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Sample records for regulates activity-dependent spine

  1. Activity-Dependent Exocytosis of Lysosomes Regulates the Structural Plasticity of Dendritic Spines.

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    Padamsey, Zahid; McGuinness, Lindsay; Bardo, Scott J; Reinhart, Marcia; Tong, Rudi; Hedegaard, Anne; Hart, Michael L; Emptage, Nigel J

    2017-01-04

    Lysosomes have traditionally been viewed as degradative organelles, although a growing body of evidence suggests that they can function as Ca 2+ stores. Here we examined the function of these stores in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We found that back-propagating action potentials (bpAPs) could elicit Ca 2+ release from lysosomes in the dendrites. This Ca 2+ release triggered the fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane, resulting in the release of Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), an enzyme involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling and synaptic plasticity. Inhibition of either lysosomal Ca 2+ signaling or Cathepsin B release prevented the maintenance of dendritic spine growth induced by Hebbian activity. This impairment could be rescued by exogenous application of active MMP-9. Our findings suggest that activity-dependent exocytosis of Cathepsin B from lysosomes regulates the long-term structural plasticity of dendritic spines by triggering MMP-9 activation and ECM remodelling. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines.

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    Goo, Marisa S; Sancho, Laura; Slepak, Natalia; Boassa, Daniela; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Bloodgood, Brenda L; Patrick, Gentry N

    2017-08-07

    In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites. We also find trafficking of lysosomes is correlated with synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors. Strikingly, lysosomes traffic to dendritic spines in an activity-dependent manner and can be recruited to individual spines in response to local activation. These data indicate the position of lysosomes is regulated by synaptic activity and thus plays an instructive role in the turnover of synaptic membrane proteins. © 2017 Goo et al.

  3. Long lasting protein synthesis- and activity-dependent spine shrinkage and elimination after synaptic depression.

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    Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés

    Full Text Available Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation.

  4. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

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    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  5. Activity-dependent astrocyte swelling is mediated by pH-regulating mechanisms.

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    Larsen, Brian Roland; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-10-01

    During neuronal activity in the mammalian brain, the K + released into the synaptic space is initially buffered by the astrocytic compartment. In parallel, the extracellular space (ECS) shrinks, presumably due to astrocytic cell swelling. With the Na + /K + /2Cl - cotransporter and the Kir4.1/AQP4 complex not required for the astrocytic cell swelling in the hippocampus, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity-dependent ECS shrinkage have remained unresolved. To identify these molecular mechanisms, we employed ion-sensitive microelectrodes to measure changes in ECS, [K + ] o and [H + ] o /pH o during electrical stimulation of rat hippocampal slices. Transporters and receptors responding directly to the K + and glutamate released into the extracellular space (the K + /Cl - cotransporter, KCC, glutamate transporters and G protein-coupled receptors) did not modulate the extracellular space dynamics. The HCO3--transporting mechanism, which in astrocytes mainly constitutes the electrogenic Na + / HCO3- cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), is activated by the K + -mediated depolarization of the astrocytic membrane. Inhibition of this transporter reduced the ECS shrinkage by ∼25% without affecting the K + transients, pointing to NBCe1 as a key contributor to the stimulus-induced astrocytic cell swelling. Inhibition of the monocarboxylate cotransporters (MCT), like-wise, reduced the ECS shrinkage by ∼25% without compromising the K + transients. Isosmotic reduction of extracellular Cl - revealed a requirement for this ion in parts of the ECS shrinkage. Taken together, the stimulus-evoked astrocytic cell swelling does not appear to occur as a direct effect of the K + clearance, as earlier proposed, but partly via the pH-regulating transport mechanisms activated by the K + -induced astrocytic depolarization and the activity-dependent metabolism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates Activity-Dependent Membrane Trafficking and Trans-Synaptic Signaling Mediating Synaptic Remodeling

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    Sears, James C.; Broadie, Kendal

    2018-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. The disease arises through loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which normally exhibits peak expression levels in early-use critical periods, and is required for activity-dependent synaptic remodeling during this transient developmental window. FMRP canonically binds mRNA to repress protein translation, with targets that regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, membrane trafficking, and trans-synaptic signaling. We focus here on recent advances emerging in these three areas from the Drosophila disease model. In the well-characterized central brain mushroom body (MB) olfactory learning/memory circuit, FMRP is required for activity-dependent synaptic remodeling of projection neurons innervating the MB calyx, with function tightly restricted to an early-use critical period. FMRP loss is phenocopied by conditional removal of FMRP only during this critical period, and rescued by FMRP conditional expression only during this critical period. Consistent with FXS hyperexcitation, FMRP loss defects are phenocopied by heightened sensory experience and targeted optogenetic hyperexcitation during this critical period. FMRP binds mRNA encoding Drosophila ESCRTIII core component Shrub (human CHMP4 homolog) to restrict Shrub translation in an activity-dependent mechanism only during this same critical period. Shrub mediates endosomal membrane trafficking, and perturbing Shrub expression is known to interfere with neuronal process pruning. Consistently, FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression targeted to projection neurons similarly causes endosomal membrane trafficking defects within synaptic boutons, and genetic reduction of Shrub strikingly rescues Drosophila FXS model defects. In parallel work on the well-characterized giant fiber (GF) circuit, FMRP limits iontophoretic dye loading into central interneurons, demonstrating an FMRP role controlling core neuronal properties through the

  7. Adenosine: an activity-dependent axonal signal regulating MAP kinase and proliferation in developing Schwann cells.

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    Stevens, Beth; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fields, R Douglas

    2004-02-01

    Nonsynaptic release of ATP from electrically stimulated dorsal root gangion (DRG) axons inhibits Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and arrests SC development at the premyelinating stage, but the specific types of purinergic receptor(s) and intracellular signaling pathways involved in this form of neuron-glia communication are not known. Recent research shows that adenosine is a neuron-glial transmitter between axons and myelinating glia of the CNS. The present study investigates the possibility that adenosine might have a similar function in communicating between axons and premyelinating SCs. Using a combination of pharmacological and molecular approaches, we found that mouse SCs in culture express functional adenosine receptors and ATP receptors, a far more complex array of purinergic receptors than thought previously. Adenosine, but not ATP, activates ERK/MAPK through stimulation of cAMP-linked A2(A) adenosine receptors. Both ATP and adenosine inhibit proliferation of SCs induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), via mechanisms that are partly independent. In contrast to ATP, adenosine failed to inhibit the differentiation of SCs to the O4+ stage. This indicates that, in addition to ATP, adenosine is an activity-dependent signaling molecule between axons and premyelinating Schwann cells, but that electrical activity, acting through adenosine, has opposite effects on the differentiation of myelinating glia in the PNS and CNS.

  8. miR-132 Regulates Dendritic Spine Structure by Direct Targeting of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 mRNA.

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    Jasińska, Magdalena; Miłek, Jacek; Cymerman, Iwona A; Łęski, Szymon; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Dziembowska, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Mir-132 is a neuronal activity-regulated microRNA that controls the morphology of dendritic spines and neuronal transmission. Similar activities have recently been attributed to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an extrasynaptic protease. In the present study, we provide evidence that miR-132 directly regulates MMP-9 mRNA in neurons to modulate synaptic plasticity. With the use of luciferase reporter system, we show that miR-132 binds to the 3'UTR of MMP-9 mRNA to regulate its expression in neurons. The overexpression of miR-132 in neurons reduces the level of endogenous MMP-9 protein secretion. In synaptoneurosomes, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced signaling stimulates the dissociation of miR-132 from polyribosomal fractions and shifts it towards the messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP)-containing fraction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the overexpression of miR-132 in the cultured hippocampal neurons from Fmr1 KO mice that have increased synaptic MMP-9 level provokes enlargement of the dendritic spine heads, a process previously implicated in enhanced synaptic plasticity. We propose that activity-dependent miR-132 regulates structural plasticity of dendritic spines through matrix metalloproteinase 9.

  9. Activity-dependent self-regulation of viscous length scales in biological systems

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    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The cellular cortex, which is a highly viscous thin cytoplasmic layer just below the cell membrane, controls the cell's mechanical properties, which can be characterized by a hydrodynamic length scale ℓ . Cells actively regulate ℓ via the activity of force-generating molecules, such as myosin II. Here we develop a general theory for such systems through a coarse-grained hydrodynamic approach including activity in the static description of the system providing an experimentally accessible parameter and elucidate the detailed mechanism of how a living system can actively self-regulate its hydrodynamic length scale, controlling the rigidity of the system. Remarkably, we find that ℓ , as a function of activity, behaves universally and roughly inversely proportional to the activity of the system. Our theory rationalizes a number of experimental findings on diverse systems, and comparison of our theory with existing experimental data shows good agreement.

  10. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

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    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Activity-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of GAD Expression in a Homeostatic Fashion Is Mediated by BDNF-Dependent and Independent Pathways

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    Hanno-Iijima, Yoko; Tanaka, Masami; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity, or synaptic scaling, is a mechanism that tunes neuronal transmission to compensate for prolonged, excessive changes in neuronal activity. Both excitatory and inhibitory neurons undergo homeostatic changes based on synaptic transmission strength, which could effectively contribute to a fine-tuning of circuit activity. However, gene regulation that underlies homeostatic synaptic plasticity in GABAergic (GABA, gamma aminobutyric) neurons is still poorly understood. The present study demonstrated activity-dependent dynamic scaling in which NMDA-R (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) activity regulated the expression of GABA synthetic enzymes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67). Results revealed that activity-regulated BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) release is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity-dependent up-scaling of these GAD isoforms. Bidirectional forms of activity-dependent GAD expression require both BDNF-dependent and BDNF-independent pathways, both triggered by NMDA-R activity. Additional results indicated that these two GAD genes differ in their responsiveness to chronic changes in neuronal activity, which could be partially caused by differential dependence on BDNF. In parallel to activity-dependent bidirectional scaling in GAD expression, the present study further observed that a chronic change in neuronal activity leads to an alteration in neurotransmitter release from GABAergic neurons in a homeostatic, bidirectional fashion. Therefore, the differential expression of GAD65 and 67 during prolonged changes in neuronal activity may be implicated in some aspects of bidirectional homeostatic plasticity within mature GABAergic presynapses. PMID:26241953

  12. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 cascade during spine formation.

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    Sasaki, Nobunari; Kurisu, Junko; Kengaku, Mineko

    2010-12-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has essential roles in several processes during development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Shh regulates dendritic spine formation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons via a novel pathway that directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Shh signaling molecules Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) are expressed in several types of postmitotic neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of Smo induces dendritic spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons independently of Gli-mediated transcriptional activity. Smo interacts with Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, via its cytoplasmic C-terminal region. Inhibition of Tiam1 or Rac1 activity suppresses spine induction by Smo knockdown. Shh induces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton independently of transcriptional activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate a novel Shh pathway that regulates the actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. VCP and ATL1 regulate endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis for dendritic spine formation.

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    Shih, Yu-Tzu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-03-17

    Imbalanced protein homeostasis, such as excessive protein synthesis and protein aggregation, is a pathogenic hallmark of a range of neurological disorders. Here, using expression of mutant proteins, a knockdown approach and disease mutation knockin mice, we show that VCP (valosin-containing protein), together with its cofactor P47 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology regulator ATL1 (Atlastin-1), regulates tubular ER formation and influences the efficiency of protein synthesis to control dendritic spine formation in neurons. Strengthening the significance of protein synthesis in dendritic spinogenesis, the translation blocker cyclohexamide and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce dendritic spine density, while a leucine supplement that increases protein synthesis ameliorates the dendritic spine defects caused by Vcp and Atl1 deficiencies. Because VCP and ATL1 are the causative genes of several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that impaired ER formation and inefficient protein synthesis are significant in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders.

  14. δ-Catenin Regulates Spine Architecture via Cadherin and PDZ-dependent Interactions*

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    Yuan, Li; Seong, Eunju; Beuscher, James L.; Arikkath, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    The ability of neurons to maintain spine architecture and modulate it in response to synaptic activity is a crucial component of the cellular machinery that underlies information storage in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Here we show a critical role for δ-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex, in regulating spine head width and length in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. The loss of Ctnnd2, the gene encoding δ-catenin, has been associated with the intellectual disability observed in the cri du chat syndrome, suggesting that the functional roles of δ-catenin are vital for neuronal integrity and higher order functions. We demonstrate that loss of δ-catenin in a mouse model or knockdown of δ-catenin in pyramidal neurons compromises spine head width and length, without altering spine dynamics. This is accompanied by a reduction in the levels of synaptic N-cadherin. The ability of δ-catenin to modulate spine architecture is critically dependent on its ability to interact with cadherin and PDZ domain-containing proteins. We propose that loss of δ-catenin during development perturbs synaptic architecture leading to developmental aberrations in neural circuit formation that contribute to the learning disabilities in a mouse model and humans with cri du chat syndrome. PMID:25724647

  15. δ-Catenin Regulates Spine Architecture via Cadherin and PDZ-dependent Interactions.

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    Yuan, Li; Seong, Eunju; Beuscher, James L; Arikkath, Jyothi

    2015-04-24

    The ability of neurons to maintain spine architecture and modulate it in response to synaptic activity is a crucial component of the cellular machinery that underlies information storage in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Here we show a critical role for δ-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex, in regulating spine head width and length in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. The loss of Ctnnd2, the gene encoding δ-catenin, has been associated with the intellectual disability observed in the cri du chat syndrome, suggesting that the functional roles of δ-catenin are vital for neuronal integrity and higher order functions. We demonstrate that loss of δ-catenin in a mouse model or knockdown of δ-catenin in pyramidal neurons compromises spine head width and length, without altering spine dynamics. This is accompanied by a reduction in the levels of synaptic N-cadherin. The ability of δ-catenin to modulate spine architecture is critically dependent on its ability to interact with cadherin and PDZ domain-containing proteins. We propose that loss of δ-catenin during development perturbs synaptic architecture leading to developmental aberrations in neural circuit formation that contribute to the learning disabilities in a mouse model and humans with cri du chat syndrome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Activity-Dependent NPAS4 Expression and the Regulation of Gene Programs Underlying Plasticity in the Central Nervous System

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    José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of the brain to change functionally in response to sensory experience is most active during early stages of development but it decreases later in life when major alterations of neuronal network structures no longer take place in response to experience. This view has been recently challenged by experimental strategies based on the enhancement of environmental stimulation levels, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological treatments, which all have demonstrated that the adult brain retains a degree of plasticity that allows for a rewiring of neuronal circuitries over the entire life course. A hot spot in the field of neuronal plasticity centres on gene programs that underlie plastic phenomena in adulthood. Here, I discuss the role of the recently discovered neuronal-specific and activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 as a critical mediator of plasticity in the nervous system. A better understanding of how modifications in the connectivity of neuronal networks occur may shed light on the treatment of pathological conditions such as brain damage or disease in adult life, some of which were once considered untreatable.

  17. NMDA Receptors Regulate the Structural Plasticity of Spines and Axonal Boutons in Hippocampal Interneurons

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    Marta Perez-Rando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are present in both pyramidal neurons and interneurons of the hippocampus. These receptors play an important role in the adult structural plasticity of excitatory neurons, but their impact on the remodeling of interneurons is unknown. Among hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin-expressing cells located in the stratum oriens are of special interest because of their functional importance and structural characteristics: they display dendritic spines, which change density in response to different stimuli. In order to understand the role of NMDARs on the structural plasticity of these interneurons, we have injected acutely MK-801, an NMDAR antagonist, to adult mice which constitutively express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP in these cells. We have behaviorally tested the animals, confirming effects of the drug on locomotion and anxiety-related behaviors. NMDARs were expressed in the somata and dendritic spines of somatostatin-expressing interneurons. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the density of spines did not vary, but we found a significant increase in the density of their en passant boutons (EPB. We have also used entorhino-hippocampal organotypic cultures to study these interneurons in real-time. There was a rapid decrease in the apparition rate of spines after MK-801 administration, which persisted for 24 h and returned to basal levels afterwards. A similar reversible decrease was detected in spine density. Our results show that both spines and axons of interneurons can undergo remodeling and highlight NMDARs as regulators of this plasticity. These results are specially relevant given the importance of all these players on hippocampal physiology and the etiopathology of certain psychiatric disorders.

  18. Nuclear cGMP-dependent kinase regulates gene expression via activity-dependent recruitment of a conserved histone deacetylase complex.

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    Yan Hao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of the second messenger cGMP by nitric oxide (NO activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase PKG, which is key in regulating cardiovascular, intestinal, and neuronal functions in mammals. The NO-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway is also a major therapeutic target for cardiovascular and male reproductive diseases. Despite widespread effects of PKG activation, few molecular targets of PKG are known. We study how EGL-4, the Caenorhabditis elegans PKG ortholog, modulates foraging behavior and egg-laying and seeks the downstream effectors of EGL-4 activity. Using a combination of unbiased forward genetic screen and proteomic analysis, we have identified a conserved SAEG-1/SAEG-2/HDA-2 histone deacetylase complex that is specifically recruited by activated nuclear EGL-4. Gene expression profiling by microarrays revealed >40 genes that are sensitive to EGL-4 activity in a SAEG-1-dependent manner. We present evidence that EGL-4 controls egg laying via one of these genes, Y45F10C.2, which encodes a novel protein that is expressed exclusively in the uterine epithelium. Our results indicate that, in addition to cytoplasmic functions, active EGL-4/PKG acts in the nucleus via a conserved Class I histone deacetylase complex to regulate gene expression pertinent to behavioral and physiological responses to cGMP. We also identify transcriptional targets of EGL-4 that carry out discrete components of the physiological response.

  19. Activity-dependent regulation of MHC class I expression in the developing primary visual cortex of the common marmoset monkey

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    Schlumbohm Christina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent studies have highlighted the important role of immunity-related molecules in synaptic plasticity processes in the developing and adult mammalian brains. It has been suggested that neuronal MHCI (major histocompatibility complex class I genes play a role in the refinement and pruning of synapses in the developing visual system. As a fast evolutionary rate may generate distinct properties of molecules in different mammalian species, we studied the expression of MHCI molecules in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus. Methods and results Analysis of expression levels of MHCI molecules in the developing visual cortex of the common marmoset monkeys revealed a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High levels of expression were detected very early in postnatal development, at a stage when synaptogenesis takes place and ocular dominance columns are formed. To determine whether the expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by retinal activity, animals were subjected to monocular enucleation. Levels of MHCI heavy chain subunit transcripts in the visual cortex were found to be elevated in response to monocular enucleation. Furthermore, MHCI heavy chain immunoreactivity revealed a banded pattern in layer IV of the visual cortex in enucleated animals, which was not observed in control animals. This pattern of immunoreactivity indicated that higher expression levels were associated with retinal activity coming from the intact eye. Conclusions These data demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate brain, expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by neuronal activity. Moreover, this study extends previous findings by suggesting a role for neuronal MHCI molecules during synaptogenesis in the visual cortex.

  20. Phosphorylation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 Regulates Dendritic Spine Development of Cortical Neuron in the Mouse Hippocampus

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    Xiaohua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper density and morphology of dendritic spines are important for higher brain functions such as learning and memory. However, our knowledge about molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and maintenance of dendritic spines is limited. We recently reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is required for the development and maintenance of dendritic spines of cortical neurons in the mouse brain. Previous in vitro studies have suggested the involvement of Cdk5 substrates in the formation of dendritic spines; however, their role in spine development has not been tested in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2 in the dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons and in vivo in the mouse brain. When we eliminated CRMP2 phosphorylation in CRMP2KI/KI mice, the densities of dendritic spines significantly decreased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the mouse brain. These results indicate that phosphorylation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 is important for dendritic spine development in cortical neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

  1. Npas4 Regulates Mdm2 and thus Dcx in Experience-Dependent Dendritic Spine Development of Newborn Olfactory Bulb Interneurons

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    Sei-ichi Yoshihara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensory experience regulates the development of various brain structures, including the cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB. Little is known about how sensory experience regulates the dendritic spine development of OB interneurons, such as granule cells (GCs, although it is well studied in mitral/tufted cells. Here, we identify a transcription factor, Npas4, which is expressed in OB GCs immediately after sensory input and is required for dendritic spine formation. Npas4 overexpression in OB GCs increases dendritic spine density, even under sensory deprivation, and rescues reduction of dendrite spine density in the Npas4 knockout OB. Furthermore, loss of Npas4 upregulates expression of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which ubiquitinates a microtubule-associated protein Dcx. This leads to reduction in the dendritic spine density of OB GCs. Together, these findings suggest that Npas4 regulates Mdm2 expression to ubiquitinate and degrade Dcx during dendritic spine development in newborn OB GCs after sensory experience.

  2. Activity-dependent expression of miR-132 regulates immediate-early gene induction during olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

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    Mukilan, Murugan; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-04-01

    The activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) and microRNA (miR)-132 has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In the present study, we show that olfactory training induces the expression of IEGs (EGR-1, C-fos, C-jun) and miR-132 at similar time scale in olfactory bulb (OB) of Cynopterus sphinx. We examined the role of miR-132 in the OB using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) and demonstrated that a local infusion of AS-ODN in the OB 2h prior to training impaired olfactory memory formation in C. sphinx. However, the infusion of AS-ODN post-training did not cause a deficit in memory formation. Furthermore, the inhibition of miR-132 reduced the olfactory training-induced expression of IEGs and post synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the OB. Additionally, we show that miR-132 regulates the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), possibly through miR-148a. These data suggest that olfactory training induces the expression of miR-132 and IEGs, which in turn activates post-synaptic proteins that regulate olfactory memory formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tonic 5nM DA stabilizes neuronal output by enabling bidirectional activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current via PKA and calcineurin.

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    Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C; Rodgers, Edmund W; Baro, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Volume transmission results in phasic and tonic modulatory signals. The actions of tonic dopamine (DA) at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs) are largely undefined. Here we show that tonic 5nM DA acts at D1Rs to stabilize neuronal output over minutes by enabling activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current (I h). In the presence but not absence of 5nM DA, I h maximal conductance (G max) was adjusted according to changes in slow wave activity in order to maintain spike timing. Our study on the lateral pyloric neuron (LP), which undergoes rhythmic oscillations in membrane potential with depolarized plateaus, demonstrated that incremental, bi-directional changes in plateau duration produced corresponding alterations in LP I hG max when preparations were superfused with saline containing 5nM DA. However, when preparations were superfused with saline alone there was no linear correlation between LP I hGmax and duty cycle. Thus, tonic nM DA modulated the capacity for activity to modulate LP I h G max; this exemplifies metamodulation (modulation of modulation). Pretreatment with the Ca2+-chelator, BAPTA, or the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented all changes in LP I h in 5nM DA. Calcineurin inhibitors blocked activity-dependent changes enabled by DA and revealed a PKA-mediated, activity-independent enhancement of LP I hG max. These data suggested that tonic 5nM DA produced two simultaneous, PKA-dependent effects: a direct increase in LP I h G max and a priming event that permitted calcineurin regulation of LP I h. The latter produced graded reductions in LP I hG max with increasing duty cycles. We also demonstrated that this metamodulation preserved the timing of LP's first spike when network output was perturbed with bath-applied 4AP. In sum, 5nM DA permits slow wave activity to provide feedback that maintains spike timing, suggesting that one function of low-level, tonic modulation is to stabilize specific features of a dynamic output.

  4. Tonic 5nM DA stabilizes neuronal output by enabling bidirectional activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current via PKA and calcineurin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf-Dieter C Krenz

    Full Text Available Volume transmission results in phasic and tonic modulatory signals. The actions of tonic dopamine (DA at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs are largely undefined. Here we show that tonic 5nM DA acts at D1Rs to stabilize neuronal output over minutes by enabling activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current (I h. In the presence but not absence of 5nM DA, I h maximal conductance (G max was adjusted according to changes in slow wave activity in order to maintain spike timing. Our study on the lateral pyloric neuron (LP, which undergoes rhythmic oscillations in membrane potential with depolarized plateaus, demonstrated that incremental, bi-directional changes in plateau duration produced corresponding alterations in LP I hG max when preparations were superfused with saline containing 5nM DA. However, when preparations were superfused with saline alone there was no linear correlation between LP I hGmax and duty cycle. Thus, tonic nM DA modulated the capacity for activity to modulate LP I h G max; this exemplifies metamodulation (modulation of modulation. Pretreatment with the Ca2+-chelator, BAPTA, or the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented all changes in LP I h in 5nM DA. Calcineurin inhibitors blocked activity-dependent changes enabled by DA and revealed a PKA-mediated, activity-independent enhancement of LP I hG max. These data suggested that tonic 5nM DA produced two simultaneous, PKA-dependent effects: a direct increase in LP I h G max and a priming event that permitted calcineurin regulation of LP I h. The latter produced graded reductions in LP I hG max with increasing duty cycles. We also demonstrated that this metamodulation preserved the timing of LP's first spike when network output was perturbed with bath-applied 4AP. In sum, 5nM DA permits slow wave activity to provide feedback that maintains spike timing, suggesting that one function of low-level, tonic modulation is to stabilize specific features of a dynamic output.

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST (PTP-PEST) regulates mast cell-activating signals in PTP activity-dependent and -independent manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Satoru; Koizumi, Karen; Honda, Reika; Maruyama, Atsuko; Palmer, Helen E F; Mashima, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) in mast cells leads to degranulation and production of numerous cytokines and lipid mediators that promote allergic inflammation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in response to FcεRI aggregation has been implicated in mast cell activation. Here, we determined the role of PTP-PEST (encoded by PTPN12) in the regulation of mast cell activation using the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line as a model. PTP-PEST expression was significantly induced upon FcεRI-crosslinking, and aggregation of FcεRI induced the phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at Ser39, thus resulting in the suppression of PTP activity. By overexpressing a phosphatase-dead mutant (PTP-PEST CS) and a constitutively active mutant (PTP-PEST SA) in RBL-2H3 cells, we showed that PTP-PEST decreased degranulation and enhanced IL-4 and IL-13 transcription in FcεRI-crosslinked RBL-2H3 cells, but PTP activity of PTP-PEST was not necessary for this regulation. However, FcεRI-induced TNF-α transcription was increased by the overexpression of PTP-PEST SA and suppressed by the overexpression of PTP-PEST CS. Taken together, these results suggest that PTP-PEST is involved in the regulation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation through at least two different processes represented by PTP activity-dependent and -independent pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto; Oehmen, Martin; Bicker, Silvia; Christensen, Mette; Khudayberdiev, Sharof; Leuschner, Philipp F; Busch, Clara J L; Kane, Christina; Hübel, Katja; Dekker, Frank; Hedberg, Christian; Rengarajan, Balamurugan; Drepper, Carsten; Waldmann, Herbert; Kauppinen, Sakari; Greenberg, Michael E; Draguhn, Andreas; Rehmsmeier, Marc; Martinez, Javier; Schratt, Gerhard M; Dekker, Frank

    The microRNA pathway has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic protein synthesis and ultimately in dendritic spine morphogenesis, a phenomenon associated with long-lasting forms of memory. However, the particular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved are largely unknown. Here we identify specific

  7. Wnt-5a/Frizzled9 Receptor Signaling through the Gαo-Gβγ Complex Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Valerie T.; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt ligands play crucial roles in the development and regulation of synapse structure and function. Specifically, Wnt-5a acts as a secreted growth factor that regulates dendritic spine formation in rodent hippocampal neurons, resulting in postsynaptic development that promotes the clustering of the PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). Here, we focused on the early events occurring after the interaction between Wnt-5a and its Frizzled receptor at the neuronal cell surface. Additionally, we studied the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in Wnt-5a-dependent synaptic development. We report that FZD9 (Frizzled9), a Wnt receptor related to Williams syndrome, is localized in the postsynaptic region, where it interacts with Wnt-5a. Functionally, FZD9 is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in dendritic spine density. FZD9 forms a precoupled complex with Gαo under basal conditions that dissociates after Wnt-5a stimulation. Accordingly, we found that G protein inhibition abrogates the Wnt-5a-dependent pathway in hippocampal neurons. In particular, the activation of Gαo appears to be a key factor controlling the Wnt-5a-induced dendritic spine density. In addition, we found that Gβγ is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium levels and spinogenesis. Our findings reveal that FZD9 and heterotrimeric G proteins regulate Wnt-5a signaling and dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:27402827

  8. Cux1 and Cux2 regulate dendritic branching, spine morphology and synapses of the upper layer neurons of the cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelos, Beatriz; Sebastián-Serrano, Alvaro; Beccari, Leonardo; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Cisneros, Elsa; Kim, Seonhee; Dopazo, Ana; Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Bovolenta, Paola; Walsh, Christopher A.; Nieto, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dendrite branching and spine formation determines the function of morphologically distinct and specialized neuronal subclasses. However, little is known about the programs instructing specific branching patterns in vertebrate neurons and whether such programs influence dendritic spines and synapses. Using knockout and knockdown studies combined with morphological, molecular and electrophysiological analysis we show that the homeobox Cux1 and Cux2 are intrinsic and complementary regulators of dendrite branching, spine development and synapse formation in layer II–III neurons of the cerebral cortex. Cux genes control the number and maturation of dendritic spines partly through direct regulation of the expression of Xlr3b and Xlr4b, chromatin remodeling genes previously implicated in cognitive defects. Accordingly, abnormal dendrites and synapses in Cux2−/− mice correlate with reduced synaptic function and defects in working memory. These demonstrate critical roles of Cux in dendritogenesis and highlight novel subclass-specific mechanisms of synapse regulation that contribute to the establishment of cognitive circuits. PMID:20510857

  9. Fatherhood contributes to increased hippocampal spine density and anxiety regulation in California mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Erica R; Hyer, Molly M; Katakam, Jhansi; Harper, Robyn; Ameri, Cyrus; Wolz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Parenting alters the hippocampus, an area of the brain that undergoes significant experience-induced plasticity and contributes to emotional regulation. While the relationship between maternal care and hippocampal neuroplasticity has been characterized, the extent to which fatherhood alters the structure and function of the hippocampus is far less understood. Here, we investigated to what extent fatherhood altered anxiety regulation and dendritic morphology of the hippocampus using the highly paternal California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Fathers spent significantly more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, compared to non-fathers. Total distance traveled in the EPM was not changed by paternal experience, which suggests that the increased time spent on the open arms of the maze indicates decreased anxiety-like behavior. Fatherhood also increased dendritic spine density of granule cells in the dentate gyrus and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in area CA1 of the hippocampus. These findings parallel those observed in maternal rodents, suggesting that the hippocampus of fathers and mothers respond similarly to offspring.

  10. Dendritic spine changes in the development of alcohol addiction regulated by α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Mijakowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcohol has many adverse effects on the brain. Among them are dendritic spine morphology alterations, which are believed to be the basis of alcohol addiction. Autophosphorylation of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII has been shown to regulate spine morphology in vitro. Here we show that αCaMKII can also regulate addiction related behaviour and dendritic spine morphology changes caused by alcohol consumption in vivo. Method 12 αCaMKII-autophosphorylation deficient female mice (T286A and 12 wild type littermates were used in the study. T286A strain was created by Giese et al. (1998. Mice were housed and tested in two IntelliCages from NewBehavior (www.newbehavior.com. IntelliCage is an automated learning system. After 95 days of alcohol drinking interrupted by tests for motivation, persistence in alcohol seeking and probability of relapse, mice were ascribed to ‘high’ or ‘low’ drinkers group according to their performance in the tests. Additional criterion was the amount of alcohol consumed during the whole experiment. Result of each test was evaluated separately. 1/3 of the mice that scored highest in each criterion were considered ‘positive’ for this trait. ‘Positive’ animals were given 1 point, negative 0 points. Mice that were positive in at least 2 criteria were ascribed to ‘high’ drinkers (‘+’ group. Remaining mice – to ‘low’ drinkers (‘–‘. This method of behavioral phenotyping, developed by Radwanska and Kaczmarek (2012, is inspired by DSM-IV. Since the results of this evaluation are discrete (i.e. by definition all the animals score between 0 to +4, we developed also a continuous method of addiction rating, which we call ‘addiction index’. The result of the second method is a sum of the standardized (z-score results of the above mentioned tests. We use it to examine the correlations between addiction-like behavior and spine parameters. Control group (12 WT, 8

  11. CREB regulates spine density of lateral amygdala neurons: implications for memory allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya eSargin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons may compete against one another for integration into a memory trace. Specifically, neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala with relatively higher levels of CREB seem to be preferentially allocated to a fear memory trace, while neurons with relatively decreased CREB function seem to be excluded from a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that modulates many diverse cellular processes, raising the question as to which of these CREB-mediated processes underlie memory allocation. CREB is implicated in modulating dendritic spine number and morphology. As dendritic spines are intimately involved in memory formation, we investigated whether manipulations of CREB function alter spine number or morphology of neurons at the time of fear conditioning. We used viral vectors to manipulate CREB function in the lateral amygdala principal neurons in mice maintained in their homecages. At the time that fear conditioning normally occurs, we observed that neurons with high levels of CREB had more dendritic spines, while neurons with low CREB function had relatively fewer spines compared to control neurons. These results suggest that the modulation of spine density provides a potential mechanism for preferential allocation of a subset of neurons to the memory trace.

  12. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    of acyl protein thioesterase 1 (APT1), an enzyme regulating the palmitoylation status of proteins that are known to function at the synapse, including the alpha(13) subunits of G proteins (Galpha(13)). RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of APT1 and the expression of membrane-localized Galpha(13) both...... suppress spine enlargement caused by inhibition of miR-138, suggesting that APT1-regulated depalmitoylation of Galpha(13) might be an important downstream event of miR-138 function. Our results uncover a previously unknown miRNA-dependent mechanism in neurons and demonstrate a previously unrecognized...

  13. Palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction regulates synaptic targeting of CDKL5 and dendritic spine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Li, Dan; Wang, Lu; Lu, Bin; Zheng, Jing; Zhao, Shi-Lin; Zeng, Rong; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is mutated in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, including some forms of atypical Rett syndrome, but the function and regulation of CDKL5 protein in neurons remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that CDKL5 binds to the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, and that this binding promotes the targeting of CDKL5 to excitatory synapses. Interestingly, this binding is not constitutive, but governed by palmitate cycling on PSD-95. Furthermore, pathogenic mutations that truncate the C-terminal tail of CDKL5 diminish its binding to PSD-95 and synaptic accumulation. Importantly, down-regulation of CDKL5 by RNA interference (RNAi) or interference with the CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction inhibits dendritic spine formation and growth. These results demonstrate a critical role of the palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction in localizing CDKL5 to synapses for normal spine development and suggest that disruption of this interaction by pathogenic mutations may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CDKL5-related disorders. PMID:23671101

  14. Palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5-PSD-95 interaction regulates synaptic targeting of CDKL5 and dendritic spine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Li, Dan; Wang, Lu; Lu, Bin; Zheng, Jing; Zhao, Shi-Lin; Zeng, Rong; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2013-05-28

    The X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is mutated in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, including some forms of atypical Rett syndrome, but the function and regulation of CDKL5 protein in neurons remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that CDKL5 binds to the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, and that this binding promotes the targeting of CDKL5 to excitatory synapses. Interestingly, this binding is not constitutive, but governed by palmitate cycling on PSD-95. Furthermore, pathogenic mutations that truncate the C-terminal tail of CDKL5 diminish its binding to PSD-95 and synaptic accumulation. Importantly, down-regulation of CDKL5 by RNA interference (RNAi) or interference with the CDKL5-PSD-95 interaction inhibits dendritic spine formation and growth. These results demonstrate a critical role of the palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5-PSD-95 interaction in localizing CDKL5 to synapses for normal spine development and suggest that disruption of this interaction by pathogenic mutations may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CDKL5-related disorders.

  15. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates estradiol-induced dendritic spine formation in hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Diane D.; Cole, Nelson B.; Segal, Menahem

    1998-01-01

    Dendritic spines are of major importance in information processing and memory formation in central neurons. Estradiol has been shown to induce an increase of dendritic spine density on hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) recently has been implicated in neuronal maturation, plasticity, and regulation of GABAergic interneurons. We now demonstrate that estradiol down-regulates BDNF in cultured hippocampal neurons to 40% of control values within 24 hr of exposure. This, in turn, decreases inhibition and increases excitatory tone in pyramidal neurons, leading to a 2-fold increase in dendritic spine density. Exogenous BDNF blocks the effects of estradiol on spine formation, and BDNF depletion with a selective antisense oligonucleotide mimics the effects of estradiol. Addition of BDNF antibodies also increases spine density, and diazepam, which facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission, blocks estradiol-induced spine formation. These observations demonstrate a functional link between estradiol, BDNF as a potent regulator of GABAergic interneurons, and activity-dependent formation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. PMID:9736750

  17. MiR-130a regulates neurite outgrowth and dendritic spine density by targeting MeCP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjia Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs are critical for both development and function of the central nervous system. Significant evidence suggests that abnormal expression of miRNAs is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. MeCP2 protein is an epigenetic regulator repressing or activating gene transcription by binding to methylated DNA. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene lead to neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome, autism and MECP2 duplication syndrome. In this study, we demonstrate that miR-130a inhibits neurite outgrowth and reduces dendritic spine density as well as dendritic complexity. Bioinformatics analyses, cell cultures and biochemical experiments indicate that miR-130a targets MECP2 and down-regulates MeCP2 protein expression. Furthermore, expression of the wild-type MeCP2, but not a loss-of-function mutant, rescues the miR-130a-induced phenotype. Our study uncovers the MECP2 gene as a previous unknown target for miR-130a, supporting that miR-130a may play a role in neurodevelopment by regulating MeCP2. Together with data from other groups, our work suggests that a feedback regulatory mechanism involving both miR-130a and MeCP2 may serve to ensure their appropriate expression and function in neural development.

  18. Targeting of NF-κB to Dendritic Spines Is Required for Synaptic Signaling and Spine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Erica C; Boersma, Matthew C H; Meffert, Mollie K

    2018-04-25

    Long-term forms of brain plasticity share a requirement for changes in gene expression induced by neuronal activity. Mechanisms that determine how the distinct and overlapping functions of multiple activity-responsive transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), give rise to stimulus-appropriate neuronal responses remain unclear. We report that the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB confers subcellular enrichment at neuronal dendritic spines and engineer a p65 mutant that lacks spine enrichment (p65ΔSE) but retains inherent transcriptional activity equivalent to wild-type p65. Wild-type p65 or p65ΔSE both rescue NF-κB-dependent gene expression in p65-deficient murine hippocampal neurons responding to diffuse (PMA/ionomycin) stimulation. In contrast, neurons lacking spine-enriched NF-κB are selectively impaired in NF-κB-dependent gene expression induced by elevated excitatory synaptic stimulation (bicuculline or glycine). We used the setting of excitatory synaptic activity during development that produces NF-κB-dependent growth of dendritic spines to test physiological function of spine-enriched NF-κB in an activity-dependent response. Expression of wild-type p65, but not p65ΔSE, is capable of rescuing spine density to normal levels in p65-deficient pyramidal neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that spatial localization in dendritic spines contributes unique capacities to the NF-κB transcription factor in synaptic activity-dependent responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Extensive research has established a model in which the regulation of neuronal gene expression enables enduring forms of plasticity and learning. However, mechanisms imparting stimulus specificity to gene regulation, ensuring biologically appropriate responses, remain incompletely understood. NF-κB is a potent transcription factor with evolutionarily conserved functions in learning and the growth of excitatory synaptic contacts. Neuronal NF-κB is localized in both synapse and

  19. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 1 is expressed and regulated in hippocampal postsynaptic spines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Suleman; Egbenya, Daniel Lawer; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2017-01-01

    vesicles and at the postsynaptic density. We further investigated whether postsynaptic synaptotagmin 1 is regulated during synaptic plasticity. In a rat model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy, we found that presynaptic and postsynaptic concentrations of the protein are reduced compared to control animals...

  20. From neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration: the interaction of neurofibromin and valosin-containing protein/p97 in regulation of dendritic spine formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh Yi-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1 and inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD are autosomal dominant genetic disorders. These two diseases are fully penetrant but with high heterogeneity in phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of genetic modifiers in modulating patients' phenotypes. Although NF1 is recognized as a developmental disorder and IBMPFD is associated with degeneration of multiple tissues, a recent study discovered the direct protein interaction between neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, and VCP/p97, encoded by the causative gene of IBMPFD. Both NF1 and VCP/p97 are critical for dendritic spine formation, which provides the cellular mechanism explaining the cognitive deficits and dementia found in patients. Moreover, disruption of the interaction between neurofibromin and VCP impairs dendritic spinogenesis. Neurofibromin likely influences multiple downstream pathways to control dendritic spinogenesis. One is to activate the protein kinase A pathway to initiate dendritic spine formation; another is to regulate the synaptic distribution of VCP and control the activity of VCP in dendritic spinogenesis. Since neurofibromin and VCP/p97 also regulate cell growth and bone metabolism, the understanding of neurofibromin and VCP/p97 in neurons may be applied to study of cancer and bone. Statin treatment rescues the spine defects caused by VCP deficiency, suggesting the potential role of statin in clinical treatment for these two diseases.

  1. From neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration: the interaction of neurofibromin and valosin-containing protein/p97 in regulation of dendritic spine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2012-03-26

    Both Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) and inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) are autosomal dominant genetic disorders. These two diseases are fully penetrant but with high heterogeneity in phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of genetic modifiers in modulating patients' phenotypes. Although NF1 is recognized as a developmental disorder and IBMPFD is associated with degeneration of multiple tissues, a recent study discovered the direct protein interaction between neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, and VCP/p97, encoded by the causative gene of IBMPFD. Both NF1 and VCP/p97 are critical for dendritic spine formation, which provides the cellular mechanism explaining the cognitive deficits and dementia found in patients. Moreover, disruption of the interaction between neurofibromin and VCP impairs dendritic spinogenesis. Neurofibromin likely influences multiple downstream pathways to control dendritic spinogenesis. One is to activate the protein kinase A pathway to initiate dendritic spine formation; another is to regulate the synaptic distribution of VCP and control the activity of VCP in dendritic spinogenesis. Since neurofibromin and VCP/p97 also regulate cell growth and bone metabolism, the understanding of neurofibromin and VCP/p97 in neurons may be applied to study of cancer and bone. Statin treatment rescues the spine defects caused by VCP deficiency, suggesting the potential role of statin in clinical treatment for these two diseases.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases regulate the formation of dendritic spine head protrusions during chemically induced long-term potentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Szepesi

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are are small membranous protrusions that extend from neuronal dendrites and harbor the majority of excitatory synapses. Increasing evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a family of extracellularly acting and Zn(2+-dependent endopeptidases, are able to rapidly modulate dendritic spine morphology. Spine head protrusions (SHPs are filopodia-like processes that extend from the dendritic spine head, representing a form of postsynaptic structural remodeling in response to altered neuronal activity. Herein, we show that chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP in dissociated hippocampal cultures upregulates MMP-9 activity that controls the formation of SHPs. Blocking of MMPs activity or microtubule dynamics abolishes the emergence of SHPs. In addition, autoactive recombinant MMP-9, promotes the formation of SHPs in organotypic hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spines with SHPs gained postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors upon cLTP and the synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors was controlled by MMPs. The present results strongly imply that MMP-9 is functionally involved in the formation of SHPs and the control of postsynaptic receptor distribution upon cLTP.

  3. Vorinostat positively regulates synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in HIV infected neurons: role of nicotine in progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748

  4. Cortical Regulation of Striatal Medium Spiny Neuron Dendritic Remodeling in Parkinsonism: Modulation of Glutamate Release Reverses Dopamine Depletion–Induced Dendritic Spine Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Bonnie G.; Neely, M. Diana; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2010-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive glutamatergic afferents from the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra (SN). Striatal dopamine loss decreases the number of MSN dendritic spines. This loss of spines has been suggested to reflect the removal of tonic dopamine inhibitory control over corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, with increased glutamate release culminating in MSN spine loss. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. We first determined in vivo if dec...

  5. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) α, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways.

  6. The novel protein kinase C epsilon isoform at the adult neuromuscular synapse: location, regulation by synaptic activity-dependent muscle contraction through TrkB signaling and coupling to ACh release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obis, Teresa; Besalduch, Núria; Hurtado, Erica; Nadal, Laura; Santafe, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2015-02-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates a variety of neural functions, including neurotransmitter release. Although various PKC isoforms can be expressed at the synaptic sites and specific cell distribution may contribute to their functional diversity, little is known about the isoform-specific functions of PKCs in neuromuscular synapse. The present study is designed to examine the location of the novel isoform nPKCε at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), their synaptic activity-related expression changes, its regulation by muscle contraction, and their possible involvement in acetylcholine release. We use immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that the novel isoform nPKCε is exclusively located in the motor nerve terminals of the adult rat NMJ. We also report that electrical stimulation of synaptic inputs to the skeletal muscle significantly increased the amount of nPKCε isoform as well as its phosphorylated form in the synaptic membrane, and muscle contraction is necessary for these nPKCε expression changes. The results also demonstrate that synaptic activity-induced muscle contraction promotes changes in presynaptic nPKCε through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling. Moreover, nPKCε activity results in phosphorylation of the substrate MARCKS involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling and related with neurotransmission. Finally, blocking nPKCε with a nPKCε-specific translocation inhibitor peptide (εV1-2) strongly reduces phorbol ester-induced ACh release potentiation, which further indicates that nPKCε is involved in neurotransmission. Together, these results provide a mechanistic insight into how synaptic activity-induced muscle contraction could regulate the presynaptic action of the nPKCε isoform and suggest that muscle contraction is an important regulatory step in TrkB signaling at the NMJ.

  7. miR-191 and miR-135 are required for long-lasting spine remodelling associated with synaptic long-term depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhonghua; Yu, Danni; Gu, Qin-Hua; Yang, Yanqin; Tu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Li, Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Activity-dependent modification of dendritic spines, subcellular compartments accommodating postsynaptic specializations in the brain, is an important cellular mechanism for brain development, cognition and synaptic pathology of brain disorders. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD), a prototypic form of synaptic plasticity, is accompanied by prolonged remodelling of spines. The mechanisms underlying long-lasting spine remodelling in NMDAR-LTD, however, are largely unclear. Here we show that LTD induction causes global changes in miRNA transcriptomes affecting many cellular activities. Specifically, we show that expression changes of miR-191 and miR-135 are required for maintenance but not induction of spine restructuring. Moreover, we find that actin depolymerization and AMPA receptor exocytosis are regulated for extended periods of time by miRNAs to support long-lasting spine plasticity. These findings reveal a miRNA-mediated mechanism and a role for AMPA receptor exocytosis in long-lasting spine plasticity, and identify a number of candidate miRNAs involved in LTD.

  8. Palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction regulates synaptic targeting of CDKL5 and dendritic spine development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Li, Dan; Wang, Lu; Lu, Bin; Zheng, Jing; Zhao, Shi-Lin; Zeng, Rong; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is mutated in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, including some forms of atypical Rett syndrome, but the function and regulation of CDKL5 protein in neurons remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that CDKL5 binds to the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, and that this binding promotes the targeting of CDKL5 to excitatory synapses. Interestingly, this binding is not constitutive, but governed by palmitate cycling on PSD...

  9. βIII Spectrin Is Necessary for Formation of the Constricted Neck of Dendritic Spines and Regulation of Synaptic Activity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Nadia; Korobova, Farida; Stankewich, Michael C; Moberly, Andrew H; Stolz, Donna B; Wang, Junling; Kashina, Anna; Ma, Minghong; Svitkina, Tatyana

    2017-07-05

    Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures in neurons often having a mushroom-like shape. Physiological significance and cytoskeletal mechanisms that maintain this shape are poorly understood. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton maintains the biconcave shape of erythrocytes, but whether spectrins also determine the shape of nonerythroid cells is less clear. We show that βIII spectrin in hippocampal and cortical neurons from rodent embryos of both sexes is distributed throughout the somatodendritic compartment but is particularly enriched in the neck and base of dendritic spines and largely absent from spine heads. Electron microscopy revealed that βIII spectrin forms a detergent-resistant cytoskeletal network at these sites. Knockdown of βIII spectrin results in a significant decrease in the density of dendritic spines. Surprisingly, the density of presynaptic terminals is not affected by βIII spectrin knockdown. However, instead of making normal spiny synapses, the presynaptic structures in βIII spectrin-depleted neurons make shaft synapses that exhibit increased amplitudes of miniature EPSCs indicative of excessive postsynaptic excitation. Thus, βIII spectrin is necessary for formation of the constricted shape of the spine neck, which in turn controls communication between the synapse and the parent dendrite to prevent excessive excitation. Notably, mutations of SPTNB2 encoding βIII spectrin are associated with neurodegenerative syndromes, spinocerebellar ataxia Type 5, and spectrin-associated autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia Type 1, but molecular mechanisms linking βIII spectrin functions to neuronal pathologies remain unresolved. Our data suggest that spinocerebellar ataxia Type 5 and spectrin-associated autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia Type 1 pathology likely arises from poorly controlled synaptic activity that leads to excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dendritic spines are small protrusions from neuronal

  10. Lumbar spine chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hatem, M.B.Ch.B, MRes, LMCC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma.

  11. Activity-Dependent Regulation of Surface Glucose Transporter-3

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jainne M.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Rameau, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) is the main facilitative glucose transporter in neurons. Glucose provides neurons with a critical energy source for neuronal activity. However, the mechanism by which neuronal activity controls glucose influx via GLUT3 is unknown. We investigated the influence of synaptic stimulation on GLUT3 surface expression and glucose import in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Synaptic activity increased surface expression of GLUT3 leading to an elevation o...

  12. Transfer vibration through spine

    OpenAIRE

    Benyovszky, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...

  13. A Septin-Dependent Diffusion Barrier at Dendritic Spine Necks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Ewers

    Full Text Available Excitatory glutamatergic synapses at dendritic spines exchange and modulate their receptor content via lateral membrane diffusion. Several studies have shown that the thin spine neck impedes the access of membrane and solute molecules to the spine head. However, it is unclear whether the spine neck geometry alone restricts access to dendritic spines or if a physical barrier to the diffusion of molecules exists. Here, we investigated whether a complex of septin cytoskeletal GTPases localized at the base of the spine neck regulates diffusion across the spine neck. We found that, during development, a marker of the septin complex, Septin7 (Sept7, becomes localized to the spine neck where it forms a stable structure underneath the plasma membrane. We show that diffusion of receptors and bulk membrane, but not cytoplasmic proteins, is slower in spines bearing Sept7 at their neck. Finally, when Sept7 expression was suppressed by RNA interference, membrane molecules explored larger membrane areas. Our findings indicate that Sept7 regulates membrane protein access to spines.

  14. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  15. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  16. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  17. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter Ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons.

  18. Blocking PirB up-regulates spines and functional synapses to unlock visual cortical plasticity and facilitate recovery from amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, David N.; Sapp, Richard W.; Adelson, Jaimie D.; Zhang, Siyu; Lee, Hanmi; Djurisic, Maja; Syken, Josh; Dan, Yang; Shatz, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    During critical periods of development, the brain easily changes in response to environmental stimuli, but this neural plasticity declines by adulthood. By acutely disrupting paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B(PirB) function at specific ages, we show that PirB actively represses neural plasticity throughout life. We disrupted PirB function either by genetically introducing a conditional PirB allele into mice or by minipump infusion of a soluble PirB ectodomain (sPirB) into mouse visual cortex. We found that neural plasticity, as measured by depriving mice of vision in one eye and testing ocular dominance, was enhanced by this treatment both during the critical period and when PirB function was disrupted in adulthood. Acute blockade of PirB triggered the formation of new functional synapses, as indicated by increases in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency and spine density on dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. In addition, recovery from amblyopia— the decline in visual acuity and spine density resulting from long-term monocular deprivation— was possible after a 1-week infusion of sPirB after the deprivation period. Thus, neural plasticity in adult visual cortex is actively repressed and can be enhanced by blocking PirB function. PMID:25320232

  19. DREAM Controls the On/Off Switch of Specific Activity-Dependent Transcription Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellström, Britt; Sahún, Ignasi; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magali; Oliveros, Juan C.; Gonzalez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L.; Maldonado, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Jefferys, John G. R.; Bliss, Tim V. P.; Dierssen, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K+ channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis, we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB, and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression, establishing an autoinhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. The expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:24366545

  20. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curve of the neck is described as a lordosis or lordotic curve, and looks like a “C” ... like the cervical spine, creating a normal lumbar lordosis. The five lumbar vertebral bodies are the weight- ...

  1. SpineData

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases...... of spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resource for collaborative research projects. Methods: The SpineData registry is an Internet-based system...... that captures patient data electronically at the point of clinical contact. The setting is the government-funded Medical Department of the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, where patients receive a multidisciplinary assessment of their chronic spinal pain. Results: Started in 2011...

  2. Periscopic Spine Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Kevin R

    2000-01-01

    .... Key research accomplishments for the first year are: ̂Demonstrated the value of intraoperative CT for visualization and verification of the anatomy in complex spine surgeries in the neurosurgery operating room...

  3. Beyond the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David; Cancelliere, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from...... highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession....

  4. Imaging of spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomoschitz, F. . e-mai: friedrich.lomoschitz@univie.ac.at

    2001-01-01

    Spinal trauma requires a prompt and detailed diagnosis for estimating the prognosis and installing proper therapy. Conventional radiograms are the first imaging modality in most cases. In the cervical and the lumbar spine, a CT has to be performed in patients with polytrauma and a higher risk of complications or with signs of instability. Especially for imaging the cervicocranium, multiplanar reformations in sagittal and coronal planes are necessary. For fractures of the thoracic spine, MR imaging is superior to CT because of the better detection of associated neurologic complications. (author)

  5. Gorham's disease of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesley, P.J.; Saifuddin, A.; Webb, P.J.; Mitchell, N.; Ramani, P.

    1996-01-01

    Massive osteolysis is a rare condition and is very uncommon in the spine. The MRI appearance of Gorham's disease of the spine has not previously been reported. We present here a case of this condition with imaging details. (orig.)

  6. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  7. Tuberculosis of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-07-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis.

  8. [Cervical spine trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  9. Interventional spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A.D. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: akelekis@cc.uoa.gr; Somon, T. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Yilmaz, H. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Bize, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Brountzos, E.N. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece); Lovblad, K. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Martin, J.B. [Clinique Generale Beaulieu 12 chemin Beau Soleil 1206 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jbmartin@beaulieu.ch

    2005-09-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved.

  10. Tuberculosis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis. (orig.) [de

  11. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis.

  12. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  13. Activity-dependent modulation of neural circuit synaptic connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Tessier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In many nervous systems, the establishment of neural circuits is known to proceed via a two-stage process; 1 early, activity-independent wiring to produce a rough map characterized by excessive synaptic connections, and 2 subsequent, use-dependent pruning to eliminate inappropriate connections and reinforce maintained synapses. In invertebrates, however, evidence of the activity-dependent phase of synaptic refinement has been elusive, and the dogma has long been that invertebrate circuits are “hard-wired” in a purely activity-independent manner. This conclusion has been challenged recently through the use of new transgenic tools employed in the powerful Drosophila system, which have allowed unprecedented temporal control and single neuron imaging resolution. These recent studies reveal that activity-dependent mechanisms are indeed required to refine circuit maps in Drosophila during precise, restricted windows of late-phase development. Such mechanisms of circuit refinement may be key to understanding a number of human neurological diseases, including developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome (FXS and autism, which are hypothesized to result from defects in synaptic connectivity and activity-dependent circuit function. This review focuses on our current understanding of activity-dependent synaptic connectivity in Drosophila, primarily through analyzing the role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP in the Drosophila FXS disease model. The particular emphasis of this review is on the expanding array of new genetically-encoded tools that are allowing cellular events and molecular players to be dissected with ever greater precision and detail.

  14. Dendritic spine morphology and dynamics in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stacey Lee,1 Huaye Zhang,2 Donna J Webb1,3,4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 3Department of Cancer Biology, 4Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that form the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the brain. The development and plasticity of spines are essential for cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, and defects in their density, morphology, and size underlie a number of neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the contribution and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in spine formation and plasticity as well as learning and memory. We also highlight the role of key receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in modulating the development and morphology of spines and cognitive function. Moreover, we provide insight into spine/synapse defects associated with several neurological disorders and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these spine defects. Keywords: dendritic spines, synapses, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, glutamate receptors, neurological disorders

  15. Cdk5 Is Essential for Amphetamine to Increase Dendritic Spine Density in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ferreras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant’s effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Primary cultures and organotypic slice cultures were used for cellular, molecular, pharmacological and biochemical analyses of the role of Cdk5/p25 in amphetamine-induced dendritic spine formation. Amphetamine (two-injection protocol increased dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons of thy1-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice, as well as in hippocampal cultured neurons and organotypic slice cultures. Either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 activity prevented the amphetamine–induced increase in dendritic spine density. Amphetamine also increased spine density in neurons overexpressing the strong Cdk5 activator p25. Finally, inhibition of calpain, the protease necessary for the conversion of p35 to p25, prevented amphetamine’s effect on dendritic spine density. We demonstrate, for the first time, that amphetamine increases the density of dendritic spine in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we show that the Cdk5/p25 signaling and calpain activity are both necessary for the effect of amphetamine on dendritic spine density. The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying psychostimulant effects provides novel and promising therapeutic approaches for the treatment of drug addiction.

  16. Transgenic miR132 alters neuronal spine density and impairs novel object recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin F Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression plays a central role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysfunction of the underlying molecular events can lead to severe neuronal disorders. In addition to coding transcripts (mRNAs, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs appear to play a role in these processes. For instance, the CREB-regulated miRNA miR132 has been shown to affect neuronal structure in an activity-dependent manner, yet the details of its physiological effects and the behavioral consequences in vivo remain unclear. To examine these questions, we employed a transgenic mouse strain that expresses miR132 in forebrain neurons. Morphometric analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed that transgenic miR132 triggers a marked increase in dendritic spine density. Additionally, miR132 transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of MeCP2, a protein implicated in Rett Syndrome and other disorders of mental retardation. Consistent with these findings, miR132 transgenic mice displayed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Together, these data support a role for miR132 as a regulator of neuronal structure and function, and raise the possibility that dysregulation of miR132 could contribute to an array of cognitive disorders.

  17. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  18. The spine problem: Finding a function for dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eMalanowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do neurons have dendritic spines? This question— the heart of what Yuste calls the spine problem— presupposes that why-questions of this sort have scientific answers: that empirical findings can favor or count against claims about why neurons have spines. Here we show how such questions can receive empirical answers. We construe such why-questions as questions about how spines make a difference to the behavior of some mechanism that we take to be significant. Why-questions are driven fundamentally by the effort to understand how some item, such as the dendritic spine, is situated in the causal structure of the world (the causal nexus. They ask for a filter on that busy world that allows us to see a part’s individual contribution to a mechanism, independent of everything else going on. So understood, answers to why-questions can be assessed by testing the claims these answers make about the causal structure of a mechanism. We distinguish four ways of making a difference to a mechanism (necessary, modulatory, component, background condition, and we sketch their evidential requirements. One consequence of our analysis is that there are many spine problems and that any given spine problem might have many acceptable answers.

  19. From retinal waves to activity-dependent retinogeniculate map development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey; Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

  20. From retinal waves to activity-dependent retinogeniculate map development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Markowitz

    Full Text Available A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

  1. Trauma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, B.; Hofmann, E.; Jacob, A.L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Primary reconstructive surgery is assuming increasing importance in the management of fractures of the spine. Analysis of the injury and thus surgical decision-making are greatly facilitated by the diagnostic power of CT and MRI. This volume provides a systemic introduction to the interpretation of CT and MRI images of injuries to the spinal column and the spinal cord, with special emphasis on the assessment or residual stability. Since survey X-rays remain the indispensable first step in radiodiagnosis, the typical appearances of spinal injuries on conventional films are also shown. This will help the reader interpret the CT and MRI images and also reflects the procedure in radiologic practice. The book's classification of spinal fractures, together with the attempt to conclude how the injury happened by analyzing the damage caused, paves the way for individually oriented therapy. (orig.) With 72 figs. in 132 separate illustrations

  2. [Scoliosis: the bent spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, R; Maafe, M; Ziegler, S

    2011-05-01

    Scoliosis, a permanent abnormal curvature of the spine to the side, is divided into four forms: idiopathic (infantile, juvenile and adolescent, accounting for 80% of cases), neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis. Most patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis initially have mainly cosmetic problems. However, neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis can lead to severe clinical symptoms. The leading symptom is back pain caused by secondary changes. In recent years the Lenke classification has been proven to be a reliable tool for disease classification. Non-progressive scoliosis is usually treated conservatively. In the case of Cobb angles of greater than 50°, surgical therapy is recommended in patients presenting before adulthood. Technical improvements in implants and the optimisation of surgical methods have set a trend in the direction of surgical therapy.

  3. The digital spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2019-01-01

    In the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, a book is 'a portable volume consisting of a series of written, printed, or illustrated pages bound together for ease of reading' (‘book, n.’nd). Yet, the world of books isn’t what it used to be. If differences between media are material differences...... analyze books as digital or even 'post-digital' artifacts (Cramer 2014), while preserving the material dimension of the book artifact. In other words: is there is such a thing as a (post-)digital spine, and how can it be described? This article outlines an answer to this question within an inferential...... (Seiter 2015), and books are produced, distributed and read on various digital media and devices, it is no longer possible to understand digital books on the basis of the material and syntactical features of the codex artifact. It then becomes important to discuss how to conceptualize and subsequently...

  4. GSK3α and GSK3β Phosphorylate Arc and Regulate its Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Gozdz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The selective and neuronal activity-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins appears to be crucial for long-term synaptic plasticity. One such protein is activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc, which regulates the synaptic content of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR, excitatory synapse strength and dendritic spine morphology. The levels of Arc protein are tightly regulated, and its removal occurs via proteasome-mediated degradation that requires prior ubiquitination. Glycogen synthase kinases α and β (GSK3α, GSKβ; collectively named GSK3α/β are serine-threonine kinases with abundant expression in the central nervous system. Both GSK3 isozymes are tonically active under basal conditions, but their activity is regulated by intra- and extracellular factors, intimately involved in neuronal activity. Similar to Arc, GSK3α and GSK3β contribute to synaptic plasticity and the structural plasticity of dendritic spines. The present study identified Arc as a GSK3α/β substrate and showed that GSKβ promotes Arc degradation under conditions that induce de novo Arc synthesis. We also found that GSK3α/β inhibition potentiated spine head thinning that was caused by the prolonged stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR. Furthermore, overexpression of Arc mutants that were resistant to GSK3β-mediated phosphorylation or ubiquitination resulted in a stronger reduction of dendritic spine width than wildtype Arc overexpression. Thus, GSK3β terminates Arc expression and limits its effect on dendritic spine morphology. Taken together, the results identify GSK3α/β-catalyzed Arc phosphorylation and degradation as a novel mechanism for controlling the duration of Arc expression and function.

  5. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx arising from compartmentalized electrical signals in dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bloodgood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory synapses on mammalian principal neurons are typically formed onto dendritic spines, which consist of a bulbous head separated from the parent dendrite by a thin neck. Although activation of voltage-gated channels in the spine and stimulus-evoked constriction of the spine neck can influence synaptic signals, the contribution of electrical filtering by the spine neck to basal synaptic transmission is largely unknown. Here we use spine and dendrite calcium (Ca imaging combined with 2-photon laser photolysis of caged glutamate to assess the impact of electrical filtering imposed by the spine morphology on synaptic Ca transients. We find that in apical spines of CA1 hippocampal neurons, the spine neck creates a barrier to the propagation of current, which causes a voltage drop and results in spatially inhomogeneous activation of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs on a micron length scale. Furthermore, AMPA and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively that are colocalized on individual spine heads interact to produce two kinetically and mechanistically distinct phases of synaptically evoked Ca influx. Rapid depolarization of the spine triggers a brief and large Ca current whose amplitude is regulated in a graded manner by the number of open AMPARs and whose duration is terminated by the opening of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK channels. A slower phase of Ca influx is independent of AMPAR opening and is determined by the number of open NMDARs and the post-stimulus potential in the spine. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx only occurs when AMPARs and NMDARs are coactive within an individual spine. These results demonstrate that the morphology of dendritic spines endows associated synapses with specialized modes of signaling and permits the graded and independent control of multiple phases of synaptic Ca influx.

  6. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  7. Activity-Dependent IGF-1 Exocytosis is Controlled by the Ca2+-Sensor Synaptotagmin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng; Maximov, Anton; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptotagmins Syt1, Syt2, Syt7, and Syt9 act as Ca2+-sensors for synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis, but the function of other synaptotagmins remains unknown. Here, we show that olfactory bulb neurons secrete IGF-1 by an activity-dependent pathway of exocytosis, and that Syt10 functions as the Ca2+-sensor that triggers IGF-1 exocytosis in these neurons. Deletion of Syt10 impaired activity-dependent IGF-1 secretion in olfactory bulb neurons, resulting in smaller neurons and an overall decrease in synapse numbers. Exogenous IGF-1 completely reversed the Syt10 knockout phenotype. Syt10 co-localized with IGF-1 in somatodendritic vesicles of olfactory bulb neurons, and Ca2+-binding to Syt10 caused these vesicles to undergo exocytosis, thereby secreting IGF-1. Thus, Syt10 controls a previously unrecognized pathway of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis that is spatially and temporally distinct from Ca2+-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis controlled by Syt1 in the same neurons, and two different synaptotagmins regulate distinct Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion reactions during exocytosis in the same neuron. PMID:21496647

  8. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  9. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  10. The postoperative spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is one of the most perplexing medical and medicoeconomic problems facing our health system today. In many studies reoperation rates tend to be between 10 and 20%, but as many as 20-45% 3 of patients may have persistent back or radicular pain following what was to have been definitive therapy. The causes for the FBSS are very complex. The Workmen's Compensation system and medicolegal trends toward very high settlements of litigation for injury have provided serious incentive for patients to remain symptomatic. It is difficult to analyze any statistical survey of symptomatic back patients without serious bias from this group of patients. Others suggest that patients with severe psychological problems, drug abuse, and alcoholism are inappropriately selected as surgical candidates. They believe that careful psychological evaluation of patients minimizes FBSS. Even if all extrinsic factors could be eliminated, the problem of failed back surgery would still be a major one. This chapter is based on a review of 300 postoperative lumbar spine multiplanar CT scans performed over a 15-month period. All patients had a complete set of axial images, with sagittal and coronal reformations photographed twice: optimized once for bone definition and once for soft-tissue contrast resolution

  11. Cell Biological Mechanisms of Activity-Dependent Synapse to Nucleus Translocation of CRTC1 in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Hean eCh'ng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed a critical role for CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC1 in regulating neuronal gene expression during learning and memory. CRTC1 localizes to synapses but undergoes activity-dependent nuclear translocation to regulate the transcription of CREB target genes. Here we investigate the long-distance retrograde transport of CRTC1 in hippocampal neurons. We show that local elevations in calcium, triggered by activation of synaptic glutamate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, initiate active, dynein-mediated retrograde transport of CRTC1 along microtubules. We identify a nuclear localization signal within CRTC1, and characterize three conserved serine residues whose dephosphorylation is required for nuclear import. Domain analysis reveals that the amino-terminal third of CRTC1 contains all of the signals required for regulated nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. We fuse this region to Dendra2 to generate a reporter construct and perform live-cell imaging coupled with local uncaging of glutamate and photoconversion to characterize the dynamics of stimulus-induced retrograde transport and nuclear accumulation.

  12. Motor learning induces plastic changes in Purkinje cell dendritic spines in the rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tapia, D; González-Ramírez, M M; Vázquez-Hernández, N; González-Burgos, I

    2017-12-14

    The paramedian lobule of the cerebellum is involved in learning to correctly perform motor skills through practice. Dendritic spines are dynamic structures that regulate excitatory synaptic stimulation. We studied plastic changes occurring in the dendritic spines of Purkinje cells from the paramedian lobule of rats during motor learning. Adult male rats were trained over a 6-day period using an acrobatic motor learning paradigm; the density and type of dendritic spines were determined every day during the study period using a modified version of the Golgi method. The learning curve reflected a considerable decrease in the number of errors made by rats as the training period progressed. We observed more dendritic spines on days 2 and 6, particularly more thin spines on days 1, 3, and 6, fewer mushroom spines on day 3, fewer stubby spines on day 1, and more thick spines on days 4 and 6. The initial stage of motor learning may be associated with fast processing of the underlying synaptic information combined with an apparent "silencing" of memory consolidation processes, based on the regulation of the neuronal excitability. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of neuropeptide expression by parallel activity-dependent pathways in caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo Romanos, Teresa; Petersen, Jakob Gramstrup; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of neuronal activity within circuits facilitates integrated responses and rapid changes in behavior. We have identified a system in Caenorhabditis elegans where neuropeptide expression is dependent on the ability of the BAG neurons to sense carbon dioxide. In C. Elegans, CO 2 sensing...... is predominantly coordinated by the BAG-expressed receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. GCY-9 binding to CO 2 causes accumulation of cyclic GMP and opening of the cGMP-gated TAX-2/TAX-4 cation channels; provoking an integrated downstream cascade that enables C. Elegans to avoid high CO 2. Here we show that c...... that expression of flp-19::GFP is controlled in parallel to GCY-9 by the activity-dependent transcription factor CREB (CRH-1) and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KIN-2) signaling pathway. We therefore show that two parallel pathways regulate neuropeptide gene expression in the BAG sensory neurons: the ability...

  14. Robotic systems in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Mehmet Resid; Naderi, Sait

    2014-01-01

    Surgical robotic systems have been available for almost twenty years. The first surgical robotic systems were designed as supportive systems for laparoscopic approaches in general surgery (the first procedure was a cholecystectomy in 1987). The da Vinci Robotic System is the most common system used for robotic surgery today. This system is widely used in urology, gynecology and other surgical disciplines, and recently there have been initial reports of its use in spine surgery, for transoral access and anterior approaches for lumbar inter-body fusion interventions. SpineAssist, which is widely used in spine surgery, and Renaissance Robotic Systems, which are considered the next generation of robotic systems, are now FDA approved. These robotic systems are designed for use as guidance systems in spine instrumentation, cement augmentations and biopsies. The aim is to increase surgical accuracy while reducing the intra-operative exposure to harmful radiation to the patient and operating team personnel during the intervention. We offer a review of the published literature related to the use of robotic systems in spine surgery and provide information on using robotic systems.

  15. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This is an illustrated text on computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine with an emphasis on the role and value of multiplanar imaging for helping determine diagnoses. The book has adequate discussion of scanning techniques for the different regions, interpretations of various abnormalities, degenerative disk disease, and different diagnoses. There is a 50-page chapter on detailed sectional anatomy of the spine and useful chapters on the postoperative spine and the planning and performing of spinal surgery with CT multiplanar reconstruction. There are comprehensive chapters on spinal tumors and trauma. The final two chapters of the book are devoted to CT image processing using digital networks and CT applications of medical computer graphics

  16. Degenerative disease of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czervionke, L.F.; Daniels, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    With few exceptions, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the modality of choice for the evaluation of degenerative disorders of the entire spine. With the implementation of surface coils and continued refinement and development of new pulse sequences, osseous and soft tissue structures of the spine can now be studied in great detail. The introduction of paramagnetic contrast agents has made it possible to differentiate epidural scar from recurrent disc herniation in the postoperative setting and to discern previously undetected degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc itself. This paper discusses the spectrum of degenerative diseases of the spine, including disc degeneration (intervertebral osteochondrosis), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylosis deformans, and osteoarthritis. A brief description of the MR techniques and strategies used to evaluate these disorders is also

  17. Degenerative disorders of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Puglielli, Edoardo; Splendiani, Alessandra [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, L' Aquila (Italy); Pistoia, Francesca; Spacca, Giorgio [S. Salvatore Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

  18. Degenerative disorders of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Puglielli, Edoardo; Splendiani, Alessandra; Pistoia, Francesca; Spacca, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

  19. Age-Based Comparison of Human Dendritic Spine Structure Using Complete Three-Dimensional Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Robles, Victor; Yuste, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent evidence suggests that the morphology of the dendritic spine could determine its synaptic strength and learning rules. However, unfortunately, there are scant data available regarding the detailed morphology of these structures for the human cerebral cortex. In the present study, we analyzed over 8900 individual dendritic spines that were completely 3D reconstructed along the length of apical and basal dendrites of layer III pyramidal neurons in the cingulate cortex of 2 male humans (aged 40 and 85 years old), using intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow in fixed tissue. We assembled a large, quantitative database, which revealed a major reduction in spine densities in the aged case. Specifically, small and short spines of basal dendrites and long spines of apical dendrites were lost, regardless of the distance from the soma. Given the age difference between the cases, our results suggest selective alterations in spines with aging in humans and indicate that the spine volume and length are regulated by different biological mechanisms. PMID:22710613

  20. Radiology of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. (orig.) [de

  1. SPINE INJURY IN MULAGO HOSPITAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the best outcome in patients with Cervical Spine injury ICSI}. ... which indicates the likely level and pattern of injury ... All trauma patients with altered level ... from arrival In hospital to review bya clinician. ... one ofthe 29 patierns had an op-en mouth view taken. .... Domeier, H_ M. Time reliability of pre-hospital c inical.

  2. spine injury in mulago hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muiruri

    from arrival in hospital to review by a clinician. Figure i of adequate cervical spine X-rays(22, 25). High pick-up summarizes our findings. rates are only attained with adequate X-rays. Studies done elsewhere have shown that up to 45% of initial. Clinical evaluation: Not all patients were assessed for. X-rays are inadequate.

  3. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grasselli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst-pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning.

  4. Recovery of rhythmic activity in a central pattern generator: analysis of the role of neuromodulator and activity-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Golowasch, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    The pyloric network of decapods crustaceans can undergo dramatic rhythmic activity changes. Under normal conditions the network generates low frequency rhythmic activity that depends obligatorily on the presence of neuromodulatory input from the central nervous system. When this input is removed (decentralization) the rhythmic activity ceases. In the continued absence of this input, periodic activity resumes after a few hours in the form of episodic bursting across the entire network that later turns into stable rhythmic activity that is nearly indistinguishable from control (recovery). It has been proposed that an activity-dependent modification of ionic conductance levels in the pyloric pacemaker neuron drives the process of recovery of activity. Previous modeling attempts have captured some aspects of the temporal changes observed experimentally, but key features could not be reproduced. Here we examined a model in which slow activity-dependent regulation of ionic conductances and slower neuromodulator-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration reproduce all the temporal features of this recovery. Key aspects of these two regulatory mechanisms are their independence and their different kinetics. We also examined the role of variability (noise) in the activity-dependent regulation pathway and observe that it can help to reduce unrealistic constraints that were otherwise required on the neuromodulator-dependent pathway. We conclude that small variations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, a Ca(2+) uptake regulation mechanism that is directly targeted by neuromodulator-activated signaling pathways, and variability in the Ca(2+) concentration sensing signaling pathway can account for the observed changes in neuronal activity. Our conclusions are all amenable to experimental analysis.

  5. Neurotrophin release by neurotrophins: Implications for activity-dependent neuronal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Canossa, Marco; Griesbeck, Oliver; Berninger, Benedikt; Campana, Gabriele; Kolbeck, Roland; Thoenen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Neurotrophins, secreted in an activity-dependent manner, are thought to be involved in the activity-dependent refinement of synaptic connections. Here we demonstrate that in hippocampal neurons and the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 application of exogenous neurotrophins induces secretion of neurotrophins, an effect that is mediated by the activation of tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trks). Like activity-dependent secretion of neurotrophins, neurotrophin-induced neurotrophin sec...

  6. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  7. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  8. Adenosine: an activity-dependent axonal signal regulating MAP kinase and proliferation in developing Schwann cells

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Beth; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fields, R. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Nonsynaptic release of ATP from electrically stimulated dorsal root gangion (DRG) axons inhibits Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and arrests SC development at the premyelinating stage, but the specific types of purinergic receptor(s) and intracellular signaling pathways involved in this form of neuron–glia communication are not known. Recent research shows that adenosine is a neuron–glial transmitter between axons and myelinating glia of the CNS. The present study investigates the possibility...

  9. Activity-dependent astrocyte swelling is mediated by pH-regulating mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    affecting the K(+) transients, pointing to NBCe1 as a key contributor to the stimulus-induced astrocytic cell swelling. Inhibition of the monocarboxylate cotransporters (MCT), like-wise, reduced the ECS shrinkage by ∼25% without compromising the K(+) transients. Isosmotic reduction of extracellular Cl...

  10. Organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton during dendritic spine morphological remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazeau, Anaël; Giannone, Grégory

    2016-08-01

    In the central nervous system, most excitatory post-synapses are small subcellular structures called dendritic spines. Their structure and morphological remodeling are tightly coupled to changes in synaptic transmission. The F-actin cytoskeleton is the main driving force of dendritic spine remodeling and sustains synaptic plasticity. It is therefore essential to understand how changes in synaptic transmission can regulate the organization and dynamics of actin binding proteins (ABPs). In this review, we will provide a detailed description of the organization and dynamics of F-actin and ABPs in dendritic spines and will discuss the current models explaining how the actin cytoskeleton sustains both structural and functional synaptic plasticity.

  11. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  12. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Crepaldi

    Full Text Available In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs, and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  13. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T; Jongbloets, Bart C; Down, Thomas A; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  14. NeuroD2 regulates the development of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Scott A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of neural circuits requires the concerted action of both genetically determined and activity-dependent mechanisms. Calcium-regulated transcription may link these processes, but the influence of specific transcription factors on the differentiation of synapse-specific properties is poorly understood. Here we characterize the influence of NeuroD2, a calcium-dependent transcription factor, in regulating the structural and functional maturation of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF synapse. Results Using NeuroD2 null mice and in vivo lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown, we demonstrate a critical role for NeuroD2 in the formation of CA3 dendritic spines receiving MF inputs. We also use electrophysiological recordings from CA3 neurons while stimulating MF axons to show that NeuroD2 regulates the differentiation of functional properties at the MF synapse. Finally, we find that NeuroD2 regulates PSD95 expression in hippocampal neurons and that PSD95 loss of function in vivo reproduces CA3 neuron spine defects observed in NeuroD2 null mice. Conclusion These experiments identify NeuroD2 as a key transcription factor that regulates the structural and functional differentiation of MF synapses in vivo.

  15. Activation-Dependent Rapid Postsynaptic Clustering of Glycine Receptors in Mature Spinal Cord Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kei; Murakoshi, Hideji; Watanabe, Miho; Hirata, Hiromi; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Ishibashi, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Inhibitory synapses are established during development but continue to be generated and modulated in strength in the mature nervous system. In the spinal cord and brainstem, presynaptically released inhibitory neurotransmitter dominantly switches from GABA to glycine during normal development in vivo. While presynaptic mechanisms of the shift of inhibitory neurotransmission are well investigated, the contribution of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors to this shift is not fully elucidated. Synaptic clustering of glycine receptors (GlyRs) is regulated by activation-dependent depolarization in early development. However, GlyR activation induces hyperpolarization after the first postnatal week, and little is known whether and how presynaptically released glycine regulates postsynaptic receptors in a depolarization-independent manner in mature developmental stage. Here we developed spinal cord neuronal culture of rodents using chronic strychnine application to investigate whether initial activation of GlyRs in mature stage could change postsynaptic localization of GlyRs. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that chronic blockade of GlyR activation until mature developmental stage resulted in smaller clusters of postsynaptic GlyRs that could be enlarged upon receptor activation for 1 h in the mature stage. Furthermore, live cell-imaging techniques show that GlyR activation decreases its lateral diffusion at synapses, and this phenomenon is dependent on PKC, but neither Ca2+ nor CaMKII activity. These results suggest that the GlyR activation can regulate receptor diffusion and cluster size at inhibitory synapses in mature stage, providing not only new insights into the postsynaptic mechanism of shifting inhibitory neurotransmission but also the inhibitory synaptic plasticity in mature nervous system. PMID:28197549

  16. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulas, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  17. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  18. CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughton, V.M.; Williams, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Effective CT scanning of the spine requires gantry opening greater than 50 cm, spatial resolution of less than 1 mm, contrast resolution of better than 0.5%, and a method for exact localization and selection of cut levels. With a suitable scanner, excellent images of the intervertebral disc, dural sac, spinal cord, facet joints, ligamentum flavum, and epidural veins can be obtained. The purpose of this report is to describe the normal CT appearance of the spinal soft tissues. (orig.) [de

  19. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  20. Performance Indicators in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Godefroy Hardy; Yang, Michael H; Bourget-Murray, Jonathan; Thomas, Ken C; Hurlbert, Robin John; Matthes, Nikolas

    2018-02-15

    Systematic review. To elucidate how performance indicators are currently used in spine surgery. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has given significant traction to the idea that healthcare must provide value to the patient through the introduction of hospital value-based purchasing. The key to implementing this new paradigm is to measure this value notably through performance indicators. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched for studies reporting the use of performance indicators specific to spine surgery. We followed the Prisma-P methodology for a systematic review for entries from January 1980 to July 2016. All full text articles were then reviewed to identify any measure of performance published within the article. This measure was then examined as per the three criteria of established standard, exclusion/risk adjustment, and benchmarking to determine if it constituted a performance indicator. The initial search yielded 85 results among which two relevant studies were identified. The extended search gave a total of 865 citations across databases among which 15 new articles were identified. The grey literature search provided five additional reports which in turn led to six additional articles. A total of 27 full text articles and reports were retrieved and reviewed. We were unable to identify performance indicators. The articles presenting a measure of performance were organized based on how many criteria they lacked. We further examined the next steps to be taken to craft the first performance indicator in spine surgery. The science of performance measurement applied to spine surgery is still in its infancy. Current outcome metrics used in clinical settings require refinement to become performance indicators. Current registry work is providing the necessary foundation, but requires benchmarking to truly measure performance. 1.

  1. Osteoporotic Hip and Spine Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Cannada, Lisa K.; Hill, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Hip and spine fractures represent just a portion of the burden of osteoporosis; however, these fractures require treatment and often represent a major change in lifestyle for the patient and their family. The orthopedic surgeon plays a crucial role, not only in the treatment of these injuries but also providing guidance in prevention of future osteoporotic fractures. This review provides a brief epidemiology of the fractures, details the surgical techniques, and outlines the current treatment...

  2. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  3. RSA in Spine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humadi, Ali; Dawood, Sulaf; Halldin, Klas; Freeman, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review of literature. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA), its assessment of spinal motion and disorders, and to investigate the limitations of this technique in spine assessment. Systematic review in all current literature to invesigate the role of RSA in spine. The results of this review concluded that RSA is a very powerful tool to detect small changes between 2 rigid bodies such as a vertebral segment. The technique is described for animal and human studies for cervical and lumbar spine and can be used to analyze range of motion, inducible displacement, and fusion of segments. However, there are a few disadvantages with the technique; RSA percutaneous procedure needs to be performed to implant the markers (and cannot be used preoperatively), one needs a specific knowledge to handle data and interpret the results, and is relatively time consuming and expensive. RSA should be looked at as a very powerful research instrument and there are many questions suitable for RSA studies.

  4. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  5. Genetically encoded proton sensors reveal activity-dependent pH changes in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Valentino Raimondo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of hydrogen ion concentration (pH is fundamental to cell viability, metabolism and enzymatic function. Within the nervous system, the control of pH is also involved in diverse and dynamic processes including development, synaptic transmission and the control of network excitability. As pH affects neuronal activity, and can also itself be altered by neuronal activity, the existence of tools to accurately measure hydrogen ion fluctuations is important for understanding the role pH plays under physiological and pathological conditions. Outside of their use as a marker of synaptic release, genetically encoded pH sensors have not been utilised to study hydrogen ion fluxes associated with network activity. By combining whole-cell patch clamp with simultaneous two-photon or confocal imaging, we quantified the amplitude and time course of neuronal, intracellular, acidic transients evoked by epileptiform activity in two separate in vitro models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In doing so, we demonstrate the suitability of three genetically encoded pH sensors: deGFP4, E2GFP and Cl-sensor for investigating activity-dependent pH changes at the level of single neurons.

  6. Genetically encoded proton sensors reveal activity-dependent pH changes in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Joseph V; Irkle, Agnese; Wefelmeyer, Winnie; Newey, Sarah E; Akerman, Colin J

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of hydrogen ion concentration (pH) is fundamental to cell viability, metabolism, and enzymatic function. Within the nervous system, the control of pH is also involved in diverse and dynamic processes including development, synaptic transmission, and the control of network excitability. As pH affects neuronal activity, and can also itself be altered by neuronal activity, the existence of tools to accurately measure hydrogen ion fluctuations is important for understanding the role pH plays under physiological and pathological conditions. Outside of their use as a marker of synaptic release, genetically encoded pH sensors have not been utilized to study hydrogen ion fluxes associated with network activity. By combining whole-cell patch clamp with simultaneous two-photon or confocal imaging, we quantified the amplitude and time course of neuronal, intracellular, acidic transients evoked by epileptiform activity in two separate in vitro models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In doing so, we demonstrate the suitability of three genetically encoded pH sensors: deGFP4, E(2)GFP, and Cl-sensor for investigating activity-dependent pH changes at the level of single neurons.

  7. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  8. Mechanical coupling between transsynaptic N-cadherin adhesions and actin flow stabilizes dendritic spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazeau, Anaël; Garcia, Mikael; Czöndör, Katalin; Perrais, David; Tessier, Béatrice; Giannone, Grégory; Thoumine, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of neuronal dendritic spines is a critical indicator of synaptic function. It is regulated by several factors, including the intracellular actin/myosin cytoskeleton and transcellular N-cadherin adhesions. To examine the mechanical relationship between these molecular components, we performed quantitative live-imaging experiments in primary hippocampal neurons. We found that actin turnover and structural motility were lower in dendritic spines than in immature filopodia and increased upon expression of a nonadhesive N-cadherin mutant, resulting in an inverse relationship between spine motility and actin enrichment. Furthermore, the pharmacological stimulation of myosin II induced the rearward motion of actin structures in spines, showing that myosin II exerts tension on the actin network. Strikingly, the formation of stable, spine-like structures enriched in actin was induced at contacts between dendritic filopodia and N-cadherin–coated beads or micropatterns. Finally, computer simulations of actin dynamics mimicked various experimental conditions, pointing to the actin flow rate as an important parameter controlling actin enrichment in dendritic spines. Together these data demonstrate that a clutch-like mechanism between N-cadherin adhesions and the actin flow underlies the stabilization of dendritic filopodia into mature spines, a mechanism that may have important implications in synapse initiation, maturation, and plasticity in the developing brain. PMID:25568337

  9. A role for thrombospondin-1 deficits in astrocyte-mediated spine and synaptic pathology in Down's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Down's syndrome (DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Reduced number and aberrant architecture of dendritic spines are common features of DS neuropathology. However, the mechanisms involved in DS spine alterations are not known. In addition to a relevant role in synapse formation and maintenance, astrocytes can regulate spine dynamics by releasing soluble factors or by physical contact with neurons. We have previously shown impaired mitochondrial function in DS astrocytes leading to metabolic alterations in protein processing and secretion. In this study, we investigated whether deficits in astrocyte function contribute to DS spine pathology.Using a human astrocyte/rat hippocampal neuron coculture, we found that DS astrocytes are directly involved in the development of spine malformations and reduced synaptic density. We also show that thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1, an astrocyte-secreted protein, possesses a potent modulatory effect on spine number and morphology, and that both DS brains and DS astrocytes exhibit marked deficits in TSP-1 protein expression. Depletion of TSP-1 from normal astrocytes resulted in dramatic changes in spine morphology, while restoration of TSP-1 levels prevented DS astrocyte-mediated spine and synaptic alterations. Astrocyte cultures derived from TSP-1 KO mice exhibited similar deficits to support spine formation and structure than DS astrocytes.These results indicate that human astrocytes promote spine and synapse formation, identify astrocyte dysfunction as a significant factor of spine and synaptic pathology in the DS brain, and provide a mechanistic rationale for the exploration of TSP-1-based therapies to treat spine and synaptic pathology in DS and other neurological conditions.

  10. Activity-dependent control of NMDA receptor subunit composition at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mario; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Gorlewicz, Adam; Rebola, Nelson; Mulle, Christophe

    2018-02-15

    CA3 pyramidal cells display input-specific differences in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Although at low density, GluN2B contributes significantly to NMDAR-mediated EPSCs at mossy fibre synapses. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDARs triggers a modification in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs by insertion of GluN2B. GluN2B subunits are essential for the expression of LTP of NMDARs at mossy fibre synapses. Single neurons express NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with distinct subunit composition and biophysical properties that can be segregated in an input-specific manner. The dynamic control of the heterogeneous distribution of synaptic NMDARs is crucial to control input-dependent synaptic integration and plasticity. In hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells from mice of both sexes, we found that mossy fibre (MF) synapses display a markedly lower proportion of GluN2B-containing NMDARs than associative/commissural synapses. The mechanism involved in such heterogeneous distribution of GluN2B subunits is not known. Here we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDARs, which is selectively expressed at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses, triggers a modification in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs by insertion of GluN2B. This activity-dependent recruitment of GluN2B at mature MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses contrasts with the removal of GluN2B subunits at other glutamatergic synapses during development and in response to activity. Furthermore, although expressed at low levels, GluN2B is necessary for the expression of LTP of NMDARs at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. Altogether, we reveal a previously unknown activity-dependent regulation and function of GluN2B subunits that may contribute to the heterogeneous plasticity induction rules in CA3 pyramidal cells. © 2017 Centre Nationnal de la Recherche Scientifique. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  12. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section..., the lumbar spine assembly shall flex by an amount that permits the rigid thoracic spine to rotate from...

  13. Paediatric cervical spine injury but NEXUS negative

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Melanie J; Jardine, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in paediatric patients following trauma are extremely rare. The National Emergency X‐Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) guidelines are a set of clinical criteria used to guide physicians in identifying trauma patients requiring cervical spine imaging. It is validated for use in children. A case of a child who did not fulfil the NEXUS criteria for imaging but was found to have a cervical spine fracture is reported.

  14. Chondrosarcoma of the Mobile Spine and Sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Stuckey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of bone. This family of tumors can be primary malignant tumors or a secondary malignant transformation of an underlying benign cartilage tumor. Pain is often the initial presenting complaint when chondrosarcoma involves the spine. In the mobile spine, chondrosarcoma commonly presents within the vertebral body and shows a predilection for the thoracic spine. Due to the resistance of chondrosarcoma to both radiation and chemotherapy, treatment is focused on surgery. With en bloc excision of chondrosarcoma of the mobile spine and sacrum patients can have local recurrence rates as low as 20%.

  15. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  16. Estradiol induces dendritic spines by enhancing glutamate release independent of transcription: A mechanism for organizational sex differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Liang, Shu-Ling; Thompson, Scott M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The naturally occurring sex difference in dendritic spine number on hypothalamic neurons offers a unique opportunity to investigate mechanisms establishing synaptic patterning during perinatal sensitive periods. A major advantage of the model is the ability to treat neonatal females with estradiol to permanently induce the male phenotype. During the development of other systems, exuberant innervation is followed by activity-dependent pruning necessary for elimination of spurious synapses. In contrast, we demonstrate that estradiol-induced organization in the hypothalamus involves the induction of new synapses on dendritic spines. Activation of estrogen receptors by estradiol triggers a non-genomic activation of PI3 kinase that results in enhanced glutamate release from presynaptic neurons. Subsequent activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors activates MAP kinases inducing dendritic spine formation. These results reveal a trans-neuronal mechanism by which estradiol acts during a sensitive period to establish a profound and lasting sex difference in hypothalamic synaptic patterning. PMID:18498739

  17. Regulation of Synaptic Structure by the Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase UCH-L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Anna E.; Djakovic, Stevan N.; Salehi, Afshin; Wilson, Scott M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Patrick, Gentry N.

    2009-01-01

    UCH-L1 is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme that is selectively and abundantly expressed in the brain, and its activity is required for normal synaptic function. Here, we show that UCH-L1 functions in maintaining normal synaptic structure in hippocampal neurons. We have found that UCH-L1 activity is rapidly up-regulated by NMDA receptor activation which leads to an increase in the levels of free monomeric ubiquitin. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of UCH-L1 significantly reduces monomeric ubiquitin levels and causes dramatic alterations in synaptic protein distribution and spine morphology. Inhibition of UCH-L1 activity increases spine size while decreasing spine density. Furthermore, there is a concomitant increase in the size of pre and postsynaptic protein clusters. Interestingly, however, ectopic expression of ubiquitin restores normal synaptic structure in UCH-L1 inhibited neurons. These findings point to a significant role of UCH-L1 in synaptic remodeling most likely by modulating free monomeric ubiquitin levels in an activity-dependent manner. PMID:19535597

  18. Spatial distribution of Na+-K+-ATPase in dendritic spines dissected by nanoscale superresolution STED microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Na+,K+-ATPase plays an important role for ion homeostasis in virtually all mammalian cells, including neurons. Despite this, there is as yet little known about the isoform specific distribution in neurons. Results With help of superresolving stimulated emission depletion microscopy the spatial distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase in dendritic spines of cultured striatum neurons have been dissected. The found compartmentalized distribution provides a strong evidence for the confinement of neuronal Na+,K+-ATPase (α3 isoform in the postsynaptic region of the spine. Conclusions A compartmentalized distribution may have implications for the generation of local sodium gradients within the spine and for the structural and functional interaction between the sodium pump and other synaptic proteins. Superresolution microscopy has thus opened up a new perspective to elucidate the nature of the physiological function, regulation and signaling role of Na+,K+-ATPase from its topological distribution in dendritic spines.

  19. Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine | Singh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine. ... pyogenic osteomyelitis, tube‚rculosis of the spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes ... in an adult woman without tuberculosis of the cervical spine who was managed surgically by ...

  20. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  1. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  2. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  3. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  4. Pott's Spine with Bilateral Psoas Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani; Shanbag, Preeti; Inamdar, Prithi

    2012-01-01

    A high degree of suspicion and appropriate imaging studies are required for the early diagnosis of Pott's spine. We describe a 4-year-old boy with Pott's disease of the lumbar spine with bilateral psoas abscesses. The child responded to conservative treatment with antituberculous treatment and ultrasonographically guided percutaneous drainage of the abscesses.

  5. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargon, G.

    1981-01-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.) [de

  6. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargon, G

    1981-03-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.

  7. Synaptic synthesis, dephosphorylation, and degradation: a novel paradigm for an activity-dependent neuronal control of CDKL5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Montanara, Paolo; Rusconi, Laura; Locarno, Albina; Forti, Lia; Barbiero, Isabella; Tramarin, Marco; Chandola, Chetan; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-02-13

    Mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5) gene have been associated with several forms of neurodevelopmental disorders, including atypical Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Accordingly, loss of CDKL5 in mice results in autistic-like features and impaired neuronal communication. Although the biological functions of CDKL5 remain largely unknown, recent pieces of evidence suggest that CDKL5 is involved in neuronal plasticity. Herein, we show that, at all stages of development, neuronal depolarization induces a rapid increase in CDKL5 levels, mostly mediated by extrasomatic synthesis. In young neurons, this induction is prolonged, whereas in more mature neurons, NMDA receptor stimulation induces a protein phosphatase 1-dependent dephosphorylation of CDKL5 that is mandatory for its proteasome-dependent degradation. As a corollary, neuronal activity leads to a prolonged induction of CDKL5 levels in immature neurons but to a short lasting increase of the kinase in mature neurons. Recent results demonstrate that many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders are crucial components of the activity-dependent signaling networks regulating the composition, shape, and strength of the synapse. Thus, we speculate that CDKL5 deficiency disrupts activity-dependent signaling and the consequent synapse development, maturation, and refinement. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Malpractice litigation following spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Ruttiman, Roy; Eltorai, Adam E M; DePasse, J Mason; Brea, Bielinsky A; Palumbo, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Adverse events related to spine surgery sometimes lead to litigation. Few studies have evaluated the association between spine surgical complications and medical malpractice proceedings, outcomes, and awards. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent causes of alleged malpractice in spine surgery and to gain insight into patient demographic and clinical characteristics associated with medical negligence litigation. METHODS A search for "spine surgery" spanning February 1988 to May 2015 was conducted utilizing the medicolegal research service VerdictSearch (ALM Media Properties, LLC). Demographic data for the plaintiff and defendant in addition to clinical data for the procedure and legal outcomes were examined. Spinal cord injury, anoxic/hypoxic brain injury, and death were classified as catastrophic complications; all other complications were classified as noncatastrophic. Both chi-square and t-tests were used to evaluate the effect of these variables on case outcomes and awards granted. RESULTS A total of 569 legal cases were examined; 335 cases were excluded due to irrelevance or insufficient information. Of the 234 cases included in this investigation, 54.2% (127 cases) resulted in a defendant ruling, 26.1% (61) in a plaintiff ruling, and 19.6% (46) in a settlement. The awards granted for plaintiff rulings ranged from $134,000 to $38,323,196 (mean $4,045,205 ± $6,804,647). Awards for settlements ranged from $125,000 to $9,000,000 (mean $1,930,278 ± $2,113,593), which was significantly less than plaintiff rulings (p = 0.022). Compared with cases without a delay in diagnosis of the complication, the cases with a diagnostic delay were more likely to result in a plaintiff verdict or settlement (42.9% vs 72.7%, p = 0.007) than a defense verdict, and were more likely to settle out of court (17.5% vs 40.9%, p = 0.008). Similarly, compared with cases without a delay in treatment of the complication, those with a therapeutic delay were more

  9. Gunshot injuries in the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Filho, T E P; Cristante, A F; Marcon, R M; Ono, A; Bilhar, R

    2014-07-01

    Review article. To review the literature regarding treatment approaches in cases of gunshot wounds (GSWs) affecting the spine. Brazil. Narrative review of medical literature. GSWs are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with spinal GSW have complete neurological deficit. The injury is more common in young men and is frequently immobilizing. The initial approach should follow advanced trauma life support, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy should be initiated immediately, especially in patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for surgery in spinal GSW are deterioration of the neurologic condition in a patient with incomplete neurological deficit, the presence of liquor fistula, spinal instability, intoxication by the metal from the bullet or risk of bullet migration. Surgical treatment is associated with a higher complication rate than conservative treatment. Therefore, the surgeon must know the treatment limitations and recognize patients who would truly benefit from surgery.

  10. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Refaat Mahmmoud

    Full Text Available Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM, a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent.24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program.Working memory errors (WME and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites.The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  11. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Rasha Refaat; Sase, Sunetra; Aher, Yogesh D; Sase, Ajinkya; Gröger, Marion; Mokhtar, Maher; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM), a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program. Working memory errors (WME) and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites. The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  12. Polyribosomes at the base of dendritic spines of central nervous system neurons - their possible role in synapse construction and modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, O.

    1983-01-01

    The selective localization of polyribosomes at the base of dendritic spines in granule cells of the dentate gyrus was studied. These polyribosomes seem optimally situated to produce proteins for the postsynaptic membrane specialization or the spine and to have their synthetic activity regulated by functional activity over the synapse. The present work will summarize observations on the polyribosome clusters that were found to be ubiquitous in spines throughout the vertebrate CNS. Evidence will be presented that suggests a role for the polyribosomes in synapse construction and modification. 42 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, A.; Kokko, M.L.; Pitkaenen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  14. Disparities in Rates of Spine Surgery for Degenerative Spine Disease Between HIV Infected and Uninfected Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph T.; Gordon, Adam J.; Perkal, Melissa F.; Crystal, Stephen; Rosenthal, Ronnie A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Butt, Adeel A.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Rimland, David; Simberkoff, Michael S.; Justice, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of nationwide Veterans Health Administration (VA) clinical and administrative data. Objective Examine the association between HIV infection and the rate of spine surgery for degenerative spine disease. Summary of Background Data Combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has prolonged survival in patients with HIV/AIDS, increasing the prevalence of chronic conditions such as degenerative spine disease that may require spine surgery. Methods We studied all HIV infected patients under care in the VA from 1996–2008 (n=40,038) and uninfected comparator patients (n=79,039) matched on age, gender, race, year, and geographic region. The primary outcome was spine surgery for degenerative spine disease defined by ICD-9 procedure and diagnosis codes. We used a multivariate Poisson regression to model spine surgery rates by HIV infection status, adjusting for factors that might affect suitability for surgery (demographics, year, comorbidities, body mass index, cART, and laboratory values). Results Two-hundred twenty eight HIV infected and 784 uninfected patients underwent spine surgery for degenerative spine disease during 700,731 patient-years of follow-up (1.44 surgeries per 1,000 patient-years). The most common procedures were spinal decompression (50%), and decompression and fusion (33%); the most common surgical sites were the lumbosacral (50%), and cervical (40%) spine. Adjusted rates of surgery were lower for HIV infected patients (0.86 per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up) than for uninfected patients (1.41 per 1,000 patient-years; IRR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.74, Pdegenerative spine disease. Possible explanations include disease prevalence, emphasis on treatment of non-spine HIV-related symptoms, surgical referral patterns, impact of HIV on surgery risk-benefit ratio, patient preferences, and surgeon bias. PMID:21697770

  15. Research articles published by Korean spine surgeons: Scientific progress and the increase in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hyun Jib; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2017-02-01

    There has been a marked increase in spine surgery in the 21st century, but there are no reports providing quantitative and qualitative analyses of research by Korean spine surgeons. The study goal was to assess the status of Korean spinal surgery and research. The number of spine surgeries was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Research articles published by Korean spine surgeons were reviewed by using the Medline/PubMed online database. The number of spine surgeries in Korea increased markedly from 92,390 in 2004 to 164,291 in 2013. During the 2000-2014 period, 1982 articles were published by Korean spine surgeons. The annual number of articles increased from 20 articles in 2000 to 293 articles in 2014. There was a positive correlation between the annual spine surgery and article numbers (particles with Oxford levels of evidence 1, 2, and 3. The mean five-year impact factor (IF) for article quality was 1.79. There was no positive correlation between the annual IF and article numbers. Most articles (65.9%) were authored by neurosurgical spine surgeons. But spinal deformity-related topics were dominant among articles authored by orthopedics. The results show a clear quantitative increase in Korean spinal surgery and research over the last 15years. The lack of a correlation between annual IF and published article numbers indicate that Korean spine surgeons should endeavor to increase research value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accountable disease management of spine pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    The health care landscape has changed with new legislation addressing the unsustainable rise in costs in the US system. Low-value service lines caring for expensive chronic conditions have been targeted for reform; for better or worse, the treatment of spine pain has been recognized as a representative example. Examining the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and existing pilot studies can offer a preview of how chronic care of spine pain will be sustained. Accountable care in an organization capable of collecting, analyzing, and reporting clinical data and operational compliance is forthcoming. Interdisciplinary spine pain centers integrating surgical and medical management, behavioral medicine, physical reconditioning, and societal reintegration represent the model of high-value care for patients with chronic spine pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  18. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  19. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Khoi D.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-series study of 12?903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy....

  20. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Christopher P.; Clark, Aaron J.; Kanter, Adam S.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Multi-institutional retrospective study. Objective: The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. Methods: A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. Results: No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy...

  1. Incidental findings on MRI of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S.; Jain, N.; Goyal, N.; Mansour, R. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, K. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kausikmukherjee@doctors.org.uk

    2009-04-15

    MRI is widely used as the imaging of choice for spinal disorders and may reveal either a clinically insignificant incidental abnormality or a significant lesion, unrelated to the spine, which may explain the patient's symptoms. This article attempts to establish the importance of such findings and describes a sensible approach to the reporting of MRI examinations of the spine with special attention to the incidental findings commonly encountered. The MRI characteristics of such findings are briefly described.

  2. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  3. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  4. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Jonathan; Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  5. Post-transcriptional trafficking and regulation of neuronal gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Belinda J; Cairns, Murray J

    2012-02-01

    Intracellular messenger RNA (mRNA) traffic and translation must be highly regulated, both temporally and spatially, within eukaryotic cells to support the complex functional partitioning. This capacity is essential in neurons because it provides a mechanism for rapid input-restricted activity-dependent protein synthesis in individual dendritic spines. While this feature is thought to be important for synaptic plasticity, the structures and mechanisms that support this capability are largely unknown. Certainly specialized RNA binding proteins and binding elements in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of translationally regulated mRNA are important, but the subtlety and complexity of this system suggests that an intermediate "specificity" component is also involved. Small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) are essential for CNS development and may fulfill this role by acting as the guide strand for mediating complex patterns of post-transcriptional regulation. In this review we examine post-synaptic gene regulation, mRNA trafficking and the emerging role of post-transcriptional gene silencing in synaptic plasticity.

  6. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  7. Return to golf after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Maroon, Joseph C; Lochhead, Richard; Sonntag, Volker K H; Maroon, Adara; Field, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    no published evidence indicates when patients can resume golfing after spine surgery. The objective of this study is to provide data from surveys sent to spine surgeons. a survey of North American Spine Society members was undertaken querying the suggested timing of return to golf. Of 1000 spine surgeons surveyed, 523 responded (52.3%). The timing of recommended return to golf and the reasons were questioned for college/professional athletes and avid and recreational golfers of both sexes. Responses were tallied for lumbar laminectomy, lumbar microdiscectomy, lumbar fusion, and anterior cervical discectomy with fusion. the most common recommended time for return to golf was 4-8 weeks after lumbar laminectomy and lumbar microdiscectomy, 2-3 months after anterior cervical fusion, and 6 months after lumbar fusion. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the recommended time to resume golf after lumbar fusion than after cervical fusion in all patients (p golf after spine surgery depends on many variables, including the general well-being of patients in terms of pain control and comfort when golfing. This survey serves as a guide that can assist medical practitioners in telling patients the average times recommended by surgeons across North America regarding return to golf after spine surgery.

  8. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, I.; Antoun, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  9. Dendritic Spine Instability in a Mouse Model of CDKL5 Disorder Is Rescued by Insulin-like Growth Factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Grazia; Putignano, Elena; Chelini, Gabriele; Melani, Riccardo; Calcagno, Eleonora; Michele Ratto, Gian; Amendola, Elena; Gross, Cornelius T; Giustetto, Maurizio; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2016-08-15

    CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5) is mutated in many severe neurodevelopmental disorders, including atypical Rett syndrome. CDKL5 was shown to interact with synaptic proteins, but an in vivo analysis of the role of CDKL5 in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic molecular organization is still lacking. In vivo two-photon microscopy of the somatosensory cortex of Cdkl5(-/y) mice was applied to monitor structural dynamics of dendritic spines. Synaptic function and plasticity were measured using electrophysiological recordings of excitatory postsynaptic currents and long-term potentiation in brain slices and assessing the expression of synaptic postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). Finally, we studied the impact of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) treatment on CDKL5 null mice to restore the synaptic deficits. Adult mutant mice showed a significant reduction in spine density and PSD-95-positive synaptic puncta, a reduction of persistent spines, and impaired long-term potentiation. In juvenile mutants, short-term spine elimination, but not formation, was dramatically increased. Exogenous administration of IGF-1 rescued defective rpS6 phosphorylation, spine density, and PSD-95 expression. Endogenous cortical IGF-1 levels were unaffected by CDKL5 deletion. These data demonstrate that dendritic spine stabilization is strongly regulated by CDKL5. Moreover, our data suggest that IGF-1 treatment could be a promising candidate for clinical trials in CDKL5 patients. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of otoliths and first dorsal spines for preliminary age and growth determination in Atlantic Tripletails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Russell T.; Bringolf, Robert B.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2018-01-01

    The Atlantic Tripletail Lobotes surinamensis is a popular sport fish for which age and growth data are scarce in general and nonexistent for Georgia (GA), USA, waters. These data are necessary to ensure that management regulations are adequate to protect this species, especially given its popularity as a sport fish. We evaluated whether otoliths and spines were suitable for determining the estimated age (hereafter, “age”) and growth rates of Atlantic Tripletails, and we ascertained whether one method was more accurate than the other. Atlantic Tripletails were sampled by angling and trawling during March 30–August 10, 2009, and March 14–August 6, 2010, in nearshore GA waters of the Atlantic Ocean. During the study, 243 Atlantic Tripletails were captured and sampled for aging structures. Sagittal otoliths and the first dorsal spine were removed from each fish and used to estimate the age and growth rate. Mean differences in TL at age for spine and otolith data were evaluated with ANOVA. Estimated ages for males and females ranged from 1 to 5 years based on otoliths and spines. Both otolith and spine mean TLs at ages 1 and 2 were significantly different from each other as well as all other age‐classes, whereas mean TLs for ages 3–5 were not significantly different. Differences in Atlantic Tripletail TL among the otolith‐ and spine‐derived age‐classes were not significant. Each method used to age Atlantic Tripletails had advantages and disadvantages. Otoliths had higher initial reader agreement than spines, although agreement between the structures was 84.1%. However, otoliths require sacrifice of the fish, whereas a spine can be taken without sacrificing the fish. The lack of concrete life history data and population estimates suggests that when feasible, nonlethal aging methods would be preferred over lethal methods to ensure the survival of Atlantic Tripletail populations.

  11. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  12. Spine device clinical trials: design and sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Daniel J; Capobianco, Robyn A

    2015-05-01

    Multicenter prospective randomized clinical trials represent the best evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Industry sponsorship of multicenter clinical trials is purported to lead to bias. To determine what proportion of spine device-related trials are industry-sponsored and the effect of industry sponsorship on trial design. Analysis of data from a publicly available clinical trials database. Clinical trials of spine devices registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, a publicly accessible trial database, were evaluated in terms of design, number and location of study centers, and sample size. The relationship between trial design characteristics and study sponsorship was evaluated using logistic regression and general linear models. One thousand six hundred thrity-eight studies were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term "spine." Of the 367 trials that focused on spine surgery, 200 (54.5%) specifically studied devices for spine surgery and 167 (45.5%) focused on other issues related to spine surgery. Compared with nondevice trials, device trials were far more likely to be sponsored by the industry (74% vs. 22.2%, odds ratio (OR) 9.9 [95% confidence interval 6.1-16.3]). Industry-sponsored device trials were more likely multicenter (80% vs. 29%, OR 9.8 [4.8-21.1]) and had approximately four times as many participating study centers (pdevices not sponsored by the industry. Most device-related spine research is industry-sponsored. Multicenter trials are more likely to be industry-sponsored. These findings suggest that previously published studies showing larger effect sizes in industry-sponsored vs. nonindustry-sponsored studies may be biased as a result of failure to take into account the marked differences in design and purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging the Traumatized Spine'Clearing The Cervical Spine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monu, U.V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to recognize and diagnose injury to the cervical spine on plain radiographs can lead to severe and devastating consequences to the patient in particular and to the radiologist financially and otherwise. CT examination of the cervical spine aids and significantly improves diagnoses in many instances. it is neither economically feasible nor desirable to obtain CT on all patients. Meticulous attention to detail and zero tolerance for deviations from the usual radiographic landmarks will help select cases that should obtain additional imaging in form of CT or MRI scans. Faced with a task of clearing a cervical spine, a number of options are available. The first discriminator is whether or not the patient can be cleared clinically. If that is not possible, radiographic evaluation is needed. Strict adherence to a minimum three view plain radiograph for C-spine series must be maintained. Deviation from established norms for cervical spine radiographs should trigger a CT for additional evaluation

  14. Spine formation pattern of adult-born neurons is differentially modulated by the induction timing and location of hippocampal plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Ohkawa

    Full Text Available In the adult hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, newly born neurons are functionally integrated into existing circuits and play important roles in hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it remains unclear how neural plasticity regulates the integration pattern of new neurons into preexisting circuits. Because dendritic spines are major postsynaptic sites for excitatory inputs, spines of new neurons were visualized by retrovirus-mediated labeling to evaluate integration. Long-term potentiation (LTP was induced at 12, 16, or 21 days postinfection (dpi, at which time new neurons have no, few, or many spines, respectively. The spine expression patterns were investigated at one or two weeks after LTP induction. Induction at 12 dpi increased later spinogenesis, although the new neurons at 12 dpi didn't respond to the stimulus for LTP induction. Induction at 21 dpi transiently mediated spine enlargement. Surprisingly, LTP induction at 16 dpi reduced the spine density of new neurons. All LTP-mediated changes specifically appeared within the LTP-induced layer. Therefore, neural plasticity differentially regulates the integration of new neurons into the activated circuit, dependent on their developmental stage. Consequently, new neurons at different developmental stages may play distinct roles in processing the acquired information by modulating the connectivity of activated circuits via their integration.

  15. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

  16. Activity-dependent neurorehabilitation beyond physical trainings: "mental exercise" through mirror neuron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sa, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot mak...

  17. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC] and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

  18. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Christopher P; Clark, Aaron J; Kanter, Adam S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multi-institutional retrospective study. The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy (0.01%). This deficit resolved with conservative management. The rate by institution ranged from 0% to 1.28%. Although not directly injured by the surgical procedure, the transient nerve injury might have been related to patient positioning as has been described previously in the literature. Hypoglossal nerve injury during cervical spine surgery is an extremely rare complication. Institutional rates may vary. Care should be taken during posterior cervical surgery to avoid hyperflexion of the neck and endotracheal tube malposition.

  19. The Management of Unstable Cervical Spine Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M. Nemani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the cervical spine can cause potentially devastating morbidity and even mortality. In this review we discuss the anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine. The evaluation and treatment of cervical spine injuries begins with the prompt immobilization of suspected injuries in the field. Once an assessment of the patient's neurological status is made, imaging studies are obtained, which can include X-rays, CT, and MRI. Careful scrutiny of the imaging studies for bony and/or ligamentous injury allows the physician to determine the mechanism of injury, which guides treatment. The ultimate treatment plan can consist of non-operative or operative management, and depends on patient specific factors (medical condition and neurological status, the mechanism of injury, and the resultant degree of instability. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, the morbidity of these injuries can be minimized.

  20. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    2013-01-01

    .7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview...... pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings......Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has...

  1. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the reliability of clinical tests used for the spinal screening of children and adolescents is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of clinical tests commonly used when screening young spines......-segmental mobility and end range pain in the spine. Seventy-five of the 111 subjects were re-examined after one to four hours to test intra-rater reliability. Percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated for binary variables, and interclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots with Limits of Agreement...

  2. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  3. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery. The current veterinary MISS literature is reviewed and suggestions are made on how to apply MISS to different spinal locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Degenerative Changes in the Spine: Is This Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in my spine. Does this mean I have arthritis? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Yes. ... spine. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. Doctors may also refer to it as degenerative ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine What's in this article? ...

  6. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Amundsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained.

  7. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the in uence of dened geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing ve parametrized musculoskeletal lumbar spine ...... lumbar spine model for a subject-specic approach with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, degeneration processes could lead to computational problems and it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualized....

  8. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology...

  9. Barriers in the brain : resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and

  10. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Hui; Li, Ming-Xing; Xu, Chang; Chen, Hui-Bin; An, Shu-Cheng; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), have ...

  11. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masanari; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Sakanaka, Junya; Nakamura, Masamichi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2011-01-01

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  12. Congenital spine anomalies: the closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The term congenital spinal anomalies encompasses a wide variety of dysmorphology that occurs during early development. Familiarity with current terminology and a practical, clinico-radiologic classification system allows the radiologist to have a more complete understanding of malformations of the spine and improves accuracy of diagnosis when these entities are encountered in practice. (orig.)

  13. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharief, Alaa N. [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); King Saud University, Department of Medical Imaging, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Khaled National Guard Hospital-Western Region, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Hawary, Ron [Dalhousie University, Orthopedic Surgery Department, IWK Children' s Health Center, Halifax, NS (Canada); Schmit, Pierre [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2018-01-15

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  14. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. A retrospective case-series study of 12 903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy. A literature review of the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed) database was conducted to identify articles pertaining to brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery. In our total population of 12 903 patients, only 1 suffered from postoperative brachial plexopathy. The overall prevalence rate was thus 0.01%, but the prevalence rate at the site where this complication occurred was 0.07%. Previously reported risk factors for postoperative brachial plexopathy include age, anterior surgical procedures, and a diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The condition can also be due to patient positioning during surgery, which can generally be detected via the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery is rare and merits further study.

  15. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharief, Alaa N.; El-Hawary, Ron; Schmit, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  16. Surgical site infection in posterior spine surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-20

    Mar 20, 2016 ... Methodology: All consecutive patients who had posterior spine surgeries between January 2012 ... However, spinal instrumentation, surgery on cervical region and wound inspection on or ... While advances have been made in infection control ... costs, due to loss of productivity, patient dissatisfaction and.

  17. Cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-22

    Jan 22, 1983 ... In consultation with the joint replacement unit a total knee joint replacement was contem- plilted. Before surgery routine flex ion and extension radiographs were taken of the patient's cervical spine (Figs I and 2), and significant subluxation between the atlas and the axis was disco- vered. The knee operation ...

  18. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed. (orig.)

  19. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-05-01

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

  20. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Koerner, John D.; Radcliff, Kris E.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J.; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Vialle, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used

  1. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by

  2. Surgery for failed cervical spine reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Albert, Todd J

    2012-03-01

    Review article. To review the indications, operative strategy, and complications of revision cervical spine reconstruction. With many surgeons expanding their indications for cervical spine surgery, the number of patients being treated operatively has increased. Unfortunately, the number of patients requiring revision procedures is also increasing, but very little literature exists reviewing changes in the indications or operative planning for revision reconstruction. Narrative and review of the literature. In addition to the well-accepted indications for primary cervical spine surgery (radiculopathy, myelopathy, instability, and tumor), we have used the following indications for revision surgery: pseudarthrosis, adjacent segment degeneration, inadequate decompression, iatrogenic instability, and deformity. Our surgical goal for pseudarthrosis is obviously to obtain a fusion, which can usually be performed with an approach not done previously. Our surgical goals for instability and deformity are more complex, with a focus on decompression of any neurologic compression, correction of deformity, and stability. Revision cervical spine reconstruction is safe and effective if performed for the appropriate indications and with proper planning.

  3. Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tube≠rculosisof the spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes or foreignbodies (e.g. fish bones). Tuberculosis of ... drainage of the abscess to achieve optimal results. ... well-defined hypodense necrotic lesion from C1 to C4 measuring.

  4. Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Hilibrand, Alan S; Arnold, Paul M; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Gum, Jeffrey L; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Isaacs, Robert E; Kanter, Adam S; Mroz, Thomas E; Nassr, Ahmad; Sasso, Rick C; Fehlings, Michael G; Buser, Zorica; Bydon, Mohamad; Cha, Peter I; Chatterjee, Dhananjay; Gee, Erica L; Lord, Elizabeth L; Mayer, Erik N; McBride, Owen J; Nguyen, Emily C; Roe, Allison K; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Yanez, Marisa Y; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicentered retrospective case series. To determine the incidence and circumstances surrounding the development of a symptomatic postoperative epidural hematoma in the cervical spine. Patients who underwent cervical spine surgery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at 23 institutions were reviewed, and all patients who developed an epidural hematoma were identified. A total of 16 582 cervical spine surgeries were identified, and 15 patients developed a postoperative epidural hematoma, for a total incidence of 0.090%. Substantial variation between institutions was noted, with 11 sites reporting no epidural hematomas, and 1 site reporting an incidence of 0.76%. All patients initially presented with a neurologic deficit. Nine patients had complete resolution of the neurologic deficit after hematoma evacuation; however 2 of the 3 patients (66%) who had a delay in the diagnosis of the epidural hematoma had residual neurologic deficits compared to only 4 of the 12 patients (33%) who had no delay in the diagnosis or treatment ( P = .53). Additionally, the patients who experienced a postoperative epidural hematoma did not experience any significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life metrics as a result of the index procedure at final follow-up evaluation. This is the largest series to date to analyze the incidence of an epidural hematoma following cervical spine surgery, and this study suggest that an epidural hematoma occurs in approximately 1 out of 1000 cervical spine surgeries. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may improve the chance of making a complete neurologic recovery, but patients who develop this complication do not show improvements in the health-related quality-of-life measurements.

  5. Memory and pattern storage in neural networks with activity dependent synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Torres, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present recently obtained results on the influence of the interplay between several activity dependent synaptic mechanisms, such as short-term depression and facilitation, on the maximum memory storage capacity in an attractor neural network [1]. In contrast with the case of synaptic depression, which drastically reduces the capacity of the network to store and retrieve activity patterns [2], synaptic facilitation is able to enhance the memory capacity in different situations. In particular, we find that a convenient balance between depression and facilitation can enhance the memory capacity, reaching maximal values similar to those obtained with static synapses, that is, without activity-dependent processes. We also argue, employing simple arguments, that this level of balance is compatible with experimental data recorded from some cortical areas, where depression and facilitation may play an important role for both memory-oriented tasks and information processing. We conclude that depressing synapses with a certain level of facilitation allow to recover the good retrieval properties of networks with static synapses while maintaining the nonlinear properties of dynamic synapses, convenient for information processing and coding.

  6. Seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the quiet-time ionospheric trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Kadokura, A.; Hiraki, Y.; Häggström, I.

    2014-08-01

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ionospheric F region trough, focusing on its seasonal variation and solar activity dependence under geomagnetically quiet and moderate conditions, using plasma parameter data obtained via Common Program 3 observations performed by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar between 1982 and 2011. We have confirmed that there is a major difference in frictional heating between the high- and low-latitude sides of the EISCAT field of view (FOV) at ~73°0'N-60°5'N (geomagnetic latitude) at an altitude of 325 km, which is associated with trough formation. Our statistical results show that the high-latitude and midlatitude troughs occur on the high- and low-latitude sides of the FOV, respectively. Seasonal variations indicate that dissociative recombination accompanied by frictional heating is a main cause of trough formation in sunlit regions. During summer, therefore, the occurrence rate is maintained at 80-90% in the postmidnight high-latitude region owing to frictional heating by eastward return flow. Solar activity dependence on trough formation indicates that field-aligned currents modulate the occurrence rate of the trough during the winter and equinox seasons. In addition, the trough becomes deeper via dissociative recombination caused by an increased ion temperature with F10.7, at least in the equinox and summer seasons but not in winter.

  7. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  8. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B.

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  9. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide,...

  10. Evaluation and management of 2 ferocactus spines in the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David J; Kim, Tim I; Kubis, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman, who had fallen face first in a cactus 1 week earlier, presented with a small, mobile, noninflamed subcutaneous nodule at the rim of her right lateral orbit with no other functional deficits. A CT scan was obtained, which revealed a 4-cm intraorbital tubular-shaped foreign body resembling a large cactus spine. A second preoperative CT scan, obtained for an intraoperative guidance system, demonstrated a second cactus spine, which was initially not seen on the first CT scan. Both spines were removed surgically without complication. The authors discuss factors that can cause diagnosis delay, review the radiographic features of cactus spines, and discuss the often times benign clinical course of retained cactus spine foreign bodies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of cactus spines in the orbit. Health-care professionals should have a low threshold for imaging in cases of traumatic injuries involving cactus spines.

  11. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesupalan Rajam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. Results 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4% would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Conclusion Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs.

  12. Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memanbetsu in mid-latitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1-h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. In this analysis, we defined the quiet day when the maximum value of the Kp index is less than 3 for that day. In this analysis, we used the monthly average of the adjusted daily F10.7 corresponding to geomagnetically quiet days. For identification of the monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y), we first determined the baseline of the X and Y components from the average value from 22 to 2 h (LT: local time) for each quiet day. Next, we calculated a deviation from the baseline of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic field for each quiet day, and computed the monthly mean value of the deviation for each local time. As a result, Sq-X and Sq-Y shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities, and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and Sq-X and Sq-Y shows almost the linear relationship, but the slope and intercept of the linear fitted line varies as function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The local time dependence of the offset value of Sq-Y at Guam and its seasonal variation suggest a magnetic field produced by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs). From the sign of the offset value of Sq-Y, it is infer that the inter-hemispheric FACs flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in

  13. Plastic changes to dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons are involved in the rectifying role of the prefrontal cortex during the fast period of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tapia, David; Martínez-Torres, Nestor I; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex participates in the rectification of information related to motor activity that favors motor learning. Dendritic spine plasticity is involved in the modifications of motor patterns that underlie both motor activity and motor learning. To study this association in more detail, adult male rats were trained over six days in an acrobatic motor learning paradigm and they were subjected to a behavioral evaluation on each day of training. Also, a Golgi-based morphological study was carried out to determine the spine density and the proportion of the different spine types. In the learning paradigm, the number of errors diminished as motor training progressed. Concomitantly, spine density increased on days 1 and 3 of training, particularly reflecting an increase in the proportion of thin (day 1), stubby (day 1) and branched (days 1, 2 and 5) spines. Conversely, mushroom spines were less prevalent than in the control rats on days 5 and 6, as were stubby spines on day 6, together suggesting that this plasticity might enhance motor learning. The increase in stubby spines on day 1 suggests a regulation of excitability related to the changes in synaptic input to the prefrontal cortex. The plasticity to thin spines observed during the first 3 days of training could be related to the active rectification induced by the information relayed to the prefrontal cortex -as the behavioral findings indeed showed-, which in turn could be linked to the lower proportion of mushroom and stubby spines seen in the last days of training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Autism Related Protein Contactin-Associated Protein-Like 2 (CNTNAP2 Stabilizes New Spines: An In Vivo Mouse Study.

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    Amos Gdalyahu

    Full Text Available The establishment and maintenance of neuronal circuits depends on tight regulation of synaptic contacts. We hypothesized that CNTNAP2, a protein associated with autism, would play a key role in this process. Indeed, we found that new dendritic spines in mice lacking CNTNAP2 were formed at normal rates, but failed to stabilize. Notably, rates of spine elimination were unaltered, suggesting a specific role for CNTNAP2 in stabilizing new synaptic circuitry.

  15. Soluble ICAM-5, a product of activity dependent proteolysis, increases mEPSC frequency and dendritic expression of GluA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lonskaya

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are zinc dependent endopeptidases that can be released from neurons in an activity dependent manner to play a role in varied forms of learning and memory. MMP inhibitors impair hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP, spatial memory, and behavioral correlates of drug addiction. Since MMPs are thought to influence LTP through a β1 integrin dependent mechanism, it has been suggested that these enzymes cleave specific substrates to generate integrin binding ligands. In previously published work, we have shown that neuronal activity stimulates rapid MMP dependent shedding of intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5, a synaptic adhesion molecule expressed on dendrites of the telencephalon. We have also shown that the ICAM-5 ectodomain can interact with β1 integrins to stimulate integrin dependent phosphorylation of cofilin, an event that occurs with dendritic spine maturation and LTP. In the current study, we investigate the potential for the ICAM-5 ectodomain to stimulate changes in α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR dependent glutamatergic transmission. Single cell recordings show that the ICAM-5 ectodomain stimulates an increase in the frequency, but not the amplitude, of AMPA mini excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs. With biotinylation and precipitation assays, we also show that the ICAM-5 ectodomain stimulates an increase in membrane levels of GluA1, but not GluA2, AMPAR subunits. In addition, we observe an ICAM-5 associated increase in GluA1 phosphorylation at serine 845. Concomitantly, ICAM-5 affects an increase in GluA1 surface staining along dendrites without affecting an increase in dendritic spine number. Together these data are consistent with the possibility that soluble ICAM-5 increases glutamatergic transmission and that post-synaptic changes, including increased phosphorylation and dendritic insertion of GluA1, could contribute. We suggest that future studies

  16. Motion in the unstable thoracolumbar spine when spine boarding a prone patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bryan P.; Marchese, Diana L.; Rechtine, Glenn R.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has found that the log roll (LR) technique produces significant motion in the spinal column while transferring a supine patient onto a spine board. The purpose of this project was to determine whether log rolling a patient with an unstable spine from prone to supine with a pulling motion provides better thoracolumbar immobilization compared to log rolling with a push technique. Methods A global instability was surgically created at the L1 level in five cadavers. Two spine-boarding protocols were tested (LR Push and LR Pull). Both techniques entailed performing a 180° LR rotation of the prone patient from the ground to the supine position on the spine board. An electromagnetic tracking device registered motion between the T12 and L2 vertebral segments. Six motion parameters were tracked. Repeated-measures statistical analysis was performed to evaluate angular and translational motion. Results Less motion was produced during the LR Push compared to the LR Pull for all six motion parameters. The difference was statistically significant for three of the six parameters (flexion–extension, axial translation, and anterior–posterior (A–P) translation). Conclusions Both the LR Push and LR Pull generated significant motion in the thoracolumbar spine during the prone to supine LR. The LR Push technique produced statistically less motion than the LR Pull, and should be considered when a prone patient with a suspected thoracolumbar injury needs to be transferred to a long spine board. More research is needed to identify techniques to further reduce the motion in the unstable spine during prone to supine LR. PMID:22330191

  17. Short-term mastication after weaning upregulates GABAergic signalling and reduces dendritic spine in thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mana; Nagai, Toshitada; Saito, Yoshikazu; Miyaguchi, Hitonari; Kumakura, Kei; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2018-04-06

    Mastication enhances brain function and mental health, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of mastication on neural development in early childhood. Therefore, we analysed the gene expression in juvenile neural circuits in rats fed with a soft or chow diet immediately after weaning. We observed that the gene expression patterns in the thalamus varied depending on the diet. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis revealed that two terms were significantly enhanced: chemical synaptic transmission and positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis. With respect to chemical synaptic transmission, glutamate decarboxylase and GABA receptors were upregulated in the chow diet group. The related genes, including vesicular GABA transporter, were also upregulated, suggesting that mastication activates GABAergic signalling. With respect to dendritic spine morphogenesis, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted fewer extension of neurites and neurons and fewer number of branches in the chow diet group. The numbers of spines in the ventral posterolateral and posteromedial regions were significantly decreased. These results suggest that mastication in the early developing period upregulates GABAergic signalling genes, with a decrease of spines in the thalamus. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Gαo Activator Mastoparan-7 Promotes Dendritic Spine Formation in Hippocampal Neurons

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    Valerie T. Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastoparan-7 (Mas-7, an analogue of the peptide mastoparan, which is derived from wasp venom, is a direct activator of Pertussis toxin- (PTX- sensitive G proteins. Mas-7 produces several biological effects in different cell types; however, little is known about how Mas-7 influences mature hippocampal neurons. We examined the specific role of Mas-7 in the development of dendritic spines, the sites of excitatory synaptic contact that are crucial for synaptic plasticity. We report here that exposure of hippocampal neurons to a low dose of Mas-7 increases dendritic spine density and spine head width in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, Mas-7 enhances postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95 clustering in neurites and activates Gαo signaling, increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. To define the role of signaling intermediates, we measured the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C (PKC, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα after Mas-7 treatment and determined that CaMKII activation is necessary for the Mas-7-dependent increase in dendritic spine density. Our results demonstrate a critical role for Gαo subunit signaling in the regulation of synapse formation.

  19. Regenerative Rehabilitation: Combining Stem Cell Therapies and Activity-Dependent Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Chet T; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2017-07-01

    The number of clinical trials in regenerative medicine is burgeoning, and stem cell/tissue engineering technologies hold the possibility of becoming the standard of care for a multitude of diseases and injuries. Advances in regenerative biology reveal novel molecular and cellular targets, with potential to optimize tissue healing and functional recovery, thereby refining rehabilitation clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to (1) highlight the potential for synergy between the fields of regenerative medicine and rehabilitation, a convergence of disciplines known as regenerative rehabilitation; (2) provide translational examples of regenerative rehabilitation within the context of neuromuscular injuries and diseases; and (3) offer recommendations for ways to leverage activity dependence via combined therapy and technology, with the goal of enhancing long-term recovery. The potential clinical benefits of regenerative rehabilitation will likely become a critical aspect in the standard of care for many neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.

  20. Palpation of the upper thoracic spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Vach, Kirstin

    2002-01-01

    procedure. RESULTS: Using an "expanded" definition of agreement that accepts small inaccuracies (+/-1 segment) in the numbering of spinal segments, we found--based on the pooled data from the thoracic spine--kappa values of 0.59 to 0.77 for the hour-to-hour and the day-to-day intraobserver reliability......OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated....... INTERVENTION: Three types of palpation were performed: Sitting motion palpation and prone motion palpation for biomechanic dysfunction and paraspinal palpation for tenderness. Each dimension was rated as "absent" or "present" for each segment. All examinations were performed according to a standard written...

  1. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  2. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between...... Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood....... Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children...

  3. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  4. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle ('pediculolysis') is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors)

  5. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M. [Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, (Singapore). Department of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle (`pediculolysis`) is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  7. Rare combination of cervical spine tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome, Terrencejose; Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, and haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of any young patient with pain in the back or the neck, painful scoliosis, or radicular or referred-type pain into the lower limb or the shoulder. Osteoid osteoma and haemangioma may occur in the same cervical spine and both have a significant importance in the prognosis, management and possible complications. Early diagnosis with a bone scan and computed tomography scan, leading to prompt treatme...

  8. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Dosdá, Rosa; Mollá, Enrique

    2002-11-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson chi(2) test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease ( p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms.

  9. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Dosda, Rosa; Molla, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson χ 2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  10. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, O.; Matozzi, F.; Beranger, M.; Nazarian, S.; Salamon, G.; Gambarelli, J.

    1982-01-01

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  11. Halovest treatment in traumatic cervical spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, M; Basir, T; Hyzan, Y; Johari, Z

    1998-09-01

    This is a cross-sectional study on the use of halovest appliance in the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department, Kuala Lumpur Hospital from June 1993 to September 1996. Fifty-three patients with cervical spine injuries were treated by halovest stabilization. Majority of cases was caused by motor-vehicle accident; others were fall from height at construction sites, fall at home, hit by falling object and assault. The injuries were Jefferson fracture of C1, odontoid fractures, hangman fractures, open spinous process fracture and fracture body of C2, and fracture, and fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spines. Majority of patients had hospital stay less than 30 days. The use of the halovest ranges from 4 to 16 weeks and the healing rate was 96%. Two patients of lower cervical spine injury had redislocation and one of them was operated. There was one case of non-union of type II odontoid fracture and treated by posterior fusion. Other complications encountered during halovest treatment were minor. They were pin-site infection, pin-loosening, clamp loosening and neck pain or neck stiffness. This method of treatment enables patient to ambulate early and reduces hospital stay. We found that halovest is easy to apply, safe and tolerable to most of the patients.

  12. Intrapartum Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Spine Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gizzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of foetal spine position in the first and second labour stages to determine the probability of OPP detection at birth and the related obstetrical implications. We conducted an observational-longitudinal cohort study on uncomplicated cephalic single foetus pregnant women at term. We evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound in predicting occiput position at birth, influence of fetal spine in occiput position during labour, labour trend, analgesia request, type of delivery, and indication to CS. The accuracy of the foetal spinal position to predict the occiput position at birth was high at the first labour stage. At the second labour stage, CS (40.3% and operative vaginal deliveries (23.9% occurred more frequently in OPP than in occiput anterior position (7% and 15.2%, resp., especially in cases of the posterior spine. In concordant posterior positions labour length was greater than other ones, and analgesia request rate was 64.1% versus 14.7% for all the others. The assessment of spinal position could be useful in obstetrical management and counselling, both before and during labour. The detection of spinal position, more than OPP, is predictive of successful delivery. In concordant posterior positions, the labour length, analgesia request, operative delivery, and caesarean section rate are higher than in the other combination.

  13. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.

    2002-01-01

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de

  14. Homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dominic; Giguère, Nicolas; Loustalot, Fabien; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; El Mestikawy, Salah; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-05-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are contacted by glutamatergic axon terminals originating from cortex, thalamus and other regions. The striatum is also innervated by dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, some of which release glutamate as a co-transmitter. Despite evidence for functional DA release at birth in the striatum, the role of DA in the establishment of striatal circuitry is unclear. In light of recent work suggesting activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic terminals on MSNs expressing the D2 DA receptor (D2-MSNs), we used primary co-cultures to test the hypothesis that stimulation of DA and glutamate receptors regulates the homeostasis of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. Co-culture of D2-MSNs with mesencephalic DA neurons or with cortical neurons produced an increase in spines and functional glutamate synapses expressing VGLUT2 or VGLUT1, respectively. The density of VGLUT2-positive terminals was reduced by the conditional knockout of this gene from DA neurons. In the presence of both mesencephalic and cortical neurons, the density of synapses reached the same total, compatible with the possibility of a homeostatic mechanism capping excitatory synaptic density. Blockade of D2 receptors increased the density of cortical and mesencephalic glutamatergic terminals, without changing MSN spine density or mEPSC frequency. Combined blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors increased the density of cortical terminals and decreased that of mesencephalic VGLUT2-positive terminals, with no net change in total excitatory terminal density or in mEPSC frequency. These results suggest that DA and glutamate signaling regulate excitatory inputs to striatal D2-MSNs at both the pre- and postsynaptic level, under the influence of a homeostatic mechanism controlling functional output of the circuit.

  15. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  16. Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Haruhiko

    1984-01-01

    Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereoobservation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc. (J.P.N.)

  17. Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Haruhiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1984-05-01

    Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereo observation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc.

  18. Survey of French spine surgeons reveals significant variability in spine trauma practices in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, G; Grelat, M; Dhenin, A; Dauzac, C; Lonjon, N; Kepler, C K; Vaccaro, A R

    2015-02-01

    In France, attempts to define common ground during spine surgery meetings have revealed significant variability in clinical practices across different schools of surgery and the two specialities involved in spine surgery, namely, neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. To objectively characterise this variability by performing a survey based on a fictitious spine trauma case. Our working hypothesis was that significant variability existed in trauma practices and that this variability was related to a lack of strong scientific evidence in spine trauma care. We performed a cross-sectional survey based on a clinical vignette describing a 31-year-old male with an L1 burst fracture and neurologic symptoms (numbness). Surgeons received the vignette and a 14-item questionnaire on the management of this patient. For each question, surgeons had to choose among five possible answers. Differences in answers across surgeons were assessed using the Index of Qualitative Variability (IQV), in which 0 indicates no variability and 1 maximal variability. Surgeons also received a questionnaire about their demographics and surgical experience. Of 405 invited spine surgeons, 200 responded to the survey. Five questions had an IQV greater than 0.9, seven an IQV between 0.5 and 0.9, and two an IQV lower than 0.5. Variability was greatest about the need for MRI (IQV=0.93), degree of urgency (IQV=0.93), need for fusion (IQV=0.92), need for post-operative bracing (IQV=0.91), and routine removal of instrumentation (IQV=0.94). Variability was lowest for questions about the need for surgery (IQV=0.42) and use of the posterior approach (IQV=0.36). Answers were influenced by surgeon specialty, age, experience level, and type of centre. Clinical practice regarding spine trauma varies widely in France. Little published evidence is available on which to base recommendations that would diminish this variability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. EphB/syndecan-2 signaling in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethell, I M; Irie, F; Kalo, M S

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that the cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-2 can induce dendritic spine formation in hippocampal neurons. We demonstrate here that the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylates syndecan-2 and that this phosphorylation event is crucial for syndecan-2 clustering and spine...... formation. Syndecan-2 is tyrosine phosphorylated and forms a complex with EphB2 in mouse brain. Dominant-negative inhibition of endogenous EphB receptor activities blocks clustering of endogenous syndecan-2 and normal spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. This is the first evidence that Eph...... receptors play a physiological role in dendritic spine morphogenesis. Our observations suggest that spine morphogenesis is triggered by the activation of Eph receptors, which causes tyrosine phosphorylation of target molecules, such as syndecan-2, in presumptive spines....

  20. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springer and Elsevier (Science Direct) for the years 1980-2008. Two reviewers extracted data on the anatomy of large animal spines from the identified articles. Each anatomical study of animals had to include at least three vertebral levels. The anatomical data from all animal studies were compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. Of the papers retrieved, seven were included in the review. The animals in the studies involved baboon, sheep, porcine, calf and deer. Distinct anatomical differences of vertebrae were found between the human and each large animal spine. In cervical region, spines of the baboon and human are more similar as compared to other animals. In thoracic and lumbar regions, the mean pedicle height of all animals was greater than the human pedicles. There was similar mean pedicle width between animal and the human specimens, except in thoracic segments of sheep. The human spinal canal was wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals. The mean human vertebral body width and depth were greater than that of the animals except in upper thoracic segments of the deer. However, the mean vertebral body height was lower than that of all animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review to compare vertebrae geometries of experimental animal models to the human vertebrae, and will help for choosing animal model in vivo and in vitro spine research. When the animal selected for spine research, the structural similarities and

  1. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: → I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. → I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. → I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. → Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. → Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated

  2. [Application of Finite Element Method in Thoracolumbar Spine Traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yong-gui; Shao, Yu; Gu, Xiao-feng; Zeng, Ming-wei

    2015-04-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a mathematical technique using modern computer technology for stress analysis, and has been gradually used in simulating human body structures in the biomechanical field, especially more widely used in the research of thoracolumbar spine traumatology. This paper reviews the establishment of the thoracolumbar spine FEM, the verification of the FEM, and the thoracolumbar spine FEM research status in different fields, and discusses its prospects and values in forensic thoracolumbar traumatology.

  3. Selectable six-element multicoil array for entire spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.W.; Bluma-Walter, J.; Prorok, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article introduces a new multicoil array that can provide entire spine imaging in two acquisitions with no need to manually reposition either the coil or the patient. A selectable contoured multicoil array with six elements was used to obtain coverage of the entire spine. The first four elements were used for imaging the upper spine region (cervical/thoracic) during the first acquisition, and the last four elements were used for imaging the lower spine region (thoracic/lumbar) during the second acquisition. The overall coil length was approximately 75 cm

  4. Variation in armour of three-spine stickleback

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The three-spine stickleback is an adaptable fish with variation in morphology and behaviour, inhabiting saltwater, brackish water and fresh water. It is armoured with 30-35 bone plates along its lateral line. In addition, it is equipped with three spines on its back and two pelvic spine. These features constitute an excellent anti-predator defence system. Yet, there is a strong selection for reduction in armour of three-spine stickleback in freshwater stickleback. In this project, the bone st...

  5. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dendritic Spines in the Living Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are ubiquitous postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and thus may serve as structural indicators of functional synapses. Recent works have suggested that neuronal coding of memories may be associated with rapid alterations in spine formation and elimination. Technological advances have enabled researchers to study spine dynamics in vivo during development as well as under various physiological and pathological conditions. We believe that better understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of spine dynamics will help elucidate the principles of experience-dependent circuit modification and information processing in the living brain.

  6. The contribution of ketone bodies to basal and activity-dependent neuronal oxidation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Golam M I; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-07-01

    The capacity of ketone bodies to replace glucose in support of neuronal function is unresolved. Here, we determined the contributions of glucose and ketone bodies to neocortical oxidative metabolism over a large range of brain activity in rats fasted 36 hours and infused intravenously with [2,4-(13)C₂]-D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Three animal groups and conditions were studied: awake ex vivo, pentobarbital-induced isoelectricity ex vivo, and halothane-anesthetized in vivo, the latter data reanalyzed from a recent study. Rates of neuronal acetyl-CoA oxidation from ketone bodies (V(acCoA-kbN)) and pyruvate (V(pdhN)), and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (V(cyc)) were determined by metabolic modeling of (13)C label trapped in major brain amino acid pools. V(acCoA-kbN) increased gradually with increasing activity, as compared with the steeper change in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate (V(tcaN)), supporting a decreasing percentage of neuronal ketone oxidation: ∼100% (isoelectricity), 56% (halothane anesthesia), 36% (awake) with the BHB plasma levels achieved in our experiments (6 to 13 mM). In awake animals ketone oxidation reached saturation for blood levels >17 mM, accounting for 62% of neuronal substrate oxidation, the remainder (38%) provided by glucose. We conclude that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons.

  7. Synaptic Mechanisms of Activity-Dependent Remodeling in Visual Cortex during Monocular Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia D. Rittenhouse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been appreciated that in the visual cortex, particularly within a postnatal critical period for experience-dependent plasticity, the closure of one eye results in a shift in the responsiveness of cortical cells toward the experienced eye. While the functional aspects of this ocular dominance shift have been studied for many decades, their cortical substrates and synaptic mechanisms remain elusive. Nonetheless, it is becoming increasingly clear that ocular dominance plasticity is a complex phenomenon that appears to have an early and a late component. Early during monocular deprivation, deprived eye cortical synapses depress, while later during the deprivation open eye synapses potentiate. Here we review current literature on the cortical mechanisms of activity-dependent plasticity in the visual system during the critical period. These studies shed light on the role of activity in shaping neuronal structure and function in general and can lead to insights regarding how learning is acquired and maintained at the neuronal level during normal and pathological brain development.

  8. The Development and Activity-Dependent Expression of Aggrecan in the Cat Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengpiel, F.; Beaver, C. J.; Crocker-Buque, A.; Kelly, G. M.; Matthews, R. T.; Mitchell, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cat-301 monoclonal antibody identifies aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the cat visual cortex and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). During development, aggrecan expression increases in the dLGN with a time course that matches the decline in plasticity. Moreover, examination of tissue from selectively visually deprived cats shows that expression is activity dependent, suggesting a role for aggrecan in the termination of the sensitive period. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the onset of aggrecan expression in area 17 also correlates with the decline in experience-dependent plasticity in visual cortex and that this expression is experience dependent. Dark rearing until 15 weeks of age dramatically reduced the density of aggrecan-positive neurons in the extragranular layers, but not in layer IV. This effect was reversible as dark-reared animals that were subsequently exposed to light showed normal numbers of Cat-301-positive cells. The reduction in aggrecan following certain early deprivation regimens is the first biochemical correlate of the functional changes to the γ-aminobutyric acidergic system that have been reported following early deprivation in cats. PMID:22368089

  9. Quantitative monitoring of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membrane by fluorescent dextran imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Emma Louise; Cousin, Michael Alan

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) retrieval mode in central nerve terminals during periods of intense neuronal activity. Despite this fact there are very few real time assays that report the activity of this critical SV retrieval mode. In this paper we report a simple and quantitative assay of ADBE using uptake of large flourescent dextrans as fluid phase markers. We show that almost all dextran uptake occurs in nerve terminals, using co-localisation with the fluorescent probe FM1-43. We also demonstrate that accumulated dextran cannot be unloaded by neuronal stimulation, indicating its specific loading into bulk endosomes and not SVs. Quantification of dextran uptake was achieved by using thresholding analysis to count the number of loaded nerve terminals, since monitoring the average fluorescence intensity of these nerve terminals did not accurately report the extent of ADBE. Using this analysis we showed that dextran uptake occurs very soon after stimulation and that it does not persist when stimulation terminates. Thus we have devised a simple and quantitative method to monitor ADBE in living neurones, which will be ideal for real time screening of small molecule inhibitors of this key SV retrieval mode. PMID:19766140

  10. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system.

  11. Activity-dependent formation of a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gradient in the superior olivary complex of NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Lena; Weber, Maren; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2017-10-26

    factors involved in activity-dependent developmental processes in the auditory system. This would provide an important step forward concerning improved auditory rehabilitation in cases of congenital deafness.

  12. Single Dose Toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing Pharmacopuncture Injection in the Muscle of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hohyun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single dose toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing pharmacopuncture. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Chukyu (spine-healing pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues except in one case, where interstitial infiltrating macrophages were found in one female rat in the 0.5-mL/animal experimental group. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with Chukyu (spine-healing pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.

  13. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm 2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm 2 and 0.765g/cm 2 . Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  14. Toward laboratory torsional spine magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesny, David L.; Orange, N. Brice; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Valletta, David R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental energy conversion mechanism in nature. Major attempts to study this process in controlled settings on Earth have largely been limited to reproducing approximately two-dimensional (2-D) reconnection dynamics. Other experiments describing reconnection near three-dimensional null points are non-driven, and do not induce any of the 3-D modes of spine fan, torsional fan or torsional spine reconnection. In order to study these important 3-D modes observed in astrophysical plasmas (e.g. the solar atmosphere), laboratory set-ups must be designed to induce driven reconnection about an isolated magnetic null point. As such, we consider the limited range of fundamental resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and kinetic parameters of dynamic laboratory plasmas that are necessary to induce the torsional spine reconnection (TSR) mode characterized by a driven rotational slippage of field lines - a feature that has yet to be achieved in operational laboratory magnetic reconnection experiments. Leveraging existing reconnection models, we show that within a 3$ apparatus, TSR can be achieved in dense plasma regimes ( 24~\\text{m}-3$ ) in magnetic fields of -1~\\text{T}$ . We find that MHD and kinetic parameters predict reconnection in thin current sheets on time scales of . While these plasma regimes may not explicitly replicate the plasma parameters of observed astrophysical phenomena, studying the dynamics of the TSR mode within achievable set-ups signifies an important step in understanding the fundamentals of driven 3-D magnetic reconnection and the self-organization of current sheets. Explicit control of this reconnection mode may have implications for understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical environments, and may even have practical applications to fields such as spacecraft propulsion.

  15. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Pseudomeningocoele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailon, Tamir; Smith, Justin S; Nassr, Ahmad; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Hilibrand, Alan S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Chou, Dean; Sasso, Rick C; Traynelis, Vincent C; Arnold, Paul M; Mroz, Thomas E; Buser, Zorica; Lord, Elizabeth L; Massicotte, Eric M; Sebastian, Arjun S; Than, Khoi D; Steinmetz, Michael P; Smith, Gabriel A; Pace, Jonathan; Corriveau, Mark; Lee, Sungho; Riew, K Daniel; Shaffrey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Rare complications of cervical spine surgery are inherently difficult to investigate. Pseudomeningocoele (PMC), an abnormal collection of cerebrospinal fluid that communicates with the subarachnoid space, is one such complication. In order to evaluate and better understand the incidence, presentation, treatment, and outcome of PMC following cervical spine surgery, we conducted a multicenter study to pool our collective experience. This study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery at any level(s) from C2 to C7, inclusive; were over 18 years of age; and experienced a postoperative PMC. Thirteen patients (0.08%) developed a postoperative PMC, 6 (46.2%) of whom were female. They had an average age of 48.2 years and stayed in hospital a mean of 11.2 days. Three patients were current smokers, 3 previous smokers, 5 had never smoked, and 2 had unknown smoking status. The majority, 10 (76.9%), were associated with posterior surgery, whereas 3 (23.1%) occurred after an anterior procedure. Myelopathy was the most common indication for operations that were complicated by PMC (46%). Seven patients (53%) required a surgical procedure to address the PMC, whereas the remaining 6 were treated conservatively. All PMCs ultimately resolved or were successfully treated with no residual effects. PMC is a rare complication of cervical surgery with an incidence of less than 0.1%. They prolong hospital stay. PMCs occurred more frequently in association with posterior approaches. Approximately half of PMCs required surgery and all ultimately resolved without residual neurologic or other long-term effects.

  16. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Jung Ah; Yoon, Chang Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Kang, Heung Sik; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Young Hwan; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

  17. Computational segmentation of collagen fibers in bone matrix indicates bone quality in ovariectomized rat spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghma, Diaa Eldin S; Malhan, Deeksha; Simon, Paul; Stötzel, Sabine; Kern, Stefanie; Hassan, Fathi; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Heiss, Christian; El Khassawna, Thaqif

    2018-05-01

    Bone loss varies according to disease and age and these variations affect bone cells and extracellular matrix. Osteoporosis rat models are widely investigated to assess mechanical and structural properties of bone; however, bone matrix proteins and their discrepant regulation of diseased and aged bone are often overlooked. The current study considered the spine matrix properties of ovariectomized rats (OVX) against control rats (Sham) at 16 months of age. Diseased bone showed less compact structure with inhomogeneous distribution of type 1 collagen (Col1) and changes in osteocyte morphology. Intriguingly, demineralization patches were noticed in the vicinity of blood vessels in the OVX spine. The organic matrix structure was investigated using computational segmentation of collagen fibril properties. In contrast to the aged bone, diseased bone showed longer fibrils and smaller orientation angles. The study shows the potential of quantifying transmission electron microscopy images to predict the mechanical properties of bone tissue.

  18. Improvement in Scoliosis Top View: Evaluation of Vertebrae Localization in Scoliotic Spine-Spine Axial Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Główka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the scoliotic spine is based on two-dimensional X-rays: coronal and sagittal. The three-dimensional character of scoliosis has raised the necessity for analyzing scoliosis in three planes. We proposed a new user-friendly method of graphical presentation of the spine in the third plane–the Spine Axial Presentation (SAP. Eighty-five vertebrae of patients with scoliosis were analyzed. Due to different positions during X-rays (standing and computer tomography (CT (supine, the corresponding measurements cannot be directly compared. As a solution, a software creating Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs from CT scans was developed to replace regular X-rays with DRRs. Based on the measurements performed on DRRs, the coordinates of vertebral bodies central points were defined. Next, the geometrical centers of vertebral bodies were determined on CT scans. The reproducibility of measurements was tested with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, using p = 0.05. The intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability for vertebral body central point’s coordinates (x, y, z were high for results obtained based on DRRs and CT scans, as well as for comparison results obtained based on DRR and CT scans. Based on two standard radiographs, it is possible to localize vertebral bodies in 3D space. The position of vertebral bodies can be present in the Spine Axial Presentation.

  19. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Machado, Marcio Martins; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Junqueira; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2002-01-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroid injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods. (author)

  20. A classification of growth friendly spine implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, David L; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Flynn, John M; Myung, Karen S; Sponseller, Paul D; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Various types of spinal implants have been used with the objective of minimizing spinal deformities while maximizing the spine and thoracic growth in a growing child with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to describe a classification system of growth friendly spinal implants to allow researchers and clinicians to have a common language and facilitate comparative studies. Growth friendly spinal implant systems fall into 3 categories based upon the forces of correction the implants exert on the spine, which are as follows: Distraction-based systems correct spinal deformities by mechanically applying a distractive force across a deformed segment with anchors at the top and bottom of the implants, which commonly attach to the spine, rib, and/or the pelvis. The present examples of distraction-based implants are spine-based or rib-based growing rods, vertical expandable titanium rib prosthesis, and remotely expandable devices. Compression-based systems correct spinal deformities with a compressive force applied to the convexity of the curve causing convex growth inhibition. This compressive force may be generated both mechanically at the time of implantation, as well as over time resulting from longitudinal growth of vertebral endplates hindered by the spinal implants. Examples of compression-based systems are vertebral staples and tethers. Guided growth systems correct spinal deformity by anchoring multiple vertebrae (usually including the apical vertebrae) to rods with mechanical forces including translation at the time of the initial implant. The majority of the anchors are not rigidly attached to the rods, thus permitting longitudinal growth over time as the anchors slide over the rods. Examples of guided growth systems include the Luque trolley and Shilla. Each system has its benefits and shortcomings. Knowledge of the fundamental principles upon which these systems are based may aid the clinician to choose an appropriate treatment for patients. Having a

  1. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Koh, Yoon-Woo; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Park, Jung-Mi

    2008-01-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  2. Respiratory Disorders in Complicated Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pervukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluating the results of respiratory therapy in patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine.Materials and methods. A retrospective comparative analysis of the clinical course was carried out in 52 patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine: group A: complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A, 37 patients and group B: incomplete injury (ASIA B, 15 patients. The severity of patients' status on integral scales, parameters of the respiratory pattern and thoracopulmonary compliance, gas composition, and acidbase status of the blood were assessed. Data on patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, duration of stay in the ICU, time of hospital treatment, and mortality were included in the analysis. Results. The average APACHE II and SOFA scores were higher in group A patients. The development of the acute respiratory failure required longterm mechanical ventilation (more than 48 hours in 91.4% of group A patients and in 53.3% of group B patients. Ventilatorassociated pneumonia complicated the disease in 81.3% of group A patients and 62.5% of group B patients and was accompanied by sepsis in 25% and 12.5% of cases, respectively. Statistically significant deterioration of biomechanical properties and gas exchange function of the lungs was observed in patients complicated with septic pneumonia.Conclusion. Patients with complicated ASIA A and ASIA B cervical spine injuries demonstrate the presence of respiratory failure of neurogenic origin. In addition, the infectious bronchopulmonary complications aggravated respiratory failure in patients with ASIA A injury in 70.3% versus 33.3% in patients with ASIA B. Developmentof pulmonogenic sepsis led to deterioration of the biomechanical and gas exchange functions of the lungs and increased the likelihood of unfavorable outcome of the disease in 77.8% of cases. The high

  3. Computed tomography of the spine: Diagnostic exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, R.; Kricun, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' aim is to provide diagnostic challenges and information to improve the readers' ability to interpret computed tomography (CT) scans of the spine. The entire vertebral column and adjacent soft-tissue structures are covered. The authors discuss normal findings, and congenital, traumatic, inflammatory, neoplastic, degenerative, idiopathic, and postoperative findings. Sixty-six case examples are presented, followed by description of the findings. Additional examples are given, and drawings and photographs of specimens are used to illustrate and clarify the pathologic conditions. Other modalities, including their advantages and disadvantages, are illustrated and discussed where appropriate. The relative merits of these modalities are presented

  4. Spine oncology: Daedalus, Theseus, and the Minotaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthineni, Rakesh; Ofluoglu, Onder

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, progress has been dramatic in the management of spine tumors. For example, advanced imaging technologies made available at manageable costs have lowered the threshold for scanning. CT, MRI, and PET imaging modalities have greatly enhanced the ability of the surgeon to accurately delineate the extension of the lesion within the bone, the soft tissue, and the spinal canal. Such enhancements have led to great leaps forward in preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation, including improved reconstruction options are resulting in improved outcomes. This article introduces the theme of this volume.

  5. CT of osteomyelitis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimbu, C.; Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 17 adults with osteomyelitis of the spine. The dominant features were paravertebral soft-tissue swelling, abscess formation, and bone erosion. In two patients there were no findings indicative of osteomyelitis on conventional radiographs, but CT revealed paravertebral abscesses and bone lysis, helping to establish the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, chiefly because of its ability to detect early erosion of spongy vertabral bone, disk involvement, paravertebral soft-tissue swelling or abscess, and extension of the pathology into the spinal canal. Furthermore, CT facilitated closed-needle biopsy, helping to establish the pathologic diagnosis

  6. 78 FR 68906 - Agency Information Collection (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...

  7. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... Control No. 2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: (Neck (Cervical Spine...

  8. Neuromodulation of activity-dependent synaptic enhancement at crayfish neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S M; Delaney, K R

    1997-10-17

    Action potential-evoked transmitter release is enhanced for many seconds after moderate-frequency stimulation (e.g. 15 Hz for 30 s) at the excitor motorneuron synapse of the crayfish dactyl opener muscle. Beginning about 1.5 s after a train, activity-dependent synaptic enhancement (ADSE) is dominated by a process termed augmentation (G.D. Bittner, D.A. Baxter, Synaptic plasticity at crayfish neuromuscular junctions: facilitation and augmentation, Synapse 7 (1991) 235-243'[4]; K.L. Magleby, Short-term changes in synaptic efficacy, in: G.M. Edelman, L.E. Gall, C.W. Maxwell (Eds.), Synaptic Function, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1987, pp. 21-56; K.L. Magleby; J.E. Zengel, Augmentation: a process that acts to increase transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 257 (1976) 449-470) which decays approximately exponentially with a time constant of about 10 s at 16 degrees C, reflecting the removal of Ca2+ which accumulates during the train in presynaptic terminals (K.R. Delaney, D.W. Tank, R.S. Zucker, Serotonin-mediated enhancement of transmission at crayfish neuromuscular junction is independent of changes in calcium, J. Neurosci. 11 (1991) 2631-2643). Serotonin (5-HT, 1 microM) increases evoked and spontaneous transmitter release several-fold (D. Dixon, H.L. Atwood, Crayfish motor nerve terminal's response to serotonin examined by intracellular microelectrode, J. Neurobiol. 16 (1985) 409-424; J. Dudel, Modulation of quantal synaptic release by serotonin and forskolin in crayfish motor nerve terminals, in: Modulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Nervous Systems, G. Hertting, H.-C. Spatz (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988; S. Glusman, E.A. Kravitz. The action of serotonin on excitatory nerve terminals in lobster nerve-muscle preparations, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 325 (1982) 223-241). We found that ADSE persists about 2-3 times longer after moderate-frequency presynaptic stimulation in the presence of 5-HT. This slowing of the

  9. A direct comparison of spine rotational stiffness and dynamic spine stability during repetitive lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-06-01

    Stability of the spinal column is critical to bear loads, allow movement, and at the same time avoid injury and pain. However, there has been a debate in recent years as to how best to define and quantify spine stability, with the outcome being that different methods are used without a clear understanding of how they relate to one another. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to directly compare lumbar spine rotational stiffness, calculated with an EMG-driven biomechanical model, to local dynamic spine stability calculated using Lyapunov analyses of kinematic data, during a series of continuous dynamic lifting challenges. Twelve healthy male subjects performed 30 repetitive lifts under three varying load and three varying rate conditions. With an increase in the load lifted (constant rate) there was a significant increase in mean, maximum, and minimum spine rotational stiffness (pstiffness (pstiffness and a non-significant decrease in local dynamic stability (p>0.05). Weak linear relationships were found for the varying rate conditions (r=-0.02 to -0.27). The results suggest that spine rotational stiffness and local dynamic stability are closely related to one another, as they provided similar information when movement rate was controlled. However, based on the results from the changing lifting rate conditions, it is evident that both models provide unique information and that future research is required to completely understand the relationship between the two models. Using both techniques concurrently may provide the best information regarding the true effects of (in) stability under different loading and movement scenarios, and in comparing healthy and clinical populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2015-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  11. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  12. [Tuberculosis of the spine and ribs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnitzer, R; Landow, Z; Sagiv, S; Rozenhack, M; Eliraz, A

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculosis of the spine or ribs is uncommon, occurring in less than 1% of patients with tuberculosis (TB). 2 women are presented who recently immigrated from Ethiopia and India, respectively. One, aged 55, presented with chest pain, fatigue and several masses under the skin of the scalp. Chest X-ray and CT scan suggested Pancoast tumor, and the lateral parts of the first 2 right ribs were absent. The origin of the patient, clinical findings and positive PPD suggested TB of the ribs and anti-TB therapy resulted in cure. The diagnosis was later confirmed by a positive culture. The other woman, aged 68, presented with fatigue, mild abdominal pain and axillary lymphadenopathy. The PPD was positive and X-ray showed widening of the mediastinum. A caseating granuloma with Langhans epithelioid cells was found in a lymph node. Flaccid paraparesis developed before therapy was started. CT scan showed a typical picture of TB affecting the T3-T6 vertebrae. Drainage of a cold abscess of the spine via the anterior approach was followed by anti-TB therapy. Culture of a biopsied lymph node and of pus obtained at operation confirmed the diagnosis of TB. The patient died 2 months later from gastrointestinal bleeding. Awareness of the unusual presentations of various forms of TB is mandatory in countries with immigration from countries in which TB is still common.

  13. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine.

  14. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo

    1995-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  15. The functionalized amino acid (S-Lacosamide subverts CRMP2-mediated tubulin polymerization to prevent constitutive and activity-dependent increase in neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent neurite outgrowth is a highly complex, regulated process with important implications for neuronal circuit remodeling in development as well as in seizure-induced sprouting in epilepsy. Recent work has linked outgrowth to collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2, an intracellular phosphoprotein originally identified as axon guidance and growth cone collapse protein. The neurite outgrowth promoting function of CRMP2 is regulated by its phosphorylation state. In this study, depolarization (potassium chloride-driven activity increased the level of active CRMP2 by decreasing its phosphorylation by GSK3β via a reduction in priming by Cdk5. To determine the contribution of CRMP2 in activity-driven neurite outgrowth, we screened a limited set of compounds for their ability to reduce neurite outgrowth but not modify voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC biophysical properties. This led to the identification of (S-lacosamide ((S-LCM, a stereoisomer of the clinically used antiepileptic drug (R-LCM (Vimpat®, as a novel tool for preferentially targeting CRMP2-mediated neurite outgrowth. Whereas (S-LCM was ineffective in targeting VGSCs, the presumptive pharmacological targets of (R-LCM, (S-LCM was more efficient than (R-LCM in subverting neurite outgrowth. Biomolecular interaction analyses revealed that (S-LCM bound to wildtype CRMP2 with low micromolar affinity, similar to (R-LCM. Through the use of this novel tool, the activity-dependent increase in neurite outgrowth observed following depolarization was characterized to be reliant on CRMP2 function. Knockdown of CRMP2 by siRNA in cortical neurons resulted in reduced CRMP2-dependent neurite outgrowth; incubation with (S-LCM phenocopied this effect. Other CRMP2-mediated processes were unaffected. (S-LCM subverted neurite outgrowth not by affecting the canonical CRMP2-tubulin association but rather by impairing the ability of CRMP2 to promote tubulin polymerization, events that are

  16. Cobb Angle Changes in Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual incidence of spinal column fracture is 350 per million populations. with Motor vehicular accident being the major single cause of spine injuries. The victims are predominantly young and male. The aim of this study to evaluate the clinical outcome of conservative treatment of closed thoracic and lumbar spine ...

  17. Historical contributions from the Harvard system to adult spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2011-10-15

    Literature review. To document the historical contributions from the Harvard Medical School system to the field of adult spine surgery. Despite the fact that significant contributions to the discipline of spinal surgery have derived from the Harvard system, no prior study documents the history of the Harvard spine services in a cohesive narrative. This historical perspective reviews the history of adult spine surgery within the Harvard system and outlines the significant contributions made by orthopedic and neurosurgical practitioners to the field. Literature reviews were performed from historical works, as well as scientific publications to fashion a cohesive review covering the history of spine surgery at Harvard from the early 19th century to the present. The development of the spine surgical services at the three main Harvard hospitals, and significant spine surgical personalities within the system, are discussed, including W. Jason Mixter, MD, Joseph S. Barr Sr., MD, and Marius N. Smith-Petersen, MD. Substantial developments that have arisen from the Harvard teaching hospitals include the recognition of disc herniation as the cause of radicular symptoms in the lower extremities, the description of lumbar discectomy as a surgical treatment for radicular pain, osteotomy for the correction of spinal deformity, and the first attempt to create a systematic algorithm capable of informing treatment for cervical spine trauma. Despite humble beginnings, the surgeons and scientists at Harvard have influenced nearly every facet of spine surgery over the course of the last two centuries.

  18. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2018-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  19. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  20. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine flexure. 572.85 Section 572.85... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.85 Lumbar spine flexure. (a) When subjected to continuously applied force in accordance with paragraph (b...

  1. Tuberculosis Of The Spine In Childhood In Kano, Nigeria | Adeleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis is a necrotizing bacterial infection with protean manifestation and wide distribution. The involvement of the spine is also increasing because of the resurgence of tuberculosis and HIV. Objectives: The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the outcome of tuberculosis of the spine in children ...

  2. Audit of blood transfusion practice during anaesthesia for spine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood loss during spine surgery is often considerable, necessitating blood transfusion. The elective nature and other peculiarities of most spine surgeries, however, make them amenable to several blood conservation techniques, such that reduction in allogeneic blood transfusion is considered high priority in ...

  3. Value of prehospital assessment of spine fracture by paramedics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, J. G.; Gebbink, W. K.; Pallada, L.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Hogervorst, M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines state that trauma patients at risk of spine injury should undergo prehospital spine immobilization to reduce the risk of neurological deterioration. Although this approach has been accepted and implemented as a standard for decades, there is little scientific evidence to support

  4. Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

  5. Activity-dependent increases in local oxygen consumption correlate with postsynaptic currents in the mouse cerebellum in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Caesar, Kirsten; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2011-01-01

    Evoked neural activity correlates strongly with rises in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Activity-dependent rises in CMRO(2) fluctuate with ATP turnover due to ion pumping. In vitro studies suggest that increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) stimulate oxidative m...

  6. Activity-dependent increases in local oxygen consumption correlate with post-synaptic currents in the mouse cerebellum in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Caesar, Kirsten; Thomsen, Kirsten Joan

    2011-01-01

    Evoked neural activity correlates strongly with rises in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow. Activity-dependent rises in CMRO2 fluctuate with ATP turnover due to ion pumping. In vitro studies suggest that increases in cytosolic Ca2+ stimulate oxidative metabolism vi...

  7. Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-yun SUN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report the diagnosis and treatment of one case of solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis and investigate the clinicopathological features combined with literatures. Methods and Results The patient was a 46-year-old woman. She suffered from weakness of both lower limbs, unsteady gait and numbness of toes for 20 d. MRI examination revealed an irregular mass behind the spinal cord at T5-7 level and T6-7 vertebral body accessory. The enhanced MRI showed obvious heterogeneous enhancement. The border was clear and spinal dura mater was compressed to shift forward. During operation, T5-7 processus spinosus and vertebral laminae were eroded, and the cortex of bone showed "moth-eaten" erosion. The intraspinal and extradural lesion had rich blood supply, loose bone structure and intact spinal dura mater. Histologically, tumor cells were composed of intensive small cells, and focal plasmacytoid cells were seen. Flake pink staining substance was among them. Artificial cracks were common and multinuclear giant tumor cells were scatteredly distributed. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the cytoplasm of tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD138, CD38 and vimentin (Vim,scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA, and negative for immune globulin κ light chain(IgGκ and λ light chain (IgGλ, CD99, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, HMB45 and CD34. The Ki-67 labeling index was 1.25%. Congo red staining showed the pink staining substance was brownish red. Hybridization in situ examination showed the DNA content of IgGκ was more than that of IgGλ. The final pathological diagnosis was solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis. The patient was treated with postoperative chemotherapy, and there was no recurrence or metastasis during 18-month follow-up period. Conclusions Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis is a rare tumor. The imaging features can offer a few

  8. Astrocyte-secreted thrombospondin-1 modulates synapse and spine defects in the fragile X mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Connie; Lau, Sally K M; Doering, Laurie C

    2016-08-02

    Astrocytes are key participants in various aspects of brain development and function, many of which are executed via secreted proteins. Defects in astrocyte signaling are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal neural circuitry such as Fragile X syndrome (FXS). In animal models of FXS, the loss in expression of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP) from astrocytes is associated with delayed dendrite maturation and improper synapse formation; however, the effect of astrocyte-derived factors on the development of neurons is not known. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an important astrocyte-secreted protein that is involved in the regulation of spine development and synaptogenesis. In this study, we found that cultured astrocytes isolated from an Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mouse model of FXS displayed a significant decrease in TSP-1 protein expression compared to the wildtype (WT) astrocytes. Correspondingly, Fmr1 KO hippocampal neurons exhibited morphological deficits in dendritic spines and alterations in excitatory synapse formation following long-term culture. All spine and synaptic abnormalities were prevented in the presence of either astrocyte-conditioned media or a feeder layer derived from FMRP-expressing astrocytes, or following the application of exogenous TSP-1. Importantly, this work demonstrates the integral role of astrocyte-secreted signals in the establishment of neuronal communication and identifies soluble TSP-1 as a potential therapeutic target for Fragile X syndrome.

  9. Morphology and histology of dorsal spines of the xenacanthid shark Orthacanthus platypternus from the Lower Permian of Texas, USA: palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly G. Beck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies on Carboniferous species of the xenacanth Orthacanthus have shown that the xenacanth dorsal fin spine can be used for skeletochronological analyses and provides valuable information about development, growth and environmental life conditions of those extinct sharks. We report here for the first time the histology and skeletochronology of Permian specimens, dorsal spines of Orthacanthus platypternus from the Craddock Bone Bed (lower Clear Fork Formation; Early Permian, Leonardian age of northern Baylor County (north-central Texas, USA. Twelve dorsal spines of O. platypternus preserve a highly vascularized wall mainly composed of centrifugally growing dentine in a succession of dentine layers, probably deposited with an annual periodicity. As expected, spines of individuals with 1–2 dentine layers, presumably juveniles, present the smallest sizes. However, spines of individuals showing at least 3–4 dentine layers and interpreted to be subadults/young adults, are distributed in two spine-size clusters corresponding to females (probably the largest spines and males, in agreement with the hypothesis of sexual size dimorphism proposed in a previous biometric analysis. Our comparative study of O. platypternus and the Stephanian species O. meridionalis further suggests that spine denticulation can be useful for distinguishing between species of Orthacanthus and sexually dimorphic forms (juvenile to adults in each species. Total body length estimations of O. platypternus from the Craddock Bone Bed point to relatively large juveniles and small subadults/young adults (less than 2 m in total length, living as opportunistic predators in the pond-channel coastal plain environments represented by the bone bed deposits. The com-parative analyses of the ontogenetic stages of the recorded specimens of O. platypternus and their distribution along different facies and localities indicate that this species was euryhaline, diadromous with a

  10. [Spondylarthrosis of the cervical spine. Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, R; Leixner, G; Stihsen, C; Windhager, R

    2013-09-01

    Chronic neck pain is often associated with spondylarthrosis, whereby segments C4/C5 (C: cervical) are most frequently affected. Spondylarthrosis can be the sole complaint, but it is associated with a degenerative cascade of the spine. The umbrella term for neck pain is the so-called cervical syndrome, which can be differentiated into segmental dysfunction and/or morphological changes of the intervertebral discs and small joints of the vertebral column. Conservative therapy modalities include physical therapy, subcutaneous application of local anesthetics, muscle, nerve and facet joint injections in addition to adequate analgesic and muscle relaxant therapy. If surgery is required, various techniques via dorsal and ventral approaches, depending on the clinic and morphologic changes, can be applied.

  11. NMR in the SPINE Structural Proteomics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab, E; Atkinson, A R; Banci, L; Bertini, I; Ciofi-Baffoni, S; Brunner, K; Diercks, T; Dötsch, V; Engelke, F; Folkers, G E; Griesinger, C; Gronwald, W; Günther, U; Habeck, M; de Jong, R N; Kalbitzer, H R; Kieffer, B; Leeflang, B R; Loss, S; Luchinat, C; Marquardsen, T; Moskau, D; Neidig, K P; Nilges, M; Piccioli, M; Pierattelli, R; Rieping, W; Schippmann, T; Schwalbe, H; Travé, G; Trenner, J; Wöhnert, J; Zweckstetter, M; Kaptein, R

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the developments, role and contributions of the NMR spectroscopy groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium. Focusing on the development of high-throughput (HTP) pipelines for NMR structure determinations of proteins, all aspects from sample preparation, data acquisition, data processing, data analysis to structure determination have been improved with respect to sensitivity, automation, speed, robustness and validation. Specific highlights are protonless (13)C-direct detection methods and inferential structure determinations (ISD). In addition to technological improvements, these methods have been applied to deliver over 60 NMR structures of proteins, among which are five that failed to crystallize. The inclusion of NMR spectroscopy in structural proteomics pipelines improves the success rate for protein structure determinations.

  12. Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Blood-loss Management in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Mirza, Muhammad; Knaub, Mark A

    2018-01-15

    Substantial blood loss during spine surgery can result in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Proper preoperative planning and communication with the patient, anesthesia team, and operating room staff can lessen perioperative blood loss. Advances in intraoperative antifibrinolytic agents and modified anesthesia techniques have shown promising results in safely reducing blood loss. The surgeon's attention to intraoperative hemostasis and the concurrent use of local hemostatic agents also can lessen intraoperative bleeding. Conversely, the use of intraoperative blood salvage has come into question, both for its potential inability to reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions as well as its cost-effectiveness. Allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with elevated risks, including surgical site infection. Thus, desirable transfusion thresholds should remain restrictive.

  14. Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures.

  15. The Spine in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maegen J; Kruse, Richard W; Shah, Suken A

    2017-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder of type I collagen. Although multiple genotypes and phenotypes are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, approximately 90% of the mutations are in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by bone fragility. Patients typically have multiple fractures or limb deformity; however, the spine can also be affected. Spinal manifestations include scoliosis, kyphosis, craniocervical junction abnormalities, and lumbosacral pathology. The incidence of lumbosacral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is higher in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta than in the general population. Use of diphosphonates has been found to decrease the rate of progression of scoliosis in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. A lateral cervical radiograph is recommended in patients with this condition before age 6 years for surveillance of craniocervical junction abnormalities, such as basilar impression. Intraoperative and anesthetic considerations in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta include challenges related to fracture risk, airway management, pulmonary function, and blood loss.

  16. Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Nancy; Jorge Andres Delgado; Walter Leon

    1998-01-01

    The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

  17. MR imaging evaluation of congenital spine anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, E.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, 135 patients between the ages of 1 week and 18 years were examined with MR imaging for possible congenital anomalies of the spine and spinal cord. Tethered cords with various other associated pathologies such as lipomas and myelomeningoceles were found in 36 patients. The remaining abnormal examinations consisted of syrinxes, Chiari malformations, diastematomyelia, and conus masses. In 55 patients the studies were interpreted as normal. Of these, three were subsequently shown by surgery of myelography to be abnormal. The first had a thickened filum with a small epidermoid, the second a thickened filum, and the third, with only sagittal images, a diastematomyelia. Children presenting with symptoms highly suspicious for congenital abnormalities but with a normal MR study in multiple planes may still require further evaluation with myelography. Multiplanar MR examination in most instances will be a sufficient evaluation for congenital anomalies

  18. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... experienced acceptable pain levels, but instrumented lumbar fusion leads to moderate to severe pain levels and a relatively high opioid consumption. The scheduled standard pain management protocols were sparsely followed. Challenges exist in post-operative pain management as observed in previous surveys...... eligible for the study were identified consecutively from the operation chart. The following data were registered: post-operative visual analogue (VAS) pain score at rest and during mobilisation, opioid consumption for the first 24 h, other analgesics administered and side effects. RESULTS: A total of 87...

  19. Imaging the cervical spine following rugby related injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.

  20. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  1. The top 100 classic papers in lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jeremy; Skovrlj, Branko; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2015-05-15

    Bibliometric review of the literature. To analyze and quantify the most frequently cited papers in lumbar spine surgery and to measure their impact on the entire lumbar spine literature. Lumbar spine surgery is a dynamic and complex field. Basic science and clinical research remain paramount in understanding and advancing the field. While new literature is published at increasing rates, few studies make long-lasting impacts. The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all papers relevant to lumbar spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each paper. The most cited paper was found to be the classic paper from 1990 by Boden et al that described magnetic resonance imaging findings in individuals without back pain, sciatica, and neurogenic claudication showing that spinal stenosis and herniated discs can be incidentally found when scanning patients. The second most cited study similarly showed that asymptomatic patients who underwent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging frequently had lumbar pathology. The third most cited paper was the 2000 publication of Fairbank and Pynsent reviewing the Oswestry Disability Index, the outcome-measure questionnaire most commonly used to evaluate low back pain. The majority of the papers originate in the United States (n=58), and most were published in Spine (n=63). Most papers were published in the 1990s (n=49), and the 3 most common topics were low back pain, biomechanics, and disc degeneration. This report identifies the top 100 papers in lumbar spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the lumbar spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in lumbar spine surgery today. 3.

  2. The Burden of Clostridium difficile after Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Javier Z; Skovrlj, Branko; Rothenberg, Edward S; Lu, Young; McAnany, Steven; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective database analysis. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after cervical spine surgery. Methods A total of 1,602,130 cervical spine surgeries from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2002 to 2011 were included. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedural codes for cervical spine surgery for degenerative spine diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined. Multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. Results Incidence of C. difficile infection in postoperative cervical spine surgery hospitalizations is 0.08%, significantly increased since 2002 (p difficile infection were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, renal failure, and perivascular disease. Circumferential cervical fusion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, p difficile infection after degenerative cervical spine surgery. C. difficile infection after cervical spine surgery results in extended length of stay (p costs (p difficile after cervical spine surgery is nearly 8% versus 0.19% otherwise (p difficile to be a significant predictor of inpatient mortality (OR = 3.99, p difficile increases the risk of in-hospital mortality and costs approximately $6,830,695 per year to manage in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery. Patients with comorbidities such as renal failure or congestive heart failure have increased probability of developing infection after surgery. Accepted antibiotic guidelines in this population must be followed to decrease the risk of developing postoperative C. difficile colitis.

  3. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of nonfusion technology in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Russel C; Girardi, Federico P; Lim, Moe R; Cammisa, Frank P

    2005-07-01

    Nonfusion technology in spine surgery may improve outcomes by reducing surgical morbidity and the incidence of adjacent level degeneration; however, new technologies also introduce new short- and long-term complications. There is currently no evidence that nonfusion implants are superior to fusion in mid- to long-term follow-up. Understanding the potential risks and benefits of nonfusion technology is essential for spine surgeons and their patients. This article reviews the current evidence relating to the potential risks and benefits of nonfusion technology in spine surgery.

  5. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  6. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  7. Considerations to improve the safety of cervical spine manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutting, Nathan; Kerry, Roger; Coppieters, Michel W; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M

    2018-02-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation of the cervical spine are well established interventions in the management of patients with headache and/or neck pain. However, their benefits are accompanied by potential, yet rare risks in terms of serious adverse events, including neurovascular insult to the brain. A recent international framework for risk assessment and management offers directions in the mitigation of this risk by facilitating sound clinical reasoning. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on and summarize the current knowledge about cervical spine manual therapy and to provide guidance for clinical reasoning for cervical spine manual therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  10. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Cervical spine injury in the elderly: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Shimamura, Tadashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    An increase in the elderly population has resulted in an increased incidence of cervical spine injury in this group. No specific type of cervical spine trauma is seen in the elderly, although dens fractures are reported to be common. Hyperextension injuries due to falling and the resultant central cord syndrome in the mid and lower cervical segments due to decreased elasticity as a result of spondylosis may be also characteristic. The imaging features of cervical spine injury are often modified by associated spondylosis deformans, DISH and other systemic disorders. The value of MR imaging in such cases is emphasized. (orig.)

  12. Essential role of neuron-enriched diacylglycerol kinase (DGK, DGKbeta in neurite spine formation, contributing to cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shirai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol (DG kinase (DGK phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid (PA. Of the 10 subtypes of mammalian DGKs, DGKbeta is a membrane-localized subtype and abundantly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudate-putamen. However, its physiological roles in neurons and higher brain function have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We, therefore, developed DGKbeta KO mice using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system, and found that its long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region was reduced, causing impairment of cognitive functions including spatial and long-term memories in Y-maze and Morris water-maze tests. The primary cultured hippocampal neurons from KO mice had less branches and spines compared to the wild type. This morphological impairment was rescued by overexpression of DGKbeta. In addition, overexpression of DGKbeta in SH-SY5Y cells or primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons resulted in branch- and spine-formation, while a splice variant form of DGKbeta, which has kinase activity but loses membrane localization, did not induce branches and spines. In the cells overexpressing DGKbeta but not the splice variant form, DGK product, PA, was increased and the substrate, DG, was decreased on the plasma membrane. Importantly, lower spine density and abnormality of PA and DG contents in the CA1 region of the KO mice were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that membrane-localized DGKbeta regulates spine formation by regulation of lipids, contributing to the maintenance of neural networks in synaptic transmission of cognitive processes including memory.

  13. Marginal Iodine Deficiency Affects Dendritic Spine Development by Disturbing the Function of Rac1 Signaling Pathway on Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced thyroid hormone (TH) insufficient during development leads to impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. Marginal ID has been defined as subtle insufficiency of TH, characterized as low thyroxine (T 4 ) levels, whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The effects of marginal ID on long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in the hippocampal CA1 region. To study the development of dendritic spines in pyramidal cells, Golgi-Cox staining was conducted on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, PN21, and PN28. The activation of Rac1 signaling pathway, which is essential for dendritic spine development by regulating actin cytoskeleton, was also investigated. Our results showed that marginal ID slightly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Besides, the density of dendritic spines during the critical period of rat postnatal development was mildly decreased, and we found no significant change of spine morphology in marginal ID group. We also observed decreased activation of the Rac1 signaling pathway in pups subjected to maternal marginal ID. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T 4 induced by marginal ID results in slight impairments of LTP and leads to mild damage of dendritic spine development, which may be due to abnormal regulation of Rac1 signaling pathway on cytoskeleton.

  14. 49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and...

  15. Protracted dendritic growth in the typically developing human amygdala and increased spine density in young ASD brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R K; Bauman, M D; Jacobs, B; Schumann, C M

    2018-02-01

    The amygdala is a medial temporal lobe structure implicated in social and emotional regulation. In typical development (TD), the amygdala continues to increase volumetrically throughout childhood and into adulthood, while other brain structures are stable or decreasing in volume. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the amygdala undergoes rapid early growth, making it volumetrically larger in children with ASD compared to TD children. Here we explore: (a) if dendritic arborization in the amygdala follows the pattern of protracted growth in TD and early overgrowth in ASD and (b), if spine density in the amygdala in ASD cases differs from TD from youth to adulthood. The amygdala from 32 postmortem human brains (7-46 years of age) were stained using a Golgi-Kopsch impregnation. Ten principal neurons per case were selected in the lateral nucleus and traced using Neurolucida software in their entirety. We found that both ASD and TD individuals show a similar pattern of increasing dendritic length with age well into adulthood. However, spine density is (a) greater in young ASD cases compared to age-matched TD controls (ASD age into adulthood, a phenomenon not found in TD. Therefore, by adulthood, there is no observable difference in spine density in the amygdala between ASD and TD age-matched adults (≥18 years old). Our findings highlight the unique growth trajectory of the amygdala and suggest that spine density may contribute to aberrant development and function of the amygdala in children with ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lumbar Spine Surgery in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joshua E; Hughes, Alexander; Sama, Andrew; Weinstein, Joseph; Kaplan, Leon; Cammisa, Frank P; Girardi, Federico P

    2015-10-21

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. The literature on patients with Parkinson disease and spine surgery is limited, but increased complications have been reported. All patients with Parkinson disease undergoing lumbar spine surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Patients' charts, radiographs, and outcome questionnaires were reviewed. Parkinson disease severity was assessed with use of the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. Complications and subsequent surgeries were analyzed. Risk for reoperation was assessed. Ninety-six patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. The mean patient age was 63.0 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.1 months. The Parkinson disease severity stage was Parkinson disease severity stage of ≥3 (p Parkinson disease is good, with improvement of spine-related pain. A larger prospective study is warranted. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  17. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.; A. Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development...... of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one vertebral fracture in the same period. At baseline, none of the women had experienced a previous osteoporotic...... and intervertebral disks, alignment of vertebrae, and spinal curvature. The positions of the points were subsequently used as the input features to train a pattern classification system to discriminate between spines of women maintaining skeletal health and spines sustaining a fracture in the near future...

  18. Sacroiliac joint injection using the posterior superior iliac spines as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limitations in the availability of such image guided techniques in health ... School of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology between 2006 and ... The needle position from the posterior superior iliac spine and its angle of ...

  19. The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories....... The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisation. Methods The study is based on qualitative interviews, and the data analysis is inspired by the French...... system and healthcare professionals are often dismissed as irrelevant. It is also evident that spine fusion patients are denied the opportunity to verbalise what it feels like to, for example, be ”a person in constant pain” or someone who ”holds back” to avoid being an inconvenience. These feelings...

  20. Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, Kambiz; Murphey, Mark D.; Fetsch, John F.; Furlong, Mary A.; Vinh, Tinhoa N.; Sweet, Donald E.; Laskin, William B.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet

  1. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Ryul; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Ju Hong; Lee, Sang Yong; Yoo, Wan Hee

    2008-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  2. Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Injury Resulting From Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Alan H.; Hart, Robert A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Fish, David E.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Lord, Elizabeth L.; Buser, Zorica; Tortolani, P. Justin; Stroh, D. Alex; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L.; Sebastian, Arjun S.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. Objective: To examine the incidence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following elective cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was conducted. Medical records for 17?625 patients who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011,...

  3. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  4. Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0043 TITLE: Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations PRINCIPAL...31May2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER During Simulated Military Operations 5b... Biomechanics , Cincinnati, 2015. § Website(s) or other Internet site(s) § Nothing to report § Technologies or techniques § Nothing to report

  5. Imaging of benign tumors of the osseous spine

    OpenAIRE

    Riahi, Hend; Mechri, Meriem; Barsaoui, Maher; Bouaziz, Mouna; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Ladeb, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the imaging features of the most prevalent benign bone tumors involving the spine. Benign tumors of the osseous spine account approximately for 1% of all primary skeletal tumors. Many lesions exhibit characteristic radiologic features. In addition to age and location of the lesion, radiographs are an essential step in the initial detection and characterization but are limited to complex anatomy and superposition. CT and MR imagi...

  6. Myositis Ossificans Progressiva in the Whole Spine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ghayem Hasankhani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myositis ossificans progressiva is a rare inherited disease characterized by progressive ectopic ossifications associated with thumb and big toe anomalies. Ossification usually progresses from central to the peripheral, proximal to distal, cranial to caudal, and from dorsal to ventral directions and leading to activity limitation, significant eating disability, recurrent pulmonary infection, and atelectasis. In this report, we present a 7-year-old boy with a total spine stiffness (wooden spine seriously limited his activity of daily living.

  7. Wearable technology for spine movement assessment: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Papi, Enrica; Koh, Woon Senn; McGregor, Alison H.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of spine movement function could enhance our understanding of low back pain development. Wearable technologies have gained popularity as promising alternative to laboratory systems in allowing ambulatory movement analysis. This paper aims to review the state of art of current use of wearable technology to assess spine kinematics and kinetics. Four electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to find studies employing wearable technologies t...

  8. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  9. Minimally invasive spine surgery: Hurdles to be crossed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Bijjawara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MISS as a concept is noble and all surgeons need to address and minimize the surgical morbidity for better results. However, we need to be cautions and not fall prey into accepting that minimally invasive spine surgery can be done only when certain metal access systems are used. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS has come a long way since the description of endoscopic discectomy in 1997 and minimally invasive TLIF (mTLIF in 2003. Today there is credible evidence (though not level-I that MISS has comparable results to open spine surgery with the advantage of early postoperative recovery and decreased blood loss and infection rates. However, apart from decreasing the muscle trauma and decreasing the muscle dissection during multilevel open spinal instrumentation, there has been little contribution to address the other morbidity parameters like operative time , blood loss , access to decompression and atraumatic neural tissue handling with the existing MISS technologies. Since all these parameters contribute to a greater degree than posterior muscle trauma for the overall surgical morbidity, we as surgeons need to introspect before we accept the concept of minimally invasive spine surgery being reduced to surgeries performed with a few tubular retractors. A spine surgeon needs to constantly improve his skills and techniques so that he can minimize blood loss, minimize traumatic neural tissue handling and minimizing operative time without compromising on the surgical goals. These measures actually contribute far more, to decrease the morbidity than approach related muscle damage alone. Minimally invasine spine surgery , though has come a long way, needs to provide technical solutions to minimize all the morbidity parameters involved in spine surgery, before it can replace most of the open spine surgeries, as in the case of laparoscopic surgery or arthroscopic surgery.

  10. Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Alexia M.; Kadom, Nadja; Vezina, Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics, types of injuries, and measurements used to diagnose cervical spine injuries in children. (orig.)

  11. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  12. Pattern and presentation of spine trauma in Gwagwalada‑Abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: There were 202 patients with male preponderance and a mean age of 38.9 ± 11.4 years over the 11‑year period. The most common cause of spine injury was road traffic injury (79.7%). Cervical spine injury (10.4%) accounted for the highest number of cases with complete neurologic deficit. The majority of patients, ...

  13. The influence of spine surgeons' experience on the classification and intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. International validation study. Objective. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system.

  14. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  15. Setting the equation: establishing value in spine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Daniel K; Tosteson, Anna N A; Groman, Rachel F; Ghogawala, Zoher

    2014-10-15

    Topic review. Describe value measurement in spine care and discuss the motivation for, methods for, and limitations of such measurement. Spinal disorders are common and are an important cause of pain and disability. Numerous complementary and competing treatment strategies are used to treat spinal disorders, and the costs of these treatments is substantial and continue to rise despite clear evidence of improved health status as a result of these expenditures. The authors present the economic and legislative imperatives forcing the assessment of value in spine care. The definition of value in health care and methods to measure value specifically in spine care are presented. Limitations to the utility of value judgments and caveats to their use are presented. Examples of value calculations in spine care are presented and critiqued. Methods to improve and broaden the measurement of value across spine care are suggested, and the role of prospective registries in measuring value is discussed. Value can be measured in spine care through the use of appropriate economic measures and patient-reported outcomes measures. Value must be interpreted in light of the perspective of the assessor, the duration of the assessment period, the degree of appropriate risk stratification, and the relative value of treatment alternatives.

  16. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis: Radiological changes in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Boukai, Ahmad A.; Al-Arfaj, Abdurahman S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective was to describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males ) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 1998 and December 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes . Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4 + 13.4 years (range of 18-73)and mean duration of disease was 9.1+-6.28 years (range of 2-34). Their demographic data including rheumatoid factor status was obtained. Standard conventional radiographs cervical spine were obtained to study the cervical spine changes. Cervical radiographic changes were found in 34 patients (27 females and 7 males) 10 had subluxation (7 with atlanto-axial subluxation,2 with sub-axial subluxation,and one with lateral subluxation ). No vertical impaction was seen. Erosion of odontoid process was seen in one patient .All were rheumatoid seropositive Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not clinically significant. (author)

  18. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS, have been used to recapitulate depression-like behaviors in rodents and study the underlying mechanisms. In comparison with CRS, CUMS overcomes the stress habituation and has been widely used to model depression-like behaviors. CSDS is one of the most frequently used models for depression, but it is limited to the study of male mice. Generally, chronic stress causes dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Meanwhile, neurons of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens exhibit an increase in spine density. These alterations induced by chronic stress are often accompanied by depression-like behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic stress-induced remodeling of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens and also discusses the putative underlying mechanisms.

  19. Clostridium difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Silvestre, Jason; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective database analysis. To investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery. C. difficile colitis is reportedly increasing in hospitalized patients and can have a negative impact on patient outcomes. No data exist on estimates of C. difficile infection rates and its consequences on patient outcomes and health care resources among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined from 2002 to 2011. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, procedural codes for lumbar spine surgery for degenerative diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined and multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery is 0.11%. At baseline, patients infected with C. difficile were significantly older (65.4 yr vs. 58.9 yr, Pinfection. Small hospital size was associated with decreased odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; Pinfection. Uninsured (OR, 1.62; Pinfection. C. difficile increased hospital length of stay by 8 days (Pdifficile infection after lumbar spine surgery carries a 36.4-fold increase in mortality and costs approximately $10,658,646 per year to manage. These data suggest that great care should be taken to avoid C. difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery because it is associated with longer hospital stays, greater overall costs, and increased inpatient mortality. 3.

  20. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  1. Osseous anatomy of the lumbosacral spine in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, P D; Ahn, N U; Ahn, U M; Nallamshetty, L; Rose, P S; Kuszyk, B S; Fishman, E K

    2000-11-01

    This study examines pedicle widths, laminar thicknesses, and scalloping values for lumbosacral spine elements in Marfan volunteers. Comparisons were made between these measurements and norms as well as measurements between Marfan patients with and without dural ectasia. To determine if the lumbosacral vertebral elements are altered in the patient with Marfan syndrome. Several abnormalities have been noted in Marfan lumbar spine, including pedicular attenuation and widened interpediculate distances. This may be due to abnormalities of growth or presence of dural ectasia. Given the large numbers of Marfan patients requiring spinal surgery and the high postoperative failure rate, better understanding of the bony anatomy of Marfan lumbar spine is necessary, especially if use of instrumentation is anticipated. Thirty-two volunteers with Marfan syndrome based on the Ghent criteria underwent spiral computed tomography of the lumbosacral spine. Images were evaluated for dural ectasia, and measurements of pedicle width, laminar thickness, and vertebral scalloping were made. Pedicle widths and laminar thicknesses were significantly smaller in Marfan patients at all levels (Plaminar thickness from L5-S2 and pedicle widths at all lumbar levels were significantly reduced (Plaminar thickness are significantly reduced in Marfan individuals. Those with dural ectasia demonstrate increased bony erosion of anterior and posterior elements of lumbosacral spine. Preoperative planning and routine computed tomography scans are recommended when operating on Marfan lumbosacral spine.

  2. Depression as an independent predictor of postoperative delirium in spine deformity patients undergoing elective spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Adogwa, Owoicho; Lydon, Emily; Sergesketter, Amanda; Kaakati, Rayan; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is the most prevalent affective disorder in the US, and patients with spinal deformity are at increased risk. Postoperative delirium has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. The relationship between depression and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if depression is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for deformity. METHODS The medical records of 923 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing elective spine surgery at a single major academic institution from 2005 through 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 255 (27.6%) patients had been diagnosed with depression by a board-certified psychiatrist and constituted the Depression group; the remaining 668 patients constituted the No-Depression group. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and intra- and postoperative complication rates were collected for each patient and compared between groups. The primary outcome investigated in this study was rate of postoperative delirium, according to DSM-V criteria, during initial hospital stay after surgery. The association between depression and postoperative delirium rate was assessed via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Patient demographics and comorbidities other than depression were similar in the 2 groups. In the Depression group, 85.1% of the patients were taking an antidepressant prior to surgery. There were no significant between-group differences in intraoperative variables and rates of complications other than delirium. Postoperative complication rates were also similar between the cohorts, including rates of urinary tract infection, fever, deep and superficial surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, urinary retention, and proportion of patients transferred to the intensive care unit. In

  3. Repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta Ibarra, Javier; Arrieta Maria, Victor; Torres Romero Fernando; Ramirez Cabrales, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to present the surgical experience in the repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. Background: Spodylolysis is an important cause of low back pain in young adults and is responsible for high grade of incapacity. Classically, patients with surgical indications with Spondylolysis have been treated with vertebral arthrodesis arthrodesis, with the following functional lost of the intervened segment and biomechanical overload of the upper contiguous segment. There are not previous reports about repairing of lysis in national literature and international references in this technique are scarce. Materials and methods: Eight patients within 2002-2004 were operated, a direct repairing of the lyses by in situ, fusion and interfragmental osteosynthesis with AO 3.5 mm titanium cortical screws with autogenous bone grafts was achieved. The casuistic was analyzed depending on clinical presentation, consolidation, mobility and vitality of the disc in imaginology studies. Results: During the follow-up a firm fusion in all cases, mobility and vitality preservation of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc was detected. There was neither infection nor neurological deficit. Recommendations: Repairing of spondylolysis in lumbar column, in young symptomatic patients without or with mild lystesis (grade I) and without associated disc damage, is a safe surgical technique

  4. Rheumatic diseases of the spine: imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, J A; Hernández-Gañán, J; Isern, J; Sánchez-Fernández, J J

    2016-04-01

    Spinal involvement is common both in the spondyloarthritides and in rheumatoid arthritis, in which the cervical segment is selectively affected. Rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine has characteristic radiologic manifestations, fundamentally different patterns of atlantoaxial instability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for evaluating the possible repercussions of atlantoaxial instability on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as for evaluating parameters indicative of active inflammation, such as bone edema and synovitis. Axial involvement is characteristic in the spondyloarthritides and has distinctive manifestations on plain-film X-rays, which reflect destructive and reparative phenomena. The use of MRI has changed the conception of spondyloarthritis because it is able to directly detect the inflammatory changes that form part of the disease, making it possible to establish the diagnosis early in the disease process, when plain-film X-ray findings are normal (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to contribute to treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Cervical Spine Motion After Immobilization With a Traditional Spine Board and Full-Body Vacuum-Mattress Splint

    OpenAIRE

    Etier, Brian E.; Norte, Grant E.; Gleason, Megan M.; Richter, Dustin L.; Pugh, Kelli F.; Thomson, Keith B.; Slater, Lindsay V.; Hart, Joe M.; Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Diduch, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) advocates for cervical spine immobilization on a rigid board or vacuum splint and for removal of athletic equipment before transfer to an emergency medical facility. Purpose: To (1) compare triplanar cervical spine motion using motion capture between a traditional rigid spine board and a full-body vacuum splint in equipped and unequipped athletes, (2) assess cervical spine motion during the removal of a football helmet and shoulde...

  6. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa; Peterson, Darrell L.; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection. - Highlights: • The expression and subcellular distribution of Foxp3, is modulated by PMA and preS1/2. • PMA and preS1/2 increase Foxp3 expression on HepG2. • PMA and preS1/2 induce foxp3 enrichment at mitochondrial, microsomal and nuclear compartments. • Results suggest a non-canonical function of Foxp3 or a mitochondrial transcriptional activity.

  7. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa [Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Peterson, Darrell L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Berrueta, Lisbeth, E-mail: lberruet@ula.ve [Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Salmen, Siham, E-mail: sihamsa@ula.ve [Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection. - Highlights: • The expression and subcellular distribution of Foxp3, is modulated by PMA and preS1/2. • PMA and preS1/2 increase Foxp3 expression on HepG2. • PMA and preS1/2 induce foxp3 enrichment at mitochondrial, microsomal and nuclear compartments. • Results suggest a non-canonical function of Foxp3 or a mitochondrial transcriptional activity.

  8. Homer2 deletion alters dendritic spine morphology but not alcohol-associated adaptations in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S McGuier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to ethanol followed by withdrawal leads to the alterations in glutamatergic signaling and impaired synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in both clinical and preclinical models of ethanol exposure. Homer2 is a member of a family of postsynaptic density (PSD scaffolding proteins that functions in part to cluster NMDA signaling complexes in the PSD, and has been shown to be critically important for plasticity in multiple models of drug and alcohol abuse. Here we used Homer2 KO mice and a chronic intermittent intraperitoneal (IP ethanol injection model to investigate a potential role for the protein in ethanol-induced adaptations in dendritic spine morphology and PSD protein expression. While deletion of Homer2 was associated with increased density of long spines on medium spiny neurons of the NAc core of saline treated mice, ethanol exposure had no effect on dendritic spine morphology in either wild-type (WT or Homer2 KO mice. Western blot analysis of tissue samples from the NAc enriched for PSD proteins revealed a main effect of ethanol treatment on the expression of GluN2B, but there was no effect of genotype or treatment on the expression other glutamate receptor subunits or PSD95. These data indicate that the global deletion of Homer2 leads to aberrant regulation of dendritic spine morphology in the NAc core that is associated with an increased density of long, thin spines. Unexpectedly, intermittent IP ethanol did not affect spine morphology in either WT or KO mice. Together these data implicate Homer2 in the formation of long, thin spines and further supports its role in neuronal structure.

  9. Reproducibility of kinematic measures of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis during fast running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D L; Preece, S J; Bramah, C A; Herrington, L C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of the angular rotations of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower extremity during running. In addition, the study compared kinematic reproducibility between two methods for calculating kinematic trajectories: a six degrees of freedom (6DOF) approach and a global optimisation (GO) approach. With the first approach segments were treated independently, however with GO approach joint constraints were imposed to stop translation of adjacent segments. A total of 12 athletes were tested on two separate days whilst running over ground at a speed of 5.6ms(-1). The results demonstrated good between-day reproducibility for most kinematic parameters in the frontal and transverse planes with typical angular errors of 1.4-3°. Acceptable repeatability was also found in the sagittal plane. However, in this plane, although kinematic waveform shape was preserved between testing session, there were sometimes shifts in curve offset which lead to slightly higher angular errors, typically ranging from 1.9° to 3.5°. In general, the results demonstrated similar levels of reproducibility for both computational approaches (6DOF and, GO) and therefore suggest that GO may not lead to improved kinematic reproducibility during running. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SENILE DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN ADULT LUMBAR SPINE! - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garjesh Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP is a common presenting complaint affecting mostly middle aged and older person and traditionally considered as ageing process, but now-a-days large number of younger people are also affected by this debilitating chronic disorder. The cause of early onset of degenerative spine disease is multifactorial, but genetical predisposition plays very important role. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To find out association between genetic predisposition and degenerative spine disease in adult patients and to assess the pattern of MRI findings of various degenerative diseases in lumbo-sacral spine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present cross-sectional study had been performed among 100 selected patients in 1yr period, who presented with chief complaint of chronic low back pain. After taking detailed clinical and professional history, MRI of lumbosacral spine had been performed. Total 100 patients were divided in two groups on the basis of genetical predisposition. Prevalence and spectrum of degenerative changes were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Hundred patients of 20 to 35-year age had been selected with mean age of 27yr. Out of 100 patients; 47 were male and 53 were female. The most common degenerative findings were desiccation of disc (95% followed by disc bulge, herniation, spinal canal stenosis, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, facet joint hypertrophy and modic changes. L4-L5 and L5- S1 were the most commonly involved spinal levels for any degenerative pathology. CONCLUSION: Good association is seen between early onset of degenerative spine disease and genetical predisposition in patients who have history of similar type degenerative spine disease in one or more first degree relatives in comparison to those patients who do not have any genetical predisposition. So it can be concluded that heredity play important role in early onset of degenerative spine disease in adults.

  11. Postoperative 3D spine reconstruction by navigating partitioning manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Labelle, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.labelle@recherche-ste-justine.qc.ca; Parent, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.parent@umontreal.ca [CHU Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec H3T 1C5 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: The postoperative evaluation of scoliosis patients undergoing corrective treatment is an important task to assess the strategy of the spinal surgery. Using accurate 3D geometric models of the patient’s spine is essential to measure longitudinal changes in the patient’s anatomy. On the other hand, reconstructing the spine in 3D from postoperative radiographs is a challenging problem due to the presence of instrumentation (metallic rods and screws) occluding vertebrae on the spine. Methods: This paper describes the reconstruction problem by searching for the optimal model within a manifold space of articulated spines learned from a training dataset of pathological cases who underwent surgery. The manifold structure is implemented based on a multilevel manifold ensemble to structure the data, incorporating connections between nodes within a single manifold, in addition to connections between different multilevel manifolds, representing subregions with similar characteristics. Results: The reconstruction pipeline was evaluated on x-ray datasets from both preoperative patients and patients with spinal surgery. By comparing the method to ground-truth models, a 3D reconstruction accuracy of 2.24 ± 0.90 mm was obtained from 30 postoperative scoliotic patients, while handling patients with highly deformed spines. Conclusions: This paper illustrates how this manifold model can accurately identify similar spine models by navigating in the low-dimensional space, as well as computing nonlinear charts within local neighborhoods of the embedded space during the testing phase. This technique allows postoperative follow-ups of spinal surgery using personalized 3D spine models and assess surgical strategies for spinal deformities.

  12. Postoperative 3D spine reconstruction by navigating partitioning manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoury, Samuel; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The postoperative evaluation of scoliosis patients undergoing corrective treatment is an important task to assess the strategy of the spinal surgery. Using accurate 3D geometric models of the patient’s spine is essential to measure longitudinal changes in the patient’s anatomy. On the other hand, reconstructing the spine in 3D from postoperative radiographs is a challenging problem due to the presence of instrumentation (metallic rods and screws) occluding vertebrae on the spine. Methods: This paper describes the reconstruction problem by searching for the optimal model within a manifold space of articulated spines learned from a training dataset of pathological cases who underwent surgery. The manifold structure is implemented based on a multilevel manifold ensemble to structure the data, incorporating connections between nodes within a single manifold, in addition to connections between different multilevel manifolds, representing subregions with similar characteristics. Results: The reconstruction pipeline was evaluated on x-ray datasets from both preoperative patients and patients with spinal surgery. By comparing the method to ground-truth models, a 3D reconstruction accuracy of 2.24 ± 0.90 mm was obtained from 30 postoperative scoliotic patients, while handling patients with highly deformed spines. Conclusions: This paper illustrates how this manifold model can accurately identify similar spine models by navigating in the low-dimensional space, as well as computing nonlinear charts within local neighborhoods of the embedded space during the testing phase. This technique allows postoperative follow-ups of spinal surgery using personalized 3D spine models and assess surgical strategies for spinal deformities

  13. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in Contact Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A.; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T.; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport. PMID:27781193

  14. Computertomographic examinations of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, G.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) documentation of cross-sectional anatomy of the lumbosacral area, 2) to obtain and describe abnormalities and finally 3)to develop a CT technique for the diagnosis of a L7/S1 spondylolisthesis. In a 3 year retrospective study 61 large breed dogs with history of suspected cauda equina-syndrome were examined using flexion-extension radiography and flexion-extension computed tomography. 25 out of 60 dogs were German shepherd dogs, 3 shepherd-cross, 7 mongrels, 4 Rottweilers and 22 other breeds. 27 dogs of the flexion/extension group were also morphometrically examined. CT studies regarding morphology of the lumbosacral joint showed differences between flexed and extended position: The intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed position, the intervertebral disc, segmental spinal nerves and contrast enhanced blood vessels were more easily to evaluate. In flexion the lumbosacral foramen was 'open' in all cases, while it was 'closed' in most of the extension slices. The cranial articular processes of the sacrum appeared earlier in extension, they seemed to 'slip' beneath the caudal articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra, the articular surfaces got incongruent, and therefore the intervertebral foramina were narrowed. The most common pathologic findings were disk protrusion (28 dogs) and spondylosis (24 dogs). Rare diagnoses were neoplasia (1 case), transitional vertebra (1 case), shortened L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecans of the L7 or sacral endplate (5 cases). Morphometrical examinations showed that the intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed positions, not only in length (craniocaudal dimension) but also in their dorsoventral diameter. There was no difference in the dorsoventral diameter of the spinal canal between flexion and extension CT. This study showed that computed tomography is superior to common ways of imaging of the lumbosacral spine like radiography or myelography. It was possible to identify

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Takamichi; Fujita, Norihiko; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients including 13 cases with disk herniation and 3 cases with spondylosis of lumbar spine were examined on a resistive MRI system operating at 0.1 T. All lesions were studied with both multiple spin echo (MSE) and low flip angle gradient echo (LF) techniques to evaluate which technique is more effective in detecting the disk degeneration and the indentation on subarachnoid space. MSE images were obtained with repetition time (TR) of 1100-1500 ms or cardiac gating, an echo time (TE) of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 ms symmetrical 6 echoes, and total acquisition time of more than 281 sec. LF images were obtained with TR of 500, 250, and 100 ms, TE of 18 ms, a flip angle of 30 degree, and total acquisition time of 128 sec. Eleven lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 12 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with LF. On the other hand, 26 lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 38 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with MSE. Although the parameters of LF employed in this study were relatively effective to emphasize T2 * -based contrast, the ability of LF in detection of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space is less than that of MSE. Signal contrast to noise ratios for normal disk and degenerative disk, epidural-fat and disk herniated material, CSF and disk herniated material, and epidural-fat and CSF were less than 4 with LF, but more than 4 with MSE. This difference of contrast to noise ratio between MSE and LF was one of the main causes of the difference of the detection rate of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space. (author)

  16. Multimodal advanced imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: DWI is a powerful addition to the arsenal of MR imaging techniques for the detection of bone marrow tumor dissemination, improving sensitivity to involvement in a variety of tumor types. DWI increases confidence in monitoring treatment response and assisting in the differentiation of treatment related changes from tumor. DWI has also become an important component of whole-body MR oncology protocols. Distinguishing between benign and malignant etiologies of vertebral fracture with MRI is problematic, particularly if only one vertebra is affected. the value of DWI in discriminating between osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral fractures is controversial and by consensus insufficiently reliable. DWI is useful for differentiation of degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Symptomatic degenerative vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic type 1) can be difficult to differentiate from acute spondylodiscitis using conventional MRI techniques. Several studies have shown that DWI adds value in differentiating degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Recently a characteristic DWI finding of well-marginated, linear, typically paired regions of high signal at the interface of normal with abnormal marrow, referred to as a ‘claw’ sign, is been shown to be highly suggestive of degeneration and its absence in cases with Modic type I changes suggestive of diskitis/osteomyelitis. the value of excluding the possibility of infection can be seen in reduction in unnecessary, often invasive ancillary testing and reduced levels of patient concern. DWI may also yield insight into intervertebral disc degeneration. It has recently been shown in the lumbar spine that disc degeneration can influence ADC values with negative correlation between ADC and the degree of disc degeneration

  17. Segmental fracture of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hEireamhoin, Sven; Devitt, Brian; Baker, Joseph; Kiely, Paul; Synnott, Keith

    2010-10-01

    A case report is presented. To describe a rare, previously undescribed pattern of spinal injury. This seems to be a unique injury with no previously described injuries matching the fracture pattern observed. This is a case report based on the experience of the authors. The discussion includes a short literature review based on pubmed searches. We report the case of a 26-year-old female cyclist involved in a road traffic accident with a truck resulting in complete disruption of the lumbar spine. The cyclist was caught on the inside of a truck turning left and seems to have passed under the rear wheels. She was brought to the local emergency department where, after appropriate resuscitation, trauma survey revealed spinal deformity with complete neurologic deficit below T12 and fractured pubic rami, soft tissue injuries to the perineum and multiple abrasions. Plain radiology showed a segmental fracture dislocation of her lumbar vertebrae, extending from the L1 superior endplate through to L4-L5 disc space. The entire segment was displaced in both anteroposterior and lateral planes. Computed tomography confirmed these injuries and ruled out significant visceral injury. She was transferred to the national spinal unit (author unit), where she underwent reduction and fixation with rods and screws from T9-S1, using one cross-link. After her immediate postoperative recovery, she was referred to the national rehabilitation unit. Although so-called "en bloc" lumbar fractures have been previously described, the authors were unable to find any injury of this degree in the literature. This rare injury seems to show a pattern of spinal injury previously undescribed.

  18. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in Contact Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T; Dettori, Joseph R

    2016-11-01

    Study Design  Systematic review. Objectives  To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods  Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results  Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby ( n  = 10), American football ( n  = 3), and Irish hurling ( n  = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion  CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport.

  19. The Role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in Activity-Dependent Neuronal Plasticity in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulimood, Nisha S; Rodrigues, Wandilson Dos Santos; Atkinson, Devon A; Mooney, Sandra M; Medina, Alexandre E

    2017-07-12

    The transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element binding factor), SRF (serum response factor), and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) play critical roles in the mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. However, the role of the activation of these transcription factors in the different components of plasticity in vivo is not well known. In this study, we tested the role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), a paradigm of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the visual cortex. These three proteins bind to the synaptic activity response element (SARE), an enhancer sequence found upstream of many plasticity-related genes (Kawashima et al., 2009; Rodríguez-Tornos et al., 2013), and can act cooperatively to express Arc , a gene required for ODP (McCurry et al., 2010). We used viral-mediated gene transfer to block the transcription function of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in the visual cortex, and measured visually evoked potentials in awake male and female mice before and after a 7 d monocular deprivation, which allowed us to examine both the depression component (Dc-ODP) and potentiation component (Pc-ODP) of plasticity independently. We found that CREB, SRF, and MEF2 are all required for ODP, but have differential effects on Dc-ODP and Pc-ODP. CREB is necessary for both Dc-ODP and Pc-ODP, whereas SRF and MEF2 are only needed for Dc-ODP. This finding supports previous reports implicating SRF and MEF2 in long-term depression (required for Dc-ODP), and CREB in long-term potentiation (required for Pc-ODP). SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is the cellular basis for learning and memory, and it is crucial for the refinement of neuronal circuits during development. Identifying the mechanisms of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is crucial to finding therapeutic interventions in the myriad of disorders where it is disrupted, such as Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, epilepsy, major depressive disorder, and autism

  20. Computational identification of miRNAs, their targets and functions in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anurag; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2014-07-01

    An intriguing question in biology is how the evolution of gene regulation is shaped by natural selection in natural populations. Among the many known regulatory mechanisms, regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) is of critical importance. However, our understanding of their evolution in natural populations is limited. Studying the role of miRNAs in three-spined stickleback, an important natural model for speciation research, may provide new insights into adaptive polymorphisms. However, lack of annotation of miRNA genes in its genome is a bottleneck. To fill this research gap, we used the genome of three-spined stickleback to predict miRNAs and their targets. We predicted 1486 mature miRNAs using the homology-based miRNA prediction approach. We then performed functional annotation and enrichment analysis of these targets, which identified over-represented motifs. Further, a database resource (GAmiRdb) has been developed for dynamically searching miRNAs and their targets exclusively in three-spined stickleback. Finally, the database was used in two case studies focusing on freshwater adaptation in natural populations. In the first study, we found 44 genomic regions overlapping with predicted miRNA targets. In the second study, we identified two SNPs altering the MRE seed site of sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene. These findings highlight the importance of the GAmiRdb knowledge base in understanding adaptive evolution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Oligodendrocyte- and Neuron-Specific Nogo-A Restrict Dendritic Branching and Spine Density in the Adult Mouse Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmar, Ajmal; Chen, Chia-Chien; Weinmann, Oliver; Kast, Brigitt; Vajda, Flora; Bozeman, James; Isaad, Noel; Zuo, Yi; Schwab, Martin E

    2018-06-01

    Nogo-A has been well described as a myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth and functional neuroregeneration after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recently, a new role of Nogo-A has been identified as a negative regulator of synaptic plasticity in the uninjured adult CNS. Nogo-A is present in neurons and oligodendrocytes. However, it is yet unclear which of these two pools regulate synaptic plasticity. To address this question we used newly generated mouse lines in which Nogo-A is specifically knocked out in (1) oligodendrocytes (oligoNogo-A KO) or (2) neurons (neuroNogo-A KO). We show that both oligodendrocyte- and neuron-specific Nogo-A KO mice have enhanced dendritic branching and spine densities in layer 2/3 cortical pyramidal neurons. These effects are compartmentalized: neuronal Nogo-A affects proximal dendrites whereas oligodendrocytic Nogo-A affects distal regions. Finally, we used two-photon laser scanning microscopy to measure the spine turnover rate of adult mouse motor cortex layer 5 cells and find that both Nogo-A KO mouse lines show enhanced spine remodeling after 4 days. Our results suggest relevant control functions of glial as well as neuronal Nogo-A for synaptic plasticity and open new possibilities for more selective and targeted plasticity enhancing strategies.

  2. Surgical Site Infections in Pediatric Spine Surgery: Comparative Microbiology of Patients with Idiopathic and Nonidiopathic Etiologies of Spine Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesani, Matthieu; Doit, Catherine; Lorrot, Mathie; Vitoux, Christine; Hilly, Julie; Michelet, Daphné; Vidal, Christophe; Julien-Marsollier, Florence; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a concern in pediatric spine surgery with unusually high rates for a clean surgery and especially for patients with deformity of nonidiopathic etiology. Microbiologic differences between etiologies of spine deformities have been poorly investigated. We reviewed all cases of SSI in spinal surgery between 2007 and 2011. Characteristics of cases and of bacteria according to the etiology of the spine disease were investigated. Of 496 surgeries, we identified 51 SSIs (10.3%) in 49 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen whatever the etiology (n = 31, 61% of infection cases). The second most frequent pathogens vary according to the etiology of the spine deformity. It was Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in nonidiopathic cases (n = 19, 45% of cases) and anaerobe in idiopathic cases (n = 8, 38% of cases), particularly Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (n = 5, 24% of cases). Infection rate was 6.8% in cases with idiopathic spine disease (n = 21) and 15.9% in cases with nonidiopathic spine disease (n = 30). Nonidiopathic cases were more frequently male with lower weight. American Society of Anesthesiologists score was more often greater than 2, they had more frequently sacral implants and postoperative intensive care unit stay. GNB were significantly associated with a nonidiopathic etiology, low weight, younger age and sacral fusion. SSIs were polymicrobial in 31% of cases with a mean of 1.4 species per infection cases. S. aureus is the first cause of SSI in pediatric spine surgery. However, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci should be taken into account in idiopathic patients and GNB in nonidiopathic patients when considering antibiotic prophylaxis and curative treatment.

  3. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Hayek, J.; Grob, D.

    1988-01-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7 0 , and C1/C2 more than 54 0 could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29 0 to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast. (orig.)

  4. Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, David; Letzing, Michael; Sliker, Clint W; Chokshi, Falgun H; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mirvis, Stuart E; Quencer, Robert M; Munera, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A number of new developments in cervical spine imaging have transpired since the introduction of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) scanners in 2004. An increasing body of evidence favors the use of multidetector CT as a stand-alone screening test for excluding cervical injuries in polytrauma patients with obtundation. A new grading scale that is based on CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, the cervical spine Subaxial Injury Classification and Scoring (SLIC) system, is gaining acceptance among spine surgeons. Radiographic measurements described for the evaluation of craniocervical distraction injuries are now being reevaluated with the use of multidetector CT. Although most patients with blunt trauma are now treated nonsurgically, evolution in the understanding of spinal stability, as well as the development of new surgical techniques and hardware, has driven management strategies that are increasingly favorable toward surgical intervention. It is therefore essential that radiologists recognize findings that distinguish injuries with ligamentous instability or a high likelihood of nonfusion that require surgical stabilization from those that are classically stable and can be treated with a collar or halo vest alone. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of cervical spine injuries, from the craniocervical junction through the subaxial spine, and present the most widely used grading systems for each injury type. ©RSNA, 2014.

  5. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J; Hayek, J; Grob, D; Penning, L; Panjabi, M M; Zehnder, R

    1988-04-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7/sup 0/, and C1/C2 more than 54/sup 0/ could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29/sup 0/ to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast.

  6. Novel marker for the onset of frontotemporal dementia: early increase in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP in the face of Tau mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Schirer

    Full Text Available Tauopathy, a major pathology in Alzheimer's disease, is also found in ~50% of frontotemporal dementias (FTDs. Tau transcript, a product of a single gene, undergoes alternative splicing to yield 6 protein species, each with either 3 or 4 microtubule binding repeat domains (tau 3R or 4R, associated with dynamic and stable microtubules, respectively. While the healthy human brain shows a 1/1 ratio of tau 3R/4R, this ratio may be dramatically changed in the FTD brain. We have previously discovered that activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP is essential for brain formation in the mouse, with ADNP+/- mice exhibiting tauopathy, age-driven neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Here, in transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated tau 4R species, in the cerebral cortex but not in the cerebellum, we showed significantly increased ADNP expression (~3-fold transcripts in the cerebral cortex of young transgenic mice (~disease onset, but not in the cerebellum, as compared to control littermates. The transgene-age-related increased ADNP expression paralleled augmented dynamic tau 3R transcript level compared to control littermates. Blocking mutated tau 4R transgene expression resulted in normalization of ADNP and tau 3R expression. ADNP was previously shown to be a member of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Here, Brahma (Brm, a component of the SWI/SNF complex regulating alternative splicing, showed a similar developmental expression pattern to ADNP. Immunoprecipitations further suggested Brm-ADNP interaction coupled to ADNP - polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF-binding, with PSF being a direct regulator of tau transcript splicing. It should be noted that although we have shown a correlation between levels of ADNP and tau isoform expression three months of age, we are not presenting evidence of a direct link between the two. Future research into ADNP/tau relations is

  7. Spine concerns in the Special Olympian with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, James Channing; Duey-Holtz, Allison

    2008-03-01

    As with any child participating in sports, the safety of The Special Olympian participating in athletics is paramount. The preparticipation medical clearance is necessary to ensure these athletes' safety. In response to evidence that 15% of all individuals with Down syndrome have atlanto-occipital and/or atlanto-axial instability or subluxation, the Special Olympics Inc have additionally mandated preparticipation spine clearance for all individuals with Down syndrome. Spine clearance for the Special Olympian is challenging for the healthcare provider. In addition, controversy has arisen surrounding The Special Olympics Inc policy statement. The purposes of this article are to provide healthcare providers with a review of atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial instability and subluxation, review spine clearance guidelines, discuss the details and controversy surrounding The Special Olympics Inc mandate, and provide recommendations on how to improve screening and ensure safety of the participants based on the current medical literature.

  8. Spinal CT scan, 2. Lumbar and sacral spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi (Aichi Medical Univ., Aichi (Japan))

    1982-08-01

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival.

  9. Surgical treatment of gross posttraumatic deformations in thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei E. Shul’ga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rigid severe post-traumatic thoracic spine deformities result from frequent, recent high-energy trauma in children with an increasing frequency due to a variety of reasons. These types of injuries are commonly followed by spinal cord anatomic injury; therefore, the treatment of these patients warrants special attention from the ethical viewpoint. Generally, the only indication for surgical intervention is spinal dysfunction. Considering this and the patients’ ordinary severe somatic state, surgical trauma should be minimized as much as possible. However, for adequate deformity correction, effective spine stabilization and restoration of liquorodynamics is necessary. Recent studies have reported the successful use of different methods of dorsal interventions (P/VCR in cases with unstable damages in children. Here, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent surgical treatment for coarse post-traumatic thoracic spine deformity with chronic fracture-dislocation of Th7 vertebra.

  10. Analysis of cervical spine function in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, L.; Roettker, H.

    1990-01-01

    Radiograms were taken of subjects with no symptoms of cervical spine problems; the cervical spine was evaluated in the spontaneous posture and at maximal flexion and extension. The position and movement of the vertebra, intervertebral height and gliding were calculated. The results showed that (1) lordosis in women occurred less pronouncedly than in men, and that there was an increase with age; (2) C 2-3 was the least flexible segment and mobility increased in the caudal direction; mobility decreased with age and the segments of the lower cervical spine with the highest mobility decreased the most; (3) all posterior and ventral intervertebral heights showed a decrease with age at C 5-6 and C 6-7; (4) vertebral gliding decreased with age. (orig.) [de

  11. NMR imaging of degenerative changes of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nuclear spin resonance tomography, are today considered excellent ways of demonstrating herniae of intervertebral disks, especially in the lumbal region, at high sensitivity and accuracy. The facility of multiplanar imaging without reconstruction, the clearly greater amount of information by using different pulse sequences, better contrast resolution, and lacking ionizing radiation speak in favour of nuclear spin resonance tomography. Using nulcear spin resonance tomography, in all parts of the spine the excellent demonstration of the epidural space, of the myeloma, of the nerve roots as well as of the surrounding osseous and ligamentous structure is achieved. So, for the diagnosis of discopathies in the region of the cervical spine nuclear spin resonance tomography should be preferred to computerized tomography. In the region of the lumbar spine, however, CT will be of importance in the diagnosis of discopathies for some time. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Benign compression fractures of the spine: signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen patients with 38 compression fractures of the spine underwent magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively evaluated MR images in those benign compression fractures. MR images showed four patterns in T1-weighted images. MR imaging patterns were normal signal(21), band like low signal(8), low signal with preservation of peripheral portion of the body(8), and diffuse low signal through the vertebral body(1). The low signal portions were changed to high signal intensities in T2-weighted images. In 7 of 15 patients (11 compression fractures), there was a history of trauma, and the remaining 8 patients (27 compression fractures) had no history of trauma. Benign compression fractures of trauma, remained 8 patients (27 compression fractures) were non-traumatic. Benign compression fractures of the spine reveal variable signal intensities in MR imagings. These patterns of benign compression fractures may be useful in interpretation of MR imagings of the spine

  13. Effects of Spine Motion on Foot Slip in Quadruped Bounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation and bend of the spine in the sagittal plane during high-speed quadruped running were investigated. The effect of the two spine motions on slip between the foot and the ground was also explored. First, three simplified sagittal plane models of quadruped mammals were studied in symmetric bounding. The first model’s trunk allowed no relative motion, the second model allowed only trunk bend, and the third model allowed both bend and translation. Next, torque was introduced to equivalently replace spine motion and the possibility of foot slip of the three models was analyzed theoretically. The results indicate that the third model has the least possibility of slip. This conclusion was further confirmed by simulation experiments. Finally, the conclusion was verified by the reductive model crawling robot.

  14. Anaesthetic and Intensive Care Management of Traumatic Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Umamaheswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the cervical spine may have devastating consequences. Timely interventions are essential to prevent avoidable neurological deterioration. In the initial stabilization of patients with acute cervical spine injuries, physiological disturbances, especially those involving cardiac and respiratory function require careful attention. Early surgery, which facilitates rapid mobi-lization of the patient, is fraught with important management considerations in the intraopoerative period and the subsequent critical care. Airway management poses a crucial challenge at this stage. Those patients who survive the injury with quadriplegia or quadriparesis may present themselves for incidental surgical procedures. Chronic systemic manifestations in these patients require attention in providing anaesthesia and postoperative care at this stage. The current review provides an insight into the physiological disturbances and the management issues in both acute and chronic phases of traumatic cervical spine injury.

  15. MR manifestations of vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Yong Eun; Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of a vertebral artery injury occurring from major cervical spine trauma. Conventional MR findings of 63 patients and 63 control subjects were compared to detect a possible change in the vertebral arteries resulted from trauma. Plain films, CT and clinical records were also reviewed to correlate the degree of cervical spine injury with vascular change. Nine cases of absent flow signals in vessel lumen were observed in eight patients and one was observed in the control group. Patients more frequently demonstrated other abnormalities such as intraluminal linear signals (n=3) or focal luminal narrowing (n=9) but there was no statistical significance. There was a close relationship between degree of cord damage and occlusion of the vertebral artery. Conventional MR imaging is useful in the detection of vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spine trauma.

  16. Sideflexion induced lumbar spine conjunct rotation and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzino, G; Twomey, L

    1993-01-01

    Twenty motion segments from four male post mortem subjects with a mean age of 29 years were moved into the lumbar spine test positions of extension/left sideflexion, extension/right sideflexion, flexion/left sideflexion and flexion/right sideflexion Jheconjunct rotation (CR) that occurred was measured from a photographic record. The results indicated that the direction of the CR of the whole lumbar spine (ie between L1 and S1) was significantly different between the flexed and extended lumbar spine position. The direction of the CR was also significantly different between the different intervertebral motion segment levels. There was no relationship between CR and zygapophyseal joint geometry or intervertebral disc degeneration. Copyright © 1993 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal Store-Operated Calcium Entry and Mushroom Spine Loss in Amyloid Precursor Protein Knock-In Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wu, Lili; Pchitskaya, Ekaterina; Zakharova, Olga; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2015-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common reason for elderly dementia in the world. We proposed that memory loss in AD is related to destabilization of mushroom postsynaptic spines involved in long-term memory storage. We demonstrated previously that stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2)-regulated neuronal store-operated calcium entry (nSOC) in postsynaptic spines play a key role in stability of mushroom spines by maintaining activity of synaptic Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII). Furthermore, we demonstrated previously that the STIM2-nSOC-CaMKII pathway is downregulated in presenilin 1 M146V knock-in (PS1-M146V KI) mouse model of AD, leading to loss of hippocampal mushroom spines in this model. In the present study, we demonstrate that hippocampal mushroom postsynaptic spines are also lost in amyloid precursor protein knock-in (APPKI) mouse model of AD. We demonstrated that loss of mushroom spines occurs as a result of accumulation of extracellular β-amyloid 42 in APPKI culture media. Our results indicate that extracellular Aβ42 acts by overactivating mGluR5 receptor in APPKI neurons, leading to elevated Ca(2+) levels in endoplasmic reticulum, compensatory downregulation of STIM2 expression, impaired synaptic nSOC, and reduced CaMKII activity. Pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 or overexpression of STIM2 rescued synaptic nSOC and prevented mushroom spine loss in APPKI hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that downregulation of synaptic STIM2-nSOC-CaMKII pathway causes loss of mushroom synaptic spines in both presenilin and APPKI mouse models of AD. We propose that modulators/activators of this pathway may have a potential therapeutic value for treatment of memory loss in AD. Significance statement: A direct connection between amyloid-induced synaptic mushroom spine loss and neuronal store-operated calcium entry pathway is shown. These results provide strong support for the calcium hypothesis of neurodegeneration and further validate the synaptic

  18. Authorship Trends in Spine Publications from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Brittany E; Khechen, Benjamin; Movassaghi, Kamran; Yom, Kelly H; Guntin, Jordan A; Cardinal, Kaitlyn L; Shoshana, Noah B; Singh, Kern

    2018-02-06

    Literature review. To examine changes in authorship characteristics for Spine publications from the year 2000-2015. Scientific publications are considered an indication of academic achievement for physicians. Recently, authorship trends have been investigated, however, limited information is available on this topic within spine-specific literature. Original research articles published in Spine in the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 were evaluated. Authorship characteristics were collected for each article, including the number of authors and institutions per publication, first and last author gender, publication origin, and highest degree held by the first and last author. Trends over time were analyzed using numeric and visual descriptive analyses including percentages, means, standard deviations, and graphs. An average of 506 articles per year were published in Spine during the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. The number of articles written by ≥ 10 authors increased during this time (0.9% to 14.4%). There was a substantial increase in the number of multiple institutional affiliations (33.6% to 68.7%) and articles originating from outside North America (47.6% to 55.7%) from 2000 to 2015. The percentage of first authors with bachelor's degrees was higher in 2015 (6.6%) as compared to 2000 (1.4%), and more last authors were identified as MD/PhDs in 2015 (19.2%) than in 2000 (10.0%). Similar female representation was noted for first and last authorship for all years evaluated. The results of this study demonstrate increases in authors per article published in Spine from 2000 to 2015. Additionally, first authors were more likely to hold bachelor's degrees over time. This may be attributed to increasing competition in spine-related fields, necessitating earlier research exposure to aid in academic achievement. Interestingly, the percentage of female authorship has not changed significantly over time, in contrast with much of the previous literature. 2.

  19. Importance of lateral spine view in DEXA bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Khan, A.S.M.H.; Momtaz, S.; Rahman, M.U.; Jehan, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement is an invaluable technique for assessing fracture risk in suspected cases of osteoporosis. The routine procedure includes AP spine and hip views. But quite often there are discordant results between them, bone mineral concentration (BMC) in the AP spine appears higher than hip. Our study was done to establish the importance of lateral spine view. The lateral view would provide better scope to draw the ROI perfectly and so BMC would be more accurately measured. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study a total of 60 consecutive patients (48F, 12M) were evaluated for bone densitometric measurements. The age group was 35 - 80 years (Mean 59 years). None of the patients received estrogen, biphosphonates or steroid therapy. Bone density of the hip and lumbar spine were measured with Norland XR 36. The T-score, which measures the difference between patient's BMD and young-normal was computed and age-matched Z-score were calculated. X-ray correlation was also done in most of the cases. Results: When we analyzed the femoral neck values, 30 cases were osteoporotic and 23 were osteopenic whereas according to AP spine views only 20 were osteoporotic and 30 were osteopenic. So, clearly a significant number of patients having osteoporosis were interpreted as osteopenia (P 0.05). But in the same vertebra there were significant differences (P<0.05) of BMC measured with AP and lateral views. Conclusion: The lateral view can exclude the posterior element of the vertebra as well as the aorta anteriorly, where a high incidence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques are present. AP view includes these drawbacks resulting in falsely higher BMC. Lateral spine view can eliminate these problems and so it provides an important role in BMD measurements. The authors recommend that it should be included in routine practice

  20. Swespine: the Swedish spine register : the 2012 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömqvist, Björn; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle; Jönsson, Bo; Sandén, Bengt

    2013-04-01

    Swespine, the Swedish National Spine Register, has existed for 20 years and is in general use within the country since over 10 years regarding degenerative lumbar spine disorders. Today there are protocols for registering all disorders of the entire spinal column. Patient-based pre- and postoperative questionnaires, completed before surgery and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively. Among patient-based data are VAS pain, ODI, SF-36 and EQ-5D. Postoperatively evaluation of leg and back pain as compared to preoperatively ("global assessment"), overall satisfaction with outcome and working conditions are registered in addition to the same parameters as preoperatively evaluation. A yearly report is produced including an analytic part of a certain topic, in this issue disc prosthesis surgery. More than 75,000 surgically treated patients are registered to date with an increasing number yearly. The present report includes 7,285 patients; 1-, 2- and 5-year follow-up data of previously operated patients are also included for lumbar disorders as well as for disc prosthesis surgery. For the degenerative lumbar spine disorders (disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis and DDD) significant improvements are seen in all aspects as exemplified by pronounced improvement regarding EQ-5D and ODI. Results seem to be stable over time. Spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery. Disc prosthesis surgery yields results on a par with fusion surgery in disc degenerative pain. The utility of spine surgery is well documented by the results. Results of spine surgery as documented on a national basis can be utilized for quality assurance and quality improvement as well as for research purposes, documenting changes over time and bench marking when introducing new surgical techniques. A basis for international comparisons is also laid.

  1. Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sami Walid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

  2. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  3. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  4. [Literature review of whiplash injuries of the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the latest information in world literature on whiplash injury of the cervical spine. This injury has been noted through history, mentioned as early as Ancient Egypt, and prevalent in the 19 century, the time before using the car, until today. The mechanism of injury is described, as well as treatment, and news in view of the frequency of injuries in different parts of the world and the impact of socio-cultural, economic, ethnic and geographic factors. Impacts of traffic laws, automobile production and automobile seats that would indicate the possibility of prevention as a result of a whiplash injury of the cervical spine are also presented.

  5. Skeletal changes in growing spine following radiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spissak, L.; Horniakova, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is given of a group of 20 children after nephrectomy and radiotherapy of Wilms' tumor and of one child following ovariectomy and radiotherapy of a dysgermanoma more than 5 years after the termination of the therapy. Morphological and structural changes were evaluated in the vertebrae as well as axial alterations of the spine. Interrelationships were found between the radiation dose, the patient's age and the degree of the skeletal changes in the spine. The most pronounced morphological, structural and axial changes occurred in children below 4 years treated with radiation doses above 20.0 Gy. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

  6. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang

    2016-01-01

    A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to...

  7. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...

  8. Dosimetric analysis of varying cord planning organ at risk volume in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Owen, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Current guidelines may overestimate the risk of myelopathy from spine SBRT. The current study's population included both radiation-naïve and retreatment cases, but no myelopathy was observed despite exceeding recommended spine limits.

  9. 78 FR 36308 - Proposed Information Collection: (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...-NEW (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's...

  10. Esophageal perforation associated with cervical spine surgery: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, B. C.; Been, H. D.; Brouwer-Mladin, R.; Bruno, M.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery is a rare complication with various clinical presentations and treatments. Methods: Two cases of esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery are described, one occurring in the immediate postoperative

  11. A musculoskeletal lumbar and thoracic model for calculation of joint kinetics in the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Cheol; Ta, Duc manh; Koo, Seung Bum; Jung Moon Ki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal spine model that allows relative movements in the thoracic spine for calculation of intra-discal forces in the lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic part of the spine model was composed of vertebrae and ribs connected with mechanical joints similar to anatomical joints. Three different muscle groups around the thoracic spine were inserted, along with eight muscle groups around the lumbar spine in the original model from AnyBody. The model was tested using joint kinematics data obtained from two normal subjects during spine flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending motions beginning from a standing posture. Intra-discal forces between spine segments were calculated in a musculoskeletal simulation. The force at the L4-L5 joint was chosen to validate the model's prediction against the lumbar model in the original AnyBody model, which was previously validated against clinical data.

  12. Pott's disease: a case of Mycobacterium xenopi infection of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfreijat, Majd; Ononiwu, Chiagozie; Sexton, Carlton

    2012-01-01

    Pott's disease is an infection of the spine with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes destruction of the spine elements resulting in progressive kyphosis. We are describing a rare case of Pott's disease where Mycobacterium xenopi was the inculpated organism.

  13. A musculoskeletal lumbar and thoracic model for calculation of joint kinetics in the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Cheol; Ta, Duc manh; Koo, Seung Bum [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung Moon Ki [AnyBody Technology A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal spine model that allows relative movements in the thoracic spine for calculation of intra-discal forces in the lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic part of the spine model was composed of vertebrae and ribs connected with mechanical joints similar to anatomical joints. Three different muscle groups around the thoracic spine were inserted, along with eight muscle groups around the lumbar spine in the original model from AnyBody. The model was tested using joint kinematics data obtained from two normal subjects during spine flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending motions beginning from a standing posture. Intra-discal forces between spine segments were calculated in a musculoskeletal simulation. The force at the L4-L5 joint was chosen to validate the model's prediction against the lumbar model in the original AnyBody model, which was previously validated against clinical data.

  14. The down-stream effects of mannan-induced lectin complement pathway activation depend quantitatively on alternative pathway amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Morten; Garred, Peter; Karlstrøm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Complement activation plays an important role in human pathophysiology. The effect of classical pathway activation is largely dependent on alternative pathway (AP) amplification, whereas the role of AP for the down-stream effect of mannan-induced lectin pathway (LP) activation is poorly understood...... that AP amplification is quantitatively responsible for the final effect of initial specific LP activation. TCC generation on the solid phase was distinctly but less inhibited by anti-fD. C2 bypass of the LP pathway could be demonstrated, and AP amplification was also essential during C2 bypass in LP...... as shown by complete inhibition of TCC generation in C2-deficient serum by anti-fD and anti-properdin antibodies. In conclusion, the down-stream effect of LP activation depends strongly on AP amplification in normal human serum and in the C2 bypass pathway....

  15. Is the cervical spine clear? Undetected cervical fractures diagnosed only at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J F; Rosemurgy, A S; Gill, S; Albrink, M H

    1992-10-01

    Undetected cervical-spine injuries are a nemesis to both trauma surgeons and emergency physicians. Radiographic protocols have been developed to avoid missing cervical-spine fractures but are not fail-safe. Three case reports of occult cervical fractures documented at autopsy in the face of normal cervical-spine radiographs and computerized tomography scans are presented.

  16. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic.

  17. Biomimetic "Cactus Spine" with Hierarchical Groove Structure for Efficient Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Wu, Juntao; Gong, Guangming; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A biomimetic "cactus spine" with hierarchical groove structure is designed and fabricated using simple electrospinning. This novel artificial cactus spine possesses excellent fog collection and water transportation ability. A model cactus equipped with artificial spines also shows a great water storage capacity. The results can be helpful in the development of water collectors and may make a contribution to the world water crisis.

  18. MR imaging of the spine and vertebral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Brechtelsbauer, D.; Debatin, J.F.; Felber, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Chapters of the book are nmr physics and application, nmr in spinal diagnosis and therapy, malformations of the spinal cord, degeneration of the vertebrae, neoplasms, inflammation acute trauma and vascular diseases of the spine. Last chapter contains description of function studies of the vertebrae in the open nmr system

  19. [The biomechanics of hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G; Meyer, C; Ingenhoff, L; Bredow, J; Müller, L P; Eysel, P; Schiffer, G

    2017-07-01

    Hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine are potentially hazardous due to relevant destabilization. Depending on the clinical condition, neurologic or vascular damage may occur. Therefore an exact knowledge of the factors leading to destabilization is essential. In a biomechanical investigation, 10 fresh human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in a spine simulator. The tested segments were C4 to 7. In the first step, physiologic motion was investigated. Afterwards, the three steps of injury were dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament, removal of the intervertebral disc/posterior longitudinal ligament, and dissection of the interspinous ligaments/ligamentum flavum. After each step, the mobility was determined. Regarding flexion and extension, an increase in motion of 8.36 % after the first step, 90.45 % after the second step, and 121.67 % after the last step was observed. Testing of lateral bending showed an increase of mobility of 7.88 %/27.48 %/33.23 %; axial rotation increased by 2.87 %/31.16 %/45.80 %. Isolated dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament led to minor destabilization, whereas the intervertebral disc has to be seen as a major stabilizer of the cervical spine. Few finite-element studies showed comparable results. If a transfer to clinical use is undertaken, an isolated rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament can be treated without surgical stabilization.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPINE FRACTURES IN MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT VICTIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Argolo Bittencourt de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the incidence of spinal injuries between 2000-2010 due to motorcycle accidents and the relation to the increase in motorcycle sales in the same period, as well as the anatomical distribution of these spinal injuries. Methods: Data were collected from 1,295 records of patients who have suffered spinal injury resulting from motorcycle accidents admitted to the ward TRM (Spinal Cord Trauma of the Hospital Geral do Estado da Bahia from 2000 to 2010 in this retrospective study. We selected 110 medical records and collected information on sex, age, neurological deficit on admission (according to Frankel scale, diagnosis, and level of injury. Results: Between 2000 and 2010 there was an increase of almost five times in the incidence of patients who have suffered spinal injury due to motorcycle accidents. More than half (51.4% had cervical spine injury, 37.2% thoracic spine injury and 11.34% had lumbar spine injury. Only 34.3% of patients had no neurological deficit on admission and patients with thoracic spine fracture had a higher incidence and severity of lesion. The average age of patients was 30 years. Conclusions: The increased incidence of spinal injuries due motorcycle accidents occurred in the same period in which there was an increase in motorcycle sales in the country. Patients who have suffered those injuries were young, with higher incidence in the cervical and thoracic spinal levels and high rates of neurological deficit.

  1. Total or partial vertebrectomy for lung cancer invading the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oka

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In our experience, Lung cancer surgery combined with vertebrectomy is highly aggressive surgery associated with high morbidity. But, this procedure is a promising treatment option for selected patients, for example N0M0 disease with lung cancer invading the spine.

  2. Degenerative Changes of the Spine of Pilots of the RNLAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    views of the spine taken in standing 7-3 Table 2 Classification of disorders Disorder Levels General: Osteo-arthrosis / Spondylosis / Arthrosis...Deformans Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Scoliosis Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Abnormal alignment Cervical, lumbar Scheuermann’s disease / Enchondrosis Thoracic... lumbar Specific: Degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc / Discopathy Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Presence of Osteophyte’s / Osteophytic

  3. Identification and classification of spine vertebrae by automated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2001-07-01

    We are currently working toward developing computer-assisted methods for the indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images by biomedical content. These images were collected as part of a nationwide health survey and form a research resource for osteoarthitis and bone morphometry. This task requires the development of algorithms to robustly analyze the x-ray contents for key landmarks, to segment the vertebral bodies, to accurately measure geometric features of the individual vertebrae and inter-vertebral areas, and to classify the spine anatomy into normal or abnormal classes for conditions of interest, including anterior osteophytes and disc space narrowing. Subtasks of this work have been created and divided among collaborators. In this paper, we provide a technical description of the overall task, report on progress made by collaborators, and provide the most recent results of our own research into obtaining first-order location of the spine region of interest by automated methods. We are currently concentrating on images of the cervical spine, but will expand the work to include the lumbar spine as well. Development of successful image processing techniques for computer-assisted indexing of medical image collections is expected to have a significant impact within the medical research and patient care systems.

  4. Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Injury Resulting From Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Lord, Elizabeth L; Buser, Zorica; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Sebastian, Arjun S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. To examine the incidence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following elective cervical spine surgery. A retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was conducted. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, were reviewed to identify occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury. In total, 3 cases of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following cervical spine surgery were identified. Institutional incidence rates ranged from 0.0% to 0.24%. Of the 3 patients with quadriplegia, one underwent anterior-only surgery with 2-level cervical corpectomy, one underwent anterior surgery with corpectomy in addition to posterior surgery, and one underwent posterior decompression and fusion surgery alone. One patient had complete neurologic recovery, one partially recovered, and one did not recover motor function. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury following cervical spine surgery is a rare and devastating adverse event. No standard protocol exists that can guarantee prevention of this complication, and there is a lack of consensus regarding evaluation and treatment when it does occur. Emergent imaging with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography myelography to evaluate for compressive etiology or malpositioned instrumentation and avoidance of hypotension should be performed in cases of intraoperative and postoperative spinal cord injury.

  5. NONFUSION STABILIZATION IN THE DEGENERATIVE LUMBAR SPINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Voršič

    2009-04-01

    Conclusions Cosmic is a posterior dynamic nonfusion pedicle screw-rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. It represents the new step in the development of the spinal instrumentation and can efficiently replace the spondylodesis in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine.

  6. Preventing and Treating Compression Fractures of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with OI the spine is particularly vulnerable to injury. Some activities such as contact sports obviously increase the risk of fracture. Other activities that may not seem to be dangerous may pose a “hidden” threat. The most common injury is a vertebral compression fracture. What is ...

  7. Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tim B; Yoshino, Mark T; Dzioba, Robert B; Light, Rick A; Berger, William G

    2004-01-01

    There are many medical devices used for head, neck, and spinal diseases and injuries, and new devices are constantly being introduced. Many of the newest devices are variations on a previous theme. Knowing the specific name of a device is not important. It is important to recognize the presence of a device and to have an understanding of its function as well as to be able to recognize the complications associated with its use. The article discusses the most common and important devices of the head, neck, and spine, including cerebrospinal fluid shunts and the Codman Hakim programmable valve; subdural drainage catheters, subdural electrodes, intracranial electrodes, deep brain stimulators, and cerebellar electrodes; coils, balloons, adhesives, particles, and aneurysm clips; radiation therapy catheters, intracranial balloons for drug installation, and carmustine wafers; hearing aids, cochlear implants, and ossicular reconstruction prostheses; orbital prostheses, intraocular silicone oil, and lacrimal duct stents; anterior and posterior cervical plates, posterior cervical spine wiring, odontoid fracture fixation devices, cervical collars and halo vests; thoracic and lumbar spine implants, anterior and posterior instrumentation for the thoracic and lumbar spine, vertebroplasty, and artificial disks; spinal column stimulators, bone stimulators, intrathecal drug delivery pumps, and sacral stimulators; dental and facial implant devices; gastric and tracheal tubes; vagus nerve stimulators; lumboperitoneal shunts; and temperature- and oxygen-sensing probes. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  8. Spine surgery training and competence of European Neurosurgical Trainees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boszczyk, Bronek Maximilian; Mooij, Jan Jakob; Schmitt, Natascha; Di Rocco, Concezio; Fakouri, Baroum Baroum; Lindsay, Kenneth W.

    Little is known about the nature of spine surgery training received by European neurosurgical trainees during their residency and the level of competence they acquire in dealing with spinal disorders. A three-part questionnaire entailing 32 questions was devised and distributed to the neurosurgical

  9. Evaluation of spine boards for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Kroetz, M.; Papst, E.; Rieger, J.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Kranz, K.G.; Russ, W.; Mutscher, W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Spine boards are frequently used in preclinical emergency care. Different models were examined with regard to their feasibility for plain film radiography and computed tomography (CT). Methods: Five current spine board models were measured for their dimensions and weight. Transmission of radiation [μGyls] and dose area product [cGy x cm 2 ] were determined with a patient equivalent aluminium phantom. Image artifacts, image quality and resolution of anatomic details were evaluated with an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom. Results: With only 6.3 kg new models show a 28% reduction in weight, three spine boards generate lateral artifacts due to a narrow width of 41 - 42 cm. Radiation transmission of all boards was similar, however dose area products differed by up to 59%. Image quality was impaired in 4 out 5 boards because of image artifacts, CT scanning was not impaired with all boards. Conclusion: Only one board (Ferno Millenia trademark ) showed sufficient properties for plain film radiography and CT. There is no suitable spine board for preclinical and clinical applications as well as for trauma radiology, further improvements of current designs are essential. (orig.) [de

  10. Seizure-induced muscle force can caused lumbar spine fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Strohm, P C; Hausschildt, O

    2007-01-01

    of the mid-thoracic spine. We report a patient who had suffered from a tonic-clonic seizure during early morning hours. After a cracking sound the patient woke up in a state of post-ictal disorientation, loss of urine and tongue bite. He was admitted to our facilities with the suspected vertebral fracture...

  11. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  12. Spines of the porcupine fish: Structure, composition, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Frances Y; Bushong, Eric A; Deerinck, Thomas J; Seo, Kyungah; Herrera, Steven; Graeve, Olivia A; Kisailus, David; Lubarda, Vlado A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of porcupine fish spines for the first time. The spine was found to be composed of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, protein (collagen), and water using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Microstructures have mineralized fibrillar sheets in the longitudinal direction and in a radial orientation in the transverse direction that were observed using light and electron microscopy. Based on the images, the hierarchical structure of the spine shows both concentric and radial reinforcement. Mechanical properties were obtained using cantilever beam and nanoindentation tests. A tapered cantilever beam model was developed and compared to that of a uniform cantilever beam. The tapered beam model showed that while the stresses experienced were similar to those of the uniform beam, the location of the maximum stress was near the distal region of the beam rather than at the base, which allows the porcupine fish to conserve energy and resources if the spine is fractured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spine Care as a Framework for the Chiropractic Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Michael; Murphy, Donald; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    chiropractic services for back and neck pain. Insurance company utilization data confirm these findings. Regulatory and legal language found in chiropractic practice acts reveals that most jurisdictions define the chiropractic scope of practice as based on a foundation of spine care. Educational accrediting...

  14. STELLA and SPINE data transmission experiments preliminary results and conclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholome, P; Scanlan, J O

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the CERN-based proposal for a single experiment, Satellite Transmission Experiment Linking Laboratories (STELLA) and the ESA experimental programme SPINE (Space Informatics Network Experiments). Both projects are examples of experiments to explore the capability and utility of high speed data transmission by satellite, and used the European OTS. (2 refs).

  15. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  16. Spine Patterning Is Guided by Segmentation of the Notochord Sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopat, Susan; Bagwell, Jennifer; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Dickson, Amy L.; Huitema, Leonie F.A.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Bagnat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The spine is a segmented axial structure made of alternating vertebral bodies (centra) and intervertebral discs (IVDs) assembled around the notochord. Here, we show that, prior to centra formation, the outer epithelial cell layer of the zebrafish notochord, the sheath, segments into alternating

  17. An echo-poor spine at 13 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H D; Hermann, N V; Jørgensen, C

    2008-01-01

    of the vertebral spine. The clavicles were barely seen and the calvarial bones were significantly less ossified than expected for gestational age. The fetus had otherwise normal anatomy and biometry. Serial ultrasound examinations during pregnancy confirmed the diagnosis, but the manifestations became less...

  18. MRI of degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatbari, K.; Ansari, H.

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine encompass a heterogeneous group of cystic lesions that are presumed to share a common aetiology. Some of these cysts may be incidental findings, whereas others may produce acute or chronic symptoms. These cysts have been categorized using various combinations of topographic and pathological characteristics and by their attachment to or communication with a specific spinal structure

  19. MRI of degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalatbari, K. [Department of MRI, Iran Gamma Knife Centre, Iran University of Medial Sciences-Kamrani Charity Foundation, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: khalatbarik@yahoo.com; Ansari, H. [Department of Orthopaedics, Rassoul Akram University Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine encompass a heterogeneous group of cystic lesions that are presumed to share a common aetiology. Some of these cysts may be incidental findings, whereas others may produce acute or chronic symptoms. These cysts have been categorized using various combinations of topographic and pathological characteristics and by their attachment to or communication with a specific spinal structure.

  20. tuberculosis of the cervical spine mimicking a paraplegic tumour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-05

    May 5, 2011 ... Magnetic Resonence Imaging. (MRI)and x-rays revealed an infiltrative lesion of C6-C7 vertebrae. Our main diffential ... response to result in caseation and abscess formation. INTRODUCTION. Tuberculosis (TB) of the ... MRI cervical spine coronal view (T2 weighted image). Notice the absence of significant ...

  1. Influence of perioperative resuscitation status on postoperative spine surgery complications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pull ter Gunne, A.F.; Skolasky, R.L.; Ross, H.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Cohen, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Restrictive transfusion criteria have led to decreased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Their use has been extended to other patient groups. In adult spine surgery, ongoing postoperative blood losses and soft-tissue trauma may make these patients not

  2. Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

  3. Positional device for cinematographic MR of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhle, C.; Melchert, U.H.; Brossmann, J.; Schroeder, C.; Wiskirchen, J.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    A novel positioning device is explained and the experience obtained so far with its application in cinematic MRI of the cervical spine, allowing an extended range of movement from 60 degrees ante- to 40 degrees retroflexion. The tests were done with volounteers. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Radiation dose to the operator during fluoroscopically guided spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccatagliata, Luca; Pravata, Emanuele; Cianfoni, Alessandro [Department of Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano (Switzerland); Presilla, Stefano [Unita di Fisica Medica, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale (EOC), Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    Fluoroscopy is widely used to guide diagnostic and therapeutic spine procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantify radiation incident on the operator (operator Air Kerma) during a wide range of fluoroscopy-guided spine procedures and its correlation with the amount of radiation incident on the patient (Kerma Area Product - KAP). We retrospectively included 57 consecutive fluoroscopically guided spine procedures. KAP [Gy cm{sup 2}] and total fluoroscopy time were recorded for each procedure. An electronic dosimeter recorded the operator Air Kerma [μGy] for each procedure. Operator Air Kerma for each procedure, correlation between KAP and operator Air Kerma, and between KAP and fluoroscopy time was obtained. Operator Air Kerma was widely variable across procedures, with median value of 6.4 μGy per procedure. Median fluoroscopy time and median KAP per procedure were 2.6 min and 4.7 Gy cm{sup 2}, respectively. There was correlation between operator Air Kerma and KAP (r{sup 2} = 0.60), with a slope of 1.6 μGy Air Kerma per unit Gy cm{sup 2} KAP incident on the patient and between fluoroscopy time and KAP (r{sup 2} = 0.63). Operator Air Kerma during individual fluoroscopy-guided spine procedures can be approximated from the commonly and readily available information of the total amount of radiation incident on the patient, measured as KAP. (orig.)

  5. Tuberculosis of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Paraplegic Tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine is a common problem in Kenya especially since the spread of HIV infection in the 1980's. However immune-compromised patients do not necessarily present in a similar radiological and histopathological way as patients with a competent immune system. It is against this background that we ...

  6. The Endosome Localized Arf-GAP AGAP1 Modulates Dendritic Spine Morphology Downstream of the Neurodevelopmental Disorder Factor Dysbindin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Arnold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3 and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1. Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ; yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described. Here, we describe that AGAP1 localizes to axons, dendrites, dendritic spines, and synapses, colocalizing preferentially with markers of early and recycling endosomes. Functional studies reveal overexpression and down-regulation of AGAP1 affects both neuronal endosomal trafficking and dendritic spine morphology, supporting a role for AGAP1 in the recycling endosomal trafficking involved in their morphogenesis. Finally, we determined the sensitivity of AGAP1 expression to mutations in the DTNBP1 gene, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder, and found that AGAP1 mRNA and protein levels are selectively reduced in the null allele of the mouse orthologue of DTNBP1. We postulate that endosomal trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting dendritic spine morphology, and thus excitatory synapse structure and function.

  7. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal leads to adaptations in nucleus accumbens core postsynaptic density proteome and dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; McGuier, Natalie S; Gass, Justin T; Griffin, William C; Ball, Lauren E; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by the loss of ability to control alcohol (ethanol) intake despite knowledge of detrimental health or personal consequences. Clinical and pre-clinical models provide strong evidence for chronic ethanol-associated alterations in glutamatergic signaling and impaired synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the neural mechanisms that contribute to aberrant glutamatergic signaling in ethanol-dependent individuals in this critical brain structure remain unknown. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on neuroadaptations in postsynaptic density (PSD)-enriched proteins in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice. Compared with controls, CIE exposure significantly changed expression levels of 50 proteins in the PSD-enriched fraction. Systems biology and functional annotation analyses demonstrated that the dysregulated proteins are expressed at tetrapartite synapses and critically regulate cellular morphology. To confirm this latter finding, the density and morphology of dendritic spines were examined in the NAc core of ethanol-dependent mice. We found that CIE exposure and withdrawal differentially altered dendrite diameter and dendritic spine density and morphology. Through the use of quantitative proteomics and functional annotation, these series of experiments demonstrate that ethanol dependence produces neuroadaptations in proteins that modify dendritic spine morphology. In addition, these studies identified novel PSD-related proteins that contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms of ethanol dependence that drive maladaptive structural plasticity of NAc neurons. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. The medicolegal landscape of spine surgery: how do surgeons fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Melvin C; Park, Paul J; Jimenez, Jesus; Saifi, Comron; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Ha, Alex; Figueroa-Santana, Bianca; Lehman, Ronald A; Weidenbaum, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Because of the limited and confidential nature of most legal data, scarce literature is available to physicians about reasons for litigation in spine surgery. To optimally compensate patients while protecting physicians, further understanding of the medicolegal landscape is needed for high-risk procedures such as spine surgery. Based on these, surgeons can explore ways to better protect both their patients and themselves. To characterize the current medicolegal environment of spine surgery by analyzing a recent dataset of malpractice litigation. A retrospective study. All malpractice cases involving spine surgery available to public query between the years of 2010 and 2014. Case outcome for spine surgery malpractice cases between the years of 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext was used to analyze spine surgery malpractice cases at the state and federal level between the years 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext is a subscription-based, legal search engine that contains publicly available federal and state court records. All monetary values were inflation adjusted for 2016. One hundred three malpractice cases were categorized by case descriptors and outcome measures. Claims were categorized as either intraoperative complaints or preoperative complaints. Rulings in favor of the defendant (surgeon) were noted in 75% (77 of 103) of the cases. Lack of informed consent was cited in 34% of cases. For the 26 cases won by the plaintiff, the average amount in settlement was $2,384,775 versus $3,945,456 in cases brought before a jury. Cases involving consent averaged a compensation of $2,029,884, whereas cases involving only intraoperative complaints averaged a compensation of $3,667,530. A significant correlation was seen between increased compensation for plaintiffs and cases involving orthopedic surgeons (p=.020) or nerve injury (p=.005). Wrong-level surgery may be associated with lower plaintiff compensation (p=.055). The length of cases resulting in defense verdicts averaged 5.51 years

  9. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  10. Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols for Missed Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Hong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based; the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria; and the Hankins’ criteria (immobilization for patients 65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness.To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients ≥18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Results: Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1-96.9%; Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5-72.6%; Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%. There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Conclusion: Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS

  11. Defensive Medicine in U.S. Spine Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ryan S; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Acosta, Michael A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-02-01

    Observational cross-sectional survey. To compare defensive practices of U.S. spine and nonspine neurosurgeons in the context of state medical liability risk. Defensive medicine is a commonly reported and costly phenomenon in neurosurgery. Although state liability risk is thought to contribute greatly to defensive practice, variation within neurosurgical specialties has not been well explored. A validated, online survey was sent via email to 3344 members of the American Board of Neurological Surgeons. The instrument contained eight question domains: surgeon characteristics, patient characteristics, practice type, insurance type, surgeon liability profile, basic surgeon reimbursement, surgeon perceptions of medical legal environment, and the practice of defensive medicine. The overall response rate was 30.6% (n = 1026), including 499 neurosurgeons performing mainly spine procedures (48.6%). Spine neurosurgeons had a similar average practice duration as nonspine neurosurgeons (16.6 vs 16.9 years, P = 0.64) and comparable lifetime case volume (4767 vs 4,703, P = 0.71). The average annual malpractice premium for spine neurosurgeons was similar to nonspine neurosurgeons ($104,480.52 vs $101,721.76, P = 0.60). On average, spine neurosurgeons had a significantly higher rate of ordering labs, medications, referrals, procedures, and imaging solely for liability concerns compared with nonspine neurosurgeons (89.2% vs 84.6%, P = 0.031). Multivariate analysis revealed that spine neurosurgeons were roughly 3 times more likely to practice defensively compared with nonspine neurosurgeons (odds ratio, OR = 2.9, P = 0.001) when controlling for high-risk procedures (OR = 7.8, P < 0.001), annual malpractice premium (OR = 3.3, P = 0.01), percentage of patients publicly insured (OR = 1.1, P = 0.80), malpractice claims in the last 3 years (OR = 1.13, P = 0.71), and state medical-legal environment (OR = 1.3, P = 0

  12. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, Roberto; Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Muto, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability

  13. Wearable technology for spine movement assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Enrica; Koh, Woon Senn; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-11-07

    Continuous monitoring of spine movement function could enhance our understanding of low back pain development. Wearable technologies have gained popularity as promising alternative to laboratory systems in allowing ambulatory movement analysis. This paper aims to review the state of art of current use of wearable technology to assess spine kinematics and kinetics. Four electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to find studies employing wearable technologies to assess the spine in adults performing dynamic movements. Two reviewers independently identified relevant papers. Customised data extraction and quality appraisal form were developed to extrapolate key details and identify risk of biases of each study. Twenty-two articles were retrieved that met the inclusion criteria: 12 were deemed of medium quality (score 33.4-66.7%), and 10 of high quality (score >66.8%). The majority of articles (19/22) reported validation type studies. Only 6 reported data collection in real-life environments. Multiple sensors type were used: electrogoniometers (3/22), strain gauges based sensors (3/22), textile piezoresistive sensor (1/22) and accelerometers often used with gyroscopes and magnetometers (15/22). Two sensors units were mainly used and placing was commonly reported on the spine lumbar and sacral regions. The sensors were often wired to data transmitter/logger resulting in cumbersome systems. Outcomes were mostly reported relative to the lumbar segment and in the sagittal plane, including angles, range of motion, angular velocity, joint moments and forces. This review demonstrates the applicability of wearable technology to assess the spine, although this technique is still at an early stage of development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability.

  15. Irradiation spine deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayfield, J.K.; Riseborough, E.J.; Nehme, M.

    1978-01-01

    A retrospective long-term follow-up review of 56 children with neuroblastoma surviving five years and longer following treatment since 1946 revealed that 57% had developed spine deformity (S.D.) following treatment with 250 kilovolt irradiation at the time of review. The average age at diagnosis was 17 months. Irradiation therapy was delivered to most children before 24 months of age. Follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 5-31 years. Eighty-five per cent of the children had developed structural spine deformity at skeletal maturity and 54% of these children had scoliosis greater than 20 degrees. Sixteen per cent of irradiated children developed structural kyphosis. Non-midline opposing anterior and posterior ports were used most frequently. Mean dosage in patients who developed scoliosis of 20 degrees or more was 3588 rads (spine dosage) and 3746 rads in patients who developed kyphosis. Irradiation through opposing anterior and posterior ports was more commonly associated with the development of S.D. Sixty-six per cent of children who had more than 2000 rads developed S.D. The adolescent growth spurt was associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of spine deformity. This study indicated that moderate to severe S.D. was produced by irradiation in excess of 2000 rads administered with a 250-kilovoltage machine. This study would also suggest that children with neuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage irradiation should be followed closely by the orthopaedic surgeon, the oncologist, the radiotherapist and the paediatrician until the completion of skeletal growth for the development of unsightly structural spine deformity. Early bracing and surgery may be helpful in controlling these deformities in the pre-adolescent to early adolescent years. Continued observation is necessary to determine if current irradiation techniques will minimize or eradicate the incidence and severity of these complications. (author)

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mont'Alverne, Francisco; Vallee, Jean-Noel; Guillevin, Remy; Cormier, Evelyne; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michelle; Chiras, Jacques; Caldas, Jose Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 ± 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 ± 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

  17. Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Chloe E.; Reinardy, Helena C.; Bates, Nicholas R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) for eight weeks. The rate of regeneration was maintained in spines and tube feet throughout two periods of amputation and regrowth under conditions of elevated pCO2. Increased expression of several biomineralization-related genes indicated molecular compensatory mechanisms; however, the structural integrity of both regenerating and homeostatic spines was compromised in high pCO2 conditions. Indicators of physiological fitness (righting response, growth rate, coelomocyte concentration and composition) were not affected by increasing pCO2, but compromised spine integrity is likely to have negative consequences for defence capabilities and therefore survival of these ecologically and economically important organisms. PMID:28573022

  18. Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Chloe E; Reinardy, Helena C; Bates, Nicholas R; Bodnar, Andrea G

    2017-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO 2 ( p CO 2 ) for eight weeks. The rate of regeneration was maintained in spines and tube feet throughout two periods of amputation and regrowth under conditions of elevated p CO 2 . Increased expression of several biomineralization-related genes indicated molecular compensatory mechanisms; however, the structural integrity of both regenerating and homeostatic spines was compromised in high p CO 2 conditions. Indicators of physiological fitness (righting response, growth rate, coelomocyte concentration and composition) were not affected by increasing p CO 2 , but compromised spine integrity is likely to have negative consequences for defence capabilities and therefore survival of these ecologically and economically important organisms.

  19. Cell-type specific increases in female hamster nucleus accumbens spine density following female sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffend, Nancy A; Hedges, Valerie L; Chemel, Benjamin R; Watts, Val J; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Female sexual behavior is an established model of a naturally motivated behavior which is regulated by activity within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Repeated activation of the mesolimbic circuit by female sexual behavior elevates dopamine release and produces persistent postsynaptic alterations to dopamine D1 receptor signaling within the nucleus accumbens. Here we demonstrate that sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters significantly increases spine density and alters morphology selectively in D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons within the nucleus accumbens core, with no corresponding change in dopamine receptor binding or protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that previous life experience with a naturally motivated behavior has the capacity to induce persistent structural alterations to the mesolimbic circuit that can increase reproductive success and are analogous to the persistent structural changes following repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse.

  20. Antihypertensive drug Valsartan promotes dendritic spine density by altering AMPA receptor trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Young In; Lee, Nathanael J.; Chung, Andrew; Saavedra, Juan M.; Turner, R. Scott; Pak, Daniel T. S.; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the antihypertensive drug Valsartan improved spatial and episodic memory in mouse models of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and human subjects with hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism by which Valsartan can regulate cognitive function is still unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of Valsartan on dendritic spine formation in primary hippocampal neurons, which is correlated with learning and memory. Interestingly, we found that Valsartan promotes spinogenesis in developing and mature neurons. In addition, we found that Valsartan increases the puncta number of PSD-95 and trends toward an increase in the puncta number of synaptophysin. Moreover, Valsartan increased the cell surface levels of AMPA receptors and selectively altered the levels of spinogenesis-related proteins, including CaMKIIα and phospho-CDK5. These data suggest that Valsartan may promote spinogenesis by enhancing AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity signaling. PMID:24012668

  1. Notochord vacuoles are lysosome-related organelles that function in axis and spine morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kathryn; Bagwell, Jennifer; Bagnat, Michel

    2013-03-04

    The notochord plays critical structural and signaling roles during vertebrate development. At the center of the vertebrate notochord is a large fluid-filled organelle, the notochord vacuole. Although these highly conserved intracellular structures have been described for decades, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their biogenesis and maintenance. Here we show that zebrafish notochord vacuoles are specialized lysosome-related organelles whose formation and maintenance requires late endosomal trafficking regulated by the vacuole-specific Rab32a and H(+)-ATPase-dependent acidification. We establish that notochord vacuoles are required for body axis elongation during embryonic development and identify a novel role in spine morphogenesis. Thus, the vertebrate notochord plays important structural roles beyond early development.

  2. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sagittal plane analysis of the spine and pelvis in degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Weishi, Li; Zhuoran, Sun; Qingwei, Ma; Zhongqiang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the normative values of pelvic sagittal parameters, but no study has analyzed the sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and its role in the pathogenesis. Retrospective analysis was applied to 104 patients with DLS, together with 100 cases of asymptomatic young adults as a control group and another control group consisting of 145 cases with cervical spondylosis. The coronal and sagittal parameters were measured on the anteroposterior and lateral radiograph of the whole spine in the DLS group as well as in the two control groups. Statistical analysis showed that the DLS group had a higher pelvic incidence (PI) value (50.5° ± 10.2°), than the normal control group (with PI 47.2° ± 8.8°) and the cervical spondylosis group (46.9° ± 9.1°). In DLS group, there were 38 cases (36.5%) complicated with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, who had higher PI values than patients without it. Besides, the lumbar lordosis (LL) and sacral slope (SS) of DLS group were lower; the scoliosis Cobb's angle was correlated with pelvic tilt (PT); thoracic kyphosis was correlated with LL, SS, and PT; and LL was correlated with other sagittal parameters. Patients with DLS may have a higher PI, which may impact the pathogenesis of DLS. A high PI value is probably associated with the high prevalence of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis among DLS patients. In DLS patients, the lumbar spine maintains the ability of regulating the sagittal balance, and the regulation depends more on thoracic curve.

  4. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  5. Activity-dependent intracellular Ca2+ transients in unmyelinated nerve fibres of the isolated adult rat vagus nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, J; Mayer, C; Grafe, P

    1998-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to follow changes in the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in nerve fibres and adjacent Schwann cells in isolated rat vagus nerves. [Ca2+]i was monitored by the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes Calcium Green-1 and Fura Red. Intracellular Ca2+ transients were observed during repetitive (1-50 Hz) supramaximal electrical stimulation or by bath application of ATP. Trains of action potentials were more effective at elongated, fibre-like structures of the vagus nerves, whereas ATP-induced Ca2+ transients were found predominantly in regions of Schwann cell bodies. Activity-induced Ca2+ signals were unaffected by pharmacological manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ stores, during long-lasting application of purinergic receptor agonists, or by substitution of extracellular Na+ with Li+. However, they were abolished in the presence of Ca2+-free bathing solution or after the blocking of Ca2+ channels with Cd2+. Ca2+ transients were also observed during Ca2+ action potentials. Such "Ca2+ spikes" were elicited by electrical stimulation in the presence of a combination of tetrodotoxin and K+ channel blockers. These data suggest that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, activated during short trains of Na+ action potentials, produce an increase in intra-axonal [Ca2+] of rat vagus nerves. We did not find evidence for activity-dependent Ca2+ transients in the Schwann cells surrounding the unmyelinated axons.

  6. Short-term memory of motor network performance via activity-dependent potentiation of Na+/K+ pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sillar, Keith T

    2012-03-20

    Brain networks memorize previous performance to adjust their output in light of past experience. These activity-dependent modifications generally result from changes in synaptic strengths or ionic conductances, and ion pumps have only rarely been demonstrated to play a dynamic role. Locomotor behavior is produced by central pattern generator (CPG) networks and modified by sensory and descending signals to allow for changes in movement frequency, intensity, and duration, but whether or how the CPG networks recall recent activity is largely unknown. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, swim bout duration correlates linearly with interswim interval, suggesting that the locomotor network retains a short-term memory of previous output. We discovered an ultraslow, minute-long afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) in network neurons following locomotor episodes. The usAHP is mediated by an activity- and sodium spike-dependent enhancement of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump function. By integrating spike frequency over time and linking the membrane potential of spinal neurons to network performance, the usAHP plays a dynamic role in short-term motor memory. Because Na(+)/K(+) pumps are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of all animals and because sodium spikes inevitably accompany network activity, the usAHP may represent a phylogenetically conserved but largely overlooked mechanism for short-term memory of neural network function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of kainic acid lesions in lateral geniculate nucleus: activity dependence of retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, W R; Coull, B M

    1988-06-28

    Kainic acid lesions in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of rats block the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes in corticogeniculate neurons without affecting the retrograde transport of D-aspartate or the orthograde transport of radiolabelled proteins in these neurons. This blocking of dye transport does not appear to be a consequence of kainic acid-induced damage to axon terminals in the geniculate since retinal ganglion cells are still able to transport dyes retrograde. A more likely explanation for these results is that fluorescent dye transport requires electrical activity in neurons, and elimination of the geniculate afferents to visual cortex reduces impulse traffic in cortical output fibers to a level below that required to support detectable dye transport. This interpretation is supported by the observation that kainic acid lesions also reduce retrograde transport of dyes in cortical neurons which project to the superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation in the subcortical white matter restores the transport of dye compounds in corticogeniculate neurons: evidence consistent with an activity-dependent mechanism of retrograde transport for these substances. These results provide evidence that axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and corticogeniculate neurons survive in kainate-lesioned geniculates and are capable of normal neuronal function.

  8. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bxmarket hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  9. Surgical site infections following instrumented stabilization of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapunt U

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Dapunt,1 Caroline Bürkle,1 Frank Günther,2 Wojciech Pepke,1 Stefan Hemmer,1 Michael Akbar1 1Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, 2Department for Infectious Diseases, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Implant-associated infections are still a feared complication in the field of orthopedics. Bacteria attach to the implant surface and form so-called biofilm colonies that are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Since the majority of studies focus on prosthetic joint infections (PJIs of the hip and knee, current treatment options (eg, antibiotic prophylaxis of implant-associated infections have mostly been adapted according to these results. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with surgical site infections following instrumented stabilization of the spine with regard to detected bacteria species and the course of the disease. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of implant-associated infections of the spine from 2010 to 2014. A total of 138 patients were included in the study. The following parameters were evaluated: C-reactive protein serum concentration, microbiological evaluation of tissue samples, the time course of the disease, indication for instrumented stabilization of the spine, localization of the infection, and the number of revision surgeries required until cessation of symptoms. Results: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were most commonly detected (n=69, 50%, followed by fecal bacteria (n=46, 33.3%. In 23.2% of cases, no bacteria were detected despite clinical suspicion of an infection. Most patients suffered from degenerative spine disorders (44.9%, followed by spinal fractures (23.9%, non-degenerative scoliosis (20.3%, and spinal tumors (10.1%. Surgical site infections occurred predominantly within 3

  10. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  11. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Bermudez, S.; Ocampo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake

  12. Validation of lumbar spine loading from a musculoskeletal model including the lower limbs and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Jason A; Honegger, Jasmin D; Gates, Deanna H; Petrella, Anthony J; Nolasco, Luis A; Silverman, Anne K

    2018-02-08

    Low back mechanics are important to quantify to study injury, pain and disability. As in vivo forces are difficult to measure directly, modeling approaches are commonly used to estimate these forces. Validation of model estimates is critical to gain confidence in modeling results across populations of interest, such as people with lower-limb amputation. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were collected from ten participants without an amputation (five male/five female) and five participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation (four male/one female) during trunk-pelvis range of motion trials in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. A musculoskeletal model with a detailed lumbar spine and the legs including 294 muscles was used to predict L4-L5 loading and muscle activations using static optimization. Model estimates of L4-L5 intervertebral joint loading were compared to measured intradiscal pressures from the literature and muscle activations were compared to electromyographic signals. Model loading estimates were only significantly different from experimental measurements during trunk extension for males without an amputation and for people with an amputation, which may suggest a greater portion of L4-L5 axial load transfer through the facet joints, as facet loads are not captured by intradiscal pressure transducers. Pressure estimates between the model and previous work were not significantly different for flexion, lateral bending or axial rotation. Timing of model-estimated muscle activations compared well with electromyographic activity of the lumbar paraspinals and upper erector spinae. Validated estimates of low back loading can increase the applicability of musculoskeletal models to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis involving the Clavicle, Spine and Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Krishnan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes an unusual case of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, involving the right clavicle and multicentric aytpical spine involvement without any neurological deficit. The female patient presented with acute onset of right clavicular pain associated with a one-month history of lower backache with constitutional symptoms. The clavicular lesion and MRI spine findings were highly suggestive of TB. Anti TB drugs (ATD were started empirically as Sabah, Malaysia the patient’s home, is an endemic area for TB. Despite, 2 months of ATD administration, the patient did not respond well clinically and developed left sided chest wall abscesses arising from the left 3rd and 6th ribs. She was then treated for MDR-TB infection and has responded well to this treatment.

  14. Dendritic spine pathology in autism: lessons learned from mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiangge Zhang; Dingxi Zhou; Guoping Feng

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect up to 1.5% of population in the world. Recent large scale genomic studies show that genetic causes of ASD are very heterogeneous. Gene ontology, pathway analysis and animal model studies have revealed several potential converging mechanisms including postsynaptic dysfunction of excitatory synapses. In this review, we focus on the structural and functional specializations of dendritic spines, and describe their defects in ASD. We use Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome and Phe-lan-McDermid syndrome, three of the most studied neurodevelopmental disorders with autism features, as examples to demonstrate the significant contribution made by mouse models towards the understanding of monogenic ASD. We envision that the development and application of new technologies to study the function of dendritic spines in valid animal models will eventually lead to innovative treatments for ASD.

  15. Diseases of the spine, spinal cord, and extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper covers the following topics: acupuncture needle in the spinal canal of the neck; thoracic tuberculous spondylitis: cold abscess; comminuted fracture of the fifth cervical vertebra; lumbar spondylolysis; lumbar spondylosis; ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; disk herniation of the cervical spine: narrowing of the root tunnel; ankylosing spondylitis: narrowing of the root tunnel; ossification of the ligamentum flavum; narrow spinal canal syndrome; syringomyelia; epidural neurinoma of the cervical spine; neurofibromatosis; spinal arteriovenous malformation; atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the rib; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the left femur; chronic osteomyelitis of the left humerus; malignant giant cell tumor of the left femur; rheumatoid arthritis of the left hip joint; arthrosis deformans of the left hip joint; and enchondroma of the left index finger: Proximal Phalanx

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkkainen, M.; Punto, L.U.; Tulamo, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  17. 3-dimensional reconstructions of computer tomograms of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Waggershauser, T.; Zendel, W.; Astinet, A.; Felix, R.; Hansen, K.; Lanksch, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, 50 patients were examined by a Siemens 'Somatom Plus'; continuous 2 mm sections between the third lumbar and first sacral vertebra were obtained. All these imaging procedures were suitable for the diagnosis of osteochondrosis and chondrosis. Spondylosis was diagnosed more frequently on 3-D CT. Spondyloarthrosis, with narrowing of the invertebral foramina and root canals is shown particularly well by 3-D CT, since the entire extent of these structures can be seen. 3-D surface reconstruction of the lumbar spine is useful in the diagnosis of lumbar spondyloarthrosis with narrowing of the root canals and of the spinal canal. This method of axial CT is superior to conventional radiography of the lumbar spine in the usual two planes. (orig./GDG) [de

  18. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydam, K.; Sehlen, S.; Schlenkhoff, D.; Kiricuta, J.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meydam, K.; Sehlen, S.; Schlenkhoff, D.; Kiricuta, J.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1986-12-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed.

  20. Disease-Specific Care: Spine Surgery Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Katie; Franker, Lauren; Douglas, Barbara; Medero, Edgardo; Bromeland, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Minimal literature exists describing the process for development of a Joint Commission comprehensive spine surgery program within a community hospital health system. Components of a comprehensive program include structured communication across care settings, preoperative education, quality outcomes tracking, and patient follow-up. Organizations obtaining disease-specific certification must have clear knowledge of the planning, time, and overall commitment, essential to developing a successful program. Health systems benefit from disease-specific certification because of their commitment to a higher standard of service. Certification standards establish a framework for organizational structure and management and provide institutions a competitive edge in the marketplace. A framework for the development of a spine surgery program is described to help guide organizations seeking disease-specific certification. In developing a comprehensive program, it is critical to define the program's mission and vision, identify key stakeholders, implement clinical practice guidelines, and evaluate program outcomes.

  1. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, N.U.; Nallamshetty, L.; Ahn, U.M.; Buchowski, J.M.; Kebaish, K.M.; Sponseller, P.D.; Rose, P.S.; Garrett, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P 38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  2. Degenerative spine disorders in the context of clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Michael [Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Am Hasenkopf 1, 63739 Aschaffenburg (Germany) and Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.freund@klinikum-aschaffenburg.de; Sartor, Klaus [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Hardly any other structure in the human body is held responsible for so many complaints, pain, and costs as the spine and its degenerative disorders. In the following article, the role of imaging procedures in diagnosing disorders of the spine is presented. Due to the fact that disk herniation represents the most frequent cause for degenerative disorders the anatomy of the intervertebral disk and the pathology of the entities that can cause diseases of the disks are described. In particular, the authors focus on the significance of radiological findings with respect to patient history, subjective symptoms, and objective clinical findings. In addition to presenting the technical procedures and their indications and contraindications also practical tips and tricks in conducting these examinations are presented in this paper.

  3. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. However, the complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. The principal advantage of three-dimensional CT is its ability to display the surface relationships of complicated objects. The complexity of the spinal axis makes it ideal for study with three-dimensional CT. This presentation illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT in spinal abnormalities in children

  4. A radiological study on the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Eiji; Sakoh, Takashi; Sunahara, Nobuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The cervical spine was examined with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conventional roentgenograms in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The MRI findings of upper cervical disorders were compared with various values determined in roentgenograms: the atlanto-dental interval (ADI), the space available for the spinal cord (SAC), and the Ranawat and Redlund-Johnell values. In patients with vertical setting (VS), MRI showed medullary compression in all those with abnormal Redlund-Johnell values and Ranawat values of 7 mm or less. In patients with anterior atlanto-axial subluxation, compression of the upper cervical cord was observed in all patients with SAC of 13 mm or less. In subaxial lesion of the cervical spine, MRI was found to be as good as roentgenograms in evaluating plate erosion and disc space narrowing and MRI showed extradural pannus. (author)

  5. A radiological study on the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Eiji; Sakoh, Takashi; Sunahara, Nobuhiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The cervical spine was examined with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conventional roentgenograms in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The MRI findings of upper cervical disorders were compared with various values determined in roentgenograms: the atlanto-dental interval (ADI), the space available for the spinal cord (SAC), and the Ranawat and Redlund-Johnell values. In patients with vertical setting (VS), MRI showed medullary compression in all those with abnormal Redlund-Johnell values and Ranawat values of 7 mm or less. In patients with anterior atlanto-axial subluxation, compression of the upper cervical cord was observed in all patients with SAC of 13 mm or less. In subaxial lesion of the cervical spine, MRI was found to be as good as roentgenograms in evaluating plate erosion and disc space narrowing and MRI showed extradural pannus. (author).

  6. Degenerative spine disorders in the context of clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Michael; Sartor, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Hardly any other structure in the human body is held responsible for so many complaints, pain, and costs as the spine and its degenerative disorders. In the following article, the role of imaging procedures in diagnosing disorders of the spine is presented. Due to the fact that disk herniation represents the most frequent cause for degenerative disorders the anatomy of the intervertebral disk and the pathology of the entities that can cause diseases of the disks are described. In particular, the authors focus on the significance of radiological findings with respect to patient history, subjective symptoms, and objective clinical findings. In addition to presenting the technical procedures and their indications and contraindications also practical tips and tricks in conducting these examinations are presented in this paper

  7. The effect of chlorzoxazone on acute pain after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R V; Fomsgaard, J S; Siegel, M H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorzoxazone is a muscle relaxant administered for musculoskeletal pain, and as an analgesic adjunct for post-operative pain. Chlorzoxazone for low back pain is currently not advised due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. We explored the effect of chlorzoxazone on acute pain...... after spine surgery. METHODS: One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to 500 mg oral chlorzoxazone or placebo in this blinded study of patients having spine surgery under general anaesthesia. In the 4 h trial period analgesia consisted of IV patient-controlled analgesia (morphine bolus 2.......5 mg). Primary outcome was pain during mobilization (visual analogue scale) 2 h after the intervention. Secondary outcomes were pain at rest, opioid consumption, nausea, vomiting, sedation and dizziness. RESULTS: For pain during mobilization 2 h after intervention, there was no significant difference...

  8. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Stroke following Spine and Joint Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Zhao, Jianning; Xu, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke can occur after spine and joint surgeries such as laminectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, tumor resection, and total joint arthroplasty. Although this kind of stroke rarely happens, it may cause severe consequences and high mortality rates. Typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke after spine and joint surgeries include headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and mental disorders. It can happen several hours after surgeries. Most bleeding sites are located in cerebellar hemisphere and temporal lobe. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage caused by surgeries may be the key to intracranial hemorrhages happening. Early diagnosis and treatments are very important for patients to prevent the further progression of intracranial hemorrhages. Several patients need a hematoma evacuation and their prognosis is not optimistic.

  9. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Stroke following Spine and Joint Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke can occur after spine and joint surgeries such as laminectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, tumor resection, and total joint arthroplasty. Although this kind of stroke rarely happens, it may cause severe consequences and high mortality rates. Typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke after spine and joint surgeries include headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and mental disorders. It can happen several hours after surgeries. Most bleeding sites are located in cerebellar hemisphere and temporal lobe. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage caused by surgeries may be the key to intracranial hemorrhages happening. Early diagnosis and treatments are very important for patients to prevent the further progression of intracranial hemorrhages. Several patients need a hematoma evacuation and their prognosis is not optimistic.

  10. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...... of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms....

  11. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-10-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed.

  12. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Tracheostomy following anterior cervical spine fusion in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Lang, Nikolaus; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Bukaty, Adam; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic injuries to the cervical spine are frequently accompanied by cervical spinal cord injuries-often necessitating tracheostomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient characteristics and outcomes after undergoing anterior cervical spine fusion (ACSF) with tracheostomy. All patients with cervical spine injury (CSI) who underwent ACSF and tracheostomy between December 1992 and June 2014 were included in this retrospective data analysis. The study group consisted of 32 men (84 %) and six women (16 %), with an average age of 47 ± 20 years. Blunt trauma to the cervical spine was the cause of CSI in all 38 patients. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 30.50 ± 6.25. Eighteen patients sustained severe concomitant injuries related to the spinal injury. In 15 patients (39.5 %), traumatic brain injury (TBI) with fractures of the cranium and/or intracranial lesions were observed. The mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 11 ± 4.5 (range 3-15). Two tracheostomies (5.3 %) were performed simultaneously with ACSF. The remaining 36 were performed with an average "delay" of 15 ± ten days. We observed no difference in time to tracheostomy among patients initially presenting with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score of either A, B, C or D. Only two patients (5.3 %) were identified as having an infection at the site of ACSF after placement of a tracheostomy. There were no deaths directly related to airway difficulties in our cohort. Our data show that tracheostomy is safely performed after an average of 15 days post-ACSF, thereby being associated with a very low rate of complications. However, future prospective randomised studies are needed to identify the optimal timing of tracheostomy placement after ACSF. IV; retrospective case series.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Koura, Hiroshi; Kai, Nobuo; Asaumi, Koji; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Sezaki, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Shunichi; Sunami, Kazutaka

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  15. An Injectable Method for Posterior Lateral Spine Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    osteoclast selective protease site which allows for removal of the biomaterial during bone remodeling. 2. KEY WORDS: BMP2, Spine Fusion, PEG hydrogel...desired fusion site. During the course of this grant application we observed that in the rat model, we were unable to induce the heterotopic bone ...the site of HO is active. Additionally, we confirmed that the lack of bone formation after delivery of the microspheres to larger animal models

  16. Dysphagia produced by cervical spine osteophyte. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silveri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 73-year-old male patient with progressive dysphagia, and hoarseness (irritability in the throat. He was studied with the appropriate imaging techniques, and esophagoscopy led to a diagnosis of extrinsic esophageal dysphagia for osteophyte obstruction of the cervical spine due to the arthrosis. A surgical resection was performed, without complications. Some considerations are given on this theme.

  17. Gouty Arthropathy of the Cervical Spine in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jie Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a young man with gouty discitis of the cervical spine. To our knowledge, our patient is the youngest patient with cervical gouty discitis reported in the literature. The clinical manifestation was similar to that of cervical spondylosis with radiculopathy. Gouty discitis was diagnosed only when tophi in the disc were found during surgery and proved by pathologic study. Surgical decompression followed by optimization of pharmacologic treatment enabled good recovery from neurologic complications.

  18. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  19. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  20. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Kotzmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Kainberger, F.M.; Bankier, A.; Seidl, G.

    1993-01-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.) [de

  1. [The influence of kinesiotaping on lumbar spine pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Zaneta; Kopacz, Lukasz; Samulak, Lukasz; Kaźmierczak, Agata; Rotter, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Pain in the lumbosacral spine is currently one of the most common pain complaints among the elderly. About 72% of the Polish population younger than 40 years have at least once been treated by a doctor for back pain. Degenerative changes of intervertebral joints, overloads, intervertebral disc diseases, and dysfunction of spinal ligaments are very often responsible for the formation of back pain, which is basically a problem of the elderly, The study was conducted among 60 residents of a Nursing Home in Szczecin with chronic lumbar pain. The age range was 56-85 years. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 30 (study group, where KinesioTaping was used, and a control group without KinesioTaping application). To assess the degree of pain experienced by the patient a visual analogue scale (VAS) in the horizontal format from 0-10 was used, on which subjects scored the severity of pain. Flexion, extension, tilt and rotation were measured with a tape to assess spinal and trunk mobility. In all patients, who had a KinesioTaping patch applied on the lumbosacral spine pain measured by VAS reduced (p ≤ 0.001). Considering respondents' sex, the spine mobility in the tilting position improved in men in the study group in terms of tilting to both sides. In all patients, the application of a KinesioTaping patch significantly improved the rotation to the right side (p ≤ 0.05), scores in the "finger-floor" flexion test (p ≤ 0.01), and the extension range (p ≤ 0.01). KinesioTaping is a beneficial method reducing pain and improving the mobility in the lumbosacral spine. The improvement was independent of the sex of the respondents.

  2. The use of radiological guidelines to achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaves, J.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the use of request guidelines can achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee joints performed for general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: GPs referring to three community hospitals and a district general hospital were circulated with referral guidelines for radiography of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee, and all requests for these three examinations were checked. Requests that did not fit the guidelines were returned to the GP with an explanatory letter and a further copy of the guidelines. Where applicable, a large-joint replacement algorithm was also enclosed. If the GP maintained the opinion that the examination was indicated, she or he had the option of supplying further justifying information in writing or speaking to a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Overall the number of radiographic examinations fell by 68% in the first year, achieving a 79% reduction in the second year. For knees, lumbar spine and cervical spine radiographs the total reductions were 77%, 78% and 86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of referral guidelines, reinforced by request checking and clinical management algorithms, can produce a dramatic and sustained reduction in the number of radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

  3. Overload pain but root differentiation discomfort in the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar pain syndromes of the spine can also be referred to as the pain of the cross. These ailments have now become epidemics of our time. In literature, these pain are referred to as localized ailments that are located in the lumbar, lumbosacral, and cross-iliac areas. Cross pains are a very general term because there are a multitude of factors that cause lumbar disc herniation. This problem poses great diagnostic difficulties. [4]. The nature of these ailments is often difficult to pinpoint by the patient, but it can be the pain that describes patients from blunt, piercing, biting, baking, to those that are termed cold feeling. Keep in mind that the location of the lumbar pain symptoms varies. Patients report pain that is located throughout the lumbar-sacral area or only on one side of the spine, or occurs only in the area of the hip joints. These complaints often radiate along the lower limb. They are often the result of a lack of proper spine prevention: they contribute to this poor body posture, improper sleep positioning, as well as lack of coping skills, as well as a bad diet. In daily life, it is important to remember to do your daily activities in the correct position as well as to use prevention to avoid pain in the lumbar area.

  4. Radiologic aspects of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Y.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiographs of 175 patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) of the spine or ankylosing spondylitis were reviewed. DISH most frequently began in the middle and lower portions of the thoracic spine; it was rare in the upper portion. A few vertebrae were first affected, and then involvement extended, sometimes throughout the thoracic spine. The anterior and lateral aspects of vertebral bodies were mainly affected. Hyperostosis vertically spanning the anterior aspects of the vertebrae varied in thickness up to 10 mm, and the rate at which the hyperostosis proliferated was not specific for any vertebra. Males were 12 times more frequently affected than females, especially in the older age groups. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension have reportedly been associated with DISH, but no such correlation was found in this study. Despite the existence of criteria for differential diagnosis, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish ankylosing spondylitis from DISH radiologically. The radiologic features helpful in the differential diagnosis are described, and a review of the pertinent literature is included

  5. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Horner's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Malone, Hani R; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Kanter, Adam S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Baird, Evan O; Isaacs, Robert E; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Polevaya, Galina; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter retrospective case series. Horner's syndrome is a known complication of anterior cervical spinal surgery, but it is rarely encountered in clinical practice. To better understand the incidence, risks, and neurologic outcomes associated with Horner's syndrome, a multicenter study was performed to review a large collective experience with this rare complication. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received subaxial cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed to identify occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Descriptive statistics were provided for baseline patient characteristics. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in clinical outcomes at follow-up compared to preoperative status. In total, 8887 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at the participating institutions were screened. Postoperative Horner's syndrome was identified in 5 (0.06%) patients. All patients experienced the complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The sympathetic trunk appeared to be more vulnerable when operating on midcervical levels (C5, C6), and most patients experienced at least a partial recovery without further treatment. This collective experience suggests that Horner's syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Injury to the sympathetic trunk may be limited by maintaining a midline surgical trajectory when possible, and performing careful dissection and retraction of the longus colli muscle when lateral exposure is necessary, especially at caudal cervical levels.

  6. Trauma of the lumbar spine and the thoracolumbar junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Harsch, N.; Kraus, C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have experienced high energy trauma have a particularly high risk of suffering from fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The detection of spinal injuries and the correct classification of fractures before surgery are not only absolute requirements for the implementation of appropriate surgical treatment but they are also decisive for the choice of surgical procedure. By the application of spiral computed tomography (CT) crucial additional information on the morphology of the fracture can be gained in order to estimate the fracture type and possibly the indications for specific surgical treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideally suited to provide valuable additional information regarding injuries to the discoligamentous structures of the spine. Magerl et al. developed a comprehensive classification especially for injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine, which was adopted by the working group for osteosynthesis (AO). This is based on a 2-pillar model of the spinal column. The classification is based on the pathomorphological characteristics of fractures recognizable by imaging. The injury pattern is of particular importance. In spinal trauma a distinction is made between stable and unstable fractures. The treatment of spinal injuries depends on the severity of the overall injury pattern. Besides adequate initial treatment at the scene, a trauma CT should be immediately carried out in order that no injuries are overlooked and to ensure a rapid decision on the treatment procedure. (orig.) [de

  7. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior–inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  8. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  9. Regional interdependence and manual therapy directed at the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Amy; Young, Jodi; Mintken, Paul; Cleland, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation is commonly used by physical therapists for the management of patients with upper quarter pain syndromes. The theoretical construct for using thoracic manipulation for upper quarter conditions is a mainstay of a regional interdependence (RI) approach. The RI concept is likely much more complex and is perhaps driven by a neurophysiological response including those related to peripheral, spinal cord and supraspinal mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that thoracic spine manipulation results in neurophysiological changes, which may lead to improved pain and outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders. The intent of this narrative review is to describe the research supporting the RI concept and its application to the treatment of individuals with neck and/or shoulder pain. Treatment utilizing both thrust and non-thrust thoracic manipulation has been shown to result in improvements in pain, range of motion and disability in patients with upper quarter conditions. Research has yet to determine optimal dosage, techniques or patient populations to which the RI approach should be applied; however, emerging evidence supporting a neurophysiological effect for thoracic spine manipulation may negate the need to fully answer this question. Certainly, there is a need for further research examining both the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions utilized in the RI model as well as the neurophysiological effects resulting from this intervention.

  10. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Sanja; Kocijancic, Radojka; Belojevic, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  11. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrino, John A.; Manton, Geoffrey L.; Morrison, William B.; Flanders, Adam E.; Vaccaro, Alex R.; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation results in complete disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this study was to evaluate the integrity of numerous spine-stabilizing structures by MRI, and to determine if any associations between injury patterns exist with respect to the posterior longitudinal ligament status. Retrospective case series. A retrospective review was performed of 30 cervical spine injury subjects with bilateral facet dislocation. Assessment of 1.5T MRI images was carried out for: intervertebral disc disruption, facet fracture, and ligamentous disruption. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between various injury patterns and posterior longitudinal ligament status. The frequency of MRI abnormalities was: anterior longitudinal ligament disruption (26.7%), disc herniation or disruption (90%), posterior longitudinal ligament disruption (40%), facet fracture (63.3%) and disruption of the posterior column ligament complex (97%). There were no significant associations between injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament and other structures. Compared to surgical reports, MRI was accurate for determining the status for 24 of 26 ligaments (three of three anterior longitudinal ligament, seven of nine posterior longitudinal ligament, and 14 of 14 posterior column ligament complex) but generated false negatives in two instances (in both MRI showed an intact posterior longitudinal ligament that was torn at surgery). (orig.)

  12. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Kiuru, M.J.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice.

  13. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  14. A 7T spine array based on electric dipole transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Nair, Govind; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Reich, Daniel S; Duyn, Jeff H; Merkle, Hellmut

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an array of electric dipole antennas for RF transmission in spine MRI at high fields. A two-channel transmit array based on an electric dipole design was quantitatively optimized for 7T spine imaging and integrated with a receive array combining eight loop coils. Using B1+ mapping, the transmit efficiency of the dipole array was compared with a design using quadrature loop pairs. The radiofrequency energy deposition for each array was measured using a home-built dielectric phantom and MR thermometry. The performance of the proposed array was qualitatively demonstrated in human studies. The results indicate dramatically improved transmit efficiency for the dipole design compared with the loop excitation. A gain of up to 76% was achieved within the spinal region. For imaging of the spine, electric dipole-based transmitters provide an attractive alternative to the traditional loop-based design. Easy integration with existing receive array technology facilitates practical use at high fields. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  16. Prominent fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: evidence of activity-dependent conduction block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Yu-ichi; Misawa, Sonoko; Mori, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Kanai, Kazuaki; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Isose, Sagiri; Nasu, Saiko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Beppu, Minako; Ohmori, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    To clarify whether patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) suffer disabling muscle fatigue, and whether activity-dependent conduction block (ADCB) contributes to their fatigue. ADCB is usually caused by reduced safety factor for impulse transmission in demyelinating diseases, whereas markedly increased axonal branching associated with collateral sprouting may reduce the safety factor in chronic lower motor neuron disorders. We assessed the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in 22 patients with SMA/SBMA, and in 100 disease controls (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and axonal neuropathy). We then performed stimulated-single fibre electromyography (s-SFEMG) in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle of 21 SMA/SBMA patients, 6 CIDP patients, and 10 normal subjects. The FSS score was the highest in SMA/SBMA patients [4.9 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD)], with 81% of them complaining of disabling fatigue, compared with normal controls (3.5 ± 1.0), whereas patients with multiple sclerosis (4.3 ± 1.6), myasthenia gravis (4.0 ± 1.6) or CIDP (4.3 ± 1.4) also showed higher FSS score. When 2000 stimuli were delivered at 20 Hz in s-SFEMG, conduction block of single motor axons developed in 46% of patients with SMA/SBMA, and 40% of CIDP patients, but in none of the normal controls. SMA/SBMA patients frequently suffer from disabling fatigue presumably caused by ADCB induced by voluntary activity. ADCB could be the mechanism for muscle fatigue in chronic lower motor neuron diseases. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-timescale Modeling of Activity-Dependent Metabolic Coupling in the Neuron-Glia-Vasculature Ensemble

    KAUST Repository

    Jolivet, Renaud

    2015-02-26

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in the adult brain under normal conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that lactate produced in astrocytes (a type of glial cell) can also fuel neuronal activity. The quantitative aspects of this so-called astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) are still debated. To address this question, we developed a detailed biophysical model of the brain’s metabolic interactions. Our model integrates three modeling approaches, the Buxton-Wang model of vascular dynamics, the Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of neuronal membrane excitability and a biophysical model of metabolic pathways. This approach provides a template for large-scale simulations of the neuron-glia-vasculature (NGV) ensemble, and for the first time integrates the respective timescales at which energy metabolism and neuronal excitability occur. The model is constrained by relative neuronal and astrocytic oxygen and glucose utilization, by the concentration of metabolites at rest and by the temporal dynamics of NADH upon activation. These constraints produced four observations. First, a transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons emerged in response to activity. Second, constrained by activity-dependent NADH transients, neuronal oxidative metabolism increased first upon activation with a subsequent delayed astrocytic glycolysis increase. Third, the model correctly predicted the dynamics of extracellular lactate and oxygen as observed in vivo in rats. Fourth, the model correctly predicted the temporal dynamics of tissue lactate, of tissue glucose and oxygen consumption, and of the BOLD signal as reported in human studies. These findings not only support the ANLS hypothesis but also provide a quantitative mathematical description of the metabolic activation in neurons and glial cells, as well as of the macroscopic measurements obtained during brain imaging.

  18. Multi-timescale Modeling of Activity-Dependent Metabolic Coupling in the Neuron-Glia-Vasculature Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Renaud; Coggan, Jay S.; Allaman, Igor; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in the adult brain under normal conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that lactate produced in astrocytes (a type of glial cell) can also fuel neuronal activity. The quantitative aspects of this so-called astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) are still debated. To address this question, we developed a detailed biophysical model of the brain’s metabolic interactions. Our model integrates three modeling approaches, the Buxton-Wang model of vascular dynamics, the Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of neuronal membrane excitability and a biophysical model of metabolic pathways. This approach provides a template for large-scale simulations of the neuron-glia-vasculature (NGV) ensemble, and for the first time integrates the respective timescales at which energy metabolism and neuronal excitability occur. The model is constrained by relative neuronal and astrocytic oxygen and glucose utilization, by the concentration of metabolites at rest and by the temporal dynamics of NADH upon activation. These constraints produced four observations. First, a transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons emerged in response to activity. Second, constrained by activity-dependent NADH transients, neuronal oxidative metabolism increased first upon activation with a subsequent delayed astrocytic glycolysis increase. Third, the model correctly predicted the dynamics of extracellular lactate and oxygen as observed in vivo in rats. Fourth, the model correctly predicted the temporal dynamics of tissue lactate, of tissue glucose and oxygen consumption, and of the BOLD signal as reported in human studies. These findings not only support the ANLS hypothesis but also provide a quantitative mathematical description of the metabolic activation in neurons and glial cells, as well as of the macroscopic measurements obtained during brain imaging. PMID:25719367

  19. Multi-timescale modeling of activity-dependent metabolic coupling in the neuron-glia-vasculature ensemble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Jolivet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is the main energy substrate in the adult brain under normal conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that lactate produced in astrocytes (a type of glial cell can also fuel neuronal activity. The quantitative aspects of this so-called astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS are still debated. To address this question, we developed a detailed biophysical model of the brain's metabolic interactions. Our model integrates three modeling approaches, the Buxton-Wang model of vascular dynamics, the Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of neuronal membrane excitability and a biophysical model of metabolic pathways. This approach provides a template for large-scale simulations of the neuron-glia-vasculature (NGV ensemble, and for the first time integrates the respective timescales at which energy metabolism and neuronal excitability occur. The model is constrained by relative neuronal and astrocytic oxygen and glucose utilization, by the concentration of metabolites at rest and by the temporal dynamics of NADH upon activation. These constraints produced four observations. First, a transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons emerged in response to activity. Second, constrained by activity-dependent NADH transients, neuronal oxidative metabolism increased first upon activation with a subsequent delayed astrocytic glycolysis increase. Third, the model correctly predicted the dynamics of extracellular lactate and oxygen as observed in vivo in rats. Fourth, the model correctly predicted the temporal dynamics of tissue lactate, of tissue glucose and oxygen consumption, and of the BOLD signal as reported in human studies. These findings not only support the ANLS hypothesis but also provide a quantitative mathematical description of the metabolic activation in neurons and glial cells, as well as of the macroscopic measurements obtained during brain imaging.

  20. Androgens increase lws opsin expression and red sensitivity in male three-spined sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ta Shao

    Full Text Available Optomotor studies have shown that three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus are more sensitive to red during summer than winter, which may be related to the need to detect the red breeding colour of males. This study aimed to determine whether this change of red light sensitivity is specifically related to reproductive physiology. The mRNA levels of opsin genes were examined in the retinae of sexually mature and immature fish, as well as in sham-operated males, castrated control males, or castrated males implanted with androgen 11-ketoandrostenedione (11 KA, maintained under stimulatory (L16:D8 or inhibitory (L8:D16 photoperiods. In both sexes, red-sensitive opsin gene (lws mRNA levels were higher in sexually mature than in immature fish. Under L16:D8, lws mRNA levels were higher in intact than in castrated males, and were up-regulated by 11 KA treatment in castrated males. Moreover, electroretinogram data confirmed that sexual maturation resulted in higher relative red spectral sensitivity. Mature males under L16:D8 were more sensitive to red light than males under L8:D16. Red light sensitivity under L16:D8 was diminished by castration, but increased by 11 KA treatment. Thus, in sexually mature male sticklebacks, androgen is a key factor in enhancing sensitivity to red light via regulation of opsin gene expression. This is the first study to demonstrate that sex hormones can regulate spectral vision sensitivity.