and quality of regeneration in adult wings heterozygous for isogenic deficiencies. We have identified 31 regions on the right arm of the third chromosome that modify the regenerative response. Interestingly, we observed several distinct phenotypes: mutants that regenerated poorly, mutants that regenerated faster or better than wild-type, and mutants that regenerated imperfectly and had patterning defects. We mapped one deficiency region to cap-n-collar (cnc), the Drosophila Nrf2 ortholog, which is required for regeneration. Cnc regulates reactive oxygen species levels in the regenerating epithelium, and affects c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling, growth, debris localization, and pupariation timing. Here, we present the results of our screen and propose a model wherein Cnc regulates regeneration by maintaining an optimal level of reactive oxygen species to promote JNK signaling. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Gaublomme, Djoere; Buyens, Tom; De Groef, Lies
regenerative therapies, an improved understanding of axonal outgrowth and the various molecules influencing it, is highly needed. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a family of zinc-dependent proteases that were sporadically reported to influence axon outgrowth. Using an ex vivo retinal explant model...
Battefeld, A.; Tran, B.T.; Gavrilis, J.; Cooper, E.C.; Kole, Maarten
Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of Kv7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Nav ) channels in the axonal
Grassi, Diego; Plonka, Florentyna Bustos; Oksdath, Mariana; Guil, Alvaro Nieto; Sosa, Lucas J; Quiroga, Santiago
The establishment of polarity necessitates initial axonal outgrowth and, therefore, the addition of new membrane to the axon's plasmalemma. Axolemmal expansion occurs by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) primarily at the neuronal growth cone. Little is known about the SNAREs family proteins involved in the regulation of PPV fusion with the neuronal plasmalemma at early stages of differentiation. We show here that five SNARE proteins (VAMP2, VAMP4, VAMP7, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) were expressed by hippocampal pyramidal neurons before polarization. Expression silencing of three of these proteins (VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) repressed axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity, by inhibiting IGF-1 receptor exocytotic polarized insertion, necessary for neuronal polarization. In addition, stimulation with IGF-1 triggered the association of VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 to vesicular structures carrying the IGF-1 receptor and overexpression of a negative dominant form of Syntaxin6 significantly inhibited exocytosis of IGF-1 receptor containing vesicles at the neuronal growth cone. Taken together, our results indicated that VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 functions are essential for regulation of PPV exocytosis and the polarized insertion of IGF-1 receptor and, therefore, required for initial axonal elongation and the establishment of neuronal polarity.
Full Text Available Nfix belongs to a family of four highly conserved proteins that act as transcriptional activators and/or repressors of cellular and viral genes. We previously showed a pivotal role for Nfix in regulating the transcriptional switch from embryonic to fetal myogenesis. Here, we show that Nfix directly represses the Myostatin promoter, thus controlling the proper timing of satellite cell differentiation and muscle regeneration. Nfix-null mice display delayed regeneration after injury, and this deficit is reversed upon in vivo Myostatin silencing. Conditional deletion of Nfix in satellite cells results in a similar delay in regeneration, confirming the functional requirement for Nfix in satellite cells. Moreover, mice lacking Nfix show reduced myofiber cross sectional area and a predominant slow twitching phenotype. These data define a role for Nfix in postnatal skeletal muscle and unveil a mechanism for Myostatin regulation, thus providing insights into the modulation of its complex signaling pathway.
Bonar, Nicolle A; Petersen, Christian P
Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a crucial regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs. By mimicking aspects of normal brain architecture but without normal cell-type regionalization, these spheroids bore a resemblance to mammalian tissue organoids synthesized in vitro We identified one of four planarian integrin-alpha subunits inhibition of which phenocopied these effects, suggesting that a specific receptor controls brain organization through regeneration. Neoblast stem cells and progenitor cells were mislocalized in β1-integrin(RNAi) animals without significantly altered body-wide patterning. Furthermore, tissue disorganization phenotypes were most pronounced in animals undergoing brain regeneration and not homeostatic maintenance or regeneration-induced remodeling of the brain. These results suggest that integrin signaling ensures proper progenitor recruitment after injury, enabling the generation of large-scale tissue organization within the regeneration blastema. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Maden, Charlotte H.; Gomes, John; Schwarz, Quenten; Davidson, Kathryn; Tinker, Andrew; Ruhrberg, Christiana
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arises from neural crest (NC) cells during embryonic development and innervates the internal organs of vertebrates to modulate their stress response. NRP1 and NRP2 are receptors for guidance cues of the class 3 semaphorin (SEMA) family and are expressed in partially overlapping patterns in sympathetic NC cells and their progeny. By comparing the phenotypes of mice lacking NRP1 or its ligand SEMA3A with mice lacking NRP1 in the sympathetic versus vascular endothelial cell lineages, we demonstrate that SEMA3A signalling through NRP1 has multiple cell-autonomous roles in SNS development. These roles include neuronal cell body positioning, neuronal aggregation and axon guidance, first during sympathetic chain assembly and then to regulate the innervation of the heart and aorta. Loss of NRP2 or its ligand SEMA3F impaired sympathetic gangliogenesis more mildly than loss of SEMA3A/NRP1 signalling, but caused ectopic neurite extension along the embryonic aorta. The analysis of compound mutants lacking SEMA3A and SEMA3F or NRP1 and NRP2 in the SNS demonstrated that both signalling pathways cooperate to organise the SNS. We further show that abnormal sympathetic development in mice lacking NRP1 in the sympathetic lineage has functional consequences, as it causes sinus bradycardia, similar to mice lacking SEMA3A. PMID:22790009
Benowitz, Larry I; Yin, Yuqin
Retinal ganglion cells are usually not able to regenerate their axons after optic nerve injury or degenerative disorders, resulting in lifelong visual loss. This situation can be partially reversed by activating the intrinsic growth state of retinal ganglion cells, maintaining their viability, and counteracting inhibitory signals in the extracellular environment. Advances during the past few years continue to extend the amount of regeneration that can be achieved in animal models. These findings give hope that clinically meaningful regeneration may become a reality within a few years if regenerating axons can be guided to their appropriate destinations.
targeted fusion protein Tomato-Tau is delivered to SN neurons by AAV and expression is driven by the robust chicken-beta actin promoter. By both...mRNA-based motif. AAV 3XNLS-pS6K(CA): This construct includes a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and it will target the constitutively active...performing the converse experiment and divert this molecule away from the axon compartment. This was done by use of a nuclear targeting signal, to
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis .17 In these disorders, axon-targeting motifs could be used not only to monitor the anatomy and early pathogenesis in the...GTPase activity of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). This inhibition allows accumulation of activated GTP-bound Rheb, which is a principal...Following unilateral 6OHDA lesion, the administration of amphetamine, which induces dopamine release, results in more release on the intact side
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been recently involved in most of human diseases as targets for potential strategies to rescue the pathological phenotype. Since the skeletal muscle is a spread-wide highly differentiated and organized tissue, rescue of severely compromised muscle still remains distant from nowadays. For this reason, we aimed to identify a subset of miRNAs major involved in muscle remodelling and regeneration by analysing the miRNA-profile of single fibres isolated from dystrophic muscle, which was here considered as a model of chronic damage.The miRNA-signature associated to regenerating (newly formed and remodelling (resting fibres was investigated in animal models of muscular dystrophies and acute damage, in order to distinguish which miRNAs are primary related to muscle regeneration. In this study we identify fourteen miRNAs associated to dystrophic fibres responsible for muscle regeneration and remodelling, and confirm over-expression of the previously identified regeneration-associated myomiR-206. In particular, a functional binding site for myomiR-206 was identified and validated in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR of an X-linked member of a family of sequence independent chromatin-binding proteins (Hmgb3 that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells. During regeneration of single muscle fibres, Hmgb3 messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression was gradually reduced, concurrent with the up-regulation of miR-206.Our results elucidate a negative feedback circuit in which myomiR-206 represses Hmgb3 expression to modulate the regeneration of single muscle fibres after acute and chronic muscle damage. These findings suggest that myomiR-206 may be a potential therapeutic target in muscle diseases.
Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C
Skeletal muscle repair is mediated primarily by the muscle stem cell, the satellite cell. Several factors, including extracellular matrix, are known to regulate satellite cell function and regeneration. One factor, the matricellular Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is highly up......-regulated during skeletal muscle disease, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate a prominent yet transient increase in SPARC mRNA and protein content during skeletal muscle regeneration that correlates with the expression profile of specific muscle factors like MyoD, Myf5, Myf6......, Myogenin, NCAM, CD34, and M-Cadherin, all known to be implicated in satellite cell activation/proliferation following muscle damage. This up regulation was detected in more cell types. Ectopic expression of SPARC in the muscle progenitor cell line C2C12 was performed to mimic the high levels of SPARC seen...
Fagoe, Nitish D; van Heest, Jessica; Verhaagen, Joost
Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects millions of people worldwide and causes a significant physical, emotional, social and economic burden. The main clinical hallmark of SCI is the permanent loss of motor, sensory and autonomic function below the level of injury. In general, neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) are incapable of regeneration, whereas injury to the peripheral nervous system is followed by axonal regeneration and usually results in some degree of functional recovery. The weak neuron-intrinsic regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response upon injury is an important reason for the failure of neurons in the CNS to regenerate an axon. This response consists of the expression of many RAGs, including regeneration-associated transcription factors (TFs). Regeneration-associated TFs are potential key regulators of the RAG program. The function of some regeneration-associated TFs has been studied in transgenic and knock-out mice and by adeno-associated viral vector-mediated overexpression in injured neurons. Here, we review these studies and propose that AAV-mediated gene delivery of combinations of regeneration-associated TFs is a potential strategy to activate the RAG program in injured CNS neurons and achieve long-distance axon regeneration.
Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P
Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential.
Mobley, Arie S; Miller, Alexandra M; Araneda, Ricardo C; Maurer, Lydia R; Müller, Frank; Greer, Charles A
Mechanisms influencing the development of olfactory bulb glomeruli are poorly understood. While odor receptors (ORs) play an important role in olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axon targeting/coalescence (Mombaerts et al., 1996; Wang et al., 1998; Feinstein and Mombaerts, 2004), recent work showed that G protein activation alone is sufficient to induce OSN axon coalescence (Imai et al., 2006; Chesler et al., 2007), suggesting an activity-dependent mechanism in glomerular development. Consistent with these data, OSN axon projections and convergence are perturbed in mice deficient for adenylyl cyclase III, which is downstream from the OR and catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. However, in cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel knock-out mice OSN axons are only transiently perturbed (Lin et al., 2000), suggesting that the CNG channel may not be the sole target of cAMP. This prompted us to investigate an alternative channel, the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel (HCN), as a potential developmental target of cAMP in OSNs. Here, we demonstrate that HCN channels are developmentally precocious in OSNs and therefore are plausible candidates for affecting OSN axon development. Inhibition of HCN channels in dissociated OSNs significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, in HCN1 knock-out mice the formation of glomeruli was delayed in parallel with perturbations of axon organization in the olfactory nerve. These data support the hypothesis that the outgrowth and coalescence of OSN axons is, at least in part, subject to activity-dependent mechanisms mediated via HCN channels.
Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda
Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem-loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping-pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration.
Chien, Jason; Devkota, Ranjan; Yosef, Nebeyu; Mörck, Catarina
The Caenorhabditis elegans ventral nerve cord (VNC) consists of two asymmetric bundles of neurons and axons that are separated by the midline. How the axons are guided to stay on the correct sides of the midline remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the conserved Wnt signaling pathway along with the Netrin and Robo pathways constitute a combinatorial code for midline guidance of PVP and PVQ axons that extend into the VNC. Combined loss of the Wnts CWN-1, CWN-2, and EGL-20 or loss of the Wnt receptor CAM-1 caused >70% of PVP and PVQ axons to inappropriately cross over from the left side to the right side. Loss of the Frizzled receptor LIN-17 or the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein VANG-1 also caused cross over defects that did not enhance those in the cam-1 mutant, indicating that the proteins function together in midline guidance. Strong cam-1 expression can be detected in the PVQs and the guidepost cell PVT that is located on the midline. However, only when cam-1 is expressed in PVT are the crossover defects of PVP and PVQ rescued, showing that CAM-1 functions nonautonomously in PVT to prevent axons from crossing the midline. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Full Text Available While the peripheral nervous system has the capacity to regenerate following a nerve injury, it is often at a slow rate and results in unsatisfactory recovery, leaving patients with reduced function. Many regeneration associated genes have been identified over the years, which may shed some insight into how we can manipulate this intrinsic regenerative ability to enhance repair following peripheral nerve injuries. Our lab has identified the membrane bound protease beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, or beta secretase, as a potential negative regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration. When beta secretase activity levels are abolished via a null mutation in mice, peripheral regeneration is enhanced following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Conversely, when activity levels are greatly increased by overexpressing beta secretase in mice, nerve regeneration and functional recovery are impaired after a sciatic nerve crush injury. In addition to our work, many substrates of beta secretase have been found to be involved in regulating neurite outgrowth and some have even been identified as regeneration associated genes. In this review, we set out to discuss BACE1 and its substrates with respect to axonal regeneration and speculate on the possibility of utilizing BACE1 inhibitors to enhance regeneration following acute nerve injury and potential uses in peripheral neuropathies.
Liu, Meili; Zhou, Gang; Song, Wei; Li, Ping; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo
Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) can improve axonal connecting in a target direction during regeneration, however, it is limited by the neurotoxicity of CNT. Here we investigate the possible protective effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) against nerve injury, as well as CNT in cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study the nanomaterials were characterized by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Our results showed that axonal migration and extension were increased significantly after n-HA treatment by immunocytochemistry assay. The patch clamp assay results showed that n-HA acts protectively after nerve injury, which inhibited the average amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). n-HA is not neurotoxic for the electrophysiology activity of cells. To find the effect of n-HA on axonal guidance growth in the cultured cortical neurons, Netrin 1, one of the axonal guidance cues, was determined by RT-PCR and western blot assay. Compared to the control group, n-HA down-regulated the mRNA level of netrin 1, and moreover, the expression of netrin 1 decreased significantly in the cells. n-HA caused the axonal guidance growth to be mediated by netrin 1 during nerve regeneration. Therefore, the data from the present study provided a new approach for the therapy or prevention of nerve injury.
Hellstrom, M.; Muhling, J.; Ehlert, E.M.; Verhaagen, J.; Pollett, M.A.; Hu, Y.; Harvey, A.R.
Intravitreal injections of recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor (rCNTF) protect adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after injury and stimulate regeneration, an effect enhanced by co-injection with a cAMP analogue (CPT-cAMP). This effect is partly mediated by PKA and associated signaling
Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Jae-Young; Cai, Jinglei; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Hyun-A; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Jung, Han-Sung
The enamel knot (EK), which is a transient signaling center in the tooth germ, regulates both the differential growth of the dental epithelium and the tooth shape. In this study, the regeneration of the EK was evaluated. The EK regions were removed from the E14 and E16 dental epithelia, and the remaining epithelia were recombined with their original dental mesenchymes. All these tooth germs could develop into calcified teeth after being transplanted into the kidney capsule for 3 weeks. One primary EK was regenerated earlier, and two or three secondary EKs were regenerated later in culture. When simply recombined without removing the EK, the tooth germ, which had four secondary EKs and four cuspal areas of the dental papilla, generated one primary EK first and subsequent secondary EKs. These results indicate that the patterning of the EK in all tooth germs always starts from a primary EK independent of the direct epithelial or mesenchymal control. This suggests that neither the dental epithelium nor the dental mesenchyme can dictate the pattern or number of the EK formation, but the interaction between the dental epithelium and the dental mesenchyme is essential for the regeneration and patterning of the EKs.
Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Chou
Magnesium (Mg) supplements have been shown to significantly improve functional recovery in various neurological disorders. The essential benefits of Mg supplementation in peripheral nerve disorders have not been elucidated yet. The effect and mechanism of Mg supplementation on a sciatic nerve crush injury model was investigated. Sciatic nerve injury was induced in mice by crushing the left sciatic nerve. Mice were randomly divided into three groups with low-, basal- or high-Mg diets (corresponding to 10, 100 or 200% Mg of the basal diet). Neurobehavioral, electrophysiological and regeneration marker studies were conducted to explore nerve regeneration. First, a high Mg diet significantly increased plasma and nerve tissue Mg concentrations. In addition, Mg supplementation improved neurobehavioral, electrophysiological functions, enhanced regeneration marker, and reduced deposits of inflammatory cells as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, reduced Schwann cell apoptosis was in line with the significant expression of bcl-2, bcl-X(L) and down-regulated expression of active caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In summary, improved neurological function recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration were found in mice with a sciatic nerve injury that were fed a high- Mg diet, and Schwann cells may have been rescued from apoptosis by the suppression of inflammatory responses.
Battefeld, A.; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P
Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the
Song, Xiao-Jie; Han, Wei; He, Rong; Li, Tian-Yi; Xie, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Li; Chen, Heng-Sheng; Jiang, Li
Seizure-induced brain damage is age-dependent, as evidenced by the different alterations of neural physiopathology in developing and mature brains. However, little is known about the age-dependent characteristics of myelinated fiber injury induced by seizures. Considering the critical functions of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in myelination and Lingo-1 signaling in regulating OPCs' differentiation, the present study aimed to explore the effects of Lingo-1 on myelin and axon in immature and adult rats after status convulsion (SC) induced by lithium-pilocarpine, and the differences between immature and adult brains. Dynamic variations in electrophysiological activity and spontaneous recurrent seizures were recorded by electroencephalogram monitoring after SC. The impaired microstructures of myelin sheaths and decrease in myelin basic protein caused by SC were observed through transmission electron microscopy and western blot analysis respectively, which became more severe in adult rats, but improved gradually in immature rats. Aberrant axon sprouting occurred in adult rats, which was more prominent than in immature rats, as shown by a Timm stain. This damage was improved or negatively affected after down or upregulating Lingo-1 expression. These results demonstrated that in both immature and adult brains, Lingo-1 signaling plays important roles in seizure-induced damage to myelin sheaths and axon growth. The plasticity of the developing brain may provide a potential window of opportunity to prevent the brain from damage.
Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S
Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All
Khalil, Bilal; Morderer, Dmytro; Price, Phillip L; Liu, Feilin; Rossoll, Wilfried
The development, maturation, and maintenance of the mammalian nervous system rely on complex spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression. In neurons, this is achieved by the expression of differentially localized isoforms and specific sets of mRNA-binding proteins (mRBPs) that regulate RNA processing, mRNA trafficking, and local protein synthesis at remote sites within dendrites and axons. There is growing evidence that axons contain a specialized transcriptome and are endowed with the machinery that allows them to rapidly alter their local proteome via local translation and protein degradation. This enables axons to quickly respond to changes in their environment during development, and to facilitate axon regeneration and maintenance in adult organisms. Aside from providing autonomy to neuronal processes, local translation allows axons to send retrograde injury signals to the cell soma. In this review, we discuss evidence that disturbances in mRNP transport, granule assembly, axonal localization, and local translation contribute to pathology in various neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dainer, Hugh M
Following peripheral nerve injury in adult animals, Schwann cells (SC) proliferate and provide guidance in the local axonal environment by generating the infrastructure along which regenerating nerves grow...
Xiong, Guangyan; Hindi, Sajedah M; Mann, Aman K; Gallot, Yann S; Bohnert, Kyle R; Cavener, Douglas R; Whittemore, Scott R; Kumar, Ashok
Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis.
Sosa, Lucas J; Malter, James S; Hu, Jie; Bustos Plonka, Florentyna; Oksdath, Mariana; Nieto Guil, Alvaro F; Quiroga, Santiago; Pfenninger, Karl H
Axonal growth cone motility requires precise regulation of adhesion to navigate the complex environment of the nervous system and reach its target. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein is enriched in the developing brain and plays an important, phosphorylation-dependent role in the modulation of axonal growth cone adhesion. The ratio of phospho-MARCKS (MARCKS-P) to total MARCKS controls adhesion modulation and spreading of the axonal growth cone. Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) that recognizes and binds to phosphorylated serine/threonine residues preceded by a proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) is also expressed in the developing brain. Here, we show that Pin1 is present in the growth cone, interacts with MARCKS-P, and regulates its dephosphorylation. We also described morphological alterations in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex fibers of the Pin1 knockout mouse brain that may be caused by the misregulation of MARCKS-P and alterations of neuronal adhesion. We have shown that MARCKS, a critical protein in the movement of neuronal growth cones, is in turn regulated by both phosphorylation and cis-trans peptidyl isomerization mediated by Pin1. In the absence of Pin1, MARCKS is hyperphosphorylated, leading to loss of adhesions, and collapse of the growth cone. The Pin1 KO mice exhibited disturbed neuronal projections from the cerebral cortex and reduced white matter tracks such as the corpus callosum. This study highlights a novel function of Pin1 in neurodevelopment. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Lee, Hyung-Kook Peter; Cording, Amy; Vielmetter, Jost; Zinn, Kai
We developed a screening method for orphan receptor ligands, in which cell-surface proteins are expressed in Drosophila embryos from GAL4-dependent insertion lines and ligand candidates identified by the presence of ectopic staining with receptor fusion proteins. Stranded at second (Sas) binds to the receptor tyrosine phosphatase Ptp10D in embryos and in vitro. Sas and Ptp10D can interact in trans when expressed in cultured cells. Interactions between Sas and Ptp10D on longitudinal axons are required to prevent them from abnormally crossing the midline. Sas is expressed on both neurons and glia, whereas Ptp10D is restricted to CNS axons. We conducted epistasis experiments by overexpressing Sas in glia and examining how the resulting phenotypes are changed by removal of Ptp10D from neurons. We find that neuronal Ptp10D restrains signaling by overexpressed glial Sas, which would otherwise produce strong glial and axonal phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Yue; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H.; Thompson, Wesley J.
Synaptic connections in the nervous system are rearranged during development and in adulthood as a feature of growth, plasticity, aging, and disease. Glia are implicated as active participants in these changes. Here we investigated a signal that controls the participation of peripheral glia, the terminal Schwann cells (SCs), at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice. Transgenic manipulation of the levels of membrane-tethered neuregulin1 (NRG1-III), a potent activator of SCs normally presented on motor axons, alters the rate of loss of motor inputs at NMJs during developmental synapse elimination. In addition, NMJs of adult transgenic mice that expressed excess axonal NRG1-III exhibited continued remodeling, in contrast to the more stable morphologies of controls. In fact, synaptic SCs of these adult mice with NRG1-III overexpression exhibited behaviors evident in wild type neonates during synapse elimination, including an affinity for the postsynaptic myofiber surface and phagocytosis of nerve terminals. Given that levels of NRG1-III expression normally peak during the period of synapse elimination, our findings identify axon-tethered NRG1 as a molecular determinant for SC-driven neuromuscular synaptic plasticity. PMID:26755586
Lee, Young Il; Li, Yue; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H; Thompson, Wesley J
Synaptic connections in the nervous system are rearranged during development and in adulthood as a feature of growth, plasticity, aging, and disease. Glia are implicated as active participants in these changes. Here we investigated a signal that controls the participation of peripheral glia, the terminal Schwann cells (SCs), at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice. Transgenic manipulation of the levels of membrane-tethered neuregulin1 (NRG1-III), a potent activator of SCs normally presented on motor axons, alters the rate of loss of motor inputs at NMJs during developmental synapse elimination. In addition, NMJs of adult transgenic mice that expressed excess axonal NRG1-III exhibited continued remodeling, in contrast to the more stable morphologies of controls. In fact, synaptic SCs of these adult mice with NRG1-III overexpression exhibited behaviors evident in wild type neonates during synapse elimination, including an affinity for the postsynaptic myofiber surface and phagocytosis of nerve terminals. Given that levels of NRG1-III expression normally peak during the period of synapse elimination, our findings identify axon-tethered NRG1 as a molecular determinant for SC-driven neuromuscular synaptic plasticity.
Ni, Shilei; Xia, Tongliang; Li, Xingang; Zhu, Xiaodong; Qi, Hongxu; Huang, Shanying; Wang, Jiangang
We describe the sustained delivery of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in the hemisected spinal cord using polypropylene carbonate (PPC) electrospun fibers with chitosan (CS) microspheres as a vehicle. PPC and ChABC-loaded CS microspheres were mixed with acetonitrile, and micron fibers were generated by electrospinning. ChABC release was assessed in vitro with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and revealed stabilized and prolonged release. Moreover, the released ChABC showed sustained activity. PPC-CS micron fibers with or without ChABC were then implanted into a hemisected thoracic spinal cord. In the following 4 weeks, we examined functional recovery and performed immunohistochemical analyses. We found that sustained delivery of ChABC promoted axon sprouting and functional recovery and reduced glial scarring; PPC-CS micron fibers without ChABC did not show these effects. The present findings suggest that PPC-CS micron fibers containing ChABC are a feasible option for spinal cord injury treatment. Furthermore, the system described here may be useful for local delivery of other therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Md Abdul Muktadir
Full Text Available Several experiments were carried out to establish an efficient regenerating protocol for cultivated eggplant varieties. Among the five varieties cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium with free plant growth regulator (PGR, Nayantara performed better considering the number of shoots/explant (2.48. Considering explant types and culture conditions, better performance was observed (3.68 shoots/explant when seed germination in the dark was proceeded by bottom hypocotyl segments cultured under dark conditions. A higher rate of shoot regeneration was observed in Nayantara when cultured in Zeatin Riboside (ZR and Thidizuron (TDZ supplemented MS medium. The highest number of shoots per explant was produced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L ZR and 0.1 mg/L indole acetic acid (6.65 shoots/explant. Proliferation and elongation of the regenerated shoots were obtained in the MS medium with free PGR. The best rooting performance was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole butyric acid. Plantlets with well developed roots and shoots were successfully transferred to soil.
De Mulder, Katrien; Pfister, Daniela; Kuales, Georg; Egger, Bernhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Willems, Maxime; Steger, Jessica; Fauster, Katja; Micura, Ronald; Borgonie, Gaetan; Ladurner, Peter
The flatworm stem cell system is exceptional within the animal kingdom, as totipotent stem cells (neoblasts) are the only dividing cells within the organism. In contrast to most organisms, piwi-like gene expression in flatworms is extended from germ cells to somatic stem cells. We describe the isolation and characterization of the piwi homologue macpiwi in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We use in situ hybridization, antibody staining and RNA interference to study macpiwi expression and function in adults, during postembryonic development, regeneration and upon starvation. We found novelties regarding piwi function and observed differences to current piwi functions in flatworms. First, macpiwi was essential for the maintenance of somatic stem cells in adult animals. A knock-down of macpiwi led to a complete elimination of stem cells and death of the animals. Second, the regulation of stem cells was different in adults and regenerates compared to postembryonic development. Third, sexual reproduction of M. lignano allowed to follow germline formation during postembryonic development, regeneration, and starvation. Fourth, piwi expression in hatchlings further supports an embryonic formation of the germline in M. lignano. Our findings address new questions in flatworm stem cell research and provide a basis for comparison with higher organisms.
Wang, Jiajing; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Zakarian, Vaagn; Song, Fei; Loeb, Jeffrey A.
The neuregulins (NRGs) are a family of alternatively spliced factors that play important roles in nervous system development and disease. In motor neurons, NRG1 expression is regulated by activity and neurotrophic factors, however, little is known about what controls isoform-specific transcription. Here we show that NRG1 expression in the chick embryo increases in motor neurons that have extended their axons and that limb bud ablation before motor axon outgrowth prevents this induction, suggesting a trophic role from the developing limb. Consistently, NRG1 induction after limb bud ablation can be rescued by adding back the neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF. Mechanistically, BDNF induces a rapid and transient increase in type I and type III NRG1 mRNAs that peak at 4 h in rat embryonic ventral spinal cord cultures. Blocking MAPK or PI3K signaling or blocking transcription with Actinomycin D blocks BDNF induced NRG1 gene induction. BDNF had no effect on mRNA degradation, suggesting that transcriptional activation rather than message stability is important. Furthermore, BDNF activates a reporter construct that includes 700bp upstream of the type I NRG1 start site. Protein synthesis is also required for type I NRG1 mRNA transcription as cycloheximide produced a super-induction of type I, but not type III NRG1 mRNA, possibly through a mechanism involving sustained activation of MAPK and PI3K. These results reveal the existence of highly responsive, transient transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that differentially modulate NRG1 isoform expression as a function of extracellular and intracellular signaling cascades and mediated by neurotrophic factors and axon-target interactions. PMID:25913151
Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR after partial hepatectomy (PH involves the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and microRNAs have been shown to post-transcriptionally regulate genes involved in the regulation of these processes. To explore the role of miR-127 during LR, the expression patterns of miR-127 and its related proteins were investigated. MiR-127 was introduced into a rat liver cell line to examine its effects on the potential target genes Bcl6 and Setd8, and functional studies were undertaken. We discovered that miR-127 was down-regulated and inversely correlated with the expression of Bcl6 and Setd8 at 24 hours after PH, a time at which hypermethylation of the promoter region of the miR-127 gene was detected. Furthermore, in BRL-3A rat liver cells, we observed that overexpression of miR-127 significantly suppressed cell growth and directly inhibited the expression of Bcl6 and Setd8. The results suggest that down-regulation of miR-127 may be due to the rapid methylation of its promoter during the first 24 h after PH, and this event facilitates hepatocyte proliferation by releasing Bcl6 and Setd8. These findings support a miRNA-mediated negative regulation pattern in LR and implicate an anti-proliferative role for miR-127 in liver cells.
Uetani, Noriko; Chagnon, Mélanie J; Kennedy, Timothy E; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Tremblay, Michel L
The leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), LAR, RPTP-sigma, and RPTP-delta, regulate neuroendocrine development, axonal regeneration, and hippocampal long-term potentiation in mammals. In Drosophila, RPTPs are required for appropriate axon targeting during embryonic development. In contrast, deletion of any one of the three LAR-RPTP family members in mammals does not result in gross axon targeting defects. Both RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta are highly expressed in the developing mammalian nervous system, suggesting they might be functionally redundant. To test this hypothesis, we generated RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta (RPTP-sigma/delta) double-mutant mice. Although embryonic day 18.5 RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta single-mutant embryos were viable, RPTP-sigma/delta double mutants were paralyzed, were never observed to draw a breath, and died shortly after cesarean section. RPTP-sigma/delta double mutants exhibit severe muscle dysgenesis and severe loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord. Detailed analysis of the projections of phrenic nerves in RPTP-sigma/delta double mutants indicated that these motoneuron axons emerge normally from the cervical spinal cord, but stall on reaching the diaphragm. Our results demonstrate that RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta complement each other functionally during mammalian development, and reveal an essential contribution of RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta to appropriate motoneuron axon targeting during mammalian axonogenesis.
Full Text Available Objective : Following central nervous system(CNS injury, inhibitory influences at the site of axonal damage occur. Glial cells become reactive and form a glial scar, gliosis. Also myelin debris such as MAG inhibits axonal regeneration. Astrocyte-rich gliosis relates with up-regulation of GFAP and CD81, and eventually becomes physical and mechanical barrier to axonal regeneration. MAG is one of several endogenous axon regeneration inhibitors that limit recovery from CNS injury and disease. It was reported that molecules that block such inhibitors enhanced axon regeneration and functional recovery. Recently it was reported that treatment with anti-CD81 antibodies enhanced functional recovery in the rat with spinal cord injury. So in this current study, the author investigated the effect of the water extract of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus on the regulation of CD81, GFAP and MAG that increase when gliosis occurs. Methods : MTT assay was performed to examine cell viability, and cell-based ELISA, western blot and PCR were used to detect the expression of CD81, GFAP and MAG. Then also immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm in vivo. Results : Water extract of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus showed relatively high cell viability at the concentration of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5%. The expression of CD81, GFAP and MAG in astrocytes was decreased after the administration of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus water extract. These results was confirmed in the brain sections following cortical stab injury by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion : The authors observed that Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus significantly down-regulates the expression of CD81, GFAP and MAG. These results suggest that Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus can be a candidate to regenerate CNS injury.
Xiong, Guangyan; Hindi, Sajedah M; Mann, Aman K; Gallot, Yann S; Bohnert, Kyle R; Cavener, Douglas R; Whittemore, Scott R; Kumar, Ashok
Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22871.001 PMID:28332979
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca2+-containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO4 on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. Results CaSO4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO4-containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration. Conclusions Specific CaSO4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host’s undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO4 regulates BMP-2-induced
Aquino-Martínez, Rubén; Angelo, Alcira P; Pujol, Francesc Ventura
Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca 2+ -containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO 4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter) was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO 4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO 4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. CaSO 4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO 4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO 4 -containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO 4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration. Specific CaSO 4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host's undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO 4 regulates BMP-2-induced MSC migration by differentially activating the PI3
Kaji, Kosuke; Factor, Valentina M; Andersen, Jesper B
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is an essential regulator maintaining both epigenetic reprogramming during DNA replication and genome stability. We investigated the role of DNMT1 in the regulation of postnatal liver histogenesis under homeostasis and stress conditions. We generated Dnmt1 conditio......DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is an essential regulator maintaining both epigenetic reprogramming during DNA replication and genome stability. We investigated the role of DNMT1 in the regulation of postnatal liver histogenesis under homeostasis and stress conditions. We generated Dnmt1...... hepatocytes caused global hypomethylation, enhanced DNA damage response and initiated a senescence state causing a progressive inability to maintain tissue homeostasis and proliferate in response to injury. The liver regenerated via activation and repopulation from progenitors due to lineage......-dependent differences in Alb-Cre expression, providing a basis for selection of less mature and therefore less damaged HPC progeny. Consistently, an efficient knockdown of Dnmt1 in cultured HPCs caused severe DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, senescence and cell death. Mx1-Cre-driven deletion of Dnmt1 in adult quiescent...
Rondé, P; Nichols, R A
Rat brain presynaptic 5-HT3 serotonin receptors, members of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily, induce changes in nerve terminal [Ca2+]i in a manner distinct from that found for somatic 5-HT3 receptors. Here, we assessed the role of postsynaptic target in regulating the nature of presynaptic receptor-induced responses, using the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NG108-15 as a model neuronal system that expresses 5-HT3 receptors. Using immunocytochemistry, 5-HT3 receptors were found to be present on the presynaptic-like varicosities of differentiated NG108-15 cells, indicating that these receptors possess an inherent ability to localize to potential presynaptic sites. In the absence of postsynaptic target, 5-HT3 receptors localized to the varicosities induce rapid but transient changes in [Ca2+]i that were initiated by voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, as assessed using Ca2+ channel blockers, these properties being typical of those found for somatic 5-HT3 receptors. In co-cultures containing rat myotubes, with which NG108-15 cells form functional cholinergic synapses, the 5-HT3 receptor-induced changes in [Ca2+]i in the axonal varicosities shifted over time (three to 10 days) to that found for brain nerve endings: sustained responses that were insensitive to blockade by antagonists of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The effect of co-culturing myotubes with the NG108-15 cells was mimicked by conditioned media from myotube cultures. These results indicate that regulatory molecules from the target postsynaptic cell dictate the functional responses elicited by presynaptic 5-HT3 receptors. Because the target-induced changes required several days before they were evident, we hypothesize that changes in protein expression, perhaps the consequence of altered gene regulation, underlie the changes in the responses to 5-HT3 receptor activation in the axonal varicosities of this neuronal cell line.
Full Text Available Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons.
Benzina, Ouafa; Cloitre, Thierry; Martin, Marta; Raoul, Cédric; Gergely, Csilla; Scamps, Frédérique
Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons.
Full Text Available The burgeoning field of epigenetics is beginning to make a significant impact on our understanding of tissue development, maintenance, and function. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues that direct cell-type specific gene networks. The inner ear is comprised of highly specialized cell types with identical genomes that originate from a single totipotent zygote. During inner ear development specific combinations of transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers must function in a coordinated manner to establish and maintain cellular identity. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of distinct chromatin states and cell-type specific gene expression patterns. In this review, we highlight emerging paradigms for epigenetic modifications related to inner ear development, and how epigenetics may have a significant role in hearing loss, protection, and regeneration.
Full Text Available Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5, after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage. Histological analysis showed the ASK1 KO ears displayed enhanced protein markers associated with blastema formation, hole closure and regeneration of auricular cartilage. At seven days after punch, the wound epidermis morphology was markedly different in the KO, showing a thickened stratum corneum with rounded cell morphology and a reduction of both the granular cell layer and decreased expression of filament aggregating protein. In addition, cytokeratin 6 was expressed in the stratum spinosum and granulosum. Topical application of inhibitors of ASK1 (NQDI-1, the upstream ASK1 activator, calcium activated mitogen kinase 2 (KN93, or the downstream target, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125 also resulted in enhanced regeneration; whereas inhibition of the other downstream target, the p38 α/β isoforms, (SB203580 had no effect. The results of this investigation indicate ASK1 inhibition prolongs keratinocyte and blastemal cell activation leading to ear regeneration.
Zhang, Qian-Shi; Kurpad, Deepa S; Mahoney, My G; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A
Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO) or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1), also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage. Histological analysis showed the ASK1 KO ears displayed enhanced protein markers associated with blastema formation, hole closure and regeneration of auricular cartilage. At seven days after punch, the wound epidermis morphology was markedly different in the KO, showing a thickened stratum corneum with rounded cell morphology and a reduction of both the granular cell layer and decreased expression of filament aggregating protein. In addition, cytokeratin 6 was expressed in the stratum spinosum and granulosum. Topical application of inhibitors of ASK1 (NQDI-1), the upstream ASK1 activator, calcium activated mitogen kinase 2 (KN93), or the downstream target, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) also resulted in enhanced regeneration; whereas inhibition of the other downstream target, the p38 α/β isoforms, (SB203580) had no effect. The results of this investigation indicate ASK1 inhibition prolongs keratinocyte and blastemal cell activation leading to ear regeneration.
Jeffery L Twiss
Full Text Available Although initially argued to be a feature of immature neurons with incomplete polarization, there is clear evidence that neurons in the peripheral nervous system retain the capacity for intra-axonal protein synthesis well into adulthood. This localized protein synthesis has been shown to contribute to injury signaling and axon regeneration in peripheral nerves. Recent works point to potential for protein synthesis in axons of the vertebrate central nervous system. mRNAs and protein synthesis machinery have now been documented in lamprey, mouse, and rat spinal cord axons. Intra-axonal protein synthesis appears to be activated in adult vertebrate spinal cord axons when they are regeneration-competent. Rat spinal cord axons regenerating into a peripheral nerve graft contain mRNAs and markers of activated translational machinery. Indeed, levels of some growth-associated mRNAs in these spinal cord axons are comparable to the regenerating sciatic nerve. Markers of active translation tend to decrease when these axons stop growing, but can be reactivated by a second axotomy. These emerging observations raise the possibility that mRNA transport into and translation within axons could be targeted to facilitate regeneration in both the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Full Text Available Plants have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from differentiated somatic tissues, based on which propagating plants in vitro was made possible. Beside its use in biotechnology, in vitro shoot regeneration is also an important system to study de novo organogenesis. Phytohormones and transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS play critical roles in this process but whether and how epigenetic modifications are involved is unknown. Here, we report that epigenetic marks of DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate de novo shoot regeneration of Arabidopsis through modulating WUS expression and auxin signaling. First, functional loss of key epigenetic genes-including METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 encoding for DNA methyltransferase, KRYPTONITE (KYP for the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9 methyltransferase, JMJ14 for the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4 demethylase, and HAC1 for the histone acetyltransferase-resulted in altered WUS expression and developmental rates of regenerated shoots in vitro. Second, we showed that regulatory regions of WUS were developmentally regulated by both DNA methylation and histone modifications through bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Third, DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of WUS was lost in the met1 mutant, thus leading to increased WUS expression and its localization. Fourth, we did a genome-wide transcriptional analysis and found out that some of differentially expressed genes between wild type and met1 were involved in signal transduction of the phytohormone auxin. We verified that the increased expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3 in met1 indeed was due to DNA demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation regulates de novo shoot regeneration by modulating auxin signaling. We propose that DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate de novo shoot regeneration by modulating WUS expression and auxin signaling. The study demonstrates that, although molecular components involved in organogenesis
Full Text Available Wound healing is a crucial process which protects our body against permanent damage and invasive infectious agents. Upon tissue damage, inflammation is an early event which is orchestrated by a multitude of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets including TH17 cells. TH17 cells and TH17 cell associated cytokines can impact wound healing positively by clearing pathogens and modulating mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Injury of the gut mucosa can cause fast expansion of TH17 cells and their induction from naïve T cells through Interleukin (IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β signaling. TH17 cells produce various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-22, which can promote cell survival and proliferation and thus tissue regeneration in several organs including the skin, the intestine, and the liver. However, TH17 cells are also potentially pathogenic if not tightly controlled. Failure of these control mechanisms can result in chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD, and can ultimately promote carcinogenesis. Therefore, there are several mechanisms which control TH17 cells. One control mechanism is the regulation of TH17 cells via regulatory T cells and IL-10. This mechanism is especially important in the intestine to terminate immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Furthermore, TH17 cells have the potential to convert from a pro-inflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by changing their cytokine profile and acquiring IL-10 production, thereby limiting their own pathological potential. Finally, IL-22, a signature cytokine of TH17 cells, can be controlled by an endogenous soluble inhibitory receptor, Interleukin 22 binding protein (IL-22BP. During tissue injury, the production of IL-22 by TH17 cells is upregulated in order to promote tissue regeneration. To limit the regenerative program, which could promote carcinogenesis, IL-22BP is upregulated during the later phase of
Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that sialic acid plays an important role during nerve regeneration. Sialic acids can be modified in vitro as well as in vivo using metabolic oligosaccharide engineering of the N-acyl side chain. N-Propionylmannosamine (ManNProp increases neurite outgrowth and accelerates the reestablishment of functional synapses in vitro. We investigated the influence of systemic ManNProp application using a specific in vivo mouse model. Using mice expressing axonal fluorescent proteins, we quantified the extension of regenerating axons, the number of regenerating axons, the number of arborising axons and the number of branches per axon 5 days after injury. Sciatic nerves from non-expressing mice were grafted into those expressing yellow fluorescent protein. We began a twice-daily intraperitoneal application of either peracetylated ManNProp (200 mg/kg or saline solution 5 days before injury, and continued it until nerve harvest (5 days after transection. ManNProp significantly increased the mean distance of axonal regeneration (2.49 mm vs. 1.53 mm; P < 0.005 and the number of arborizing axons (21% vs. 16% P = 0.008 5 days after sciatic nerve grafting. ManNProp did not affect the number of regenerating axons or the number of branches per arborizing axon. The biochemical glycoengineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid might be a promising approach for improving peripheral nerve regeneration.
Riley, David Colton; Boyer, Richard B.; Deister, Curt A.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Does, Mark D.; Dortch, Richard D.; Bamba, Ravinder; Shack, Robert Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P.
Background The management of peripheral nerve injuries remains a large challenge for plastic surgeons. With the inability to fuse axonal endings, results after microsurgical nerve repair have been inconsistent. Our current nerve repair strategies rely upon the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/d). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated as a potential axonal fusion agent; however, the percentage of axonal fusion has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was...
Lee, Jae K.; Zheng, Binhai
Myelin-associated inhibitors of axon growth, including Nogo, MAG and OMgp, have been the subject of intense research. A myriad of experimental approaches have been applied to investigate the potential of targeting these molecules to promote axonal repair after spinal cord injury. However, there are still conflicting results on their role in axon regeneration and therefore a lack of a cohesive mechanism on how these molecules can be targeted to promote axon repair. One major reason may be the ...
Wu, Chi-Chung; Kruse, Fabian; Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Junker, Jan Philipp; Zebrowski, David C; Fischer, Kristin; Noël, Emily S; Grün, Dominic; Berezikov, Eugene; Engel, Felix B; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Weidinger, Gilbert; Bakkers, Jeroen
In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate heart injuries via proliferation of cardiomyocytes located near the wound border. To identify regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation, we used spatially resolved RNA sequencing (tomo-seq) and generated a high-resolution genome-wide atlas of gene
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inadequate liver regeneration (LR is still an unsolved problem in major liver resection and small-for-size syndrome post-living donor liver transplantation. A number of microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell proliferation. Herein, we investigated the role of miR-26a as a pivotal regulator of hepatocyte proliferation in LR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice, undergoing 70% partial hepatectomy (PH, were treated with Ad5-anti-miR-26a-LUC or Ad5-miR-26a-LUC or Ad5-LUC vector via portal vein. The animals were subjected to in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Serum and liver samples were collected to test liver function, calculate liver-to-body weight ratio (LBWR, document hepatocyte proliferation (Ki-67 staining, and investigate potential targeted gene expression of miR-26a by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. The miR-26a level declined during LR after 70% PH. Down-regulation of miR-26a by anti-miR-26a expression led to enhanced proliferation of hepatocytes, and both LBWR and hepatocyte proliferation (Ki-67(+ cells % showed an increased tendency, while liver damage, indicated by aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and total bilirubin (T-Bil, was reduced. Furthermore, CCND2 and CCNE2, as possible targeted genes of miR-26a, were up-regulated. In addition, miR-26a over-expression showed converse results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MiR-26a plays crucial role in regulating the proliferative phase of LR, probably by repressing expressions of cell cycle proteins CCND2 and CCNE2. The current study reveals a novel miRNA-mediated regulation pattern during the proliferative phase of LR.
Matsumoto, Akinobu; Pasut, Alessandra; Matsumoto, Masaki; Yamashita, Riu; Fung, Jacqueline; Monteleone, Emanuele; Saghatelian, Alan; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Clohessy, John G; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo
Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts by definition, recent studies have shown that a fraction of putative small open reading frames within lncRNAs are translated. However, the biological significance of these hidden polypeptides is still unclear. Here we identify and functionally characterize a novel polypeptide encoded by the lncRNA LINC00961. This polypeptide is conserved between human and mouse, is localized to the late endosome/lysosome and interacts with the lysosomal v-ATPase to negatively regulate mTORC1 activation. This regulation of mTORC1 is specific to activation of mTORC1 by amino acid stimulation, rather than by growth factors. Hence, we termed this polypeptide 'small regulatory polypeptide of amino acid response' (SPAR). We show that the SPAR-encoding lncRNA is highly expressed in a subset of tissues and use CRISPR/Cas9 engineering to develop a SPAR-polypeptide-specific knockout mouse while maintaining expression of the host lncRNA. We find that the SPAR-encoding lncRNA is downregulated in skeletal muscle upon acute injury, and using this in vivo model we establish that SPAR downregulation enables efficient activation of mTORC1 and promotes muscle regeneration. Our data provide a mechanism by which mTORC1 activation may be finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner in response to injury, and a paradigm by which lncRNAs encoding small polypeptides can modulate general biological pathways and processes to facilitate tissue-specific requirements, consistent with their restricted and highly regulated expression profile.
Webster, Micah T; Fan, Chen-Ming
Adult muscle stem cells, satellite cells (SCs), endow skeletal muscle with tremendous regenerative capacity. Upon injury, SCs activate, proliferate, and migrate as myoblasts to the injury site where they become myocytes that fuse to form new muscle. How migration is regulated, though, remains largely unknown. Additionally, how migration and fusion, which both require dynamic rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, might be related is not well understood. c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is required for myogenic precursor cell migration into the limb for muscle development during embryogenesis. Using a genetic system to eliminate c-MET function specifically in adult mouse SCs, we found that c-MET was required for muscle regeneration in response to acute muscle injury. c-MET mutant myoblasts were defective in lamellipodia formation, had shorter ranges of migration, and migrated slower compared to control myoblasts. Surprisingly, c-MET was also required for efficient myocyte fusion, implicating c-MET in dual functions of regulating myoblast migration and myocyte fusion.
Verma, S; Gill, K S; Pruthi, V; Dhugga, K S; Randhaw, G S
A novel combination of plant growth regulators comprising indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in Murashige and Skoog basal medium has been formulated for in vitro induction of both shoot and root in one culture using cotyledonary node explants of guar, (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Highest percentages of shoot (92%) and root (80%) induction were obtained in the medium containing (mg/L) 2 IBA, 3 BA and 1 GA3. Shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node explants was observed after 10-15 days. Regeneration of roots from these shoots occurred after 20 to 25 days. The regenerated plantlets showed successful acclimatization on transfer to soil. This protocol is expected to be helpful in carrying out various in vitro manipulations in this economically and industrially important legume.
Cregg, Jared M.; DePaul, Marc A.; Filous, Angela R.; Lang, Brad T.; Tran, Amanda; Silver, Jerry
Astrocytes react to CNS injury by building a dense wall of filamentous processes around the lesion. Stromal cells quickly take up residence in the lesion core and synthesize connective tissue elements that contribute to fibrosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferate within the lesion and help to entrap dystrophic axon tips. Here we review evidence that this aggregate scar acts as the major barrier to regeneration of axons after injury. We also consider several exciting new interventions that allow axons to regenerate beyond the glial scar, and discuss the implications of this work for the future of regeneration biology. PMID:24424280
Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Maekawa, Masahiko
Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars. PMID:26670930
Boilly‐Marer, Yolande; Bely, Alexandra E.
Abstract An important goal for understanding regeneration is determining how polarity is conferred to the regenerate. Here we review findings in two groups of polychaete annelids that implicate the ventral nerve cord in assigning dorso‐ventral polarity, and specifically ventral identity, to the regenerate. In nereids, surgical manipulations indicate that parapodia develop where dorsal and ventral body wall territories contact. Without a nerve cord at the wound site, the regenerate differentiates no evident polarity (with no parapodia) and only dorsal identity, while with two nerve cords the regenerate develops a twinned dorso‐ventral axis (with four parapodia per segment instead of the normal two). In sabellids, a striking natural dorso‐ventral inversion in parapodial morphology occurs along the body axis and this inversion is morphologically correlated with the position of the nerve cord. Parapodial inversion also occurs in segments in which the nerve cord has been removed, even without any segment amputation. Together, these data strongly support a role for the nerve cord in annelid dorso‐ventral pattern regulation, with the nerve cord conferring ventral identity. PMID:28616245
Full Text Available The lack of axonal regeneration and neuronal cell death causes permanent neurological deficits in the injured CNS. Using the classical CNS injury model of optic nerve crush in mice, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF was found to stimulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival and axonal growth, but in an incomplete fashion. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms impairing CNTF-induced axonal regeneration is paramount to promote visual recovery. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the contribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1 to the neuroprotective and regenerative effects of CNTF. The transduction of retinal cells with adeno-associated viruses (AAV allowed to activate CNTF/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling and to modulate S1PR1 expression in RGCs. Our results showed that CNTF/Stat3 prevented injury-induced S1PR1 downregulation. Silencing S1PR1 in RGCs significantly enhanced CNTF-induced axonal growth in the injured optic nerve. In contrast, RGC survival was markedly decreased when S1PR1 was repressed with viral vectors. The level of phosphorylated Stat3 (P-Stat3, an intracellular mediator of CNTF, did not fluctuate after S1PR1 inhibition and CNTF stimulation. Collectively, these results suggest that S1PR1 acts as a major regulator of retinal neuron survival and restricts the RGC growth response induced by CNTF.
Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk
Oil palm protoplasts are suitable as a starting material for the production of oil palm plants with new traits using approaches such as somatic hybridization, but attempts to regenerate viable plants from protoplasts have failed thus far. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the regeneration of viable plants from protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. We achieved a protoplast yield of 1.14×10(6) per gram fresh weight with a viability of 82% by incubating the callus in a digestion solution comprising 2% cellulase, 1% pectinase, 0.5% cellulase onuzuka R10, 0.1% pectolyase Y23, 3% KCl, 0.5% CaCl2 and 3.6% mannitol. The regeneration of protoplasts into viable plants required media optimization, the inclusion of plant growth regulators and the correct culture technique. Microcalli derived from protoplasts were obtained by establishing agarose bead cultures using Y3A medium supplemented with 10μM naphthalene acetic acid, 2μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2μM indole-3-butyric acid, 2μM gibberellic acid and 2μM 2-γ-dimethylallylaminopurine. Small plantlets were regenerated from microcalli by somatic embryogenesis after successive subculturing steps in medium with limiting amounts of growth regulators supplemented with 200mg/l ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michelle C. Stone
Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.
Full Text Available Abstract Transcription factors regulate gene expression through binding to specific enhancer sequences. Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (PDX1, Neurogenin-3 (NEUROG3, and V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MAFA are transcription factors critical for beta cell development and maturation. NEUROG3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and controls islet differentiation and regeneration. PDX1 is essential for the development of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells including beta cells. PDX1 also binds to the regulatory elements and increases insulin gene transcription. Likewise, MAFA binds to the enhancer/promoter region of the insulin gene and drives insulin expression in response to glucose. In addition to those natural roles in beta cell development and maturation, ectopic expression of PDX1, NEUROG3, and/or MAFA has been successfully used to reprogram various cell types into insulin-producing cells in vitro and in vivo, such as pancreatic exocrine cells, hepatocytes, and pluripotent stem cells. Here, we review biological properties of PDX1, NEUROG3, and MAFA, and their applications and limitations for beta cell regenerative approaches. The primary source literature for this review was acquired using a PubMed search for articles published between 1990 and 2017. Search terms include diabetes, insulin, trans-differentiation, stem cells, and regenerative medicine.
Mandal, B B; Ahuja-Ghosh, Sangeeta
The encapsulation-dehydration protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro shoot tips of Dioscorea floribunda was optimized. Maximum survival of 87% was obtained when overnight pretreatment with 0.3 M sucrose was followed by encapsulation, preculture in 0.75 M sucrose for 4 d, dehydration in a laminar air flow for 5.5 h, quenching in liquid nitrogen and thawing at 40 degrees C. During recovery growth, 29% shoot formation was obtained when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 25 d on a medium with 1.5 mg per liter (-1) BAP, 0.2 mg per liter(-1) NAA and 0.2 mg per liter(-1) GA3 followed by culturing for 15 d on a medium with reduced BAP (1 mg per liter(-1)) but increased NAA (0.5 mg per liter(-1)) and GA3 (0.3 mg per liter(-1)). Finally, transfer on to a medium with further reduced doses of BAP (0.05 mg per liter(-1)) and NAA (0.15 mg per liter(-1)) but without GA3 stimulated production of fully grown plantlets. All plants regenerated without callus formation. Modification of post-thaw culture media with plant growth regulators was essential for regrowth of shoot tips to plantlets.
Full Text Available Perturbations in stem cell activity and differentiation can lead to developmental defects and cancer. We use an approach involving a quantitative model of cell-state transitions in vitro to gain insights into how SLUG/SNAI2, a key developmental transcription factor, modulates mammary epithelial stem cell activity and differentiation in vivo. In the absence of SLUG, stem cells fail to transition into basal progenitor cells, while existing basal progenitor cells undergo luminal differentiation; together, these changes result in abnormal mammary architecture and defects in tissue function. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of SLUG, mammary stem cell activity necessary for tissue regeneration and cancer initiation is lost. Mechanistically, SLUG regulates differentiation and cellular plasticity by recruiting the chromatin modifier lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 to promoters of lineage-specific genes to repress transcription. Together, these results demonstrate that SLUG plays a dual role in repressing luminal epithelial differentiation while unlocking stem cell transitions necessary for tumorigenesis.
Yin, Jun; Coutris, Nicole; Huang, Yong
Nerve conduits with grooved inner texture, working as a topographical guidance cue, have been experimentally proved to play a significant role in axonal alignment. How grooved conduits guide axonal outgrowth is of particular interest for studying nerve regeneration. A viscoelastic model of axonal outgrowth in a conduit with a defined grooved geometry characterized by its width in the circumferential direction and its height in the radial direction is developed in this work. In this model, the axon is considered as an elastic beam and the axonal deformation and motion, including stretching, bending and torsion, are described using a Cosserat rod theory. The friction between axon and substrate is also considered in this model as well as the tip outgrowth. It is found that the directional outgrowth of the axon can be significantly improved by the grooved texture: when the groove width decreases or the groove height increases, the axonal elongation in the longitudinal direction of the conduit can be increased, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. This work is the first numerical model to study the effect of the substrate geometry on axonal outgrowth.
Rush, Anthony M; Craner, Matthew J; Kageyama, Takashi; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G; Ranscht, Barbara
Contactin, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored predominantly neuronal cell surface glycoprotein, associates with sodium channels Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.9, and enhances the density of these channels on the plasma membrane in mammalian expression systems. However, a detailed functional analysis of these interactions and of untested putative interactions with other sodium channel isoforms in mammalian neuronal cells has not been carried out. We examined the expression and function of sodium channels in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from contactin-deficient (CNTN-/-) mice, compared to CNTN+/+ litter mates. Nav1.9 is preferentially expressed in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons and thus we used this marker to subdivide small-diameter DRG neurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we observed a greater than two-fold reduction of tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 current densities in IB4+ DRG neurons cultured from CNTN-/- vs. CNTN+/+ mice. Current densities for TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels were unaffected. Contactin's effect was selective for IB4+ neurons as current densities for both TTX-R and TTX-S channels were not significantly different in IB4- DRG neurons from the two genotypes. Consistent with these results, we have demonstrated a reduction in Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 immunostaining on peripherin-positive unmyelinated axons in sciatic nerves from CNTN-/- mice but detected no changes in the expression for the two major TTX-S channels Nav1.6 and Nav1.7. These data provide evidence of a role for contactin in selectively regulating the cell surface expression and current densities of TTX-R but not TTX-S Na+ channel isoforms in nociceptive DRG neurons; this regulation could modulate the membrane properties and excitability of these neurons.
Jaszczak, Jacob S; Wolpe, Jacob B; Dao, Anh Q; Halme, Adrian
.... Here we describe a pathway through which tissues communicate to coordinate growth. During Drosophila melanogaster larval development, damage to imaginal discs activates a regeneration checkpoint through expression of Dilp8...
Rasch, L.; Cooper, R.; Martin, K.; Metscher, B.; Underwood, Charlie J.; Fraser, G.
The evolution of oral teeth is considered a major contributor to the overall success of jawed vertebrates. This is especially apparent in cartilaginous fishes including sharks and rays, which develop elaborate arrays of highly specialized teeth, organized in rows and retain the capacity for life-long regeneration. Perpetual regeneration of oral teeth has been either lost or highly reduced in many other lineages including important developmental model species, so cartilaginous fishes are uniqu...
Ye, Lihua; Robertson, Morgan A; Mastracci, Teresa L; Anderson, Ryan M
As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation. Blocking insulin signaling in the pancreatic progenitors hastened the expression of the essential β cell genes insulin and pdx1, and promoted β cell fate at the expense of alpha cell fate. In addition, loss of insulin signaling promoted β cell regeneration and destabilization of alpha cell character. These data indicate that insulin signaling constitutes a tunable mechanism for β cell compensatory plasticity during early development. Moreover, using a novel blastomere-to-larva transplantation strategy, we found that loss of insulin signaling in endoderm-committed blastomeres drove their differentiation into β cells. Furthermore, the extent of this differentiation was dependent on the function of the β cell mass in the host. Altogether, our results indicate that modulation of insulin signaling will be crucial for the development of β cell restoration therapies for diabetics; further clarification of the mechanisms of insulin signaling in β cell progenitors will reveal therapeutic targets for both in vivo and in vitro β cell generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew A Vu
Full Text Available Sound perception requires functional hair cell mechanotransduction (MET machinery, including the MET channels and tip-link proteins. Prior work showed that uptake of ototoxic aminoglycosides (AG into hair cells requires functional MET channels. In this study, we examined whether tip-link proteins, including Cadherin 23 (Cdh23, regulate AG entry into hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy on cochlear explants, we found rapid uptake of gentamicin-conjugated Texas Red (GTTR into hair cells from three-day-old Cdh23(+/+ and Cdh23(v2J/+ mice, but failed to detect GTTR uptake in Cdh23(v2J/v2J hair cells. Pre-treatment of wildtype cochleae with the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA to disrupt tip-links also effectively reduced GTTR uptake into hair cells. Both Cdh23(v2J/v2J and BAPTA-treated hair cells were protected from degeneration caused by gentamicin. Six hours after BAPTA treatment, GTTR uptake remained reduced in comparison to controls; by 24 hours, drug uptake was comparable between untreated and BAPTA-treated hair cells, which again became susceptible to cell death induced by gentamicin. Together, these results provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that tip-links are required for AG uptake and toxicity in hair cells. Because tip-links can spontaneously regenerate, their temporary breakage offers a limited time window when hair cells are protected from AG toxicity.
Henderson, Jordana M; Nisperos, Sean V; Weeks, Joi; Ghulam, Mahjoobah; Marín, Ignacio; Zayas, Ricardo M
E3 ubiquitin ligases constitute a large family of enzymes that modify specific proteins by covalently attaching ubiquitin polypeptides. This post-translational modification can serve to regulate protein function or longevity. In spite of their importance in cell physiology, the biological roles of most ubiquitin ligases remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the function of the HECT domain family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration in planarians. Using bioinformatic searches, we identified 17 HECT E3 genes that are expressed in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments showed that HECT genes were expressed in diverse tissues and most were expressed in the stem cell population (neoblasts) or in their progeny. To investigate the function of all HECT E3 ligases, we inhibited their expression using RNA interference (RNAi) and determined that orthologs of huwe1, wwp1, and trip12 had roles in tissue regeneration. We show that huwe1 RNAi knockdown led to a significant expansion of the neoblast population and death by lysis. Further, our experiments showed that wwp1 was necessary for both neoblast and intestinal tissue homeostasis as well as uncovered an unexpected role of trip12 in posterior tissue specification. Taken together, our data provide insights into the roles of HECT E3 ligases in tissue regeneration and demonstrate that planarians will be a useful model to evaluate the functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lorenzana, Ariana O; Lee, Jae K; Mui, Matthew; Chang, Amy; Zheng, Binhai
The complex morphology of axons presents a challenge in understanding axonal responses to injury and disease. By in vivo two-photon imaging of spinal dorsal column sensory axons, we systematically examined the effect of injury location relative to the main bifurcation point on axon degeneration and regeneration following highly localized laser injuries. Retrograde but not anterograde degeneration was strongly blocked at the bifurcation point at both the acute and subacute phases. Eliminating either the ascending or descending branch led to a poor regenerative response, while eliminating both led to a strong regenerative response. Thus, a surviving intact branch suppresses both retrograde degeneration and regeneration of the injured branch, thereby preserving the remaining axon architecture. Regenerating axons exhibited a dynamic pattern with alternating phases of regeneration and pruning over a chronic period. In vivo imaging continues to reveal new insights on axonal responses to injury in the mammalian spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jae K; Zheng, Binhai
Myelin-associated inhibitors of axon growth, including Nogo, MAG and OMgp, have been the subject of intense research. A myriad of experimental approaches have been applied to investigate the potential of targeting these molecules to promote axonal repair after spinal cord injury. However, there are still conflicting results on their role in axon regeneration and therefore a lack of a cohesive mechanism on how these molecules can be targeted to promote axon repair. One major reason may be the lack of a clear definition of axon regeneration in the first place. Nevertheless, recent data from genetic studies in mice indicate that the roles of these molecules in CNS axon repair may be more intricate than previously envisioned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hindi, Sajedah M.; Paul, Pradyut K.; Dahiya, Saurabh; Mishra, Vivek; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Kuang, Shihuan; Choi, Yongwon
Skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue that repairs and regenerates through activation of a population of stem-cell-like satellite cells. However, signaling mechanisms governing adult skeletal muscle regeneration remain less understood. In the present study, we have investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), an adaptor protein involved in receptor-mediated activation of multiple signaling pathways in regeneration of adult myofibers. Skeletal muscle-specific depletion of TRAF6 in mice (TRAF6mko) improved regeneration of myofibers upon injury with a concomitant increase in the number of satellite cells and activation of the Notch signaling pathway. Ex vivo cultures of TRAF6mko myofiber explants demonstrated an increase in the proliferative capacity of myofiber-associated satellite cells accompanied by an upregulation of Notch ligands. Deletion of TRAF6 also inhibited the activity of transcription factor NF-κB and the expression of inflammatory cytokines and augmented the M2c macrophage phenotype in injured muscle tissues. Collectively, our study demonstrates that specific inhibition of TRAF6 improves satellite cell activation and skeletal muscle regeneration through upregulation of Notch signaling and reducing the inflammatory repertoire. PMID:23028045
Abay, Zehra C; Wong, Michelle Yu-Ying; Teoh, Jean-Sébastien; Vijayaraghavan, Tarika; Hilliard, Massimo A; Neumann, Brent
Functional regeneration after axonal injury requires transected axons to regrow and reestablish connection with their original target tissue. The spontaneous regenerative mechanism known as axonal fusion provides a highly efficient means of achieving targeted reconnection, as a regrowing axon is able to recognize and fuse with its own detached axon segment, thereby rapidly reestablishing the original axonal tract. Here, we use behavioral assays and fluorescent reporters to show that axonal fusion enables full recovery of function after axotomy of Caenorhabditis elegans mechanosensory neurons. Furthermore, we reveal that the phospholipid phosphatidylserine, which becomes exposed on the damaged axon to function as a "save-me" signal, defines the level of axonal fusion. We also show that successful axonal fusion correlates with the regrowth potential and branching of the proximal fragment and with the retraction length and degeneration of the separated segment. Finally, we identify discrete axonal domains that vary in their propensity to regrow through fusion and show that the level of axonal fusion can be genetically modulated. Taken together, our results reveal that axonal fusion restores full function to injured neurons, is dependent on exposure of phospholipid signals, and is achieved through the balance between regenerative potential and level of degeneration. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Sylvain W. Lapan
Full Text Available Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium. Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration. In particular, a conserved, transcription-factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye.
Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto
tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool...... and mobilizes CD45(+)CD11b(+) proangiogenic, myeloid cells, a process dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and Kit ligand signaling. tPA improves the incorporation of CD11b(+) cells into ischemic tissues and increases expression of neoangiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF......-A. Remarkably, transplantation of BM-derived tPA-mobilized CD11b(+) cells and VEGFR-1(+) cells, but not carrier-mobilized cells or CD11b(-) cells, accelerates neovascularization and ischemic tissue regeneration. Inhibition of VEGF signaling suppresses tPA-induced neovascularization in a model of hind limb...
Li, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Yong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Cui; Zhai, Feng-Guo; Sun, Ping; Li, Hui-Ting; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Ying
A previous study has indicated that Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7), a transcription factor that stimulates Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, is a promising therapeutic transcription factor in nerve injury. We aimed to identify whether inhibition of microRNA-146b (miR-146b) affected SC proliferation, migration, and myelinated axon regeneration following sciatic nerve injury by regulating its direct target KLF7. SCs were transfected with miRNA lentivirus, miRNA inhibitor lentivirus, or KLF7 siRNA lentivirus in vitro. The expression of miR146b and KLF7, as well as SC proliferation and migration, were subsequently evaluated. In vivo, an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) followed by injection of GFP control vector or a lentiviral vector encoding an miR-146b inhibitor was used to assess the repair potential in a model of sciatic nerve gap. miR-146b directly targeted KLF7 by binding to the 3'-UTR, suppressing KLF7. Up-regulation of miR-146b and KLF7 knockdown significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of SCs, whereas silencing miR-146b resulted in increased proliferation and migration. KLF7 protein was localized in SCs in which miR-146b was expressed in vivo. Similarly, 4 weeks after the ANA, anti-miR-146b increased KLF7 and its target gene nerve growth factor cascade, promoting axonal outgrowth. Closer analysis revealed improved nerve conduction and sciatic function index score, and enhanced expression of neurofilaments, P0 (anti-peripheral myelin), and myelinated axon regeneration. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation of KLF7 by miR-146b during peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury.
Erler, Piril; Sweeney, Alexandra; Monaghan, James R
Some animals have the ability to generate large numbers of oocytes throughout life. This raises the question whether persistent adult germline stem cell populations drive continuous oogenesis and whether they are capable of mounting a regenerative response after injury. Here we demonstrate the presence of adult oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in the adult axolotl salamander ovary and show that ovarian injury induces OSC activation and functional regeneration of the ovaries to reproductive capability. Cells that have morphological similarities to germ cells were identified in the developing and adult ovaries via histological analysis. Genes involved in germ cell maintenance including Vasa, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Bmp15, Piwil1, Piwil2, Dazl, and Lhx8 were expressed in the presumptive OSCs. Colocalization of Vasa protein with H3 mitotic marker showed that both oogonial and spermatogonial adult stem cells were mitotically active. Providing evidence of stemness and viability of adult OSCs, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) adult OSCs grafted into white juvenile host gonads gave rise to EGFP OSCs, and oocytes. Last, the axolotl ovaries completely regenerated after partial ovariectomy injury. During regeneration, OSC activation resulted in rapid differentiation into new oocytes, which was demonstrated by Vasa+ /BrdU+ coexpression. Furthermore, follicle cell proliferation promoted follicle maturation during ovarian regeneration. Overall, these results show that adult oogenesis occurs via proliferation of endogenous OSCs in a tetrapod and mediates ovarian regeneration. This study lays the foundations to elucidate mechanisms of ovarian regeneration that will assist regenerative medicine in treating premature ovarian failure and reduced fertility. Stem Cells 2017;35:236-247. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.
Darren Paul Burke
Full Text Available Extrinsic mechanical signals have been implicated as key regulators of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation. It has been possible to test different hypotheses for mechano-regulated MSC differentiation by attempting to simulate regenerative events such as bone fracture repair, where repeatable spatial and temporal patterns of tissue differentiation occur. More recently, in vitro studies have identified other environmental cues such as substrate stiffness and oxygen tension as key regulators of MSC differentiation; however it remains unclear if and how such cues determine stem cell fate in vivo. As part of this study, a computational model was developed to test the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen tension regulate stem cell differentiation during fracture healing. Rather than assuming mechanical signals act directly on stem cells to determine their differentiation pathway, it is postulated that they act indirectly to regulate angiogenesis and hence partially determine the local oxygen environment within a regenerating tissue. Chondrogenesis of MSCs was hypothesized to occur in low oxygen regions, while in well vascularised regions of the regenerating tissue a soft local substrate was hypothesised to facilitate adipogenesis while a stiff substrate facilitated osteogenesis. Predictions from the model were compared to both experimental data and to predictions of a well established computational mechanobiological model where tissue differentiation is assumed to be regulated directly by the local mechanical environment. The model predicted all the major events of fracture repair, including cartilaginous bridging, endosteal and periosteal bony bridging and bone remodelling. It therefore provides support for the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen play a key role in regulating MSC fate during regenerative events such as fracture healing.
Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M
Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.
Carlos Rodrigo Camara-Lemarroy
Full Text Available After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD. This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise.
Beumer, Joep; Clevers, Hans
The intestinal epithelium is the fastest renewing tissue in mammals and has a large flexibility to adapt to different types of damage. Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar (CBC) cells act as stem cells during homeostasis and are essential during regeneration. Upon perturbation, the activity of CBCs is
Demircan, T.; Berezikov, E.
The Hippo pathway orchestrates activity of stem cells during development and tissue regeneration and is crucial for controlling organ size. However, roles of the Hippo pathway in highly regenerative organisms, such as flatworms, are unknown. Here we show that knockdown of the Hippo pathway core
Demircan, Turan; Berezikov, Eugene
The Hippo pathway orchestrates activity of stem cells during development and tissue regeneration and is crucial for controlling organ size. However, roles of the Hippo pathway in highly regenerative organisms, such as flatworms, are unknown. Here we show that knockdown of the Hippo pathway core
Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning
Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...... of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...... cells that had been labelled, i.e., that had regenerated axons towards or beyond the injection site, were counted in serial sections. Large and small neurons with presumably myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively, were classified by immunostaining for neurofilaments. The axonal growth rate...
Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T.; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C.; Kole, Maarten H. P.
Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na-v) channels in the
Gumy, Laura F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337608334; Katrukha, Eugene A; Grigoriev, Ilya; Jaarsma, Dick; Kapitein, Lukas C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298806630; Akhmanova, Anna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156410591; Hoogenraad, Casper C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/227263502
Polarized cargo transport is essential for neuronal function. However, the minimal basic components required for selective cargo sorting and distribution in neurons remain elusive. We found that in sensory neurons the axon initial segment is largely absent and that microtubule-associated protein 2
Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.
Coleman, Samantha K; Cao, Andrew W; Rebalka, Irena A; Gyulay, Gabriel; Chambers, Paige J; Tupling, A Russell; Austin, Richard C; Hawke, Thomas J
The capacity for skeletal muscle to repair from daily insults as well as larger injuries is a vital component to maintaining muscle health over our lifetime. Given the importance of skeletal muscle for our physical and metabolic well-being, identifying novel factors mediating the growth and repair of skeletal muscle will thus build our foundational knowledge and help lead to potential therapeutic avenues for muscle wasting disorders. To that end, we investigated the expression of T-cell death associated gene 51 (TDAG51) during skeletal muscle repair and studied the response of TDAG51 deficient (TDAG51(-/-)) mice to chemically-induced muscle damage. TDAG51 mRNA and protein expression within uninjured skeletal muscle is almost undetectable but, in response to chemically-induced muscle damage, protein levels increase by 12 h post-injury and remain elevated for up to 10 days of regeneration. To determine the impact of TDAG51 deficiency on skeletal muscle form and function, we compared adult male TDAG51(-/-) mice with age-matched WT mice. Body and muscle mass were not different between the two groups, however, in situ muscle testing demonstrated that a significant reduction in force production both before and after fatiguing contractions in TDAG51(-/-) mice. During the early phases of the regenerative process (5 days post-injury), TDAG51(-/-) muscles display a significantly larger area of degenerating muscle tissue concomitant with significantly less regenerating area compared to wild-type (WT; as demonstrated by embryonic myosin heavy chain expression). Despite these early deficits in regeneration, TDAG51(-/-) muscles displayed no morphological deficits by 10 days post injury compared to WT mice. Taken together, the data presented herein demonstrate TDAG51 expression to be upregulated in damaged skeletal muscle and its absence attenuates the early phases of muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kunda, P; Paglini, G; Quiroga, S; Kosik, K; Caceres, A
In cultured neurons, axon formation is preceded by the appearance in one of the multiple neurites of a large growth cone containing a labile actin network and abundant dynamic microtubules. The invasion-inducing T-lymphoma and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) protein that functions as a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 localizes to this neurite and its growth cone, where it associates with microtubules. Neurons overexpressing Tiam1 extend several axon-like neurites, whereas suppression of Tiam1 prevents axon formation, with most of the cells failing to undergo changes in growth cone size and in cytoskeletal organization typical of prospective axons. Cytochalasin D reverts this effect leading to multiple axon formation and penetration of microtubules within neuritic tips devoid of actin filaments. Taken together, these results suggest that by regulating growth cone actin organization and allowing microtubule invasion within selected growth cones, Tiam1 promotes axon formation and hence participates in neuronal polarization.
Ishii, Kana; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Mabuchi, Yo; Ito, Naoki; Kikura, Naomi; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Akazawa, Chihiro
Satellite cells are maintained in an undifferentiated quiescent state, but during muscle regeneration they acquire an activated stage, and initiate to proliferate and differentiate as myoblasts. The transmembrane protein teneurin-4 (Ten-4) is specifically expressed in the quiescent satellite cells; however, its cellular and molecular functions remain unknown. We therefore aimed to elucidate the function of Ten-4 in muscle satellite cells. In the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Ten-4-deficient mice, the number and the size of myofibers, as well as the population of satellite cells, were reduced with/without induction of muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we found an accelerated activation of satellite cells in the regenerated Ten-4-deficient TA muscle. The cell culture analysis using primary satellite cells showed that Ten-4 suppressed the progression of myogenic differentiation. Together, our findings revealed that Ten-4 functions as a crucial player in maintaining the quiescence of muscle satellite cells. © 2015 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.
Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.
Ishii, Kana; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Mabuchi, Yo; Ito, Naoki; Kikura, Naomi; Fukada, So‐ichiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichi
Abstract Satellite cells are maintained in an undifferentiated quiescent state, but during muscle regeneration they acquire an activated stage, and initiate to proliferate and differentiate as myoblasts. The transmembrane protein teneurin‐4 (Ten‐4) is specifically expressed in the quiescent satellite cells; however, its cellular and molecular functions remain unknown. We therefore aimed to elucidate the function of Ten‐4 in muscle satellite cells. In the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Ten‐4‐deficient mice, the number and the size of myofibers, as well as the population of satellite cells, were reduced with/without induction of muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we found an accelerated activation of satellite cells in the regenerated Ten‐4‐deficient TA muscle. The cell culture analysis using primary satellite cells showed that Ten‐4 suppressed the progression of myogenic differentiation. Together, our findings revealed that Ten‐4 functions as a crucial player in maintaining the quiescence of muscle satellite cells. Stem Cells 2015;33:3017–3027 PMID:26013034
Demircan, Turan; Berezikov, Eugene
The Hippo pathway orchestrates activity of stem cells during development and tissue regeneration and is crucial for controlling organ size. However, roles of the Hippo pathway in highly regenerative organisms, such as flatworms, are unknown. Here we show that knockdown of the Hippo pathway core genes in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano affects tissue homeostasis and causes formation of outgrowths through hyperproliferation of stem cells (neoblasts), and leads to disruption of allometric scaling during regeneration and increased size of regenerated parts. We further show that Yap, the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is a potential neoblast marker gene, as it is expressed in dividing cells in M. lignano and is essential for neoblast self-renewal. The phenotypes we observe in M. lignano upon knockdown of the Hippo pathway core genes and Yap are consistent with the known functions of the pathway in other model organisms and demonstrate that the Hippo pathway is functionally conserved between flatworms and mammals. This work establishes M. lignano as a productive model for investigation of the Hippo pathway.
Duangsee, K; Bunnag, S
The potential for callus induction and regeneration depends on nutrient composition and plant growth regulators. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in the glutinous rice cultivar Khunvang. The effect of 2,4-D concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth were investigated. The results revealed that the highest percentage of callus induction (97%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L(-1) 2,4-D under 16 h Photoperiod. The effects of casein hydrolysate concentrations of casein hydrolysate (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) and proline (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth of Khunvang were also observed. The results indicated that the increasing casein hydrolysate and proline concentrations did not show a significant effect on callus growth. However, proline concentration of 900 mg L(-1) yielded 85.67% of callus growth.
Rishal, Ida; Fainzilber, Mike
The extensive lengths of neuronal processes necessitate efficient mechanisms for communication with the cell body. Neuronal regeneration after nerve injury requires new transcription; thus, long-distance retrograde signalling from axonal lesion sites to the soma and nucleus is required. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the mechanistic basis of this system. This has included the discovery of a priming role for early calcium waves; confirmation of central roles for mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling effectors, the importin family of nucleocytoplasmic transport factors and molecular motors such as dynein; and demonstration of the importance of local translation as a key regulatory mechanism. These recent findings provide a coherent mechanistic framework for axon-soma communication in the injured nerve and shed light on the integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear transport in all eukaryotic cells.
Tupaj, Marie C.
Peripheral nerve regeneration is a critical issue as 2.8% of trauma patients present with this type of injury, estimating a total of 200,000 nerve repair procedures yearly in the United States. While the peripheral nervous system exhibits slow regeneration, at a rate of 0.5 mm -- 9 mm/day following trauma, this regenerative ability is only possible under certain conditions. Clinical repairs have changed slightly in the last 30 years and standard methods of treatment include suturing damaged nerve ends, allografting, and autografting, with the autograft the gold standard of these approaches. Unfortunately, the use of autografts requires a second surgery and there is a shortage of nerves available for grafting. Allografts are a second option however allografts have lower success rates and are accompanied by the need of immunosuppressant drugs. Recently there has been a focus on developing nerve guides as an "off the shelf" approach. Although some natural and synthetic guidance channels have been approved by the FDA, these nerve guides are unfunctionalized and repair only short gaps, less than 3 cm in length. The goal of this project was to identify strategies for functionalizing peripheral nerve conduits for the outgrowth of neuron axons in vitro . To accomplish this, two strategies (bioelectrical and biophysical) were indentified for increasing axon outgrowth and promoting axon guidance. Bioelectrical strategies exploited electrical stimulation for increasing neurite outgrowth. Biophysical strategies tested a range of surface topographies for axon guidance. Novel methods were developed for integrating electrical and biophysical strategies into silk films in 2D. Finally, a functionalized nerve conduit system was developed that integrated all strategies for the purpose of attaching, elongating, and guiding nervous tissue in vitro. Future directions of this work include silk conduit translation into a rat sciatic nerve model in vivo for the purpose of repairing long
Nakamura, Ikuo; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G; Ortiz-Ruiz, Maria C; Almada, Luciana L; Hu, Chunling; Elsawa, Sherine F; Mills, Lisa D; Romecin, Paola A; Gulaid, Kadra H; Moser, Catherine D; Han, Jing-Jing; Vrabel, Anne; Hanse, Eric A; Akogyeram, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Monga, Satdarshan P S; Sanderson, Schuyler O; Prieto, Jesus; Roberts, Lewis R; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E
Tissue regeneration requires the activation of a set of specific growth signaling pathways. The identity of these cascades and their biological roles are known; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the interplay between these pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we define a new role for SULFATASE 2 (SULF2) in regulating tissue regeneration and define the WNT-GLI1 axis as a novel downstream effector for this sulfatase in a liver model of tissue regeneration. SULF2 is a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, which releases growth factors from extracellular storage sites turning active multiple signaling pathways. We demonstrate that SULF2-KO mice display delayed regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Mechanistic analysis of the SULF2-KO phenotype showed a decrease in WNT signaling pathway activity in vivo. In isolated hepatocytes, SULF2 deficiency blocked WNT-induced β-CATENIN nuclear translocation, TCF activation, and proliferation. Furthermore, we identified the transcription factor GLI1 as a novel target of the SULF2-WNT cascade. WNT induces GLI1 expression in a SULF2- and β-CATENIN-dependent manner. GLI1-KO mice phenocopied the SULF2-KO, showing delayed regeneration and decreased hepatocyte proliferation. Moreover, we identified CYCLIN D1, a key mediator of cell growth during tissue regeneration, as a GLI1 transcriptional target. GLI1 binds to the cyclin d1 promoter and regulates its activity and expression. Finally, restoring GLI1 expression in the liver of SULF2-KO mice after PH rescues CYCLIN D1 expression and hepatocyte proliferation to wild-type levels. Thus, together these findings define a novel pathway in which SULF2 regulates tissue regeneration in part via the activation of a novel WNT-GLI1-CYCLIN D1 pathway.
Nakamura, Ikuo; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G.; Ortiz-Ruiz, Maria C.; Almada, Luciana L.; Hu, Chunling; Elsawa, Sherine F.; Mills, Lisa D.; Romecin, Paola A.; Gulaid, Kadra H.; Moser, Catherine D.; Han, Jing-Jing; Vrabel, Anne; Hanse, Eric A.; Akogyeram, Nicholas A.; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Sanderson, Schuyler O.; Prieto, Jesus; Roberts, Lewis R.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.
Tissue regeneration requires the activation of a set of specific growth signaling pathways. The identity of these cascades and their biological roles are known; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the interplay between these pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we define a new role for SULFATASE 2 (SULF2) in regulating tissue regeneration and define the WNT-GLI1 axis as a novel downstream effector for this sulfatase in a liver model of tissue regeneration. SULF2 is a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, which releases growth factors from extracellular storage sites turning active multiple signaling pathways. We demonstrate that SULF2-KO mice display delayed regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Mechanistic analysis of the SULF2-KO phenotype showed a decrease in WNT signaling pathway activity in vivo. In isolated hepatocytes, SULF2 deficiency blocked WNT-induced β-CATENIN nuclear translocation, TCF activation, and proliferation. Furthermore, we identified the transcription factor GLI1 as a novel target of the SULF2-WNT cascade. WNT induces GLI1 expression in a SULF2- and β-CATENIN-dependent manner. GLI1-KO mice phenocopied the SULF2-KO, showing delayed regeneration and decreased hepatocyte proliferation. Moreover, we identified CYCLIN D1, a key mediator of cell growth during tissue regeneration, as a GLI1 transcriptional target. GLI1 binds to the cyclin d1 promoter and regulates its activity and expression. Finally, restoring GLI1 expression in the liver of SULF2-KO mice after PH rescues CYCLIN D1 expression and hepatocyte proliferation to wild-type levels. Thus, together these findings define a novel pathway in which SULF2 regulates tissue regeneration in part via the activation of a novel WNT-GLI1-CYCLIN D1 pathway. PMID:23740243
Joiner, Ariell M; Green, Warren W; McIntyre, Jeremy C; Allen, Benjamin L; Schwob, James E; Martens, Jeffrey R
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88(fl/fl)) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory neurons and may
А. V. Lundup
Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches.
Gresle, Melissa M; Liu, Yaou; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Kemper, Dennis; Wu, Qi-Zhu; Hu, Bing; Fu, Qing-Ling; So, Kwok-Fai; Sheng, Guoqing; Huang, Guanrong; Pepinsky, Blake; Butzkueven, Helmut; Mi, Sha
Two ongoing phase II clinical trials (RENEW and SYNERGY) have been developed to test the efficacy of anti-LINGO-1 antibodies in acute optic neuritis and relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, respectively. Across a range of experimental models, LINGO-1 has been found to inhibit neuron and oligodendrocyte survival, axon regeneration, and (re)myelination. The therapeutic effects of anti-LINGO-1 antibodies on optic nerve axonal loss and regeneration have not yet been investigated. In this series of studies we investigate if LINGO-1 antibodies can prevent acute inflammatory axonal loss, and promote axonal regeneration after injury in rodent optic nerves. The effects of anti-LINGO-1 antibody on optic nerve axonal damage were assessed using rodent myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and its effects on axonal regeneration were assessed in optic nerve crush injury models. In the optic nerve, anti-LINGO-1 antibody therapy was associated with improved optic nerve parallel diffusivity measures on MRI in mice with EAE and reduced axonal loss in rat EAE. Both anti-LINGO-1 antibody therapy and the genetic deletion of LINGO-1 reduced nerve crush-induced axonal degeneration and enhanced axonal regeneration. These data demonstrate that LINGO-1 blockade is associated with axonal protection and regeneration in the injured optic nerve.
Morello, D; Fitzgerald, M J; Babinet, C; Fausto, N
We investigated the mechanisms of regulation of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun at the early stages of liver regeneration in mice. We show that the transient increase in steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA at the start of liver regeneration is most probably regulated by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Although there was a marked increase in c-myc transcriptional initiation shortly after partial hepatectomy, a block in elongation prevented the completion of most transcripts. To gain further information ...
Differential effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on regenerating sensory and motor axons in the transected peripheral nerve
Tannemaat, Martijn R; Eggers, Ruben; Hendriks, William T; de Ruiter, Godard C W; van Heerikhuize, Joop J; Pool, Chris W; Malessy, Martijn J A; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, J.
Even after reconstructive surgery, major functional impairments remain in the majority of patients with peripheral nerve injuries. The application of novel emerging therapeutic strategies, such as lentiviral (LV) vectors, may help to stimulate peripheral nerve regeneration at a molecular level. In
myelinated axons, and potentially axons with a greater diameter and a thicker myelin sheath . This is evident based on the amplitude of the signal and...The pain reflex was observed. This assessment was critical to evaluate the presence of myelinated axons in the regenerated nerve and as well as if
Castillo‐Paterna, Mar; Moreno‐Juan, Verónica; Filipchuk, Anton; Rodríguez‐Malmierca, Luis; Susín, Rafael; López‐Bendito, Guillermina
... receptor Robo1 , which appears to function as a brake for thalamocortical axon (TCA) growth . Therefore, modifications to Robo1 transcription that are triggered by spontaneous activity mediate the developmental decrease in axon growth as TCAs approach the cortex. However, tight regulation of axon growth rate probably relies on different factors cont...
Wang, Lin-Fang; Huang, Shu-Bing; Zhao, Hou-De; Liu, Chun-Jie; Yao, Li; Shen, Yan-Qin
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI. Double labeled immunofluorescence showed that ATF3 expressed in motoneurons. Treatment of anti-sense ATF3 morpholino (MO) inhibited locomotor recovery and decreased axon regeneration of spinal cord injured zebrafish. Further, inhibition of ATF3 up-regulated the expression of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). These data suggest that ATF3 could promote locomotor recovery and axon regrowth in zebrafish SCI model possibly by regulating inflammatory response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martino, Rodrigo Bronze; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonça; Kubrusly, Márcia Saldanha; Leitão, Regina; Sampietre, Sandra Nassa; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar; Bacchella, Telesforo; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro
AIM: To investigate the mechanism of pentoxifylline (PTX) improvement in liver regeneration. RESULTS: Rats were randomized into 4 groups: Control rats; Sham - sham-operation rats; Saline - 70% hepatectomy plus saline solution; PTX - 70% hepatectomy plus PTX. At 2 and 6 h after hepatectomy, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum and hepatic tissue levels were determined. Tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1 gene expression in liver tissue was evaluated 24 h after hepatectomy by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Proliferation was analyzed by mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining 48 h after hepatectomy. RESULTS: TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels increased at 2 and 6 h after hepatectomy. At 2 h after hepatectomy serum PTX was reduced but not hepatic levels of TNF-α and IL-6. A decrease in liver TGF-β1 gene expression and an increase in mitotic index and PCNA after hepatectomy were observed in the PTX treatment group in comparison to the saline group. CONCLUSION: PTX improves liver regeneration by a mechanism related to down regulation of TNF-α production and TGF-β1 gene expression. PMID:22816029
Sehm, Tina; Sachse, Christoph; Frenzel, Corina; Echeverri, Karen
Salamanders have the remarkable ability to regenerate many body parts following catastrophic injuries, including a fully functional spinal cord following a tail amputation. The molecular basis for how this process is so exquisitely well-regulated, assuring a faithful replication of missing structures every time, remains poorly understood. Therefore a study of microRNA expression and function during regeneration in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, was undertaken. Using microarray-based profiling, it was found that 78 highly conserved microRNAs display significant changes in expression levels during the early stages of tail regeneration, as compared to mature tissue. The role of miR-196, which was highly upregulated in the early tail blastema and spinal cord, was then further analyzed. Inhibition of miR-196 expression in this context resulted in a defect in regeneration, yielding abnormally shortened tails with spinal cord defects in formation of the terminal vesicle. A more detailed characterization of this phenotype revealed downstream components of the miR-196 pathway to include key effectors/regulators of tissue patterning within the spinal cord, including BMP4 and Pax7. As such, our dataset establishes miR-196 as an essential regulator of tail regeneration, acting upstream of key BMP4 and Pax7-based patterning events within the spinal cord.
Full Text Available Motor neurons typically have very long axons, and fine-tuning axonal transport is crucial for their survival. The obstruction of axonal transport is gaining attention as a cause of neuronal dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases. Depletions in dynein and dynactin-1, motor molecules regulating axonal trafficking, disrupt axonal transport in flies, and mutations in their genes cause motor neuron degeneration in humans and rodents. Axonal transport defects are among the early molecular events leading to neurodegeneration in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Gene expression profiles indicate that dynactin-1 mRNA is downregulated in degenerating spinal motor neurons of autopsied patients with sporadic ALS. Dynactin-1 mRNA is also reduced in the affected neurons of a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a motor neuron disease caused by triplet CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding the androgen receptor. Pathogenic androgen receptor proteins also inhibit kinesin-1 microtubule-binding activity and disrupt anterograde axonal transport by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Disruption of axonal transport also underlies the pathogenesis of spinal muscular atrophy and hereditary spastic paraplegias. These observations suggest that the impairment of axonal transport is a key event in the pathological processes of motor neuron degeneration and an important target of therapy development for motor neuron diseases.
Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O
There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base Library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change≥±2.0, paerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Armstrong, Regina C; Mierzwa, Amanda J; Marion, Christina M; Sullivan, Genevieve M
Impact-acceleration forces to the head cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) with damage in white matter tracts comprised of long axons traversing the brain. White matter injury after TBI involves both traumatic axonal injury (TAI) and myelin pathology that evolves throughout the post-injury time course. The axon response to initial mechanical forces and secondary insults follows the process of Wallerian degeneration, which initiates as a potentially reversible phase of intra-axonal damage and proceeds to an irreversible phase of axon fragmentation. Distal to sites of axon disconnection, myelin sheaths remain for prolonged periods, which may activate neuroinflammation and inhibit axon regeneration. In addition to TAI, TBI can cause demyelination of intact axons. These evolving features of axon and myelin pathology also represent opportunities for repair. In experimental TBI, demyelinated axons exhibit remyelination, which can serve to both protect axons and facilitate recovery of function. Myelin remodeling may also contribute to neuroplasticity. Efficient clearance of myelin debris is a potential target to attenuate the progression of chronic pathology. During the early phase of Wallerian degeneration, interventions that prevent the transition from reversible damage to axon disconnection warrant the highest priority, based on the poor regenerative capacity of axons in the CNS. Clinical evaluation of TBI will need to address the challenge of accurately detecting the extent and stage of axon damage. Distinguishing the complex white matter changes associated with axons and myelin is necessary for interpreting advanced neuroimaging approaches and for identifying a broader range of therapeutic opportunities to improve outcome after TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are major components of the extracellular matrix which mediate inhibition of axonal regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS. Several neuronal receptors for CSPGs have recently been identified; however, the signaling pathways by which CSPGs restrict axonal growth are still largely unknown. In this study, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate the global changes in protein phosphorylation induced by CSPGs in primary neurons. In combination with isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ labeling, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX fractionation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC and LC-MS/MS, we identified and quantified 2214 unique phosphopeptides corresponding to 1118 phosphoproteins, with 118 changing significantly in abundance with CSPG treatment. The proteins that were regulated by CSPGs included key components of synaptic vesicle trafficking, axon guidance mediated by semaphorins, integrin signaling, cadherin signaling and EGF receptor signaling pathways. A significant number of the regulated proteins are cytoskeletal and related proteins that have been implicated in regulating neurite growth. Another highly represented protein category regulated by CSPGs is nucleic acid binding proteins involved in RNA post-transcriptional regulation. Together, by screening the overall phosphoproteome changes induced by CSPGs, this data expand our understanding of CSPG signaling, which provides new insights into development of strategies for overcoming CSPG inhibition and promoting axonal regeneration after CNS injury.
Takazawa, Yuko; Ogawa, Eisaku; Saito, Rumiko; Uchiyama, Ryuhei; Ikawa, Shuntaro; Uhara, Hisashi; Okuyama, Ryuhei
Notch signaling controls a number of cellular processes, including cell fate decisions, proliferation, differentiation, and survival/apoptosis, in multiple tissues. In the epidermis, Notch1 functions as a molecular switch that controls the transition of cells from an undifferentiated state into a differentiated state. To clarify the functions of Notch in the regenerated epidermis during wound healing. Wounds on mouse skin were immunostained. To investigate the functions of Notch, Notch was inhibited in primary keratinocytes by treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor and by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, and was activated by a recombinant adenovirus approach. Notch1 and Notch2 were down-regulated in the regenerated epidermis during wound healing. To clarify the significance of this down-regulation, we examined its effect on expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 family of proinflammatory cytokines because wounds are exposed to pathogens from the outside world. Among the IL-1 family, IL-36α expression was induced by Notch inhibition. This was consistent with the decreased IL-36α expression in Notch-overexpressing keratinocytes. Notch down-regulation in the regenerated epidermis may reinforce defense against stress from the outside world by inducing IL-36α expression. Next, we examined the effects of Notch down-regulation on keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Notch down-regulation did not alter keratinocyte proliferation. On the other hand, Notch1 down-regulation suppressed induction of spinous layer-specific keratins (keratin1 and keratin10) in keratinocytes, which was consistent with the decreased expression of these keratins in the regenerated epidermis. The reduced levels of these keratins would increase cellular flexibility. Notch down-regulation in the epidermis appears to contribute to tissue regeneration during wound healing. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which
Jussila, Maria; Thesleff, Irma
Teeth develop as ectodermal appendages from epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. Tooth organogenesis is regulated by an intricate network of cell-cell signaling during all steps of development. The dental hard tissues, dentin, enamel, and cementum, are formed by unique cell types whose differentiation is intimately linked with morphogenesis. During evolution the capacity for tooth replacement has been reduced in mammals, whereas teeth have acquired more complex shapes. Mammalian teeth contain stem cells but they may not provide a source for bioengineering of human teeth. Therefore it is likely that nondental cells will have to be reprogrammed for the purpose of clinical tooth regeneration. Obviously this will require understanding of the mechanisms of normal development. The signaling networks mediating the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during morphogenesis are well characterized but the molecular signatures of the odontogenic tissues remain to be uncovered.
Rink, Jochen C; Gurley, Kyle A; Elliott, Sarah A; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays multiple essential roles during metazoan development, homeostasis, and disease. Although core protein components are highly conserved, the variations in Hh signal transduction mechanisms exhibited by existing model systems (Drosophila, fish, and mammals) are difficult to understand. We characterized the Hh pathway in planarians. Hh signaling is essential for establishing the anterior/posterior axis during regeneration by modulating wnt expression. Moreover, RNA interference methods to reduce signal transduction proteins Cos2/Kif27/Kif7, Fused, or Iguana do not result in detectable Hh signaling defects; however, these proteins are essential for planarian ciliogenesis. Our study expands the understanding of Hh signaling in the animal kingdom and suggests an ancestral mechanistic link between Hh signaling and the function of cilia.
Li, Z; Yu, M; Tian, W
Sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, essential throughout such aspects of tooth morphogenesis as patterning, size and number of teeth, involves a well-ordered series of inductive and permissive signals that exert global control over cell proliferation, differentiation and organogenesis. In particular, growth factors, transcription factors and their corresponding receptors, as well as other soluble morphogens, make up a regulatory network at the molecular level that synergistically or antagonistically controls intra-/inter-cellular signal transduction during odontogenesis. This review summarizes recent advances in the study of crucial signalling pathways, for example of BMPs, Wnt, Notch, Shh and FGF, with emphasis on the potential integrated signalling network responsible for tooth formation. Our work probes into the complexity of these inductive signalling pathways to promote the understanding of tooth regeneration. Additionally, our study provides further insights into therapeutic strategies for various dental abnormalities in patterning and number, such as tooth agenesis and supernumerary teeth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rizzo, Francesca; Hashim, Adnan; Marchese, Giovanna; Ravo, Maria; Tarallo, Roberta; Nassa, Giovanni; Giurato, Giorgio; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cordella, Angela; Persico, Marcello; Sulas, Pia; Perra, Andrea; Ledda-Columbano, Giovanna M; Columbano, Amedeo; Weisz, Alessandro
Small noncoding RNAs comprise a growing family of molecules that regulate key cellular processes, including messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, translational repression, and transcriptional gene silencing. P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) represent a class of small RNAs initially identified in the germline of a variety of species, where they contribute to maintenance of genome stability, and recently found expressed also in stem and somatic cells, where their role and responsiveness to physiopathological signals remain elusive. Here, we investigated piRNA expression in rat liver and its response to the stimuli exerted by regenerative proliferation of this organ. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis identify in the liver the RNAs encoding PIWIL2/HILI, PIWIL4/HIWI2, and other components of the piRNA biogenesis pathways, suggesting that this is indeed functional. RNA sequencing before, during, and after the wave of cell proliferation that follows partial hepatectomy (PH) identified ∼1,400 mammalian germline piRNAs expressed in rat liver, including 72 showing timed changes in expression 24-48 hours post-PH, a timing that corresponds to cell transition through the S phase, returning to basal levels by 168 hours, when organ regeneration is completed and hepatocytes reach quiescence. The piRNA pathway is active in somatic cells of the liver and is subject to regulation during the pathophysiological process of organ regeneration, when these molecules are available to exert their regulatory functions on the cell genome and transcriptome, as demonstrated by the identification of several liver mRNAs representing candidate targets of these regulatory RNAs. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Jia, Yuzhi; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K
Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic
Hidalgo, Alicia; Logan, Ann
The regenerative response of ensheating glia to central nervous system (CNS) injury involves proliferation and differentiation, axonal re-enwrapment and some recovery of behaviour. Understanding this limited response could enable the enhancement of it. In Drosophila, the glial progenitor state is maintained by Notch, an activator of cell division and Prospero (Pros), a repressor. Injury provokes the activation of NFκB and up-regulation of Kon-tiki (Kon), driving cell proliferation. Homeostatic switch-off comes about as two negative feedback loops involving Pros terminate the response. Importantly, the functions of the kon and pros homologues NG2 and prox1, respectively, are conserved in mammalian NG2 glia. Controlling these genes is key for therapeutic manipulation of progenitors and stem cells to promote regeneration of the damaged CNS. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sotelo, José Roberto; Canclini, Lucía; Kun, Alejandra; Sotelo-Silveira, José Roberto; Calliari, Aldo; Cal, Karina; Bresque, Mariana; Dipaolo, Andrés; Farias, Joaquina; Mercer, John A
The existence of RNA in axons has been a matter of dispute for decades. Evidence for RNA and ribosomes has now accumulated to a point at which it is difficult to question, much of the disputes turned to the origin of these axonal RNAs. In this review, we focus on studies addressing the origin of axonal RNAs and ribosomes. The neuronal soma as the source of most axonal RNAs has been demonstrated and is indisputable. However, the surrounding glial cells may be a supplemental source of axonal RNAs, a matter scarcely investigated in the literature. Here, we review the few papers that have demonstrated that glial-to-axon RNA transfer is not only feasible, but likely. We describe this process in both invertebrate axons and vertebrate axons. Schwann cell to axon ribosomes transfer was conclusively demonstrated (Court et al. : J. Neurosci 28:11024-11029; Court et al. : Glia 59:1529-1539). However, mRNA transfer still remains to be demonstrated in a conclusive way. The intercellular transport of mRNA has interesting implications, particularly with respect to the integration of glial and axonal function. This evolving field is likely to impact our understanding of the cell biology of the axon in both normal and pathological conditions. Most importantly, if the synthesis of proteins in the axon can be controlled by interacting glia, the possibilities for clinical interventions in injury and neurodegeneration are greatly increased. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neural circuits are formed with great precision during development. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has demonstrated that growing axons are navigated toward their targets by the combined actions of attractants and repellents together with their receptors. It has long been known that proteoglycans, glycosylated proteins possessing covalently attached glycosaminoglycans, play a critical role in axon guidance; however, the molecular mechanisms by which proteoglycans regulate axon behaviors remain largely unknown. Glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are large linear polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units that are highly modified by specific sulfation and epimerization. Recent biochemical and molecular biological studies have identified the enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans. Interestingly, many mutants lacking glycosaminoglycan-synthesizing enzymes or proteoglycans in several model organisms show defects in specific nerve tract formation. In parallel, detailed biochemical studies have identified the molecular interactions between axon guidance molecules and glycosaminoglycans that have specific modification in their sugar chains. This review summarizes the structure and function of axon guidance molecules and glycosaminoglycans, and then tries to combine the knowledge from these studies to understand the role of proteoglycans from a new vantage point. Deciphering the sugar code is important for understanding the complicated nature of proteoglycans in axon guidance. Neural circuits are formed by the combined actions of axon guidance molecules. Proteoglycans play critical roles in regulating axon guidance through the interaction between signaling molecules and glycosaminoglycan chains attached to the core protein. This paper summarizes the structure and functions of axon guidance molecules and glycosaminoglycans and reviews the molecular mechanisms by which proteoglycans
Full Text Available Following axotomy, the activation of multiple intracellular signalling cascades causes the expression of a cocktail of regeneration-associated transcription factors which interact with each other and the extracellular environment to determine the fate of the injured neurons. The nerve injury response is channelled through manifold and parallel pathways, integrating diverse inputs and controlling a complex transcriptional output. Transcription factors form a vital link in the chain of regeneration, converting injury-induced stress signals into downstream protein expression via gene regulation. They can regulate the intrinsic ability of axons to grow, by controlling expression of whole cassettes of gene targets. In this review, we have investigated the functional role of a number of different transcription factors – c-jun, ATF3, CREB, STAT3, C/EBP β & δ, Oct-6, Sox11, p53, NFκB, and ELK3 – in peripheral nerve regeneration. Studies involving use of conditional mutants, microarrays, promoter region mapping and different injury paradigms, have enabled us to understand their distinct as well as overlapping roles in achieving functional and anatomical regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.
Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve
Axonal excitability testing provides in vivo assessment of axonal ion channel function and membrane potential. Excitability techniques have provided insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of neurodegeneration and clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related neuromuscular disorders. Specifically, abnormalities of Na+ and K+ conductances contribute to development of membrane hyperexcitability in ALS, thereby leading to symptom generation of muscle cramps and fasciculations, in addition to promoting a neurodegenerative cascade via Ca2+-mediated processes. Modulation of axonal ion channel function in ALS has resulted in significant symptomatic improvement that has been accompanied by stabilization of axonal excitability parameters. Separately, axonal ion channel dysfunction evolves with disease progression and correlates with survival, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic biomarker in ALS. The present review provides an overview of axonal excitability techniques and the physiological mechanisms underlying membrane excitability, with a focus on the role of axonal ion channel dysfunction in motor neuron disease and related neuromuscular diseases.
Pang, Yvonne Wy; Feng, Jifan; Daltoe, Felipe; Fatscher, Robert; Gentleman, Eileen; Gentleman, Molly M; Sharpe, Paul T
Cells with in vitro properties similar to those of bone marrow stromal stem cells are present in tooth pulp as quiescent cells that are mobilized by damage. These dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) respond to damage by stimulating proliferation and differentiation into odontoblast-like cells that form dentine to repair the damage. In continuously growing mouse incisors, tissue at the incisor tips is continuously being damaged by the shearing action between the upper and lower teeth acting to self-sharpen the tips. We investigated mouse incisor tips as a model for the role of DPSCs in a continuous natural repair/regeneration process. We show that the pulp at the incisor tip is composed of a disorganized mass of mineralized tissue produced by odontoblast-like cells. These cells become embedded into the mineralized tissue that is rapidly formed and then lost during feeding. Tetracycline labeling not only revealed the expected incorporation into newly synthesized dentine formation of the incisor but also a zone covering the pulp cavity at the tips of the incisors that is mineralized very rapidly. This tissue was dentine-like but had a significantly lower mineral content than dentine as determined by Raman spectroscopy. The mineral was more crystalline than dentine, indicative of small, defect-free mineral particles. To identify the origin of cells responsible for deposition of this mineralized tissue, we genetically labeled perivascular cells by crossing NG2(ERT2) Cre and Nestin Cre mice with reporter mice. A large number of pericyte-derived cells were visible in the pulp of incisor tips with some having elongated, odontoblast-like shapes. These results show that in mouse incisors, rapid, continuous mineralization occurs at the tip to seal off the pulp tissue from the external environment. The mineral is formed by perivascular-derived cells that differentiate into cells expressing dentin sialo-phosphoprotein (DSPP) and produce a dentine-like material in a process that
Full Text Available The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus. Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin.
Torabi-Giglou, Mousa; Hajieghrari, Behzad
In this study, in vitro organogenesis of Gladiolus grandiflorus cultivar pink corm segments were evaluated by culturing corm calli in modified MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.7% agar with different concentration of BAP (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1) medium) and NAA (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg L(-1) medium) in factorial experiment of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). In order to obtain Gladiolus calli, corm segments (Aprox. 5 x 5 x 1 mm in size) were kept in modified MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) that was supplemented with 1 mg L(-1) 2, 4-D, 3% sucrose and 0.7% agar. The results showed that increasing the concentration of BAP from 0 to 2 mg L(-1) medium simulated plantlet regeneration but no significantly effect was obtained on shoot and cormel organogenesis between 2 and 4 mg L(-1) BAP concentration in medium. Increasing of NAA content in media without BAP developed rootlet significantly. Interaction results showed that increasing BAP content against decreasing of NAA concentration stimulates the shoot and cormel proliferation.
Tang, Dongmei; Lin, Qin; He, Yingzi; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei
The activation of neuromast (NM) supporting cell (SC) proliferation leads to hair cell (HC) regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of NM cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the NMs of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration.
Full Text Available The activation of neuromast supporting cell (SC proliferation leads to hair cell (HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of neuromast cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the neuromasts of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration.
Lepp, A C; Carlone, R L
Adult urodele amphibians represent unique model organisms to study spinal cord regeneration. Trauma to the spinal cord induces an ependymal response, activating multipotent neural stem cells that contribute to the redifferentiation of both glia and neurons in the regenerate. The molecular events underlying this ependymal response are not completely understood, but likely involve coordinated global changes in gene expression. MicroRNAs and retinoid signaling are postulated to orchestrate these patterns of gene expression in response to trauma. Our objectives were to determine the roles played by some miRNAs as potential regulators of retinoid signaling in this process. We found that the expression levels of miRNAs 133a, 203, and 124a are dysregulated during the first 21 days post amputation (dpa). Interestingly, these miRNAs are expressed primarily within the ependymoglia. We have shown in vitro that a miR-133a mimic targets the 3' UTR of the newt RARβ2 transcript. Importantly, upregulation of this mimic in vivo led to a significant decline in RARβ2 protein at 14 dpa and inhibited regeneration. These data are the first to link miRNAs and retinoid signaling during spinal cord regeneration and provide support for miR-133a as an upstream regulator of RARβ2 expression in this process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ahmad Ibrahim Mahmoud Athamneh
Full Text Available Mechanical force plays a fundamental role in neuronal development, physiology, and regeneration. In particular, research has shown that force is involved in growth cone-mediated axonal growth and guidance as well as stretch-induced elongation when an organism increases in size after forming initial synaptic connections. However, much of the details about the exact role of force in these fundamental processes remain unknown. In this review, we highlight (1 standing questions concerning the role of mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance and (2 different experimental techniques used to quantify forces in axons and growth cones. We believe that satisfying answers to these questions will require quantitative information about the relationship between elongation, forces, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, signaling, substrate adhesion, and stiffness contributing to directional growth advance. Furthermore, we address why a wide range of force values have been reported in the literature, and what these values mean in the context of neuronal mechanics. We hope that this review will provide a guide for those interested in studying the role of force in development and regeneration of neuronal networks.
Awasaki, Takeshi; Ito, Kei
Axon pruning is involved in establishment and maintenance of functional neural circuits. During metamorphosis of Drosophila, selective pruning of larval axons is developmentally regulated by ecdysone and caused by local axon degeneration. Previous studies have revealed intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms that trigger this pruning process, but how pruning is accomplished remains essentially unknown. Detailed analysis of morphological changes in the axon branches of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons revealed that during early pupal stages, clusters of neighboring varicosities, each of which belongs to different axons, disappear simultaneously shortly before the onset of local axon degeneration. At this stage, bundles of axon branches are infiltrated by the processes of surrounding glia. These processes engulf clusters of varicosities and accumulate intracellular degradative compartments. Selective inhibition of cellular functions, including endocytosis, in glial cells via the temperature-sensitive allele of shibire both suppresses glial infiltration and varicosity elimination and induces a severe delay in axon pruning. Selective inhibition of ecdysone receptors in the MB neurons severely suppressed not only axon pruning but also the infiltration and engulfing action of the surrounding glia. These findings strongly suggest that glial cells are extrinsically activated by ecdysone-stimulated MB neurons. These glial cells infiltrate the mass of axon branches to eliminate varicosities and break down axon branches actively rather than just scavenging already-degraded debris. We therefore propose that neuron-glia interaction is essential for the precisely coordinated axon-pruning process during Drosophila metamorphosis.
Full Text Available The Almond (Amygdalus communis is one of the most important and oldest commercial nut crops, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Almond has been used as base material in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hygienically and food industry. Propagation by tissue culture technique is the most important one in woody plants. In the current research, in vitro optimization of tissue culture and mass production of almond was investigated. In this idea, explants of actively growing shoots were collected and sterilized, then transferred to MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiment was done in completely randomized blocks design, with 7 treatment and 30 replications. After 4 weeks, calli induction, proliferation, shoot length and number of shoot per explants were measured. Results showed that the best medium for shoot initiation and proliferation was MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA (Indol-3-Acetic Acid + 1 mg/l BA (Benzyl Adenine. Autumn was the best season for collecting explants. The shoots were transferred to root induction medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The best root induction medium was MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA (Indol Butyric Acid.
Full Text Available Wool is an important material in textile manufacturing. In order to investigate the intrinsic factors that regulate wool follicle cycling and wool fiber properties, Illumina sequencing was performed on wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen, catagen and late telogen/early anagen phases. In total, 13,898 genes were identified. KRTs and KRTAPs are the most highly expressed gene families in wool follicle bulb. In addition, 438 and 203 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen phase compared to the catagen phase and the samples from the catagen phase compared to the late telogen/early anagen phase, respectively. Finally, our data revealed that two groups of genes presenting distinct expression patterns during the phase transformation may have important roles for wool follicle bulb regression and regeneration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the gene expression patterns in the wool follicle bulb and add new data towards an understanding of the mechanisms involved in wool fiber growth in sheep.
Dun, Xin-peng; Parkinson, David B.
Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis), in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis) repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries. PMID:25738874
Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.
McCall, Julianne; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin
Axonal regeneration is inhibited by a plethora of different mechanisms in the adult central nervous system (CNS). While neurotrophic factors have been shown to stimulate axonal growth in numerous animal models of nervous system injury, a lack of suitable growth substrates, an insufficient activation of neuron-intrinsic regenerative programs and extracellular inhibitors of regeneration limit the efficacy of neurotrophic factor delivery for anatomical and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Thus, growth-stimulating factors will likely have to be combined with other treatment approaches to tap into the full potential of growth factor therapy for axonal regeneration. In addition, the temporal and spatial distribution of growth factors have to be tightly controlled to achieve biologically active concentrations, to allow for the chemotropic guidance of axons and to prevent adverse effects related to the widespread distribution of neurotrophic factors. Here, we will review the rationale for combinatorial treatments in axonal regeneration and summarize some recent progress in promoting axonal regeneration in the injured CNS using such approaches. PMID:22526621
Xie, Wenjun; Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the growth, development and maintenance of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Exogenous BDNF activates its membrane receptors at the axon terminal, and subsequently sends regulation signals to the cell body. To understand how BDNF signal propagates in neurons, it is important to follow the trafficking of BDNF after it is internalized at the axon terminal. Here we labeled BDNF with bright, photostable quantum dot (QD-BDNF) a...
Kadoya, Ken; Lu, Paul; Nguyen, Kenny; Lee-Kubli, Corinne; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Yao, Lin; Knackert, Joshua; Poplawski, Gunnar; Dulin, Jennifer N; Strobl, Hans; Takashima, Yoshio; Biane, Jeremy; Conner, James; Zhang, Su-Chun; Tuszynski, Mark H
The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor system in humans, yet robust regeneration of this projection after spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been accomplished. In murine models of SCI, we report robust corticospinal axon regeneration, functional synapse formation and improved skilled forelimb function after grafting multipotent neural progenitor cells into sites of SCI. Corticospinal regeneration requires grafts to be driven toward caudalized (spinal cord), rather than rostralized, fates. Fully mature caudalized neural grafts also support corticospinal regeneration. Moreover, corticospinal axons can emerge from neural grafts and regenerate beyond the lesion, a process that is potentially related to the attenuation of the glial scar. Rat corticospinal axons also regenerate into human donor grafts of caudal spinal cord identity. Collectively, these findings indicate that spinal cord 'replacement' with homologous neural stem cells enables robust regeneration of the corticospinal projection within and beyond spinal cord lesion sites, achieving a major unmet goal of SCI research and offering new possibilities for clinical translation.
Goncalves, Maria B; Malmqvist, Tony; Clarke, Earl; Hubens, Chantal J; Grist, John; Hobbs, Carl; Trigo, Diogo; Risling, Mårten; Angeria, Maria; Damberg, Peter; Carlstedt, Thomas P; Corcoran, Jonathan P T
Failure of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is mainly attributed to a lack of intrinsic neuronal growth programs and an inhibitory environment from a glial scar. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major negative regulator of neuronal regeneration and, as such, inhibiting its activity has been considered a therapeutic target for spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs). Using a novel model of rat cervical avulsion, we show that treatment with a retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) agonist results in locomotor and sensory recovery. Axonal regeneration from the severed roots into the SC could be seen by biotinylated dextran amine labeling. Light micrographs of the dorsal root entry zone show the peripheral nervous system (PNS)-CNS transition of regrown axons. RARβ agonist treatment also resulted in the absence of scar formation. Mechanism studies revealed that, in RARβ-agonist-treated neurons, PTEN activity is decreased by cytoplasmic phosphorylation and increased secretion in exosomes. These are taken up by astrocytes, resulting in hampered proliferation and causing them to arrange in a normal-appearing scaffold around the regenerating axons. Attribution of the glial modulation to neuronal PTEN in exosomes was demonstrated by the use of an exosome inhibitor in vivo and PTEN siRNA in vitro assays. The dual effect of RARβ signaling, both neuronal and neuronal-glial, results in axonal regeneration into the SC after dorsal root neurotmesis. Targeting this pathway may open new avenues for the treatment of SCIs. Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often result in permanent damage in the adult due to the very limited capacity of axonal regeneration. Intrinsic neuronal programs and the formation of a glial scar are the main obstacles. Here, we identify a single target, neuronal retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ), which modulates these two aspects of the postinjury physiological response. Activation of RARβ in the neuron inactivates phosphatase and tensin
Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia
Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259
B.E. Sayed-Tabatabaei; F. Eatesam; M. Talebi
Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) belongs to the Apocynaceae family and accumulates more than 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), of which two dimeric alkaloids Vinblastine and Vincristine have antineoplastic activity and are useful for treatment of various cancers. Therefore, the production of these drugs has been emphasized in plant tissue culture. In this research, 25 treatments of plant growth regulators to produce callus from leaf explants and seven treatments for regeneration of ca...
Hui, Subhra Prakash; Sengupta, Dhriti; Lee, Serene Gek Ping; Sen, Triparna; Kundu, Sudip; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ghosh, Sukla
Among the vertebrates, teleost and urodele amphibians are capable of regenerating their central nervous system. We have used zebrafish as a model to study spinal cord injury and regeneration. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord regeneration and information based on high density oligonucleotide microarray was not available. We have used a high density microarray to profile the temporal transcriptome dynamics during the entire phenomenon. A total of 3842 genes expressed differentially with significant fold changes during spinal cord regeneration. Cluster analysis revealed event specific dynamic expression of genes related to inflammation, cell death, cell migration, cell proliferation, neurogenesis, neural patterning and axonal regrowth. Spatio-temporal analysis of stat3 expression suggested its possible function in controlling inflammation and cell proliferation. Genes involved in neurogenesis and their dorso-ventral patterning (sox2 and dbx2) are differentially expressed. Injury induced cell proliferation is controlled by many cell cycle regulators and some are commonly expressed in regenerating fin, heart and retina. Expression pattern of certain pathway genes are identified for the first time during regeneration of spinal cord. Several genes involved in PNS regeneration in mammals like stat3, socs3, atf3, mmp9 and sox11 are upregulated in zebrafish SCI thus creating PNS like environment after injury. Our study provides a comprehensive genetic blue print of diverse cellular response(s) during regeneration of zebrafish spinal cord. The data highlights the importance of different event specific gene expression that could be better understood and manipulated further to induce successful regeneration in mammals.
Williams, D L
Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.
Kim, Daniel; Zai, Laila; Liang, Peng; Schaffling, Colleen; Ahlborn, David; Benowitz, Larry I
Although corticospinal tract axons cannot regenerate long distances after spinal cord injury, they are able to sprout collateral branches rostral to an injury site that can help form compensatory circuits in cases of incomplete lesions. We show here that inosine enhances the formation of compensatory circuits after a dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mature rats and improves coordinated limb use. Inosine is a naturally occurring metabolite of adenosine that crosses the cell membrane and, in neurons, activates Mst3b, a protein kinase that is part of a signal transduction pathway that regulates axon outgrowth. Compared to saline-treated controls, rats with dorsal hemisections that were treated with inosine showed three times as many synaptic contacts between corticospinal tract collaterals and long propriospinal interneurons that project from the cervical cord to the lumbar level. Inosine-treated rats also showed stronger serotonergic reinnervation of the lumbar cord than saline-treated controls, and performed well above controls in both open-field testing and a horizontal ladder rung-walking test. Inosine was equally effective whether delivered intracranially or intravenously, and has been shown to be safe for other indications in humans. Thus, inosine might be a useful therapeutic for improving outcome after spinal cord injury.
Full Text Available Although corticospinal tract axons cannot regenerate long distances after spinal cord injury, they are able to sprout collateral branches rostral to an injury site that can help form compensatory circuits in cases of incomplete lesions. We show here that inosine enhances the formation of compensatory circuits after a dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mature rats and improves coordinated limb use. Inosine is a naturally occurring metabolite of adenosine that crosses the cell membrane and, in neurons, activates Mst3b, a protein kinase that is part of a signal transduction pathway that regulates axon outgrowth. Compared to saline-treated controls, rats with dorsal hemisections that were treated with inosine showed three times as many synaptic contacts between corticospinal tract collaterals and long propriospinal interneurons that project from the cervical cord to the lumbar level. Inosine-treated rats also showed stronger serotonergic reinnervation of the lumbar cord than saline-treated controls, and performed well above controls in both open-field testing and a horizontal ladder rung-walking test. Inosine was equally effective whether delivered intracranially or intravenously, and has been shown to be safe for other indications in humans. Thus, inosine might be a useful therapeutic for improving outcome after spinal cord injury.
Couch, Jessica; Condron, Barry
In the developing CNS, commissural axons are initially attracted to the midline, but after crossing they acquire sensitivity to midline repellent cues which prevent re-crossing. Recent studies have shed new light on the mechanism by which commissural axons change their sensitivity to guidance cues after crossing the midline.
Ferraz Franco, Catarina; Santos, Romana; Varela Coelho, Ana
The molecular pathways that trigger the amazing intrinsic regenerative ability of echinoderm nervous system are still unknown. In order to approach this subject, a 2D-DIGE proteomic strategy was used, to screen proteome changes during neuronal regeneration in vivo, using starfish (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) as a model. A total of 528 proteins showed significant variations during radial nerve cord regeneration in both soluble and membrane protein-enriched fractions. Several functional classes of proteins known to be involved in axon regeneration events in other model organisms, such as chordates, were identified for the first time in the regenerating echinoderm nervous system. Unexpectedly, most of the identified proteins presented a molecular mass either higher or lower than expected. Such results suggest a functional modulation through protein post-translational modifications, such as proteolysis. Among these are proteins involved in cytoskeleton and microtubule regulators, axon guidance molecules and growth cone modulators, protein de novo synthesis machinery, RNA binding and transport, transcription factors, kinases, lipid signaling effectors and proteins with neuroprotective functions. In summary, the impact of proteolysis during regeneration events is here shown, although requiring further studies to detail on the mechanisms involving this post-transcriptional event on nervous system regeneration. The nervous systems of some organisms present a complete inability of neurons to regrow across a lesion site, which is the case of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Expanding our knowledge on how other animals regenerate their nervous system offers great potential for groundbreaking biomedical applications towards the enhancement of mammalian CNS regeneration. In order to approach this subject, a 2D-DIGE proteomic strategy was used for the first time, to screen the proteome changes during neuronal regeneration in vivo, using starfish (Asteroidea
Chang, Kun-Che; Hertz, Jonathan
Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies result in optic nerve degeneration and the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through complex signaling pathways. Although the mechanisms that regulate RGC development remain unclear, uncovering novel developmental pathways may support new strategies to regenerate the optic nerve or replace RGCs. Here we review recent studies that provide strong evidence that the Sry-related high-mobility-group C (SoxC) subfamily of transcription factors (TFs) are necessary and sufficient for axon guidance and RGC fate specification. These findings also uncover novel SoxC-dependent mechanisms that serve as master regulators during important steps of RGC development. For example, we review work showing that SoxC TFs regulate RGC axon guidance and direction through the optic chiasm towards their appropriate targets in the brain. We also review work demonstrating that Sox11 subcellular localization is, in part, controlled through small ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier (SUMO) and suggest compensatory cross-talk between Sox4 and Sox11. Furthermore, Sox4 overexpression is shown to positively drive RGC differentiation in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Finally, we discuss how these findings may contribute to the advancement of regenerative and cell-based therapies to treat glaucoma and other optic nerve neuropathies.
Subramanian, Narayan; Wetzel, Andrea; Dombert, Benjamin; Yadav, Preeti; Havlicek, Steven; Jablonka, Sibylle; Nassar, Mohammed A; Blum, Robert; Sendtner, Michael
Spontaneous neural activity promotes axon growth in many types of developing neurons, including motoneurons. In motoneurons from a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), defects in axonal growth and presynaptic function correlate with a reduced frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in axons which are mediated by N-type Ca(2+) channels. To characterize the mechanisms that initiate spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, we investigated the role of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). We found that low concentrations of the VGSC inhibitors tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) reduce the rate of axon growth in cultured embryonic mouse motoneurons without affecting their survival. STX was 5- to 10-fold more potent than TTX and Ca(2+) imaging confirmed that low concentrations of STX strongly reduce the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in somatic and axonal regions. These findings suggest that the Na(V)1.9, a VGSC that opens at low thresholds, could act upstream of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients. qPCR from cultured and laser-microdissected spinal cord motoneurons revealed abundant expression of Na(V)1.9. Na(V)1.9 protein is preferentially localized in axons and growth cones. Suppression of Na(V)1.9 expression reduced axon elongation. Motoneurons from Na(V)1.9(-/-) mice showed the reduced axon growth in combination with reduced spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in the soma and axon terminals. Thus, Na(V)1.9 function appears to be essential for activity-dependent axon growth, acting upstream of spontaneous Ca(2+) elevation through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Na(V)1.9 activation could therefore serve as a target for modulating axonal regeneration in motoneuron diseases such as SMA in which presynaptic activity of VGCCs is reduced.
Full Text Available ALCAM is a member of the cell adhesion molecule (CAM family which plays an important role during nervous system formation. We here show that the two neuron populations of developing dorsal root ganglia (DRG display ALCAM transiently on centrally and peripherally projecting axons during the two phases of axon outgrowth. To analyze the impact of ALCAM on cell adhesion and axon growth, DRG single cells were cultured on ALCAM-coated coverslips or on nanopatterns where ALCAM is presented in physiological amino-carboxyl terminal orientation at highly defined distances (29, 54, 70, 86, and 137 nm and where the interspaces are passivated to prevent unspecific protein deposition. Some axonal features (branching, lateral deviation showed density dependence whereas others (number of axons per neuron, various axon growth parameters turned out to be an all-or-nothing reaction. Time-lapse analyses revealed that ALCAM density has an impact on axon velocity and advance efficiency. The behavior of the sensory axon tip, the growth cone, partially depended on ALCAM density in a dose-response fashion (shape, dynamics, detachment while other features did not (size, complexity. Whereas axon growth was equally promoted whether ALCAM was presented at high (29 nm or low densities (86 nm, the attachment of non-neuronal cells depended on high ALCAM densities. The attachment of non-neuronal cells to the rather unspecific standard proteins presented by conventional implants designed to enhance axonal regeneration is a severe problem. Our findings point to ALCAM, presented as 86 nm pattern, for a promising candidate for the improvement of such implants since this pattern drives axon growth to its full extent while at the same time non-neuronal cell attachment is clearly reduced.
Cassandra R Blanchette
Full Text Available Netrin is a key axon guidance cue that orients axon growth during neural circuit formation. However, the mechanisms regulating netrin and its receptors in the extracellular milieu are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, LON-2/glypican, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, modulates UNC-6/netrin signaling and may do this through interactions with the UNC-40/DCC receptor. We show that developing axons misorient in the absence of LON-2/glypican when the SLT-1/slit guidance pathway is compromised and that LON-2/glypican functions in both the attractive and repulsive UNC-6/netrin pathways. We find that the core LON-2/glypican protein, lacking its heparan sulfate chains, and secreted forms of LON-2/glypican are functional in axon guidance. We also find that LON-2/glypican functions from the epidermal substrate cells to guide axons, and we provide evidence that LON-2/glypican associates with UNC-40/DCC receptor-expressing cells. We propose that LON-2/glypican acts as a modulator of UNC-40/DCC-mediated guidance to fine-tune axonal responses to UNC-6/netrin signals during migration.
Blanchette, Cassandra R; Perrat, Paola N; Thackeray, Andrea; Bénard, Claire Y
Netrin is a key axon guidance cue that orients axon growth during neural circuit formation. However, the mechanisms regulating netrin and its receptors in the extracellular milieu are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, LON-2/glypican, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, modulates UNC-6/netrin signaling and may do this through interactions with the UNC-40/DCC receptor. We show that developing axons misorient in the absence of LON-2/glypican when the SLT-1/slit guidance pathway is compromised and that LON-2/glypican functions in both the attractive and repulsive UNC-6/netrin pathways. We find that the core LON-2/glypican protein, lacking its heparan sulfate chains, and secreted forms of LON-2/glypican are functional in axon guidance. We also find that LON-2/glypican functions from the epidermal substrate cells to guide axons, and we provide evidence that LON-2/glypican associates with UNC-40/DCC receptor-expressing cells. We propose that LON-2/glypican acts as a modulator of UNC-40/DCC-mediated guidance to fine-tune axonal responses to UNC-6/netrin signals during migration.
Li, Wen-Yuan; Sun, Ping; Cheng, Yong-Xia
DPSN axons mediate and maintain a variety of normal spinal functions. Unsurprisingly, DPSN tracts have been shown to mediate functional recovery following SCI. KLF7 could contribute to CST axon plasticity after spinal cord injury. In the present study, we assessed whether KLF7 could effectively promote DPSN axon regeneration and synapse formation following SCI. An AAV-KLF7 construct was used to overexpress KLF7. In vitro, KLF7 and target proteins were successfully elevated and axonal outgrowth was enhanced. In vivo, young adult C57BL/6 mice received a T10 contusion followed by an AAV-KLF7 injection at the T7–9 levels above the lesion. Five weeks later, overexpression of KLF7 was expressed in DPSN. KLF7 and KLF7 target genes (NGF, TrkA, GAP43, and P0) were detectably increased in the injured spinal cord. Myelin sparring at the lesion site, DPSN axonal regeneration and synapse formation, muscle weight, motor endplate morphology, and functional parameters were all additionally improved by KLF7 treatment. Our findings suggest that KLF7 promotes DPSN axonal plasticity and the formation of synapses with motor neurons at the caudal spinal cord, leading to improved functional recovery and further supporting the potential of AAV-KLF7 as a therapeutic agent for spinal cord injury. PMID:28884027
Full Text Available DPSN axons mediate and maintain a variety of normal spinal functions. Unsurprisingly, DPSN tracts have been shown to mediate functional recovery following SCI. KLF7 could contribute to CST axon plasticity after spinal cord injury. In the present study, we assessed whether KLF7 could effectively promote DPSN axon regeneration and synapse formation following SCI. An AAV-KLF7 construct was used to overexpress KLF7. In vitro, KLF7 and target proteins were successfully elevated and axonal outgrowth was enhanced. In vivo, young adult C57BL/6 mice received a T10 contusion followed by an AAV-KLF7 injection at the T7–9 levels above the lesion. Five weeks later, overexpression of KLF7 was expressed in DPSN. KLF7 and KLF7 target genes (NGF, TrkA, GAP43, and P0 were detectably increased in the injured spinal cord. Myelin sparring at the lesion site, DPSN axonal regeneration and synapse formation, muscle weight, motor endplate morphology, and functional parameters were all additionally improved by KLF7 treatment. Our findings suggest that KLF7 promotes DPSN axonal plasticity and the formation of synapses with motor neurons at the caudal spinal cord, leading to improved functional recovery and further supporting the potential of AAV-KLF7 as a therapeutic agent for spinal cord injury.
Li, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Ying; Zhai, Feng-Guo; Sun, Ping; Cheng, Yong-Xia; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Wang, Zhen-Yu
DPSN axons mediate and maintain a variety of normal spinal functions. Unsurprisingly, DPSN tracts have been shown to mediate functional recovery following SCI. KLF7 could contribute to CST axon plasticity after spinal cord injury. In the present study, we assessed whether KLF7 could effectively promote DPSN axon regeneration and synapse formation following SCI. An AAV-KLF7 construct was used to overexpress KLF7. In vitro, KLF7 and target proteins were successfully elevated and axonal outgrowth was enhanced. In vivo, young adult C57BL/6 mice received a T10 contusion followed by an AAV-KLF7 injection at the T7-9 levels above the lesion. Five weeks later, overexpression of KLF7 was expressed in DPSN. KLF7 and KLF7 target genes (NGF, TrkA, GAP43, and P0) were detectably increased in the injured spinal cord. Myelin sparring at the lesion site, DPSN axonal regeneration and synapse formation, muscle weight, motor endplate morphology, and functional parameters were all additionally improved by KLF7 treatment. Our findings suggest that KLF7 promotes DPSN axonal plasticity and the formation of synapses with motor neurons at the caudal spinal cord, leading to improved functional recovery and further supporting the potential of AAV-KLF7 as a therapeutic agent for spinal cord injury.
Xu, Qi; Chen, Fang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiao; He, Jiping
In this paper, a miniaturized bioreactor for accelerating nerve growth is developed to investigate potentially bi-directional peripheral neural interface based on tissue engineering. The bioreactor consisting of two parallel chambers that are extended to conduct controlled trials for optimized neuronal culture. The chamber is used to improve the micro-environment of in vitro nerve regeneration in a CO2 incubator, whereas the process of axon stretch growth is performed by a computer controlled micro-motion system comprised of a linear motion table and a micro-stepper motor. This apparatus produces axon stretch growth by taking l μm step every 1 minute over 1000 iterations for 1mm elongation growth per day. Results show that axons from neonatal DRG explants are grown with unidirectional polarity with a robust regeneration over 5 days in the culture chamber, whereas micro-displacement measurement indicates a satisfactory accuracy and repeatability for the implementation of computer-controlled ASG.
Fatima, Nigar; Anis, Mohammad
An efficient, rapid and improved in vitro plant regeneration protocol has been established for Withania somnifera L. using shoot tip and nodal explants, excised from 15 days old aseptic seedlings. A range of cytokinins were investigated for multiple shoot regeneration. Of the three cytokinins, 6-benzyladenine (BA), Kinetin (Kin) and 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP) evaluated as supplement to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, BA at an optimal concentration of 2.5 μM was most effective in proliferating apical and axillary buds. The highest regeneration frequency (95 %) and number of shoots (36.1 ± 0.33) were obtained on MS medium fortified with BA (2.5 μM) and NAA (0.5 μM) from nodal segments. High frequency of rooting (100 %) was obtained in in vitro raised shoots when transferred to half-strength MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 μM). Histological sections revealed that additional shoot bud primordia were differentiated within the explants just underneath the suberized cells which appeared to be arrested in their development. The presence of additional bud primordia within the explants is thereby helpful to maximize the potential of this system. The regenerated plantlets with well developed shoots and roots were hardened successfully, established in earthen pots containing garden soil and maintained in greenhouse with 95 % survival rate.
David J. Moorhead; Coleman W. Dangerfield; M. Boyd Edwards
The economic performance of converting 13-year-old, overstocked (>3,000 trees per acre), naturally regenerated pine stands using precommercial thinning at a cost of $140 per acre was modeled for 25-, 35-, and 50-year rotations. The stand density was reduced to 283 trees per acre. Subsequent management scenarios recovered establishment and management costs through...
Simon, András; Tanaka, Elly M
Limb regeneration is observed in certain members of the animal phyla. Some animals keep this ability during their entire life while others lose it at some time during development. How do animals regenerate limbs? Is it possible to find unifying, conserved mechanisms of limb regeneration or have different species evolved distinct means of replacing a lost limb? How is limb regeneration similar or different to limb development? Studies on many organisms, including echinoderms, arthropods, and chordates have provided significant knowledge about limb regeneration. In this focus article, we concentrate on tetrapod limb regeneration as studied in three model amphibians: newts, axolotls, and frogs. We review recent progress on tissue interactions during limb regeneration, and place those findings into an evolutionary context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Muñoz, Rosana; Méndez-Olivos, Emilio E; Lee-Liu, Dasfne; Tapia, Victor S; Larraín, Juan
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages. This protocol can be used to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in nervous system regeneration, including neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and neurogenesis, extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms involved in axon regeneration, glial response and scar formation, and trophic factors. For experienced personnel, husbandry takes 1-2 months; SCI can be achieved in 5-15 min; and swimming recovery takes 20-30 d.
Goldshmit, Yona; Sztal, Tamar E; Jusuf, Patricia R; Hall, Thomas E; Nguyen-Chi, Mai; Currie, Peter D
.... The reasons for this interspecies difference in regenerative capacity remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a novel role for Fgf signaling during glial cell morphogenesis in promoting axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury...
Tedeschi, Andrea; Bradke, Frank
... development, as well as neurodegeneration after various insults to the adult nervous system. Interestingly, recent studies have also highlighted a role of DLK in promoting axon regeneration in diverse model systems...
Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning
was 3.7 mm/day with no obvious differences between myelinated and unmyelinated axons. This contrasted with previous claims of two to three times faster regeneration rates of unmyelinated as compared to myelinated fibres. The initial delay was 0.55 days. Fewer small neurons were labelled relative...... to large neurons after crush and regeneration than in controls, indicating that regeneration of small neurons was less complete than that of large ones. This contrasted with the fact that unmyelinated axons in the regenerated sural nerve after 74 days were only slightly reduced....
Sasidharan, Vidyanand; Marepally, Srujan; Elliott, Sarah A; Baid, Srishti; Lakshmanan, Vairavan; Nayyar, Nishtha; Bansal, Dhiru; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is crucial for multiple aspects of neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR-124 family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration. The miR-124 family (miR-124) is highly conserved in animals and regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation, yet its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known. We developed a novel method for delivering anti-miRs using liposomes for the functional knockdown of microRNAs. Smed-miR-124 knockdown revealed a key role for these microRNAs in neuronal organization during planarian brain regeneration. Our results also demonstrated an essential role for miR-124 in the generation of eye progenitors. Additionally, miR-124 regulates Smed-slit-1, which encodes an axon guidance protein, either by targeting slit-1 mRNA or, potentially, by modulating the canonical Notch pathway. Together, our results reveal a role for miR-124 in regulating the regeneration of a functional brain and visual system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Cho, In Ha; Panzera, Lauren C; Chin, Morven; Hoppa, Michael B
Neurotransmitter release depends on voltage-gated Na + channels (Na v s) to propagate an action potential (AP) successfully from the axon hillock to a synaptic terminal. Unmyelinated sections of axon are very diverse structures encompassing branch points and numerous presynaptic terminals with undefined molecular partners of Na + channels. Using optical recordings of Ca 2+ and membrane voltage, we demonstrate here that Na + channel β2 subunits (Na v β2s) are required to prevent AP propagation failures across the axonal arborization of cultured rat hippocampal neurons (mixed male and female). When Na v β2 expression was reduced, we identified two specific phenotypes: (1) membrane excitability and AP-evoked Ca 2+ entry were impaired at synapses and (2) AP propagation was severely compromised with >40% of axonal branches no longer responding to AP-stimulation. We went on to show that a great deal of electrical signaling heterogeneity exists in AP waveforms across the axonal arborization independent of axon morphology. Therefore, Na v β2 is a critical regulator of axonal excitability and synaptic function in unmyelinated axons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels are fulcrums of neurotransmission that convert electrical inputs into chemical outputs in the form of vesicle fusion at synaptic terminals. However, the role of the electrical signal, the presynaptic action potential (AP), in modulating synaptic transmission is less clear. What is the fidelity of a propagating AP waveform in the axon and what molecules shape it throughout the axonal arborization? Our work identifies several new features of AP propagation in unmyelinated axons: (1) branches of a single axonal arborization have variable AP waveforms independent of morphology, (2) Na + channel β2 subunits modulate AP-evoked Ca 2+ -influx, and (3) β2 subunits maintain successful AP propagation across the axonal arbor. These findings are relevant to understanding the flow of excitation in the
Faust, Anne; Kandakatla, Apoorva; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Ren, Tanchen; Huleihel, Luai; Hussey, George; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Johnson, Scott; Badylak, Stephen; Steketee, Michael
Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses. Extracellular matrix hydrogels are liquid at room temperature and enable minimally invasive extracellular matrix injections into central nervous system tissues, before gelation at 37℃. However, few studies have analyzed how extracellular matrix hydrogels influence primary central nervous system neuron survival and growth, and whether central nervous system and non-central nervous system extracellular matrix specificity is critical to neuronal responses. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels increase both primary hippocampal neuron survival and neurite growth to similar or even greater extents, suggesting extracellular matrix from non-homologous tissue sources, such as urinary bladder matrix-extracellular matrix, may be a more economical and safer alternative to developing central nervous system extracellular matrices for central nervous system applications. Additionally, we show matrix-bound vesicles derived from urinary bladder extracellular matrix are endocytosed by hippocampal neurons and positively regulate primary hippocampal neuron neurite growth. Matrix-bound vesicles carry protein and RNA cargos, including noncoding RNAs and miRNAs that map to the human genome and are known to regulate cellular processes. Thus, urinary bladder matrix-bound vesicles provide natural and transfectable cargoes which offer new experimental tools and therapeutic applications to study and treat central nervous system neuron injury.
Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Patel, Samik P; Louro, Jack; Andrade, Christian M; Sanchez, Andre R; Pearse, Damien D
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation exhibits significant potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair and its use as a therapeutic modality has now progressed to clinical trials for subacute and chronic human SCI. Although SC implants provide a receptive environment for axonal regrowth and support functional recovery in a number of experimental SCI models, axonal regeneration is largely limited to local systems and the behavioral improvements are modest without additional combinatory approaches. In the current study we investigated whether the concurrent delivery of the polyamine putrescine, started either 30 min or 1 week after SCI, could enhance the efficacy of SCs when implanted subacutely (1 week after injury) into the contused rat spinal cord. Polyamines are ubiquitous organic cations that play an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell division, cytoskeletal organization, and cell differentiation. We show that the combination of putrescine with SCs provides a significant increase in implant size, an enhancement in axonal (sensory and serotonergic) sparing and/or growth, and improved open field locomotion after SCI, as compared to SC implantation alone. These findings demonstrate that polyamine supplementation can augment the effectiveness of SCs when used as a therapeutic approach for subacute SCI repair.
Riley, David Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Deister, Curt A; Pollins, Alonda C; Cardwell, Nancy L; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Does, Mark D; Dortch, Richard D; Bamba, Ravinder; Shack, Robert Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P
The management of peripheral nerve injuries remains a large challenge for plastic surgeons. With the inability to fuse axonal endings, results after microsurgical nerve repair have been inconsistent. Our current nerve repair strategies rely upon the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/d). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated as a potential axonal fusion agent; however, the percentage of axonal fusion has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to identify a PEG delivery device to standardize outcomes after attempted axonal fusion with PEG. We used a rat sciatic nerve injury model in which we completely transected and repaired the left sciatic nerve to evaluate the efficacy of PEG fusion over a span of 12 weeks. In addition, we evaluated the effectiveness of a delivery device's ability to optimize results after PEG fusion. We found that PEG rapidly (within minutes) restores axonal continuity as assessed by electrophysiology, fluorescent retrograde tracer, and diffusion tensor imaging. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that motor axon counts are significantly increased at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks postoperatively in PEG-treated animals. Furthermore, PEG restored behavioral functions up to 50% compared with animals that received the criterion standard epineurial repair (control animals). The ability of PEG to rapidly restore nerve function after neurotmesis could have vast implications on the clinical management of traumatic injuries to peripheral nerves.
Hendry, J Michael; Alvarez-Veronesi, M Cecilia; Placheta, Eva; Zhang, Jennifer J; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H
Attenuation of the growth supportive environment within the distal nerve stump after delayed peripheral nerve repair profoundly limits nerve regeneration. Levels of the potent Schwann cell mitogen neuregulin and its receptor ErbB2 decline during this period, but the regenerative impact of this change is not completely understood. Herein, the ErbB2 receptor pathway is inhibited with the selective monoclonal antibody Herceptin (trastuzumab) to determine its significance in regulating acute and chronic regeneration in a rat hindlimb. The common peroneal nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats was transected and repaired immediately or after 4 months of chronic denervation, followed by administration of Herceptin or saline solution. Regenerated motor and sensory neurons were counted using a retrograde tracer 1, 2, or 4, weeks after repair. Distal myelinated axon outgrowth after 4 weeks was quantified using histomorphometry. Immunofluorescent imaging was used to evaluate Schwann cell proliferation and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation in the regenerating nerves. Herceptin administration increased the rate of motor and sensory neuron regeneration and the number of proliferating Schwann cells in the distal stump after the first week. Herceptin also increased the number of myelinated axons that regenerated 4 weeks after immediate and delayed repair. Reduced EGFR activation was observed using immunofluorescent imaging. Inhibition of the ErbB2 receptor with Herceptin unexpectedly enhances nerve regeneration after acute and delayed nerve repair. This finding raises the possibility of using targeted molecular therapies to improve outcomes of peripheral nerve injuries. The mechanism may involve a novel inhibitory association between ErbB2 and EGFR. Ann Neurol 2016;80:112-126. © 2016 American Neurological Association.
M. Talebi; F. Etesam; B.E. Sayed-Tabatabaei; Gh. Khaksar
Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L., Apocynaceae) contains more than 130 different terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), of which two dimeric alkaloids, Vinblastine and Vincristine, have antineoplastic activity and are useful in treatment of various cancers. Specific production of some alkaloids in differentiated tissues such as leaf and stem led to use direct regeneration of explants in order to increase the production of these important alkaloids in the plant. In this research, 30 combinations ...
allergic encephalotr^yelitis (E.A.E,), may be induced 32 when homogenates of CNS tissue are parenterally administered (Paterson, 1966; Feringa , et. al... Feringa , et. al., 1975; Willenborg, et. al., 1977). Since damage to the spinal cord may release potentially antigenic substances into the blood...it was hypothesized that autoimmune response analogous to E.A.E. may occur (Berry and Riches, 1974; Feringa , et. al., 1975). It was further suggested
error of the mean (SEM). * pɘ.05; ** pɘ.0001 based on a One-way ANOVA test, followed by a Turkey -Kramer Multiple Comparison post-test using InStat...Plunkett Keystone Conference “Growing to Extremes: Cell Biology and Pathology of Axons”, Tahoe City, CA in March 10-15, 2013. A. Tapanes
Court, Felipe A; Alvarez, Jaime
Here we propose a model of a peripheral axon with a great deal of autonomy from its cell body-the autonomous axon-but with a substantial dependence on its ensheathing Schwann cell (SC), the axon-SC unit. We review evidence in several fields and show that (i) axons can extend sprouts and grow without the concurrence of the cell body, but regulated by SCs; (ii) axons synthesize their proteins assisted by SCs that supply them with ribosomes and, probably, with mRNAs by way of exosomes; (iii) the molecular organization of the axoplasm, i.e., its phenotype, is regulated by the SC, as illustrated by the axonal microtubular content, which is down-regulated by the SC; and (iv) the axon has a program for self-destruction that is boosted by the SC. The main novelty of this model axon-SC unit is that it breaks with the notion that all proteins of the nerve cell are specified by its own nucleus. The notion of a collaborative specification of the axoplasm by more than one nucleus, which we present here, opens a new dimension in the understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and is also a frame of reference to understand other tissues or cell associations.
Pappu, Kartik S; Zipursky, S Lawrence
The secreted signal Slit and its three receptors, Robo1-3, regulate axon guidance in the Drosophila nervous system. Differences in expression and structure of Robo paralogs contribute to diversifying growth cone responses to a common ligand. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simons, Mikael; Nave, Klaus-Armin
Myelinated nerve fibers have evolved to enable fast and efficient transduction of electrical signals in the nervous system. To act as an electric insulator, the myelin sheath is formed as a multilamellar membrane structure by the spiral wrapping and subsequent compaction of the oligodendroglial plasma membrane around central nervous system (CNS) axons. Current evidence indicates that the myelin sheath is more than an inert insulating membrane structure. Oligodendrocytes are metabolically active and functionally connected to the subjacent axon via cytoplasmic-rich myelinic channels for movement of macromolecules to and from the internodal periaxonal space under the myelin sheath. This review summarizes our current understanding of how myelin is generated and also the role of oligodendrocytes in supporting the long-term integrity of myelinated axons. PMID:26101081
Zhou, Zhiwen; Tanaka, Kenji F; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji; Koyama, Ryuta
Spatiotemporal regulation of axonal branching and elongation is essential in the development of refined neural circuits. cAMP is a key regulator of axonal growth; however, whether and how intracellular cAMP regulates axonal branching and elongation remain unclear, mainly because tools to spatiotemporally manipulate intracellular cAMP levels have been lacking. To overcome this issue, we utilized photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), which produces cAMP in response to blue-light exposure. In primary cultures of dentate granule cells transfected with PAC, short-term elevation of intracellular cAMP levels induced axonal branching but not elongation, whereas long-term cAMP elevation induced both axonal branching and elongation. The temporal dynamics of intracellular cAMP levels regulated axonal branching and elongation through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), respectively. Thus, using PAC, our study for the first time reveals that temporal cAMP dynamics could regulate axonal branching and elongation via different signaling pathways.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A collection of in vitro evidence has demonstrated that Notch signaling plays a key role in the growth of neurites in differentiated neurons. However, the effects of Notch signaling on axon outgrowth in an in vivo condition remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the neural tubes of HH10-11 chick embryos were in ovo electroporated with various Notch transgenes of activating or inhibiting Notch signaling, and then their effects on commissural axon outgrowth across the floor plate midline in the chick developing central nerve system were investigated. Our results showed that forced expression of Notch intracellular domain, constitutively active form of RBPJ, or full-length Hes1 in the rostral hindbrain, diencephalon and spinal cord at stage HH10-11 significantly inhibited commissural axon outgrowth. On the other hand, inhibition of Notch signaling by ectopically expressing a dominant-negative form of RBPJ promoted commissural axonal growth along the circumferential axis. Further results revealed that these Notch signaling-mediated axon outgrowth defects may be not due to the alteration of axon guidance since commissural axon marker TAG1 was present in the axons in floor plate midline, and also not result from the changes in cell fate determination of commissural neurons since the expression of postmitotic neuron marker Tuj1 and specific commissural markers TAG1 and Pax7 was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We first used an in vivo system to provide evidence that forced Notch signaling negatively regulates commissural axon outgrowth.
Brzeszczyńska, Joanna; Meyer, Angelika; McGregor, Robin; Schilb, Alain; Degen, Simone; Tadini, Valentina; Johns, Neil; Langen, Ramon; Schols, Annemie; Glass, David J.; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Ross, James A.; Fearon, Kenneth C.H.; Greig, Carolyn A.
Abstract Background Sarcopenia is defined as the age‐related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. While all humans lose muscle with age, 2–5% of elderly adults develop functional consequences (disabilities). The aim of this study was to investigate muscle myogenesis in healthy elderly adults, with or without sarcopenia, compared with middle‐aged controls using both in vivo and in vitro approaches to explore potential biomarker or causative molecular pathways associated with sarcopenic versus non‐sarcopenic skeletal muscle phenotypes during ageing. Methods Biomarkers of multiple molecular pathways associated with muscle regeneration were analysed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in quadriceps muscle samples obtained from healthy elderly sarcopenic (HSE, n = 7) or non‐sarcopenic (HENS, n = 21) and healthy middle‐aged control (HMC, n = 22) groups. An in vitro system of myogenesis (using myoblasts from human donors aged 17–83 years) was used to mimic the environmental challenges of muscle regeneration over time. Results The muscle biopsies showed evidence of satellite cell activation in HENS (Pax3, P HSE biopsy samples showed satellite cell activation (Pax7, P HSE group. In contrast, there was 10‐fold higher upregulation of HSPA1A a stress‐induced chaperone acting upon misfolded proteins in HSE compared with the HENS group. Conclusions Both pathological and adaptive processes are active in skeletal muscle during healthy ageing. Muscle regeneration pathways are activated during healthy ageing, but there is evidence of dysregulation in sarcopenia. In addition, increased cellular stress, with an impaired oxidative‐stress and mis‐folded protein response (HSPA1A), may be associated with the development of sarcopenia. The in vitro system of young and old myoblasts replicated some of the differences between young and old muscle. PMID:29214748
Canty, A J; Murphy, M
The great repertoire of movements in higher order mammals comes courtesy of the corticospinal tract (CST) which is able to initiate precise movement of the entire musculature of the axial and limb muscle groups. It forms the longest axonal trajectory in the mammalian central nervous system and its axons must navigate the entire length of the central nervous system--from its origins in the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex down through the cerebral peduncles and brainstem and along the entire length of the spinal cord. This period of navigation is incredibly complex, and relies upon the coordinated regulation of a collection of molecular guidance cues - coming from all of the known major families of guidance cues - the ephrins, slits, Netrins and Semaphorins - that work together to steer the growing axonal tips through the brain and spinal cord. As such a long tract, the CST forms an excellent experimental model to investigate the nature of molecular cues that sequentially guide axons through the central nervous system. Using the rodent as a model system, this review discusses each step of axonal guidance through the major brain regions--starting from the decision to grow ventrally out of the cortical plate to the eventual activity-dependent refinement of circuitry in the spinal grey matter. In recent years, the identification of these guidance cues and their proposed mode of action is beginning to give us a picture at a molecular level of how the CST is guided so accurately over such a long distance.
Niwa, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Fumio; Tomabechi, Yuri; Aoki, Mari; Shigematsu, Hideki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yamagata, Atsushi; Fukai, Shuya; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Goshima, Yoshio; Shirouzu, Mikako; Nitta, Ryo
Microtubule associated protein Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) regulates neuronal polarity in developing neurons through interactions with tubulins or microtubules. However, how CRMP2 promotes axonal formation by affecting microtubule behavior remains unknown. This study aimed to obtain the structural basis for CRMP2-tubulin/microtubule interaction in the course of axonogenesis. The X-ray structural studies indicated that the main interface to the soluble tubulin-dimer is the last helix H19 of CRMP2 that is distinct from the known C-terminal tail-mediated interaction with assembled microtubules. In vitro structural and functional studies also suggested that the H19-mediated interaction promoted the rapid formation of GTP-state microtubules directly, which is an important feature of the axon. Consistently, the H19 mutants disturbed axon elongation in chick neurons, and failed to authorize the structural features for axonal microtubules in Caenorhabditis elegans. Thus, CRMP2 induces effective axonal microtubule formation through H19-mediated interactions with a soluble tubulin-dimer allowing axonogenesis to proceed.
Soumya S Yandamuri
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system (CNS disease characterized by chronic neuroinflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. Infiltration of activated lymphocytes and myeloid cells are thought to be primarily responsible for white matter damage and axonopathy. Over time, this neurologic damage manifests clinically as debilitating motor and cognitive symptoms. Existing MS therapies focus on symptom relief and delay of disease progression through reduction of neuroinflammation. However, long-term strategies to remyelinate, protect, or regenerate axons have remained elusive, posing a challenge to treating progressive forms of MS. Preclinical mouse models and techniques such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and genomic and proteomic analysis have provided advances in our understanding of discrete time-points of pathology following disease induction. More recently, in vivo and in situ two-photon microscopy (2P has made it possible to visualize continuous real-time cellular behavior and structural changes occurring within the CNS during neuropathology. Research utilizing 2P imaging to study axonopathy in neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease has focused on five areas: (1 axonal morphologic changes (2 organelle transport and health, (3 relationship to inflammation, (4 neuronal excitotoxicity, and (5 regenerative therapies. 2P imaging may also be used to identify novel therapeutic targets via identification and clarification of dynamic cellular and molecular mechanisms of axonal regeneration and remyelination. Here, we review tools that have made 2P accessible for imaging neuropathologies and advances in our understanding of axonal degeneration and repair in preclinical models of demyelinating diseases.
Yandamuri, Soumya S; Lane, Thomas E
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by chronic neuroinflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. Infiltration of activated lymphocytes and myeloid cells are thought to be primarily responsible for white matter damage and axonopathy. Over time, this neurologic damage manifests clinically as debilitating motor and cognitive symptoms. Existing MS therapies focus on symptom relief and delay of disease progression through reduction of neuroinflammation. However, long-term strategies to remyelinate, protect, or regenerate axons have remained elusive, posing a challenge to treating progressive forms of MS. Preclinical mouse models and techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and genomic and proteomic analysis have provided advances in our understanding of discrete time-points of pathology following disease induction. More recently, in vivo and in situ two-photon (2P) microscopy has made it possible to visualize continuous real-time cellular behavior and structural changes occurring within the CNS during neuropathology. Research utilizing 2P imaging to study axonopathy in neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease has focused on five areas: (1) axonal morphologic changes, (2) organelle transport and health, (3) relationship to inflammation, (4) neuronal excitotoxicity, and (5) regenerative therapies. 2P imaging may also be used to identify novel therapeutic targets via identification and clarification of dynamic cellular and molecular mechanisms of axonal regeneration and remyelination. Here, we review tools that have made 2P accessible for imaging neuropathologies and advances in our understanding of axonal degeneration and repair in preclinical models of demyelinating diseases.
Ye, Yuan; Yuan, Yi; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua
In plastic and reconstructive surgery, adipose tissue is widely used as effective filler for tissue defects. Strategies for treating soft tissue deficiency, which include free adipose tissue grafts, use of hyaluronic acid, collagen injections, and implantation of synthetic materials, have several clinical limitations. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, researchers have recently utilized tissue engineering chambers to produce large volumes of engineered vascularized fat tissue. However, the process of growing fat tissue in a chamber is still relatively limited, and can result in unpredictable or dissatisfactory final tissue volumes. Therefore, detailed understanding of the process is both necessary and urgent. Many studies have shown that mechanical force can change the function of cells via mechanotransduction. Here, we hypothesized that, besides the inflammatory response, one of the key factors to control the regeneration of vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber might be the balance of mechanical forces. To test our hypothesis, we intend to change the balance of forces by means of measures in order to make the equilibrium point in favor of the direction of regeneration. If those measures proved to be feasible, they could be applied in clinical practice to engineer vascularized adipose tissue of predictable size and shape, which would in turn help in the advancement of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Avis [U of Maryland, Dept of Biology
Spinal injury is most frequent in young healthy men, desperate to walk. Most treatments have focused on regeneration of the injured axons, but no one has as yet achieved success with this approach. However, in the lamprey, a primitive fish with a spinal cord having all the critical features of the human spinal cored, spinal injury is followed by complete regeneration of injured axons. Additionally, the animal recovers the ability to swim, and in many, the swimming is normal. Unfortunately, in most others, it is highly abnormal. This talk will review evidence from the abnormal regeneration, why it bespeaks difficulties heretofore not considered, and suggest an alternate approach for the near future. In so doing, the speaker will introduce the normal function of the spinal cord, what happens in normal and abnormal regeneration, and the new techniques that employ methods from neuromorphic engineering, a synthesis of neuroscience and engineering to engineer smart devices.
Zhu, Lei; Wang, Kai; Ma, Teng; Huang, Liangliang; Xia, Bing; Zhu, Shu; Yang, Yafeng; Liu, Zhongyang; Quan, Xin; Luo, Kai; Kong, Deling; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing
The nerve conduit with biofunctionalities can regulate neurite outgrowth, as well as the migration, proliferation, and myelination activity of Schwann cells. In the present study, polycaprolactone (PCL) conduits are coated with Naphthalene-phenylalanine-phenylalanine-glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic (Nap-FFGRGD) and Naphthalene-phenylalanine-phenylalanine-glycine-cysteine-aspartic-proline-glycine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (Nap-FFGCDPGYIGSR) by self-assembly. In vitro studies demonstrate that arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) and tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) are capable of synergistically enhancing the ability of PCL to support the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as increasing neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglions explants. This synergistic effect may occur via the activation of both the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathways. RGD/YIGSR modifications demonstrate beneficial effects across a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in axonal regeneration and functional recovery. In addition, increased vascularization is observed in the RGD/YIGSR-PCL group, which might contribute to their beneficial effects on nerve regeneration. These findings indicate the potential of the RGD/YIGSR-PCL conduit to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery, making the RGD/YIGSR-PCL conduit an attractive candidate for the treatment of a critical nerve defect. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Franz, Steffen; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin
During the past decades, new insights into mechanisms that limit plasticity and functional recovery after spinal cord injury have spurred the development of novel approaches to enhance axonal regeneration and rearrangement of spared circuitry. Gene therapy may provide one means to address mechanisms that underlie the insufficient regenerative response of injured neurons and can also be used to identify factors important for axonal growth. Several genetic approaches aimed to modulate the environment of injured axons, for example by localized expression of growth factors, to enhance axonal sprouting and regeneration and to guide regenerating axons towards their target have been described. In addition, genetic modification of injured neurons via intraparenchymal injection, or via retrograde transport of viral vectors has been used to manipulate the intrinsic growth capacity of injured neurons. In this review we will summarize some of the progress and limitations of cell transplantation and gene therapy to enhance axonal bridging and regeneration across a lesion site, and to maximize the function, collateral sprouting and connectivity of spared axonal systems. PMID:21281633
Full Text Available Reconstructive transplantation such as extremity and face transplantation is a viable treatment option for select patients with devastating tissue loss. Sensorimotor recovery is a critical determinant of overall success of such transplants. Although motor function recovery has been extensively studied, mechanisms of sensory re-innervation are not well established. Recent clinical reports of face transplants confirm progressive sensory improvement even in cases where optimal repair of sensory nerves was